CBSE Class 12 Case Studies In Business Studies – Financial Management

CBSE Class 12 Case Studies In Business Studies – Financial Management

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Financial Management: Definition
Financial Management is concerned with optimal procurement as well as usage of finance.

Objective
The prime objective of financial management is to maximise shareholder’s wealth by maximising the market price of a company’s shares.

Financial Decisions Involved in Financial Management

  • Investment Decision
  • Financing Decision
  • Dividend Decision

Role of Financial Management

  • To determine the capital requirements of business, both long-term and short-term.
  • To determine the capital structure of the company and determine the sources from where required capital will be raised keeping in view the risk and return matrix.
  • To decide about the allocation of funds into profitable avenues, keeping in view their safety as well.
  • To decide about the appropriation of profits.
  • To ensure efficient management of cash in order to ensure both liquidity and profitability.
  • To exercise overall financial controls in order to promote safety, profitability and conservation of funds.

INVESTMENT DECISION

  • It seeks to determine as to how the firm’s funds are invested in different assets
  • It helps to evaluate new investment proposals and select the best option on the basis of associated risk and return.
  • Investment decision can be long-term or short-term.
  • A long-term investment decision is also called a Capital Budgeting decision.

Types of Investment Decision

  1. Working Capital/Short-term Investment Decision
    • It refers to the amount of capital required to meet day- to-day running of business.
    • It relates to decisions about cash, inventory and receivables.
    • It affects both liquidity and profitability of business.
  2. Capital Budgeting Decision/Fixed Cappital/Long-term Investment Decision
    • It refers to the amount of capital required for investment in fixed assets or long term projects which will yield return and influence the earning capacity of business over a period of time.
    • It affects the amount of assets, competitiveness and profitability of business.
  3. Factors Affecting Capital Budgeting Decision/Long- term Investment Decision
    • The expected cash flows from the proposed project should be carefully analysed.
    • The expected rate of return should be carefully studied in terms of risk associated from the proposed project.
    • Different types of ratio analysis should be done to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed project as compared to similar projects in the same industry.

FINANCING DECISION
Financing Decision: Definition
Financing decision relates to determining the amount of finance to be raised from different sources of finance.This decision determines the overall cost of capital and the financial risk of the enterprise.
Types of Sources of Raising Finance

  1. Owned Sources
    • Equity shares
    • Preference shares
    • Retained earnings
  2. Borrowed Sources
    • Debentures
    • Bonds
    • Loan from bank or financial institutions
    • Public deposit

Considerations Involved in the Issue of Debt

  • Interest on borrowed funds has to be paid regardless of whether or not a business has made a profit. Likewise, borrowed funds have to be repaid ata fixed time.
  • There is some amount of financial risk in debt financing.
  • The cost of debt is less than equity as the degree of risk assumed by the investors is less and the amount of interest paid by the company is tax deductible.

Factors Affecting Financing Decision

  • The source of finance which involves the least cost should be chosen.
  • The risk involved in raising debt capital is higher than equity.
  • The sources involving high flotation cost require special consideration.
  • If the cash flow position of a business is good, it should opt for debt else equity.
  • If the fixed operating cost ofa business is low, it should opt for debt else equity.
  • The issue of equity capital dilutes the control of existing shareholders over business whereas financing through debt does not lead to any such effect
  • If there is boom in capital market it is easy for the company to raise equity capital, else it may opt for debt.

Considerations Involved in the Issue of Equity

  • Shareholders do not expect any commitment regarding the payment of returns or repayment of capital.
  • The floatation cost on raising equity capital is high.
  • The shareholders expect higher returns in return for assuming higher risks.

DIVIDEND DECISION
Dividend Decision relates to disposal of profit by deciding the proportion of profit which is to be distributed among shareholders and the proportion of profit which is to be retained in the business for meeting the investment requirements.

Factors Affecting Dividend Decision

  • If the earnings of the company are high, dividends are paid at a higher rate.
  • If the earnings of a company are stable, it is likely to pay higher dividends.
  • A company is more likely to maintain a stable dividend rate over a period of time,unless there is a significant change in its earnings.
  • A company planning to pursue a growth opportunity is likely to pay lower dividends.
    The dividends are paid in cash, therefore if the cash flow of the company is good, it is likely to pay higher dividends.
  • If the shareholders prefer regular income in form of dividends, the company is likely to maintain a dividend payout rate.
  • If the tax rate is high, the company is likely to pay less dividend.
  • If a company wants positive reactions at stock market, It Is likely to pay higher dividends.
  • A large company can access funds easily from capital market as per its requirements, therefore, it is likely to retain lesser profits and is likely to pay higher dividends.
  • The legal constraint should be considered at the time of dividend payment by a company.
  • The contractual constraints may also affect the dividend payment by a company.

FINANCIAL PLANNING
Financial Planning: Definition
The process of estimating the funds requirement of a business and specifying the sources of funds is called financial planning. It basically involves preparation of a financial blueprint of an organisation’s future operations.

Twin Objectives of Financial Planning

  • To ensure availability of funds as per the requirements of business.
  • To see that the enterprise does not raise resources needlessly.

Importance of Financial Planning

  • It ensures smooth running of a business enterprise by ensuring availability of funds at the right time.
  • It helps in anticipating future requirements of funds and evading business shocks and surprises.
  • It facilitates co-ordination among various departments of an enterprise, like marketing and production functions, through well-defined policies and procedures.
  • It increases the efficiency of operations by curbing wastage of funds, duplication of efforts, and gaps in planning. .
  • It helps to establish a link between the present and the future.
  • It provides a continuous link between investment and financing decisions.
  • It facilitates easy performance as evaluation standards are set in clear, specific and measurable terms.

CAPITAL STRUCTURE
Capital Structure: Definition
It refers to the mix between owners and borrowed funds.

Financial Risk: Definition
It refers to a situation when a company is unable to meet its fixed financial charges like payment of interest on debt capital.

Trading on Equity: Definition
It refers to the increase in the earnings per share by employing the sources of finance carrying fixed financial charges like debentures (interest is paid at a fixed rate) or preference shares (dividend is paid at fixed rate).

Financial Leverage: Definition
The proportion of debt in the overall capital is called financial leverage. It is computed as D/E or D/D+E, where D is the Debt and E is the Equity.

FIXED CAPITAL
Fixed Capital: Definition
It refers to investment in long-term assets.

Importance of Management of Fixed Capital

  • It affects the growth and profitability of busmess m future.
  • It involves huge investment outlay in terms of investment in land, building, machinery etc.
  • Its influences the overall level of business risk of the organisation.
  • If these decisions are reversed they may lead to major losses.

WORKING CAPITAL
Working Capital: Definition
The funds needed to meet the day-today operations of the business is called working capital.

MIND MAP
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Factors Affecting the Choice of Capital Structure

S. NO Factor Use sources of debt capital Use sources of owned capital
1. Cash flow position If the cash flow position is good the business may use debt. If the cash flow position is poor the business may use equity.
2. Interest coverage ratio If the interest coverage ratio is high the business may use debt. If the interest coverage ratio low the business may use equity.
3. Debt service coverage ratio If the debt service coverage ratio is high the business may use debt. If the debt service coverage ratio is low the business may use equity.
4. Return on investment If the return on investment is high the business may use debt. If the return on investment is low the business may use equity.
5. Cost of debt If the cost of debt is low the business may use debt. If the cost of debt is high the business may use equity.
6. Cost of equity The company may use debt up to a certain limit so that shareholders do not expect higher returns on equity. Shareholders expect higher returns when the company uses debt beyond a point due to increase in the financial risk, so the cost of equity increases.
7. Tax rate If the tax rate is high the business may use debt. If the tax rate is low the business may use equity.
8. Floatation costs The floatation cost is lesser on using debt The floatation cost is higher on using equity.
9. Financial risk consideration If the financial risk is low the business may use debt. If the financial risk is high the business may use equity.
10. Flexibility Too much use of debt reduces flexibility to raise more debt. If the business doesn’t want to restrict its flexibility, it may issue equity.
11. Control Issue of debt doesn’t affect control of existing shareholders. Issue of equity dilutes the control of the existing shareholders.
12. Stock market conditions If there is recession in the stock market, the business may issue debt capital. If there is boom in the stock market, the business may issue equity.

13. Regulatory framework: The business will choose the option where it can easily fulfill the norms of the concerned regulator like a bank or SEBI.
14. Capital structure of other companies: The business must know what the industry norms are, whether they are following them or deviating from them and adequate justification must be there.

Factors Affecting the Fixed Capital Requirements of a Business Enterprise
S. No Factor Fixed Capital Requirements is More Fixed Capital Requirements is Less
1. Nature of Business Manufacturing Trading
2. Scale of Operations Large Small
3. Choice of Technique Capital Intensive Labour Intensive
4. Frequency of Technology
Upgradation
High Low
5. Diversification Plans Yes No
6. Availability of Financial Alternatives No Yes
7. Growth Prospects High Low
8. Level of Collaboration Low High

Factors Affecting the Working Capital Requirements of a Business Enterprise

S. No Factor Working Capital Requirements Is More Working Capital Requirements Is Less
1. Nature of Business Manufacturing Trading
2. Scale of Operations Large Small
3. Business Cycle Boom Recession
4. Seasonal Factors On Season Off Season
5. Production Cycle Longer Shorter
6. Credit Allowed Liberal/Yes Strict/Nil
7. Credit Availed No Yes
8. Operating Efficiency Low High
9. Availability of Raw Material Difficult Easy
10. Growth Prospects High Low
11. Level of Competition High Low
12. Inflation High Low

LATEST CBSE QUESTIONS

Question 1.
What is meant by ‘financial management’? (CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Answer:
Financial Management is concerned with optimal procurement as well as usage of finance.

Question 2.
Somnath Ltd. is engaged in the business of export of garments. In the past, the performance of the company had been upto the expectations. In line with the latest technology, the company decided to upgrade its machinery. For this, the Finance Manager, Dalmia estimated the amount of funds required and the timings. This will help the company in linking the investment and the financing decisions on a continuous basis. Dalmia therefore, began with the preparation of a sales forecast for the next four years. Fie also collected the relevant data about the profit estimates in the coming years. By doing this, he wanted to be sure about the availability of funds from the internal sources of the business. For the remaining funds he is trying to find out alternative sources from outside. (CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Identify the financial concept discussed in the above para. Also state the objectives to be achieved by the use of financial concept, so identified.
Answer:
Financial planning is the financial concept discussed in the above paragraph. The process of estimating the fund requirements of a business and specifying the sources of funds is called financial planning. It relates to the preparation of a financial blueprint of an organisation’s future operations. The objectives to be achieved by the use of financial concept are stated below:

  • To ensure availability of funds whenever required which involves estimation of the funds required, the time at which these funds are to be made available and the sources of these funds.
  • To see that the firm does not raise resources unnecessarily as excess funding is almost as bad as inadequate funding. Financial planning ensures that enough funds are available at right time.

Question 3.
Explain briefly any four factors which affect the choice of capital structure of a company.
(CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Answer:
The four factors which affect the choice of capital structure of a company are described below:

  • Risk: Financial risk refers to a situation when a company is unable to meet its fixed financial charges. Financial risk of the company increases with the higher use of debt. This is because issue of debt involves fixed commitment in terms of payment of interest and repayment of capital.
  • Flexibility: Too much dependence on debt reduces the firm’s ability to raise debt during unexpected situations. Therefore, it should maintain flexibility by not using debt to its full potential.
  • Interest Coverage ratio (ICR): The interest coverage ratio refers to the number of times earnings before interest and taxes of a company covers the interest obligation. This may be calculated as follows:
    ICR = EBIT/Interest.
    If the ratio is higher, lower is the risk of company failing to meet its interest payment obligations hence debt may be issued or vice versa. But besides interest payment related repayment obligations should also be considered.
  • Cash flow position: The issue of debt involves a fixed commitment in the form of payment of interest and repayment of capital. Therefore if the cash flow position of the company is weak it cannot meet the fixed obligations involved in issue of debt it is likely to issue equity or vice versa.

Question 4.
Explain briefly any four factors that affect the working capital requirement of a company.
(CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Answer:
The four factors that affect the working capital requirements of a company are explained below:

  • Credit availed: In case the suppliers from whom the firm procures the raw material needed for production or finished goods follow a liberal credit policy, the business can be operated on minimum working capital or vice versa.
  • Credit allowed: The credit terms may vary from firm to firm. However, if the level of competition is high or credit worthiness of its clients is good the firm is likely to follow a liberal credit policy and grant credit to its clients it results in higher amount of debtors, increasing the requirement of working capital or vice versa.
  • Scale of operations: The amount of working capital required by a business varies directly in proportion to its scale of business. For organisations which operate on a higher scale of operation, the quantum of inventory, debtors required is generally high. Such organisations, therefore, require large amount of working capital as compared to the organisations which operate on a lower scale.
  • Growth prospects: The business firms who wish to take advantage of a forthcoming business opportunity or plan to expand its operations will require higher amount of working capital so that is able to meet higher production and sales target whenever required or vice versa .

Question 5.
Explain briefly any four factors that affect the fixed capital requirements of a company.
(CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Answer:
The four factors that affect the fixed capital requirements of a company are explained below:

  • Nature of business: The kind of activities a business is engaged in has an important bearing on its fixed capital requirements. On one hand a trading concern does not require to purchase plant and machinery etc. and needs lower investment in fixed assets. Whereas on the other hand a manufacturing organisation is likely to invest heavily in fixed assets like land, building, machinery and needs more fixed capital.
  • Scale of operations: The amount of fixed capital required by a business varies directly in proportion to its scale of businessA larger organisation operating at a higher scale needs bigger plant, more space etc. and therefore, requires higher investment in fixed assets when compared with the small organisation.
  • Diversification: If a business enterprise plans to diversify into new product lines, its requirement of fixed capital will increase as compared to an organisation which does not have any such plans.
  • Growth prospects: If a business enterprise plans to expand its current business operations in the anticipation of higher demand, its requirement of fixed capital will be more as compared to an organisation which doesn’t plan to persue any such plans.

Question 6.
What is meant by ‘Capital Structure’? (CBSE, OD 2017)
Answer:
Capital structure refers to the mix between owned funds and borrowed funds.

Question 7.
Ramnath Ltd. is dealing in import of organic food items in bulk. The company sells the items in smaller quantities in attractive packages. Performance of the company has been up to the expectations in the past. Keeping up with the latest packaging technology, the company decided to upgrade its machinery. For this, the Finance Manager of the company, Mr. Vikrant Dhull, estimated the amount of funds required and the timings. This will help the company in linking the investment and the financing decisions on a continuous basis.
Therefore, Mr. Vikrant Dhull began with the preparation of a sales forecast for the next four years. He also collected the relevant data about the profit estimates in the coming years. By doing this, he wanted to be sure about the availability of funds from the internal sources. For the remaining funds he is trying to find out alternative sources.
Identify the financial concept discussed in the above paragraph. Also, state any two points of importance of the financial concept, so identified. (CBSE, OD 2017)
Answer:

  1. Financial planning is the financial concept discussed in the above paragraph. The process of estimating the fund requirements of a business and specifying the sources of funds is called financial planning. It relates to the preparation of a financial blueprint of an organisation’s future operations.
  2. The two points highlighting the importance of planning are described below:
    • It ensures smooth running of a business enterprise by ensuring availability of funds at the right time.
    • It helps in anticipating future requirements of a funds and evading business shocks and surprises .

Question 8.
When is financial leverage favourable? (CBSE, Sample Paper 2017)
Answer:
Financial leverage affects the profitability of a business and it is said to be favourable when return on investment ( ROI) is higher than cost of Debt.

Question 9.
“A business that doesn’t grow dies”, says Mr. Shah, the owner of Shah Marble Ltd. with glorious 36 months of its grand success having a capital base of RS.80 crores. Within a short span of time, the company could generate cash flow which not only covered fixed cash payment obligations but also create sufficient buffer. The company is on the growth path and a new breed of consumers is eager to buy the Italian marble sold by Shah Marble Ltd. To meet the increasing demand, Mr. Shah decided to expand his business by acquiring a mine. This required an investment of RS.120 crores. To seek advice in this matter, he called his financial advisor Mr. Seth who advised him about the judicious mix of equity (40%) and Debt (60%). Mr. Seth also suggested him to take loan from a financial institution as the cost of raising funds from financial institutions is low. Though this will increase the financial risk but will also raise the return to equity shareholders. He also apprised him that issue of debt will not dilute the control of equity shareholders. At the same time, the interest on loan is a tax deductible expense for computation of tax liability. After due deliberations with Mr. Seth, Mr. Shah decided to raise funds from a financial institution.

  1. Identify and explain the concept of Financial Management as advised by Mr. Seth in the above situation.
  2. State the four factors affecting the concept as identified in part (1) above which have been discussed between Mr. Shah and Mr. Seth. (CBSE,Sample Paper 2017)

Answer:

  1. Capital structure is the concept of Financial Management as advised by Mr. Seth in the above situation. Capital structure refers to the mix between owners funds and borrowed funds.
  2. The four factors affecting capital structure which have been discussed between Mr. Shah and Mr. Seth are explained below:
    • Cashflow position: The issue of debt capital involves a fixed burden on the company in the form of payment of interest and repayment of capital. Therefore if the cash flow position of a company is good it may issue debt else equity to raise the required amount of capital.
    • Risk Consideration: Financial risk refers to a situation when a company is unable to meet its fixed financial charges. Financial risk of the company increases with the higher use of debt. This is because issue of debt involves fixed commitment in terms of payment of interest and repayment of capital.
    • Tax rate: Considering the fact that amount of interest paid is a deductible expense, cost of debt is affected by the tax rate. If for example a firm is borrowing @ 10% and the tax rate is 30%, the after tax cost of debt is only 7%. Therefore, when the tax rate is higher it makes debt relatively cheaper and increases its attraction vis-a-vis equity.
    • Control: The issue of debentures doesn’t affect the control of the equity shareholders over the business as the debenture holders do not have the right to participate in the management of the business.

Question 10.
Shalini, after acquiring a degree in Hotel Management and Business Administration, took over her family food processing company of manufacturing pickles, jams and squashes. The business had been established by her great grandmother and was doing reasonably well. However, the fixed operating costs of the business were high and the cash flow position was weak. She wanted to undertake modernisation of the existing business to introduce the latest manufacturing processes and diversify into the market of chocolates and candies. She was very enthusiastic and approached a finance consultant, who told her that approximately ? 50 lakh would be required for undertaking the modernisation and expansion programme. He also informed her that the stock market was going through a bullish phase.

  1. Keeping the above considerations in mind, name the source of finance Shalini should not choose for financing the modernisation and expansion of her food processing business. Give one reason in support of your answer.
  2. Explain any two other factors, apart from those stated in the above situation, which Shalini should keep in mind while taking this decision. (CBSE, Sample Paper 2016)

Answer:

  1. Shalini should not choose debt capital for financing the modernisation and expansion of her food processing business because the fixed operating cost of the company is high. It cannot take the additional burden of fixed commitments in terms of payment of interest and repayment of capital by issuing debt.
  2. The other two factors that Shalini must keep in mind while taking this decision are stated below:
    • Risk: Financial risk refers to a situation when a company is unable to meet its fixed financial charges. Financial risk of the company increases with the higher use of debt. This is because issue of debt involves fixed commitment in terms of payment of interest and repayment of capital.
    • Flexibility: Too much dependence on debt reduces the firm’s ability to raise debt during unexpected situations. Therefore, it should maintain flexibility by not using debt to its full potential.

Question 11.
Radhika and Vani who are young fashion designers, left their job vyith a famous fashion designer chain to set-up a company ‘Fashionate Pvt. Ltd.’ They decided to run a boutique during the day and coaching classes for the entrance examination of National Institute of Fashion Designing in the evening. For the coaching centre, they hired the first floor of a nearby building. Their major expense was the money spent on photocopying of notes for their students. They thought of buying a photocopier knowing fully that their scale of operations was not sufficient to make full use of photocopier.
In the basement of the building of Fashionate Pvt. Ltd, Praveen and Ramesh were carrying on a printing and stationery business in the name of ‘Neo Prints Pvt. Ltd.’ Radhika approached Praveen with the proposal to buy a photocopier jointly which could be used by both of them without making separate investment. Praveen agreed to this.
Identify the factor affecting the fixed capital requirements of Fashionate Pvt. Ltd. (CBSE, Delhi 2016)
Answer:
The factor affecting the fixed capital requirement of Fashionable Pvt. Ltd. is the level of collaboration. This kind of arrangement of using the resources jointly helps to reduce the fixed capital requirements of the business firms.

Question 12.
Kay Ltd. is a company manufacturing textiles. It has a share capital of ? 60 lakhs. In the previous year, its earning per share was ? 0.50. For diversification, the company requires an additional capital of ? 40 lakhs. The company raised funds by issuing 10% debentures for the same. During the year, the company earned a profit of ? 8 lakhs on the capital employed. It paid tax @ 40%.

  1. State whether the shareholders gained or lost, in respect of earning per share on diversification. Show your calculations clearly.
  2. Also state any three factors that favour the issue of debentures by the company as part of its capital structure. (CBSE, OD 2016)

OR
Vivo Ltd. is a company manufacturing textiles. It has a share capital of Rs. 60 lakhs. The earning per share in the previous year was Rs. 0.50. For diversification, the company requires an additional capital of Rs. 40 lakhs. The company raised funds by issuing 10% debentures for the same. During the current year, the company earned a profit of Rs. 8 lakhs on the capital employed. It paid tax @ 40%.

  1. State whether the shareholders gained a lost, in respect of earning per share on diversification. Show your calculations clearly.
  2. Also, state any three factors that favour the issue of debentures by the company as part of its capital structure. (CBSE, Delhi 2016)

Answer:

  1. Let us presume that the share capital of Rs. 60 lakh is made up of Rs. 6 lakh equity shares assuming that the face value of each share is Rs.10.
    Sources Situation 1
    (Amount (in Rs.))
    Situation 2
    (Amount (in Rs.))
    Equity shares 60,00,000 60,00,000
    10 % Debentures NIL 40,00,000
    Total Capital 60,00,000 1,00,00,000
    EBIT 8,00,000
    Less: Interest – (4,00,000)
    EBT 4,00,000
    Less: Tax @ 40% – (1,60,000)
    EAT *3,00,000 2,40,000
    No. of shares of Rs. 10 each 6,00,000 6,00,000
    EPS 0.50 2,40,000/6,00,000 = 0.40

    *0.50 x 6,00,000 = 3,00,000
    Consequently EBT/EBIT in situation 1 = Rs. 5,00,000
    Thus, on diversification, the earning per share fell down from Rs. 0.50 to Rs. 0.40.

  2. The three factors that favour the issue of debentures by the company as part of its capital structure are as follows:
    • Tax deductibility: Debt is considered to be a relatively cheaper source of finance as the amount of interest paid on debt is treated as a tax deductible expense.
    • Flotation cost: The money spent by the company on raising capital through debentures is less than that spent on equity.
    • Control: The issue of debentures doesn’t affect the control of the equity shareholders over the business as the debenture holders do not have the right to participate in the management of the business.

Question 13.
Rizul Bhattacharya, after leaving his job, wanted to start a Private Limited Company with his son. His son was keen that the company may start manufacturing mobile-phones with some unique features. Rizul Bhattacharya felt that mobile phones are prone to quick obsolescence and a heavy fixed capital investment would be required regularly in this business. Therefore, he convinced his son to start a furniture business.
Identify the factor affecting fixed capital requirements which made Rizul Bhattacharya choose the furniture business over mobile phones. (CBSE, OD 2016)
Answer:
The factor affecting the fixed capital requirements which made Rizul Bhattacharya choose the furniture business over mobile phones is technological upgradation.

Question 14.
Tata International Ltd. earned a net profit of Rs. 50 crores. Ankit, the finance manager of Tata International Ltd. wants to decide how to appropriate these profits. Discuss any five factors which will help him in taking this decision. (CBSE, Sample Paper, 2015)
Answer:
The five factors which will help Ankit, in taking the dividend decision are described below:

  • Earnings: Since the dividends are paid out of current and past earnings, there is a direct relationship between the amount of earnings of the company and the rate at which it declares dividend. If the earnings of the company are high, it may declare a higher dividend or vice-versa.
  • Cash flow position: Since the dividends are paid in cash, if the cash flow position of the company is good it may declare higher dividend or vice-versa.
  • Access to capital market: If the company enjoys an easy access to capital market because of its credit worthiness. It does not feel the need to depend entirely on retained earnings to meet its financial needs. Hence, it may declare higher dividend or vice-versa.
  • Growth prospects: If the company has any forthcoming investment opportunities, it may like to retain profits to finance its expansion projects. This is because retained profits is considered to be the cheapest source of finance as it doesn’t involve any explicit costs. Hence, it may declare lower dividend or vice-versa.
  • Preferences of the shareholders: The companies paying stable dividends are always preferred by small investors primarily if they want regular income in the form of ‘stable returns’ from their investments. Large shareholders may be willing to forgo their present dividend in pursuit of higher profits in future. Therefore, the preferences of the shareholders must be taken into consideration.

Question 15.
‘Abhishek Ltd’ is manufacturing cotton clothes. It has been consistently earning good profits for many years. This year too, it has been able to generate enough profits. There is availability of enough cash in the company and good prospects for growth in future. It is a well managed organisation and believes in quality, equal employment opportunities and good remuneration practices. It has many shareholders who prefer to receive a regular income from their investments.
It has taken a loan of Rs. 50 lakhs from ICICI Bank and is bound by certain restrictions on the payment of dividend according to the terms of the loan agreement.
The above discussion about the company leads to various factors which decide how much of the profits should be retained and how much has to be distributed by the company. Quoting the lines from the above discussion, identify and explain any four such factors. (CBSE, 2015)
Answer:
The five factors which Ankit has to consider before taking dividend decisions are:

  1. Growth Opportunities: Financial needs of a firm are directly related to the investment opportunities available to it. If a firm has abundant profitable investment opportunities, it will adopt a policy of distributing lower dividends. It would like to retain a large part of its earnings because it can reinvest them at a higher rate.
  2. Stability of Dividends: Investors always prefer a stable dividend policy. They expect to get a fixed amount as dividends which should increase gradually over the years.
  3. Legal Restrictions: A firm’s dividend policy has to be formulated within the legal provisions and restrictions of the Indian Companies Act.
  4. Restrictions in Loan Agreements: Lenders, mostly financial institutions, put certain restrictions on the payment of dividends to safeguard their interests.
  5. Liquidity: The cash position is a significant factor in determining the size of dividends. Higher the cash and overall liquidity position of a firm, higher will be its ability to pay dividends.

Question 16.
Amit is running an ‘advertising agency’ and earning a lot by providing this service to big industries State whether the working capital requirement of the firm will be ‘less’ or ‘more’. Give reason in support of your anser. (CBSE, Sample Paper 2014-15)
Answer:
The working capital requirements of Amit will be relatively less as he is running an advertising agency, wherein there is no need to maintain inventory.

Question 17.
Yogesh, a businessman, is engaged in the purchase and sale of ice-creams. Identify his working capital requirements by giving reasons to support your answer. Now, he is keen to start his own ice-cream factory. Explain any two factors that will affect his fixed capital requirements. (CBSE, OD 2012)
Answer:

  1. The working capital requirements of Yogesh will be less as he is engaged in trading business.
  2. The two factors that will affect his fixed capital requirements when he will start his own ice-cream factory are described below:
    • Level of collaboration: If Yogesh gets an opportunity to set up his factory in collaboration with another enterprise, his fixed capital requirements will reduce considerably else his fixed capital requirements will be more.
    • Financial alternatives available: If Yogesh is able to get the place to start the factory and machinery on lease, his fixed capital requirements will reduce considerably. Whereas if he decides to purchase them, his fixed capital requirements will be more.

Question 18.
Amar is doing his transport business in Delhi. His buses are generally used for tourists going to Jaipur and Agra. Identify the working capital requirements of Amar. Give reasons to support your answer. Further, Amar wants to expand and diversify his transport business. Explain any two factors that will affect his fixed capital requirements. (CBSE, OD, 2012)
Answer:

  1. The working capital requirements of Amar will be relatively less as he is engaged in prtividing transport services wherein there is no need to maintain inventory.
  2. The factors affecting the fixed capital needs of his business are as follows:
    • Diversification: If a business enterprise plans to diversify into new product lines, its requirement of fixed capital will increase.
    • Growth prospects: If a business enterprise plans to expand its current business operations in the anticipation of higher demand, consequently, more fixed capital will be needed by it.

Question 19.
Manish is engaged in the business of manufacturing garments. Generally, he used to sell his garments in Delhi. Identify the working capital requirements of Manish giving reason in support of your answer. Further, Manish wants to expand and diversify his garments business. Explain any two factors that will affect his fixed capital requirements. (CBSE, Delhi 2012)
Answer:

  1. The working capital requirements of Manish will be relatively more as he is engaged in the business of manufacturing garments. This is because the length of production cycle is longer i.e. it takes time to convert raw material into finished goods.
  2. The factors affecting the fixed capital needs of his business are as follows:
    • Scale of Operations: The amount of fixed capital required by a business enterprise is directly proportionate to its scale of operations. Therefore, if Manish plans to do business on a large scale, his fixed capital requirements will be more or vice versa.
    • Technological Upgradation: If Manish plans to use machines of latest technology in manufacturing garments, his fixed capital requirements will be more as replacement of obsolete machines will require huge financial outlay.

Question 20.
Harish is engaged in the warehousing business and his warehouses are generally used by businessmen to store fruits. Identify the working capital requirements of Harish giving reasons in support of your answer. Further, Harish wants to expand and diversify his warehousing business. Explain any two factors that will affect his fixed capital requirements. (CBSE, Delhi 2012)
Answer:

  1. The working capital requirements of Harish will be relatively less as he is engaged in providing warehousing services wherein there is no need to maintain inventory.
  2. The factors affecting the fixed capital needs of his business are as follows:
    • Diversification: If a business enterprise plans to diversify into new product lines, its requirement of fixed capital will increase.
    • Scale of Operations: The amount of fixed capital required by a business enterprise is directly proportionate to its scale of operations. Therefore, if Harish plans to do business on a large scale his fixed capital requirements will be more or vice versa.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS

Question 1.
Arun is a successful businessman in the paper industry. During his recent visit to his friend’s place in Mysore, he was fascinated by the exclusive variety of incense sticks available there. His friend tells him that Mysore region is known as a pioneer in the activity of Agarbathi manufacturing because it has a natural reserve of forest products especially Sandalwood to provide for the base material used in production. Moreover, the suppliers of other types of raw material needed for production follow a liberal credit policy and the time required to manufacture incense sticks is relatively less. Considering the various factors, Arun decides to venture into this line of business by setting up a manufacturing unit in Mysore.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify and explain the type of financial decision taken by Arun.
  2. Identify the three factors mentioned in the paragraph which are likely to affect the working capital requirements of his business.

Answer:

  1. Investment decision has been taken by Arun. Investment decision seeks to determine as to how the firm’s funds are invested in different assets. It helps to evaluate new investment proposals and select the best option on the basis of associated risk and return. Investment decision can be long term or short-term. A long-term investment decision is also called a Capital Budgeting decision
  2. The three factors mentioned in the paragraph which are likely to reduce the working
    capital requirements of his business are as follows: .
    • Availability of raw material: As there is easy availability of Sandalwood which is used as the base material for production, the working capital requirements of his business will be less as there is no need to stock the raw materials.
    • Production cycle: The production cycle is shorter and less time is required to manu¬facture incense sticks. Thus, the working capital requirements of his business will be low.
    • Credit availed: Due to the fact that the suppliers of other types of raw material needed for production follow a liberal credit policy, the business can be operated on minimum working capital.

Question 2.
‘Adwitiya’ is a company enjoying market leadership in the food brands segment. It’s portfolio includes three categories in the Foods business namely Snack Foods, Juices and Confectionery. Keeping in line with the growing demand for packaged food it now plans to introduce Ready- To-Eat Foods. Therefore, the company has planned to undertake investments of nearly Rs. 450 crores for its new line of business. As per the current financial report, the interest coverage ratio of the company and return on investment is higher. Moreover, the corporate tax rate is high.
In context of the above case:

  1. As a financial manager of the company, which source of finance will you opt for debt or equity, to raise the required amount of capital? Explain by giving any two suitable reasons in support of. your answer.
  2. Why are the shareholder’s of the company like to gain from the issue of debt by the company?

Answer:

  1. As a financial manager of the company, I will opt for debt to raise the required amount of capital.
    I support my decision by giving the following reasons:
    • Interest coverage ratio: The interest coverage ratio of the company is high so it can easily meet its fixed commitment of payment of interest and repayment of capital.
    • Tax rate: The tax rate is high which makes debt relatively cheaper as the amount of interest paid on debt is treated as a tax deductible expense.
  2. The shareholders of the company are likely to gain from the issue 6f debt by the company because the return on investment is higher. It helpS a company to take advantage of trading on equity to increase the earnings per share.

Question 3.
Computer Tech Ltd.,is one of the leading information technology outsourcing services providers in India. The company provides business consultancy and outsourcing services to its clients. Over the past five years the company has been paying dividends at high rate to its shareholders. However, this year, although the earnings of the company are high, its liquidity position is not so good. Moreover, the company plans to undertake new ventures in order to expand its business.
In context of the above case: .

  1. Give any three reasons because of which you think Computer Tech Ltd. has been paying dividends at high rate to its shareholders over the past five years.
  2. Comment upon the likely dividend policy of the company this year by stating any two reasons in support of your answer.

Answer:

  1. Computer Tech Ltd. has been paying dividends at high rate to its shareholders over the past five years because of the following reasons:
    • Earnings: The earnings of the company have been high. Since the dividends are paid out of current and past earnings, there is a direct relationship between the amount of earnings of the company and the rate at which it declares dividend .
    • Cashflow position: The cash flow position of the company must have been good as in order to pay high dividends, more cash is required.
    • Access to capital market: Because of its credit worthiness, the company enjoyed an easy access to capital market. Therefore, it did not feel the need to depend entirely on retained earnings to meet its financial needs. Hence, it declared higher dividends in past.
  2. This year the company is likely to follow a conservative dividend policy because of the following reasons:
    • The cash flow position of the company is not good and dividends are paid in cash.
    • The company may like to retain profits to finance its expansion projects. Retained profits do not involve any explicit cost and are considered to be the cheapest source of finance.

Question 4.
Bhuvan inherited a very large area of agricultural land in Haryana after the death of his grandfather. He plans to sell this piece of land and use the money to set up a small scale paper factory to manufacture all kinds of stationary items from recycled paper. Being an amateur in business, he decides to consult his friend Subhash who works in a financial consultancy firm. Subhash helps him to prepare a blue print of his future business operations on the basis of sales forecast in next five years. Based on these estimates, he helps Bhuvan to assess the fixed and working capital requirements of business.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify the type of financial service that Subhash has offered to Bhuvan.
  2. Briefly state any four points highlighting the importance of the type of financial service
    identified in part (1).

Answer:

  1. Financial planning is the type of financial service that Subhash has offered to Bhuvan.
  2. The four points highlighting the importance of financial planning are as follows:
    • It ensures smooth running of a business enterprise by ensuring availability of funds at the right time.
    • It helps in anticipating future requirements of a funds and evading business shocks and surprises.
    • It facilitates co-ordination among various departments of an enterprise like marketing and production functions, through well-defined policies and procedures.
    • It increases the efficiency of operations by curbing wastage of funds, duplication of efforts, and gaps in planning.

Question 5.
‘Madhur Milan’ is a popular online matrimonial portal. It seeks to provide personalized match making service. The company has 80 offices in India, and is now planning to open offices in Singapore, Dubai and Canada to cater to its customers beyond the country. The company has decided to opt for the sources of equity capital to raise the required amount of capital.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify and explain the type of risk which increases with the higher use of debt.
  2. Explain briefly any four factors because of which you think the company has decided to opt for equity capital.

Answer:

  1. Financial risk of the company increases with the higher use of debt. This is because issue of debt involves fixed commitment in terms of payment of interest and repayment of capital. Financial risk refers to a situation when a company is unable to meet its fixed financial charges.
  2. The factors because of which the company has decided to opt for equity capital are as follows:
    • Capital market conditions: The state of capital market is bullish, so people are likely to invest more in equity.
    • Fixed operating cost: The fixed operating cost of company is high so it cannot take the further burden fixed commitment in terms of payment of interest and repayment of capital by issuing debt.
    • Cashflow position: The cash flow position of the company is weak so it cannot meet the fixed obligations involved in issue of debt.
    • Risk: The proportion of debt in its capital structure is already high so it cannot issue further debt, thereby endangering the solvency of the company.

Question 6.
Wooden Peripheral Pvt. Ltd. is counted among the top furniture companies in Delhi. It is known for offering innovative designs and high quality furniture at affordable prices. The company deals in a wide product range of home and office furniture through its eight showrooms in Delhi. The company is now planning to open five new showrooms each in Mumbai and Bangalore. In Bangalore it intends to take the space for the showrooms on lease whereas for opening showrooms in Mumbai, it has collaborated with a popular home furnishing brand, ‘Creations.’

  1. Identify the factors mentioned in the paragraph which are likely to affect the fixed capital requirements of the business for opening new showrooms both in Bangalore and Mumbai separately,
  2. “With an increase in the investment in fixed assets, there is a commensurate increase in the working capital requirement.” Explain the statement with reference to the case above.

Answer:

  1. The fixed capital requirements of Wooden Peripheral Pvt. Ltd. for opening new showrooms in Bangalore will be relatively less as its taking space on lease, so only rentals have to be paid.
    Similarly, its fixed capital requirement for opening showrooms in Mumbai will be reduced as its going to share the costs with another company through collaboration.
  2. It’s true that,” With an increase in the investment in fixed assets, there is a commen¬surate increase in the working capital requirement.” Like in the above case, Wooden Peripheral Pvt. Ltd. is planning to invest in new showrooms. Consequently, its requirement of working capital will increase as it will need more money to stock goods, pay electricity bills and salaries to staff. Also, it intends to take the space for the showrooms in Mumbai on lease so it will have to pay rentals.

Question 7.
‘Apparels’ is India’s second largest manufacturer of branded Lifestyle apparel. The company now plans to diversify into personal care segment by launching perfumes, hair care and skin are products. Moreover, it is planning to open ten exclusive retail outlets in various cities across the country in next two years.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify the two factors affecting the fixed capital needs of the company by quoting lines from the paragraph.
  2. Why is the management of fixed capital considered to be an important for a business?

Answer:

  1. The factors affecting the fixed capital needs of the company are as follows:
    • Diversification: If a business enterprise plans to diversify into new product lines, its requirement of fixed capital will increase.
    • Growth prospects: If a business enterprise plans to expand its current business operations in the anticipation of higher demand, consequently, more fixed capital will be needed by it.
  2. The management of fixed capital is considered important because:
    • It affects the growth and profitability of business in future.
    • It involves huge investment outlay in terms of investment in land, building, machinery etc.
    • It influences the overall level of business risk of the organisation.
    • If these decisions are reversed, they may lead to major losses.

Question 8.
After persuing a course in event management, Kajal and her brother Kamal promoted an event management company under the name Khushi Entertainment Private Limited. They strive together as dedicated and dynamic professionals managing different kinds of formal and informal events across all major cities in India and abroad. They design the event idea and co-ordinate the different aspects of the event to make it a grand success. As a policy, they take fifty percent of the payment as advance from the client before the start of an event and receive the balance charges after the successful completion of the event.
In context of the above case:

  1. Comment upon the working capital needs of the company keeping in mind its nature of business.
  2. Identify the other factor mentioned in the paragraph which is likely to affect the working capital requirement of their business.

Answer:

  1. The working capital requirements of Khushi Entertainment Private Limited will be relatively less as they are engaged in providing event management services, wherein there is no need to maintain inventory
  2. The other factor mentioned in the paragraph which is likely to affect the working capital requirement of their business is ‘Credit availed.’ Since as a policy, they take fifty percent of the payment as advance from the client before the start of an event, their requirement of working capital is reduced.

Question 9.
Storage Solution Ltd. is a large warehousing network company operating. through a chain of warehouses at 40 different locations across India. The company now intends to undertake computerisation of its owned ware houses as it seeks to provide better value added and cost effective solutions for scientific storage and preservation services to the market participants dealing in agricultural products including farmers, traders, etc.
In context of the above case:

  1. How is the decision to undertake computerisation of owned warehouses likely to affect the fixed capital requirements of its business?
  2. Name any two sources that company may use to finance the implementation of this plan.

Answer:

  1. The decision to undertake computerisation of owned warehouses will increase the fixed capital requirements of its business both in present and future as after sometime, the technology being used will become obsolete and need upgradation.
  2. The company may use retained earnings and take loans from financial institutions to implement this plan.

Question 10.
Visions Ltd. is a renowned multiplex operator in India. Presently, it owns 234 screens in 45 properties at 20 locations in the country. Considering the fact that the there is a growing trend among the people to spend more of their disposable income on entertainment, two years back the company had decided to add more screens to its existing set up and increase facilities to enhance leisure, food chains etc. It had then floated an initial public offer of equity shares in order to raise the desired capital. The issue was fully subscribed and paid. Over the years, the sales and profits of the company have increased tremendously and it has been declaring higher dividend and the market price of its shares has increased manifolds.
In context of the above case:

  1. Name the different kinds of financial decisions taken by the company by quoting lines from the paragraph.
  2. Do you think the financial management team of the company has been able to achieve its prime objective? Why or why not? Give a reason in support of your answer.

Answer:

  1. The different kinds of financial decisions taken by the company are as follows:
    • Investment decision: “Two years back the company had decided to add more screens to its existing set up and increase facilities to enhance leisure, food chains etc.”
    • Financing decision: “It had then floated an initial public offer of equity shares in order to raise the desired capital.”
    • Dividend decision: “Over the years, the sales and profits of the company have increased tremendously and it has been declaring higher dividend.”
  2. Yes, the financial management team of the company has been able to achieve its prime objective i.e. wealth maximisation of the shareholders by maximising the market price of the shares of the company.

Question 11.
After completing his education in travel and tourism, Arjun started Travel Angels Pvt. Ltd. along with his twin brother Bheem. Their company seeks to provide travel solutions to its clients like ticket booking for airways, railways and road ways, hotel booking, insurance etc. Although the business is doing well both of them have realised that they are not good in managing finance, and feel confused and frustrated sometimes due to financial crises that may suddenly arise. In order to avoid such situations in the future, they hire Nakul and Sehdev as financial managers, who have done a degree certification course in financial management.
In context of the above

  1. Give the meaning of financial management.
  2. Outline the role of Nakul and Sehdev as the financial management team of the Travel Angels Pvt. Ltd. by giving any four suitable points.

Answer:

  1. Financial Management is concerned with optimal procurement as well as usage of finance.
  2. Nakul and Sehdev will play a very important role as the financial management team of the Travel Angels Pvt. Ltd. in managing the financial health of the company:
    • To determine the capital requirements of business both long-term and short term.
    • To determine the capital structure of the company and determine the sources from where required capital will be raised keeping in view the risk and return matrix.
    • To ensure efficient management of cash in order to ensure both liquidity and profitability.
    • To exercise overall financial control in order to promote s’afety, profitability and conservation of funds.

Question 12.
Wireworks Ltd. is a company manufacturing different kinds of wires. Despite fierce competition in the industry, it has been able to maintain stability in its earnings and as a policy, uses 30% of its profits to distribute dividends. The small investors are very happy with the company as it has been declaring high and stable dividend over past five years.
In context of the above case:

  1. State any one reason because of which the company has been able to declare high dividend by quoting line from the paragraph.
  2. Why do you think small investors are happy with the company for declaring stable dividend?

Answer:

  1. Stability in earnings: The company has been able to declare high dividend because its earnings are stable.
    “Despite fierce competition in the industry, it has been able to maintain stability in its earnings.”
  2. The small investors are happy with the company for declaring stable dividend as they enjoy a regular income on their investment.

Question 13.
Manoj is a renowned businessman involved in export business of leather goods. As a responsible citizen, he chooses to use jute bags for packaging instead of plastic bags. Moreover, on the advice of his friends, he decides to use jute for manufacturing aesthetic handicrafts, keeping in view the growing demand for natural goods. In order to implement his plan, after conducting a feasibility study, he decides to set up a separate manufacturing unit for producing varied jute products.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify the type of investment decision taken by Manoj by deciding to set up a separate manufacturing unit for producing jute products.
  2. State any two factors that he is likely to consider while taking this decision

Answer:

  1. Capital budgeting decision has been taken by Manoj.
  2. The factors affecting Capital Budgeting Decision are as follows:
    • Cash inflows: The expected cash inflows from the proposed projects should be carefully analysed and the project indicating higher cash inflows should be selected.
    • Rate of return: The expected rate of return should be carefully studied in terms of risk associated from the proposed project. If two projects are likely to offer the same rate of return, the project involving lesser risk should be selected.

Question 14.
Khoobsurat Pvt. Ltd. is the largest hair salon chain in the Delhi, with over a franchise of 200 salons. The company is now planning to set up a manufacturing unit in Faribadad for production of various kinds of beauty products under its own brand name.
In context of the above case:

  1. Comment upon the fixed capital needs of the company.
  2. How will the requirement of fixed capital of the company change when it implements its plan to set up a manufacturing unit?

Answer:

  1. The fixed capital needs of the company are low as its salons have been promoted in the form of franchises.
  2. The requirement of fixed capital of the company will increase when it implements its plan to set up a manufacturing unit because it will have to make investments in buying land, building, machinery etc.

Question 15.
Well-being Ltd. is a company engaged in production of organic foods. Presently, it sells its products through indirect channels of distribution. But, considering the sudden surge in the demand for organic products, the company is now inclined to start its online portal for direct marketing. The financial managers of the company are planning to use debt in order to take advantage of trading on equity. In order to finance its expansion plans, it is planning to ‘ raise a debt capital of Rs. 40 lakhs through a loan @ 10% from an industrial bank. The present capital base of the company comprises of Rs. 9 lakh equity shares of Rs. 10 each. The rate of tax is 30%.
In the context of the above case:

  1. What are the two conditions necessary for taking advantage of trading on equity?
  2. Assuming the expected rate of return on investment to be same as it was for the current year i.e. 15% , do you think the financial managers will be able to meet their goal. Show your workings clearly.

Answer:

  1. The two conditions necessary for taking advantage of trading on equity are :
    • The rate of return on investment should be more than the rate of interest.
    • The amount of interest paid should be tax deductible.
  2. Sources Situation 1
    Amount (in Rs.)
    Situation 2
    Amount (in Rs.)
    Equity shares 90,00,000 90,00,000
    10 % Debentures NIL 40,00,000
    Total Capital 90,00,000 1,30,00,000
    EBIT 13,50,000 19,50,000
    Less: Interest – (4,00,000)
    EBT 13,50,000 15,50,000
    Less: Tax @ 30% – (4,05,000) – (4,65,000)
    EAT 9,45,000 10,85,000
    No. of shares of Rs. 10 each 9,00,000 9,00,000
    EPS 9,45,000/9,00,000
    = 1.05
    10,85,000/9,00,000
    = 1.21

Yes, the financial managers will be able to meet their goal as the projected EPS, with the issue of debt, is higher than the present EPS.

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Passage Writing For Class 4

Passage Writing For Class 4 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Passage Writing For Class 4 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Introduction:

Writing passages is a crucial ability for kids to develop since it fosters the development of their reading, writing, and critical thinking abilities. Students in class 4 are developing their writing abilities at a critical juncture, therefore it is essential to give them the support and practise they need to advance. The format, samples, subjects, and activities that can be used to help class 4 pupils develop their passage writing abilities will be covered in this article.

Format Of Passage Writing for Class 4:

Before delving into examples, it is essential to understand the format of passage writing for class 4 students. A passage is a piece of writing that has a clear beginning, middle, and end. It should have a central idea or theme that ties everything together. A passage should also have a clear structure, which includes an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.

Introduction:
The introduction is the first paragraph of the passage and should capture the reader’s attention. It should introduce the central idea or theme of the passage and provide some background information on the topic.

Body Paragraphs:
The body paragraphs should provide more information on the central idea or theme of the passage. Each paragraph should focus on a specific point related to the central idea and provide supporting details and examples.

Conclusion:
The conclusion is the final paragraph of the passage and should summarize the main points of the passage. It should also restate the central idea or theme of the passage in a new way and leave the reader with a lasting impression.

Also Read: Writing Section For Class 10

Examples Of Passage Writing for Class 4 Students:

Now that we have discussed the format of passage writing for class 4 students let’s look at some examples of passages that can be used to improve their writing skills.

Example 1: My Favorite Animal

Introduction: My favorite animal is a cat.
Body Paragraph 1: Cats are cute and cuddly.
Body Paragraph 2: They are also independent animals.
Body Paragraph 3: Cats make great pets.
Conclusion: Cats are my favorite animal because they are cute, independent, and make great pets.

Example 2: A Trip to the Beach

Introduction: Preface Last summer, my family and I went on a trip to the sand.
Body Paragraph 1: The weather was perfect for a day at the beach.
Body Paragraph 2: We spent the day swimming in the ocean and building sandcastles.
Body Paragraph 3: We also enjoyed a delicious picnic lunch on the beach.
Conclusion: Our trip to the beach was a wonderful experience, and I can’t wait to go back next summer.

Examples Of Passage Writing for Class 4 Students

Topics For Passage Writing For Class 4 Students:

Now that we have looked at some examples of passages let’s explore some topics that can be used to help class 4 students improve their passage writing skills.

Topic 1: My Favorite Season
Write a passage about your favorite season. Describe what you like about the season and what activities you enjoy doing during that season.

Topic 2: My Best Friend
Write a passage about your best friend. Describe what makes them great friends and share a memorable experience that you have had with them.

Topic 3: My Dream Vacation
Write a passage about your dream vacation. Describe where you would go and what you would do on your vacation.

Exercises To Improve Passage Writing For Class 4 Students:

Exercise 1: Brainstorming
Request that the students come up with suggestions for a particular theme. Encourage them to jot down as many thoughts as they can, regardless of how absurd or irrelevant they may sound. They gain innovative thinking skills and passage ideas through this assignment.

Exercise 2: Outlining
Teach the pupils how to organize their passages using an outline. The core idea, supplementary information, and conclusion should all be included in the outline. Before writing, this practice enables individuals to better organize their thoughts and ideas.

Exercise 3: Peer Review
Students should be paired up and asked to read through each other’s passages. Encourage them to comment on the passage’s organization, clarity of the language, and use of illustrative elements. They can learn from one another and hone their writing talents through this exercise.

Exercise 4: Editing
Request that the kids edit their own writing. Encourage them to proofread their work for faults in spelling and grammar as well as to make sure their phrases are succinct and clear. They can hone their editing abilities and boost the caliber of their writing with the aid of this activity.

Conclusion On Passage Writing For Class 4:

Passage writing is a crucial skill that class 4 students need to develop to improve their reading, writing, and critical thinking skills. By understanding the format of passage writing, exploring examples and topics, and practicing with exercises, students can improve their writing skills and become confident writers.

Profile Writing Examples For Class 10

Profile Writing Examples For Class 10 Format, Topics, Exercises

Profile Writing Examples For Class 10 Format, Topics, Exercises

Profile writing can be challenging, but with the right format, topics, and exercises, you can ace this task. In this article, we will explore everything you need to know to write an impressive profile essay for your Class 10 assignment.

Format Of A Profile Writing Examples For Class 10:

The following are the key elements of a profile:

Heading:
The heading should include the name of the person being profiled and their occupation or title.

Introduction:
The introduction should pique the reader’s interest and give some context for the subject of the profile. A thesis statement summarising the profile’s key aspects should be included as well.

Background Information:
Information about the person’s schooling, professional background, and personal life should be included in this area.

Achievements:
This part should showcase the individual’s successes, including any awards, publications, or noteworthy contributions to their profession.

Skills and Qualities:
The person’s skills and attributes, such as leadership, creativity, and problem-solving aptitudes, should be discussed in this area.

Conclusion:
The conclusion should restate the profile’s main features and leave the reader with a positive impression.

Also Read: Advertisement Writing Class 12

Topics For Profile Writing Examples For Class 10:

The following are some topics that you can use for your profile writing exercises:

Personal Profile:

• Your best friend
• Your favorite teacher
• Your role model

Professional Profile:

• A successful entrepreneur
• A famous athlete
• A renowned artist

Historical Profile:

• A famous politician
• A legendary musician
• A notable scientist

Topics For Profile Writing Examples For Class 10

Exercises For Profile Writing Examples For Class 10:

Here are some exercises that you can use to improve your profile writing skills:

Exercise 1: Conduct an interview
You should solicit someone you respect. Ask them about their parenting, accomplishments, and character traits. produce a profile of them using the data you’ve gathered.

Exercise 2: Compose a bio on social media.
produce a social networking memoir for you or another person. To draw attention to your capacities, interests, and accomplishments, use the profile format.

Exercise 3: Analyze a profile
Analyze a profile you find in a magazine or online. Keep an eye out for a profile’s essential components, such as the introduction, background information, and accomplishments. Describe the profile’s strengths and weaknesses.

Conclusion On Profile Writing Examples For Class 10:

Profile writing is an essential skill that can help you present yourself or someone else in the best possible light. By following the format of a profile and practicing with different topics and exercises, you can improve your profile writing skills and achieve your goals.

Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 12

Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 12

[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.]                                                                                              [Maximum Marks] : 100

General Instruction:

  1. All Questions are compulsory.
  2. Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
  3. Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
  4. Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  5. Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
  6. Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.

Question.1. On which ideology was the Soviet political system based ?
Answer. The Soviet political system was based on the ideology of planned economy controlled by the state.

Question.2. Correct the following statement and rewrite:
“The present Secretary General of the United Nations is Ban-Ki-Moon, the first African to hold the post.”
Answer. The present Secretary General of the United Nations is Ban-Ki-Moon from South Korea, the first Asian to hold the post.

Question.3. What did BWC (Biological Weapons Convention), 1972 decide ?
Answer. The BWC (Biological Weapons Convention) of 1972 decided to ban the production and possession of Biological weapons. More than 155 states acceded to the BWC.

Question.4. Why did the leaders of the national movement cherish the ideal of a secular nation ? Give any one reason.
Answer. The leaders of the national movement cherished the ideal of a secular nation in order to protect, preserve and promote the cultural and linguistic diversity of the Indian nation. They also tried to accommodate the social diversities and social divisions.

Question.5. What was Chipko movement ?
Answer. Chipko Movement was an environmental movement started in 1973 in Uttarakhand. It began in two villages when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools.

Question.6. Give any two reasons why Veto Power of the permanent members of Security Council can not be abolished.
Answer. Veto Power of the permanent members of Security Council cannot be abolished because:
(a) The world may not be ready for such a radical step. Without Veto Power there is a danger that the great powers like USA, Britain, Russia, etc. would lose interest in the world body.
(b) Secondly, without the support and involvement of great powers the UN would be ineffective and the world would be back to pre- 1945 position.

Question.7. Mention any four threats, except war, to human security.
Answer. Human Security suffers from some non-traditional threats which go beyond military threats like:
(i) Global poverty (ii) Health epidemics
(iii) Terrorism (iv) Human Rights

Question.8. How have technological advancement and recognition of inter-connectedness affected globalisation ?
Answer. Technological advancement and recognition of inter-connectedness hasaffected globalisation in such ways follows as:

  1. Rapid improvement in information and communication technology has stimulated the
    globalisation process.
  2.  The invention of the telegraph, the telephone and the microscope, Internet, e-mail etc. in more recent times has revolutionised communication between actors in different parts of the world.

Question.9. Why was National Fish Workers’ Forum formed ?
Answer. In the nineties the National Fish workers forum was formed to oppose the move of the government to issue licenses to foreign trawlers.

  1.  Actually in 1991 the government permitted entry to mechanised trawlers and technologies like bottom trawling for largescale harvesting of fish in the Indian sea.
  2.  In July 2002, NFF called for a nationwide strike and joined hands with organisations all over the world for protecting ecology and lines of the fish workers.

Question.10. Who are indigenous people ? What institutions do they follow ?
Answer. Indigenous people are the people who help to bring the issue of environment resources and politics together.
The UN defines indigenous population as comprising the descendants of people who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time of arrival of different cultures and people.
They follow particular social, economic and cultural customs and traditions. In 1975, indigenous people formed World Council of Indigenous Peoples which later on got consultative status in the UN.

Question.11. Mention any four realities that have changed the world politics after the Cold War.
Answer. Following are the four main realities which have changed the world politics after the Cold War:
(i) The end of Bipolarity (ii) Collapse of the Second World Power
(iii) Fall of Berlin Wall (iv) Unification of Germany
(i) The end of Bipolarity— With the disintegration of the Soviet Union there was the end of the Cold War and this left open only two possibilities – either only one super power would dominate and create a unipolar system or different countries would come up on the world stage to bring a multipolar system. This signifies the end of Bipolarity.
(ii) Collapse of the Second World Power—The end of the Cold War and the disintegration of Soviet Union brought about a bi§ change in the world scenario. The collapse of the second world power, Le., USSR, and emergence of unipolar world with US as the sole superpower.
(iii) Fall of Berlin Wall— The Berlin Wall which symbolised the division between capitalist • and the communist world was demolished by the people on 9 November, 1989. This marked the beginning of the end of the communist bloc.
(iv) Unification of Germany— Another significant reality that changed the world politics
was the unification of Germany. Germany which was divided after the second world war got unified in the 1990s.

Question.12. Mention the name of any two founders of NAM (Non-Aligned Movement). The first NAM summit was the culmination of which three factors ?
Answer. The roots of NAM go back to the friendship between three leaders;
(i) Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia
(ii) Jawaharlal Nehru of India
(iii) Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt
The conference of Afro-Asian leaders held at Bandung in 1955 was known as the ‘Bandung Conference. This conference gave an opportunity for common understanding of international problems.
(i) Nehru, one of the leaders of this conference, touched upon the moral fibre of Non-alignment.
(ii) The conference was symbolic of the nascent solidarity of Asia and Africa and demonstrated the growing maturity of the Afro-Asian nations.
(iii) The Bandung Conference, therefore, represented the desire of Afro-Asian countries to play an independent and constructive role in world affairs.

Question.13. Describe any four issues relating to environmental degradation.
Answer. In the Global Era there are som(e issues related to environmental degradation which have been further considered as global issues and considerably fall within the scope of contemporary world politics. These issues are as follows :

  1. Depletion of Natural Resources— Throughout the world cultivable area is barely expanding any more and a substantial portion of existing agricultural land is losing fertility.
  2.  Loss of Biodiversity— Natural forests which help to stabilise the climate, moderate water supplies and harbour. But majority of the plant biodiversity on land are being cut down and people are being displaced.
  3.  Depletion of Ozone— A steady decline in the total amount of Ozone in the Earth’s stratosphere poses a real danger to ecosystems and human health.
  4. Coastal Pollution— On the other side coastal pollution too is increasing globally. Although the open sea is relatively clear, the coastal waters are becoming increasingly polluted largely due to land based activities.

Question.14. Explain any four conflicts during the Presidential election of 1969.
Answer. The formal split in the Congress took place in 1969 on the issue of Presidential Election. Actually the factional rivalry between the syndicate and Indira Gandhi came in the open in 1969 on the nomination of a candidate for the president’s post.

  1.  Despite Mrs. Gandhi’s reservations, the syndicate managed to nominate her long time opponent and then Speaker of the Lok Sabha, N. Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for the presidential elections.
  2.  Indira Gandhi retaliated by encouraging the then Vice-President, V.V. Giri to file his
    nomination as an independent candidate.
  3.  During election, the then Congress President, S. Nijalinagappa issued a “whip” asking all the Congress MPs and MLAs to vote in favour of Sanjeeva Reddy.
  4.  On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime Minister openly called for a conscience vote-to vote the way they want.
    And, the election ultimately resulted in the victory of V.V. Giri and the defeat of Sanjeeva Reddy.

Question.15. During the early years of independence, despite the fact that the opposition parties had a token representation, they piayed a crucial role in maintaining the democratic character of the system. How ?
Answer. In the first decade of the electoral politics, India did not have a recognised opposition party. But some of the vibrant and diverse opposition parties had come into being even before the first general election in 1952.
All these opposition parties succeeded in gaining only a token representation in the Lok Sabha and State assemblies during this period. Yet their presence played a crucial role in maintaining the democratic order.

  1.  Offered sustained and principled criticism— These opposition parties offered a sustained and principled criticism of the policies and practices of the Congress Party. This kept the ruling party under check and often changed the balance of power.
  2. Provided political alternative— Not only this, by keeping democratic political alternative alive, these parties prevented the resentment with the system from turning anti-democratic.
  3.  Shaped our country’s ideal— These parties also groomed the leaders who were to play a crucial role in the shaping of our country.
  4.  Provided conducive environment—In the early years there was a lot of mutual respect between the leaders of the Congress and those of the opposition. For example, the interim governmehf that ruled the country after the declaration of independence and the first general election included opposition leaders like Dr. Ambedkar and Shyama Prasad Mukherjee in the cabinet.

Question.16. Why is the decade of sixties labelled as a ‘dangerous’ decade ?
Answer. The 1960s is labelled as the ‘dangerous decade’ because of some unresolved problems like poverty, inequality and communal and regional divisions.
There was speculation that all these could lead to a failure of the democratic projects or even the disintegration of the country.

  1. Economic Crisis— Due to the India-China and Indo-Pak war there was economic crisis in India. So the government of Indira Gandhi decided to devalue the Indian rupee. Consequently, the economic situation triggered a price rise.
  2.  Political Earthquake— the election of 1967 was termed as the Political Earthquake because it jolted the Congress at both the national and state levels. Half the ministers in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet were defeated.
  3.  Food Crisis— Besides, due to faifur’e of monsoons, drought occurred and this created a serious food crisis in India during 1960s.
    Hence, there was speculation that all these challenges could lead to failure of the democratic project or even the disintegration of the country.

Question.17. Read the paragraph given below carefully and answer the following questions:
We have a Muslim minority who are so large in numbers that they cannot, even if they want, go anywhere else. That is a basic fact about which there can be no argument. Whatever the provocation from Pakistan and whatever the indignities and horrors inflicted on non-Muslims there, we have got to deal with this minority in a civilised manner. We must give them security and the rights of citizens in a democratic State. If we fail to do so, we shall have a festering sore which will eventually poison the whole body politic and probably destroy it.
Jawaharlal Nehru, Letter to Chief Ministers, 15 October 1947.
(i) In spite of indignities and horrors inflicted on non-Muslims by Pakistan, why Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to deal with the Muslim minority in a civilised way ?
(ii) Why this minority shotild be given the security and rights on the same footing as to all others in a democratic system.
(iii) If this minority was not provided security and rights what kind of scenario is envisaged ?
Answer. (i) Because Muslim minority in India were large in numbers. It is their right to go anywhere
and settle but in a democratic set up everyone’s given equal opportunity.
(ii) J.L. Nehru argued that we must give the Muslim minority security and the rights of citizens in a democratic state. Apart from ethical and sentimental reasons there are some prudential reasons which helped India to realise its long charised goals and principles such as socialism, equality, liberty and fraternity.
(iii) If we fail to provide security and rights to minorities, it would affect the basic nature of democratic system. It is also against the secular principles of India. It may eventually affect not only India’s foreign policy it may pose a threat to other minorities in India. It may lead to the disintegration of Indian states.

Question.18. Read the passage and answer the following Questions:
Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat,
the Indian National Congress split into two groups The Janata Party also went
through major convulsions David Butler, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy. — Partha
Chatterjee.
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977 ?
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to two-party system?
(c) What caused splits in the Congress and the Janata party?
Answer. (a) The imposition of emergency in 1977 and crisies in political parties (ruling party) made the party system in India look like a two-party system.
(b) Two parties which existed in 1977 were (i) Congress and (ii) Non-Congress.

Question.19. Read the passage and answer questions below:
nearly all ‘new social movements’ have emerged as corrective to new maladies environmental degradation, violation of the status of women, destruction of tribal cultures and the undermining of human rights — none of which are in and by themselves transformative of the social order. They are that way quite different from revolutionary ideologies of the past. But their weakness lies in their being so heavily fragmented. a large part of the space occupied by the new social movement seem to be suffering from various characteristics which have prevented them from being relevant to the truly oppressed and the poor in the form of a solid unified movement of the people. They are too fragmented, reactive, ad hocish, providing no comprehensive framework of basic social change. Their being anti-this or that (anti-West, anti-capitalist, anti-development, etc.) does not make them any more coherent, any more relevant to oppressed and peripheralized communities. — Rajni Kothari
(a) What is the difference between new social movements and revolutionary ideologies?
(b) What according to the author are the limitations of social movements ?
(c) If social movements address specific issues, wouldyoosaythattheyam’fragmented’ or that they are more focused ? Give reasons for your answer by giving examples.
Answer. (a) The main difference between new social movements and revolutionary ideologies is that like revolutionary ideologies, none of new social movements are in and by themselves “transformative of the social order” but they emerged as corrective of new maladies.
(b) The authors are describing this period as close to a two-party system because this period saw the end of dominance of single party in India and emergence of Janata Party.
(c) Causes for the splits in Congress and Janata Party were—
(i) For Congress—On the issue of candidate for the presidential election in 1969.
(ii) For Janata Party—Tension among three leaders
Morarji Desai, Charan Singh, and Jagjivan Ram for the leadership in 1979.

Question.20. What was the implication of “Aya Ram…”?
solved-cbse-sample-papers-for-class-12-political-science-set-12-1
(a) To which year does the cartoon refer ?
(b) Name the person for whpm this comment ‘Aya Ram Gaya Ram’ was made.
(c) What was the implication of ‘Aya Ram?
Answer. After the incident the practice of defection ie. changing party allegiance has been declared illegal and a specific Anti-defection law has been passed to minimised the practice of Defection.
(a) The above cartoon refers to the year 1967.
(b) The comment Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’ was made for Haryana’s MLA Gaya Lai. He changed . his party thrice in a fortnight from Congress to United Front, back to Congress and then within nine hours to United Front again.
(c) After the incident the practice of defection ie. changing party allegiance has been declared illegal and a specific anti-defection law has been passed to minimise the practice of defection.

Question.21. Study the map given regarding Assembly Election Results, 1967 and answer the following question:
(i) What picture did results of election 1967 bring into Indian politics ?
(ii) In which four states of the country, did the Congress not get a majority in the state legislature ?
solved-cbse-sample-papers-for-class-12-political-science-set-12-2
Answer. (i) The election of 1967 brought into picture the phenomenon of coalitions. Since no single party had got majority, various non-Congress parties came together to from joint legislature parties (called Samyukta Vidhayak Dal) that supported non-congress governments. It most of these cases the coalition partners were ideologically incongruent. In Punjab it was called the “Popular United Front” which comprised two rival Akali parties—Sant group and Master group with both the communist parties— CPI and the CPI(M).
(ii) Orissa, Kerala, Bihar and Madras were the states where the Congress did not get a majority in the State Legislature in 1967.

Question.22. How did the New International Economic Order come into being ? What reforms were proposed by UNCTAD in its report in 1972 ?
Or
‘India and the USSR enjoyed a special relationship during the Cold War, which led critics to say that India was a part of the Soviet Camp.’ Do you agree ? Support your answer with any two arguments.
Answer. The idea behind the ‘New International Economic Order’ (NIEO) was to ensure the sustainable economic development of the ‘Least Developed Countries of NAM’. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report in 1972 entitled ‘Towards a New Trade Policy for Development.’
The report proposed a reform of the global trading system to

  1.  give the Least Developed Countries [LDCs] control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western countries.
  2. obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
  3.  reduce the cost of technology from the western countries.
  4. provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.

Or
No, we do not agree with the statement because Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions.
Following arguments can be considered in its favour:

  1.  Common view on the multipolar world order : Russia and India share a vision of multipolar world order. For both these countries a multipolar world order is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater regionalism, negotiated settlement of international conflicts, an independent foreign policy for all countries and decision making through bodies like the UN that should be strengthened, democratised and empowered.
  2.  India benefits from Russia : India gets meaningful benefits for having healthy relations with Russia on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to central Asia and balancing its relations with China.
  3.  Russia’s gains: Like India, Russia stands to gain from this relationship because India is the second largest arms market for Russia.
  4.  Besides, Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. Since India is an oil importing nation, Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to help India during its oil crisis.
  5.  In order to meet the demands of energy India is trying to increase its energy imports from Russia and the Republics of Kazakhistan and Turkmenistan. This also broadened the scope for partnership and investment in oilfields.
  6.  India has also strengthened its relations with Russia for her nuclear energy plans and space industry. India gets the cryogenic rocket from Russia whenever needed.
  7.  Thus, we may safely conclude that India has maintained good relations with all the
    post-communist countries. But the strongest relations are still those between Russia and India.

Question.23. Are there any limitations on the hegemony of the US ? Explain briefly.
Or
How has the European Union risen to being a super-national organisation ? What are its limitations?
Answer. As history reveals every empire declines because of its weaknesses inherent in itself, the biggest constraints to American hegemony lie within the heart of hegemony itself. Moreover, we can identify ‘three constraints on American power’, which were actually not in operation in the years following 9/11. Recently all these constraints are slowly beginning to operate. Institutional Architecture : The very first constraint lies in the institutional architecture of the American state. A system of division of powers between the three branches of government places significant brakes upon the unrestrained and immoderate exercise of America’s military power by the executive branch.
Open nature of American society possesses constraint : The second constraint on American hegemony is also domestic in nature and stems from the open nature of American society. In spite of mass media’s promotion or imposition of a particular perspective on domestic opinion in the US, there is nevertheless a deep scepticism regarding the purposes and methods of government in American political culture.
And this factor in the long run, is a huge constraint on US military action overseas, Le., towards the ‘Invasion Policy of America.’
NATO as a constraint on American Hegemony : The most important constraint on American hegemony is NATO. It is the only organisation in the international system that could possibly moderate the exercise of American hegemony today.
Actually, the US has an enormous interest in keeping the alliance of democracies that follow the market economies and therefore it is possible that its allies in the NATO will be able to moderate the exercise of US hegemony through their liberal economic policy.
Or
‘European Union’ was established in 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The European Union started as an Economic Union but over time it has evolved from Economic Union to increasingly political one.
EU now has started to act more as a nation-state.
(a) It has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc.
(b) Besides, European Union has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency.
(c) It has also some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations.
Although, European Union is a super-national organisation and is able to intervene in economic, political and social areas, in many areas its member states have their own foreign relations and defence policies that are often at odds with one another.
(a) For instance, Former British Prime Minister, Tony Blair was America’s partner in the Iraq invasion and many of the European Union’s newer members made up the US-led ‘Coalition of the willing’ whereas, Germany and France opposed American policy.
(b) The integrationist Ag%nda, also at odds, limits the European Union’s ability. For example, Britain’s former Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher kept the UK out of the European market.
(c) Denmark and Sweden have resisted the Maastricht Treaty and the adoption of the Euro. All these odds limit the ability of the EU to act in matters of foreign relations and defence.

Question.24. What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early 1970s ?
Or
“Governments that seem to be unstable and quarrelsome are severely punished by the voters.” Explain with reference to Janata Party rule.
Answer. In the early 1970s the government of Indira Gandhi gained popularity due to various factors such as: .

  1.  During this period the government made conscious attempts to project its socialist credentials.
  2. Indira Gandhi vigorously campaigned for implementing the existing land reform laws and undertook further land ceiling legislation.
  3.  Not only this, in order to end her dependence on the other political parties, she strengthened her party’s position in the Parliament and sought a popular mandate for her programmes. Indira Gandhi’s government recommended the dissolution of the Lok Sabha in December 1970.
  4.  The crisis in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak War leading to the establishment of Bangladesh added one more feather to the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
  5.  In this way, Indira Gandhi and her government was seen not only as the protector of the poor and the underprivileged but also as a strong government.
  6. The Congress was now in power in almost all the states and restored its dominance. It
    was also popular across different social sections.

Or
The given statement is very much justified because emergency of 1975 at once brought out both weaknesses and the strength of India’s democracy. There are many observers who think that India ceased to be democratic during the emergency.

  1.  It was a period of political crisis with changes in the party system. The party in power had absolute majority and yet its leadership decided to suspend the democratic process.
  2. And, the result of the 1977 election took everyone by surprise. For the first time since independence the Congress Party was defeated and brought to an end-the one party dominance. It opened the way for the opposition and the coalition type of government.
  3.  Basically, the most valid reasons for the defeat of the Congress Party was the people’s verdict which was decisively against emergency. The opposition fought the election on the slogan of ‘Save Democracy’.
  4.  The Janata Party made this election a referendum on the emergency. Its campaign was focussed on the non-democratic character of the Congress rule and on the various excesses that took place during this period.
  5. Thus, the 1977 elections turned into a referendum on the experience of the emergency and proved that Governments that are perceived to be anti-democratic are severely punished by the voters.
    Conclusion—Thus, the statement is very much justified with Janata Party Rule. After the 1977 general election, the Janata Party came into power. But from the very beginning there was stiff competition among fts leaders for the post of Prime Minister, which showed party lacked direction, leadership and a common programme. This ultimately led to the mid¬term election in 1980. Again, Janata Party government could not bring about a fundamental change in policies from those pursued by the Congress.
    Hence, fresh Lok Sabha elections were held in 1980, in which the Janata Party suffered a comprehensive defeat.

Question.25. What were the consequences of the partition of India in 1947 ?
Or
Explain how the General Elections of 1952 in India were a landmark in the history of democracy all over the world.
Answer. The partition year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfers of population that human history has known.

  1.  Communal Riots: In the name of religion, people of one community ruthlessly killed and maimed people of the other community. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border. Cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata became divided into ‘communal zones’.
  2. Social Sufferings: People went through immense sufferings. They were forced to abandon their homes and move across borders. Many secured temporary shelter in ‘refugee camps’. Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border.
    (a) In many cases women were killed by their own family members to preserve the ‘family honour’.
    (b) Many children were separated from their parents. Those who did manage to cross the borderfound that they had no home. Hence, for lakhs of these refugees’ the country’s freedom meant life in ‘refugee camps’.
  3.  Administrative Concerns and Financial Strains : The partition saw not merely a division of properties, liabilities and assets or a political division of the country and the administrative apparatus. What also got divided were the financial assets and things like tables, chairs, typewriters, paper-clips, books and also musical instruments of police band.
    (a) The employees of government and the railways were also divided.
    (b) Above all, it was a violent separation of communities who had hitherto lived together as neighbours. It is estimated that the partition forced about 80 lakhs to migrate across the new border. Between five to ten lakh people were killed in partition related violence.
    (c) Besides, the partition had also created severe conflict between the two communities, i.e., Hindus and Muslims. Keeping all this trauma in view, writers, poets and film makers in India and Pakistan have expressed the ruthlessness of the killings and the sufferings of displacement and violence in their novels, short stories, poems and films. They coined a phrase to describe partition as a ‘division of hearts’.

Or
The general elections of 1952 became a landmark in the history of democracy because of the following reasons:

  1.  Big Test of Democracy— The first general election was the first big test of democracy in a poor and illiterate country. Till then democracy had existed only in prosperous countries like in Europe and North America where everyone was literate.
  2. India experimented^with Universal Adult Franchise— India experimented with Universal Adult Franchise which by that time had not been given in some European countries. It was restricted for women. This appeared as India’s bold and risky step.
  3. Elections were competitive— Not only this, the elections were competitive. There were on an average more than four candidates for every seat.
  4.  Level of participation was encouraging and fair— Even the level of participation in elections was encouraging and more than half the eligible voters turned out to vote on the day of elections. And when results were declared, these were accepted as fair even by the losers.
    Thus, observers outside India were very much impressed. Undoubtedly India’s general elections cf 1952 became a landmark in the history of democracy ali over the world.

Question.26. Explain how the Indian government has been pursuing the path of democratic negotiation to solve the Kashmir issue.
Or
“After the elections in 1989, an era of coalition started in which political parties are not aligning or re-aligning on the basis of ideologies.” Explain.
Answer. The Kashmir issue is not just a dispute between India and Pakistan. This issue has external and internal dimensions. It involves the issue of Kashmir identity known as Kashmiriyat and the aspirations of the people of Jammu and Kashmir for political autonomy.
The Indian government has been pursuing the path of democratic negotiations to solve the Kashmir issue:

  1.  Kashmir has been given a special status by Article 370 in our Constitution.
  2. Article 370 gives greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir compared to other states of India.
  3.  Now the state has its own constitution and provisions of the Indian constitution are not applicable to the state.
  4.  Kashmir state legislature has the sole power to pass any law.
  5.  It has democratically elected representatives.
  6. But since 1989 the state has come in the grip of a militant movement mobilised around the demand for a separate Kashmiri nation. To tackle the situation, for a number of years, the state was under President’s rule, the Indian government always pursues the policy of Democratic negotiations to solve the Kashmir issue.

Or
The above statement is justified because in the new era of coalition politics, the emphasis of political parties is on pragmatic considerations rather than on ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement. For instance :

  1.  Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.
  2. Thus most parties of the NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutva’ ideology of the BJP, yet they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.
    Conclusion— Thus with the elections of 1989, a long phase of coalition parties began in India. Since then there have been nine governments at the centre, all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties. In this new phase any government could be formed only with the participation or support of many regional parties without aligning on the basis of ideologies.

Question.27. What was Narmada Bachao Andolan ? What was the criticism against it ?
Or
The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings ?
Answer. Narmada Bachao Andolan was a loose collective local organisations’ movement to save river Narmada. This movement opposed the construction of multi-purpose project known as the • Narmada Sagar Project.

  1.  Since its inception the Narmada Bachao Andolan linked its opposition to the Sardar Sarovar Project with larger issues concerning the nature of ongoing developmental projects, efficacy of the model of development that the country followed and about what constituted public interest in a democracy.
  2.  Thus, the movement demanded proper and just rehabilitation of all those who were directly or indirectly affected by the project.
  3.  The NBA movement also questioned the nature of decision making process that go in the making of mega scale development projects.
  4. The NBA also insisted that local communities must have a say in such decisions and that they should also have effective control over natural resources like water, land and forests.

Criticism against Narmada Bachao Andoian
(a) Gujarat state government vigorously opposed the argument and agitation of the movement because the state has benefited from the project. Besides,
(b) the movement’s demand to stop the construction of the dam was severely criticised by many leaders and environmentalists on the following grounds :

  1. The obstruction to the process of development
  2.  Denial to the access to water to many people and
  3. Hurdle to economic development.
    Narmada Bachao Andoian could not gain much support among the main stream apolitical parties including the opposition parties.

Or
The Shah Commission was appointed in May 1977 by the Janata Party government. It was a commission of inquiry headed by Justice J.C. Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India to inquire into:

  1.  Several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices committed and action taken in the wake of emergency, proclaimed on 25th June, 1975.
  2.  The commission examined various kinds of evidences and called scores of witnesses to give testimonies. This included Indira Gandhi who appeared before the commission but refused to answer any questions.

Findings of Shah Commission
The findings of Shah Commission in the form of reports were tabled in the two houses of parliament.

  1.  The investigations by Shah Commission after the Emergency found out that there were many ‘excesses’ committed during the emergency.
  2.  It estimated that nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested under preventive detention laws.
  3.  Several restrictions were put on the press sometimes without proper legal sanctions.
  4. The Shah Commission report also mentions that the general manager of the Delhi Power Supply Coorporation received verbal orders from the offices of the Lt. Governor of Delhi to cut electricity to all newspaper presses at 2 a.m. on 26 June, 1975.

CBSE Previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Maths Delhi 2010

CBSE Previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 Maths Delhi 2010

Time allowed : 3 hours                                                                                           Maximum Marks: 100

General Instructions:

  1.  All questions are compulsory.
  2.  Please check that this question paper contains 26 questions.
  3.  Questions 1-6 in Section A are very short-answer type questions carrying 1 mark each.
  4.  Questions 7-19 in Section B are long-answer I type questions carrying 4 marks each.
  5. Questions 20-26 in Section C are long-answer II type questions carrying 6 marks each.
  6.  Please write down the serial number of the question before attempting it.

SET I

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

SECTION – A

Question.1. What is the range of the function
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-1
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-2

Question.2.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-3
Solution:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-4

Question.3.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-5
Solution:A = I
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-6

Question.4.What is the value of the determinant
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-7
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-8

Question.5.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-9
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-10
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-11

Question.6.What is the degree of the following differential equation?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-12
Solution:Degree of given differential equation is 1 as the index of highest derivative is one.

Question.7.Write a vector of magnitude 15 units in the direction of
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-13
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-14

Question.8.Write the vector equation of the following line:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-15
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-16

Question.9.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-17
Solution:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-18
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-19

Question.10.What is the cosine of the angle which the vector
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-20
Solution: The cosine of angle which the given vector
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-21

SECTION – B

Question.11.On a multiple choice examination with three possible answer (out of which only one is correct) for each of the five questions, what is the probability that a candidate would get four or more correct answers just by guessing?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-22

Question.12.
Find the position vector of point R which divides the line
joining two points P and Q whose position vectors
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-23
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-24
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-25

Question.13 Find the cartesian equation of the plane passing through the points A(0, 0, 0) and B(3, -1,2) and parallel to the.line
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-27

Question.14.Using elementary row operations, find the inverse of the following matrix:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-28
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-29
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-30

Question.15.Let Z be the set of all integers and R be the relation on Z defined as R = {(a, b):a,b ∈ Z and (a – b) is divisible by 5}. Prove that R is an equivalence relation.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-31

Question.16.Prove the following:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-32
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-33
Solution:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-34
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-35

Question.17.Show that the function/defined as follows, is continuous at x – 2, but not differential there at:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-36
Solution:Test of continuity at x = 2
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-37
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-38
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-39
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-40

Question.18.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-41
Solution:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-134
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-42
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-43
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-44
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-45

Question.19.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-46
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-47
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-48

Question.20.Find the points on the curve y = x3 at which the slope of the tangent is equal to the y-coordinate of the point.
Solution: Given curve is y = x3
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-49

Question.21.Find the general solution of the differential equation
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-50
Solution:Given differential equation is
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-51
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-52
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-53
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-54
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-55

Question.22. Find the particular solution of the differential equation satisfying the given conditions:
x2dy + (xy + y2) dx = 0; y = 1 when x = 1.
Solution: Given differential equation is
x2dy + (xy + y2) dx= 0
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-56
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-57
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-58
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-59

SECTION – C

Question.23. A small firm manufactures gold rings and chains. The total number of rings and chains manufactured per day is atmost 24. It takes 1 hour to make a ring and 30 minutes to make a chain. The maximum number of hours available per day is 16. If the profit on the ring is ? 300 and that on a chain is ? 190, find the number of rings and chain that should be manufactured per day, so as to earn the maximum profit. Make it as an L.P.P. and solve it graphically.
Solution : Let x be number of gold rings and y be the number of chain we make the following table from the given data:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-60
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-61
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-62
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-63

Question.24.A card from a pack of 52 cards is lost. From the remaining cards of the pack, two cards are drawn at random and are found to both clubs. Find the probability of the lost card being of clubs.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-64
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-65
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-66
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-67

Question.25.The points A(4,5,10), B(2,3,4) and C(1, 2, -1) are three vertices of a parallelogram ABCD. Find the vector equations of the sides AB and BC and also find the coordinates of point D.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-68
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-69

Question.26. Using integration, find the area of the region bounded by the curve x2= 4y and the line x = 4y – 2.
Solution: Given equations of curve and line are
x2 = 4y                                                                                                …(1)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-70
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-71
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-72
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-73
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-74
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-75
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-76

Question.27.Show that the right circular cylinder, open at the top, and of given surface area and maximum volume is such that its height is euqal to the radius of the base.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-77
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-78

Question.28. Find the values of x of which f(x) = [x(x – 2)]2 is an increasing function. Also, find the points on the curve, where the tangent is parallel to x-axis.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-79
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-80
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-81
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-82

Question.29.Using properties of determinants show,the following:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-83
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-84
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-85
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-86

SET II

Note: Except for the following questions, All the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

SECTION – A

Question.1. Find the minor of the element of second row and third column (a23) in the following determinant:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-87
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-88

SECTION – B

Question.11. Find all points of discontinuity of f, wheref is defined as follows:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-89
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-90
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-91
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-92
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-93
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-94
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-95

Question.14. Let * be a binary operation on Q defined by a*b = 3ab/5. Show that * is commutative as well as associative. Also find its identity element, if it exists.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-96
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-97
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-98

Question.18.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-133
Solution:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-99
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-100

Question.20. Find the equations of the normals to the curve y = x3 + 2x + 6 which are parallel to the line x+ 14y + 4 = 0
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-101
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-102

SECTION – C

Question.23.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-103
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-104
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-105
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-106
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-107
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-108
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-109
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-110

Question.29. Write the vector equations of the following lines and hence determine the distance between them:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-111
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-112
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-113

SET III

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets

SECTION – A

Question.1.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-114

Question.2.What is the degree of the following differential equation?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-115
Solution:The degree of the given differential equation is

Question.9.If A is a square matrix of order 3and |3A| =K | A |, then write the value of K.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-116

SECTION – B

Question.11.There are two Bags, Bag I and Bag II. Bag I contains 4 white and 3 red balls while another Bag II contains 3 white and 7 red balls. One ball is drawn at random from one of the bags and it is found to be white. Find the probability that it was drawn from Bag I,
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-117
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-118

Question.14.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-119
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-120
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-121

Question.17.Show that the relation S in the set S of real numbers, defined as S = {(a, b): a, b∈ R and a≤ b3 } is neither reflexive, nor symmetric nor transitive.
Solution: We have S = {(a, b): a, b ∈ R and a ≤ b3} is
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-122

Question.19. Find the equation of tangent to the curve
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-123
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-124

SECTION – C

Question.23. Find the intervals in which the function f given by f(x) = sin x – cos x, 0 ≤ x ≤2π is strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.
Solution:
f(x) = sin x – cos x
f(x) = cosx + sinx
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-125
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-126

Question.24.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-127
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-128
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-129
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-130
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-maths-delhi-2010-131

CBSE Previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Chemistry Outside Delhi 2012

CBSE Previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 Chemistry Outside Delhi 2012

Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                           Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:

  1.  All questions are compulsory. 
  2.  Questions number 1 to 5 are very short-answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
  3.  Questions number 6 to 10 are short-answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
  4.  Questions number 11 to 22 are also short-answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
  5.  Questions number 23 is a value based question and carry 4 marks.
  6.  Questions number 24 to 26 are long-answer questions and carry 5 marks each. 
  7.  Use log tables, if necessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.

SET I

Question.1. How may the conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor be increased?
Answer : By doping it with elements like arsenic and phosphorous.

Question.2. Define ‘peptization.
Answer : The process of conversion of freshly prepared precipitate into a colloidal solution by adding suitable electrolyte is called peptization.

Question.3. How is copper extracted from a low grade ore of it?
Answer : Copper from its-low grade ore is leached out using acid or bacteria and then Cu2+ ions in the solution are reduced to copper by treating with Hydrogen or Iron. This method is called hydrometallurgy.

Question.4. Which is a stronger reducing agent, SbH3 or BiH3, and why?
Answer: BiH3 is stronger reducing agent because its tendency to liberate H is maximum.

Question.5. What happens when bromine attacks
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-1

Question.6. Write the IUPAC name of the following:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-2

Question.7.Write the structure of the product obtained when glucose is oxidised with nitric acid.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-3

Question.8. Differentiate between disinfectants and antiseptics.
Answer : Antiseptics are used on living tissues to kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms. It does not cause any harm to the living tissues e.g. 0.2% solution of phenol. Disinfectants are used on non-living objects to kill the microorganisms. They are harmful to the living tissues and hence, cannot be applied to the skin e.g. 1% solution of phenol.

Question.9.Express the relation among cell constant, resistance of the solution in the cell and conductivity of the solution. How is molar conductivity of a solution related to its conductivity
OR
The molar conductivity of a 1.5 M solution of an electrolyte is found to be 138.9 S cm2 mol-1. Calculate the conductivity of this solution.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-4

Question.10. A reaction is of second order with respect to a reactant. How is its rate affected if the concentration of the reactant is (i) doubled (ii) reduced to half?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-5

Question.11. Which methods are usually employed for purifying the following metals:

  1.  Nickel
  2. Germanium.

Mention the principle behind each one of them.
Answer :

  1. Mond’s process : In this method Nickel form volatile complex with Co which decomposes on heating to give pure nickel.
  2. Zone refining : It is based on the principle that “the impurities are more soluble in the molten state than in the solid state of metal.

Question.12. Explain the following facts giving appropriate reason in each case:
(i) NF3 is an exothermic compound whereas NCl3 is not.
(ii)All the bond in SF4 are not equivalent.
Answer :
(i) The bond energy of F-F bond is lower that of N-F bond So NF3 is an exothermic compound whereas bond energy of Cl-Cl bond is higher than N-Cl bond so NCl3 is an endothermic compound. .
(ii) SF4has see-saw structure with bond pairs at two equatorial and two axial positions. Hence, all the bonds in SF4 are not equivalent.

Question.13. Complete the following chemical reaction equations:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-6

Question.14. Explain the mechanism of acid catalysed hydration of an alkene to form corresponding alcohol.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-7

Question.15. Explain the following behaviours:

  1.  Alcohols are more soluble in water than the hydrocarbons of comparable molecular masses.
  2. Qrtho-nitrophenol is more acidic than ortho- methoxyphenol.

Answer:

  1.  Due to the formation of hydrogen bonds by alcohols with water molecules.
  2. The phenoxide ion is more stable for o-nitrophenol as nitro group is electron withdrawing due to resonance while methoxy group is electron donating via resonance.

Question.16. Describe the following giving the relevant chemical equation in each case:

  1. Carbylamine reaction
  2. Hofmann’s bromamide reaction.

Answer:

  1.  Carbylamine reaction : When aliphatic and aromatic primary amines are heated with chloroform and ethanolic KOH solution, they form isocyanides or carbylamines which are foul smelling substances.
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-8
  2. Hofmanns bromamide reaction : In this reaction, primary amines are prepared by treating an amide 3vith Br2 in an aqueous or. alcoholic soln of NaOH .
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-9

Question.17. Complete the following reaction equations:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-10

Question.18. What are food preservatives? Name two such substances.
Answer : Chemicals used to prevent spoilage of food by preventing growth of microorganisms like bacteria, fungus etc are called food preservatives. Sodium benzoate, nitrogen gas are two such substances of food preservatives.

Question.19.Copper crystallizes with face centred cubic unit celLIf the radius of copper atom is 127.8 pm, calculate the density of copper metal. (Atomic mass of Cu = 63.55 u and Avogadro’s number NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1)
OR
Iron has a body centred cubic unit cell with the cell dimension of 286.65 pm. Density of iron is 7.87 g cm-3. Use this information to calculate Avogadro’s number. (Atomic mass of Fe = 56.0 u)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-11
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-12

Question.20. The electrical resistance of a column of 0.05 M NaOH solution of diameter 1 cm and length 50 cm is 5.55 x103ohm. Calculate its resistivity, conductivity and
molar conductivity.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-13

Question.21. The reaction cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-14 contributes to air pollution whenever a fuel is burnt in air at a high temperature.At 1500 K, equilibrium constant K for it is 1.0 x 10-5. Suppose in a case [N2] = 0.80 mol L-1 and [O2] = 0.20 mol IT1 before any reaction occurs.Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the reactants and the product after the mixture has been heated to 1500 K.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-15

Question.22. Explain the following terms giving a suitable example for each:

  1. Aerosol
  2. Emulsion
  3. Micelle.

Answer :

  1.  An aerosol is a colloid in which dispersed phase is a solid and dispersion medium is a gas eg. Dust, smoke.
  2. Emulsion is a colloid solution in which both the dispersed phase and dispersion medium are in liquid state, eg. Milk and
    cod liver oil.
  3. They are associated colloids showing colloidal behavior at high concentration and strong electrolytes at low concentration, eg. Soap.

Question.23. How would you account for the following:

  1.  Among lanthanoids, Ln (III) compounds are predominant. However, occasionally in’ solution or in solid compounds, +2 and +4 ions are also obtained.
  2. The E0M2+/M  for copper is positive (0.34 V).Copper is the only metal in the first series of transition elements showing this behavior.
  3. The metallic radii of the third (5d) series of transition. metals are nearly the same as those of the corresponding members of the second series.

Answer :

  1.  Some lanthanoid show +2 and +4 oxidation states in ionic solutions or solid components due to the extra stability that arises because of empty half-filled or fully filled 4ƒ-subshell.
  2. This is because copper has high enthalpy of atomization and low enthalpy of hydration. Hence, E0Cu2+/Cu is positive.
  3. This is because of lanthanoid contraction the metallic radii of the third (5d) series of transition metals are nearly the same as those of the corresponding members of the second series.

Question.24. Name the following coordination entities and draw the structures of their steroisomers :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-16
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-17

Question.25. Answer the following questions :
(i) What is meant by chirality of a compound? Give an example.
(ii)Which one of the following compounds is more easily hydrolyzed by KOH and why?
CH3CHClCH2CH3 or CH3CH2CH2Cl
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-18
Answer : (i) Chirality is the property of a molecule to have non-superimposable mirror image. These molecules contain one asymmetric carbon atom.
e.g., Butan – 2- ol
(ii) CH3CHClCH2CH3 is more easily hydrolyzed due to the formation of more stable secondary carbocation.
(iii)CH3CH2CH2Cl undergoes SN2 substitution reaction faster because it is a better leaving group due to its large size and less electronegativity.

Question.26. What is essentially the difference between CX-glucose and (3 -glucose? What is meant by pyranose structure of glucose?
Answer : CX-glucose and (3-glucose are two cyclic hemiacetal forms of glucose which differ only in the configuration of hydroxyl group (-OH) at anomeric carbon. Such isomers are called anomers. The six-membered cyclic structure of glucose is called pyranose structure.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-19

Question.27. Differentiate between thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Give one example of each.
Answer: Thermoplastic Polymers : These polymers donot have cross-links between their chains and hence can be reshaped upon heating eg. Polyethylene, Polypropene etc. Thermosetting Polymers : These polymers have cross-links between their chains and hence cannot be reshaped upon heating, eg. Bakelite, Melamine etc.

Question.28. (a) Define the following terms :
(i) Mole fraction
(ii) Ideal solution.
(b) 15.0 g of an unknown molecular material was dissolved in 450 g of water. The resulting solution was found to freeze at -0.34 °C. What is the molar mass of this material? (Kƒ for water = 1.86 K kg mol-1 )
OR
(a) Explain the following:
(i) Henry’s law about dissolution of a gas in a liquid.
(ii) Boiling point elevation constant for a solvent.
(b) A solution of glycerol (C3H8O3) in water was prepared by dissolving some glycerol in 500 g of water. This solution has a boiling point of 100.42°C. What mass of glycerol was dissolved to make this solution? (KA for water = 0.512 K kg mol-1).
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-20
(a) (i) Henry’s law states that at a constant temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas. i.e. p = KHx
(ii) The boiling point elevation constant for a solvent is defined as the elevation in boiling point when the molality of the solution is unity.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-21

Question.29. (a) Draw the molecular structures of the following compounds:
(i) N2OS
(ii)XeOF4.
(b) Explain the following observations:
(i) Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen.
(ii)I-Cl is more reactive than I2.
(iii)Despite lower value of its electron gain enthalpy with negative sign, fluorine (F2) is a stronger oxidizing agent than Cl2.
OR
(a) Complete the followingchemical equations:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-22
(b)Explain the following observations :
(i)Phosphorus has greater tendency for catenation than nitrogen.
(ii)Oxygen is a gas but sulphur a solid.
(iii)The halogens are coloured. Why?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-23
(b) (i) Due to strong S-S bond and less interelectronic repulsion, sulphur has greater tendency for catenation.
(ii) I-Cl bond is polar and hence more reactive compound to I2 in which I-I bond is non-polar.
(iii) Due to high electronegativity and small size of fluorine, it act as stronger oxidizing agent
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-24
(b) (i) Catenation (i.e. linking of atoms of the same kind with one another) is related to the atom-atom bond energy. Greater the atom-atom bond energy, greater is the catenation. Because of low N-N bond energy (163.8 Kj mol-1) nitrogen shows little tendency for catenation. P-P bond energy (201 x 10-16 kj/mol) is quite high, hence, it shows more tendency for catenation than nitrogen.
(ii) Oxygen forms pπ-pπ multiple bonds. Due to small size and high electronegativity oxygen exists as diatomic (O2) molecule. These molecules are held together by weak van der Waals’ forces. Hence O2 is a gas at room temperature. Sulphur because of its bigger size and lower electronegativity, prefer to form S-S single bonds. Further because of stronger S-S than 0-0 single bonds, sulphur has a much greater tendency for catenation than oxygen. Thus, sulphur because of its higher tendency for catenation and lower tendency for pπ — pπ multiple bonds, forms octa atomic (S8) molecules, having eight-memb’ered puckered ring structure. Because of bigger size, the force of attraction holding the S8 molecule together are much stronger. Hence, sulphur is a solid at room temperature.
(iii) All halogens are coloured. It is due to the reason that their molecules absorb light in the visible region as a result of which their electrons get excited to higher energy levels while the remaining light is transmitted. The colour of the halogens is actually the colour of this transmitted light.

Question.30. (a) Write a suitable chemical equation to complete each of the following transformations :
(i) Butan-l-ol to butanoic acid
(ii)4-Methylacetophenone to benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid
(b) An organic compound with molecular formula C9H10O forms 2,4-DNP derivative, reduces Tollen’s reagent and undergoes Cannizzaro’s reaction. On vigorous oxidation it gives 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. Identify the compound.
OR
(a) Give chemical tests to distinguish between:
(i) Propanol and propanone
(ii)Benzaldehyde and acetophenone
(b) Arrange the following compounds in an increasing order of their property as indicated :
(i) Acetaldehyde, Acetone,’ Methyl tert-butyl ketone (reactivity towards HCN)
(ii) Benzoic add, 3, 4-dinitrobenzoic add, 4-Methoxy- benzoic add (add strength)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-25
(b) (i) The given compound with molecular formula C9H10O forms a 2,4,-DNP derivatitve and reduces Tollen’s reagent, It must be an aldehyde.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-26
(ii)As the undergoes cannizzaro reaction, therefore CHO group is directly attached to the benzene ring.
(iii)On vigrous oxidation, it gives 1, 2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, therefore, it must be an ortho-substituted benzaldehyde.
Answer : (a)
(i) Iodoform Test : This test is given by propanone and not by propanol. Propanone on reacting with hot NaOH/I2 gives a yellow precipitate of CHI3while propanol does not.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-27
(ii) Silver Mirror Test : Benzaldehyde being an aldehyde reduces Tollens’ reagent to give silver mirror test but acetophenone being a ketone does not give this test.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-28

SET II

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.

Question.1. Which stoichiometric defect increases the density of a solid?
Answer: Interstitial defect.

Question.2. What is meant by ‘shape selective catalysis’?
Answer : Zeolites are shape selective catalysts and shape selective catalysis depends upon the structure of the pores present in the catalyst and size ofjhe reactant and product molecules. ZSM-5 is an example of shape selective catalyst, which is used in converting alcohol directly into gasoline.

Question.3. What is the role of collectors in Froth Floatation process?
Answer : Collectors help in attachment of ore particle to an air bubble in froth eg. Sodium xanthates.

Question.6. Write the IUPAC name of Ph – CH = CH – CHO.
Answer: 3-phenyl prop-2-enal

Question.17. Explain the cleaning action of soap. Why do soaps not work in hard water?
Answer : When soap is rubbed on dirty cloth in water, concentration of soap become greater than (CMC) critical micelle concentration, micelle formation takes place. These micelles get adsorb at the dirt or grease
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-29
In such a manner that a hydrophobic end get adsorbs and anionic head remains at the surface. Therefore dirt particle become negatively charged and when rinsing is done, this particle moves along with water and clothes become free from dirt or grease cloth.
In soap sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids are present e.g.C17H35COONa+ (sodium stearate) when it is added in hard water, presence of calcium or magnesium salts makes insoluble salts of Ca or Mg with carboxylate ion called scum which stick to cloth as gummy mass.

Question.20. A voltaic cell is set up at 25°C with the following half cells: Al/Al3+ (0.001 M) and Ni/Ni2+ (0.50 M)
Write an equation for the reaction that occurs when the cell generates an electric current and determine the cell potential.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-30

Question.23. Explain the following observations :

  1. Many of the transition elements are known to form interstitial compounds.
  2. There is a general increase in density from titanium t (Z = 22) to copper (Z = 29).
  3. The members of the actinoid series exhibit a larger number of oxidation states than the corresponding members of the lanthanoid series.

Answer :

  1. Because these elements are capable of entrapping smaller atoms of other elements such as H,C and N in the interstitial sites in their crystal lattice.
  2. It is due to increase in atomic mass whereas atomic size volume decreases from Ti to Cu .Therfore density goes on increasing.
  3. Because of the comparable energies of 5f 6d and 7s orbitals in actinoids, they exhibit larger number of oxidation states than the corresponding members of lanthanoid series.

Question.27. Explain the following terms giving a suitable example for each: ‘

  1. Elastomers
  2.  Condensation polymers
  3. Addition polymers.

Answer :

  1. Elastomers : Their polymer chain are held together by weakest intermolecular forces so that they can be stretched. That is why they exhibit elastic properties and are rubber-like solids, eg: Buna-S,Buna-N etc.
  2.  Condensation Polymers : They are formrd by repeated condensation reaction between two different bi or tri-functional monomeric units with the elimination of smaller molecules such as water, alcohol, HCl etc. eg : Nylon 6, 6.
  3. Addition Polymers : They are formed by the repeated addition of monomer molecules having double or triple bonds. Eg: Polyethylene.

Question.30. (a) Draw the structures of the following molecules:
(i) H3PO2 (ii) ClF3 (b) Explain the following observations:
(i) Nitrogen is much less reactive than phosphorus.
(ii)Despite having greater polarity, hydrogen fluoride boils at a lower temperature than water.
(iii)Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen in the same group.
OR
(a) Draw the structures of the following molecules:
(i) N2OS (ii) HClO4
(b) Explain the following observations :
(i) H2S is more acidic than H2O.
(ii)Fluorine does not exhibit any positive oxidation state.
(iii) Helium forms no real chemical compound.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-31
b(i) Due to N = N triple bond in N2 molecule, it is inert and hence is less reactive as compared to phosphorous which has P-P single bond,which makes -it more reactive.
(ii)In case of HF, average two intermolecular hydrogen bond is present. As a result, Vander Waals forces of attraction increases in water moleculer and hence, boiling point increases.
(iii)Because S-S bond is stronger than O — O bonds as there is more interelectronic repulsion in O — O than in S – S.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-32
(b) (i) Because bond dissociation enthalpy of H-S bond in H2S is less than that of H-O bond in H2O .
(ii)Flourine is the most electronegative element in nature and it has no d-orbitals and therefore,there is no scope for electron promotion.Hence,it can show only -1 oxidation state in its compounds.
(iii)Because it is an inert gas and has very high ionization
enthalpy, therefore no real chemical compound of helium is known.

SET III

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

Question.1. What are w-type semiconductors?
Answer : Semiconductors which are doped with Group 15 elements like phosphorous are n-type semiconductors.

Question.4. What is the basicity of H3PO2 acid and why?
Answer : H3PO2 is monobasic as it has one replaceable hydrogen atom.

Question.5. Write the IUPAC name of the following :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-33
Answer : 3 Bromo-2-methyl propene.

Question.7. Write a reaction which shows that all the carbon atoms in glucose are linked in a straight chain.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-34

Question.8. What is the cause of a feeling of depression in human beings? Name a drug which can be useful in treating this depression.
Answer :The inability to achieve one’s goal and extra work may cause the level of noradrenaline low, as a result the signal-sending activity becomes low and the person suffers from depression. Tranquilizers such as Equanil can help in treating depression.

Question.11. Explain the role of each of the following:
(i) NaCN in the extraction of silver.
(ii)SiO2 in the extraction of copper.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-35

Question.22. Write three distinct features of chemisorptions which are not found in physisorptions.
Answer : The three distinct features of chemisorptions are :
(i) It is irreversible.
(ii)It is used by chemical bond formation and hence requires activation energy.
(iii)It is highly specific in nature.

23.Explain each of the following observations :

  1. With the same d-orbital configuration(d4), Cr2+ is a reducing agent while Mn3+ is an oxidising agent.
  2. Actinoids exhibit a much larger number of oxidation states than the lanthanoids.
  3. There is hardly any increase in atomic size with increasing atomic numbers in a series of transition metals.

Answer :

  1. Cr2+ is reducing because when it loses one electron to form Cr3+: [Ar]3d3, it has three unpaired electrons in lower energy d-orbitals which are more stable whereas M3+ is oxidizing because after gaining one electron it becomes Mn2+ which has more stable electronic configuration due to half-filled d-orbitals Mn2+:{Ar]3d5
  2. Due to comparable energies of 5f, 6d and 7s orbitals and unpaired electrons in these orbitals, actinoids exhibit much larger number of oxidation states than the lanthanoids.
  3. Because along transition series, nuclear charge increases which tends to decrease the size but the addition of electrons in the penultimate d-subshell increases the screening effect which counter balances the effect of increased nuclear charge. Thus, atomic radii does not change.

24.Name the following coordination entities and describe their structures:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-201236
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-37
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2012-38

Question.26. Define the following as related to proteins :

  1.  Peptide linkage
  2. Primary structure
  3. Denaturation.

Answer :

  1. Peptide linkage is the amide linkage between two amino acids to form proteins and polypeptides. Co-NH is peptide linkage.
  2. The simple linear structure of a protein molecule in a specific sequence in which various amino acids are present.
  3. When a protein in fts native form is subjected to any physical change like change in temperature or chemical change like change in pH, the H-bonds gets disturbed. Due to this
    globules unfold and helix get uncoiled and protein loses its biological activity. This is called denaturation of protein.

CBSE Previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Chemistry Outside Delhi 2010

CBSE Previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 Chemistry Outside Delhi 2010

Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                          Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:

  1.  All questions are compulsory. 
  2.  Questions number 1 to 5 are very short-answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
  3.  Questions number 6 to 10 are short-answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
  4.  Questions number 11 to 22 are also short-answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
  5.  Questions number 23 is a value based question and carry 4 marks.
  6.  Questions number 24 to 26 are long-answer questions and carry 5 marks each. 
  7.  Use log tables, if necessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.

SET I

Question.1.What type of interactions hold the molecules together in a polar molecular solids?
Answer : The molecules of polar molecular solid are held together by strong dipole-dipole interactions.

Question.2.What is meant by ‘limiting molar conductivity7?
Answer: Molar conductivity at infinite dilution is known as limiting molar conductivity,
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-1

Question.3.Fluorine does not exhibit any positive oxidation state. Why ?
Answer : Fluorine is the most electronegative element therefore, does not exhibit any positive oxidation state.

Question.4.Given the IUPAC name of the following
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-2
Answer: 4-bromo-3-methyl-pent-2-ene

Question.5.Write the . structure of the molecule of a compound whose IUPAC name is l-phenylpropan-2-ol.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-3

Question.6.What is Tollen’s reagent ? Write one use of this reagent.
Answer : Tollen’s reagent is an ammonical solution of silver
nitrate. It is used for the silver mirror test of aldehydes (Both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes)

Question.7.What is meant by ‘reducing sugars’?
Answer : Sugars that can reduce Tollen’s or Fehlings solution are called reducing sugars. Reducing sugars contain tree aldehyde group and gets reduced in a chemical reaction to -OH group.

Question.8.What does the designation, 6, 6, mean in the name nylon-6,6?
Answer : The monomeric unit of Nylon-6, 6 polymer is derived from the two monomers hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid [NH-(CH2)6-NH-CO(CH2)4-CO] in which 6-6 represents, the number of carbon atoms in the two.

Question.9.Define the terms, ‘osmosis’ and ‘osmotic pressure’. What is the advantage of using osmotic pressure as compared to other colligative properties for the determination of molar masses of solutes in solutions?
Answer : The flow of solvent from solution of lower concentration to higher concentration of solution through a semi-permeable membrane is called osmosis. Minimum external pressure that prevents osmosis is called osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure can be measured at room temperature and for very dilute solutions. Its magnitude is large even for very dilute solution.

Question.10. Express the relation among the cell constant, the resistance of the solution in the cell and the conductivity of the solution. How in the conductivity of a solution related to its molar conductivity.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-4

Question.11. Given that the standard electrode potentials (E°) of metals are:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-5
The half reactions of an electrochemical cell are given below :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-6
Construct the redox reaction equation from the two half-reactions and calculate the cell potential from the standard potentials and predict if the reaction is reactant or product favoured.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-7

Question.12. Describe the following:

Tyndall effect
Shape-selective catalysis
Answer :

  1. When strong beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution it gets scattered and path of light beam gets illuminated by a bluish light. This phenomenon is known as Tyndall effect.
  2.  The catalytic action that depends upon the pore structure of the catalyst and the size of the reactant and product molecules is known as shape-selective catalyst, e.g. zeolites.

Question.13. What is meant by coagulation of a colloidal solution? Name any method by which coagulation of lyophobic sols can be carried out.
Answer : The bringing together of colloidal particles such that they either float on the surface or precipitate by adding suitable electrolyte is called coagulation of colloidal solutions. Methods : addition of electrolyte, electrophoresis.

Question.14. Complete the following reactions equation :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-8

Question.15. Draw the structural formulae of the following compounds :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-9

Question.16. Give the chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds :
(i) Ethylamine and Aniline
(ii)Aniline and Benzylamine
Answer :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-10
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-11

Question.17. Identify A and B in each of the following processes :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-12

Question.18. Draw the molecular structure of the monomers of
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-13

Question.19. The density of copper metal is 8.95 g cm-3. The radius of copper is 127.8 pm. Is the copper unit cell simple cubic, body-centred cubic or face-centred cubic?
(Given : atomic mass of Cu = 63.54 g mol-1 and NA = 6.02 x 1023mol-1)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-14
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-15

Question.20. What mass of NaCl (molar mass = 58.5 g mol-1) be dissolved in 65 g of water to lower the freezing point by 7.5°C ? The freezing point depression constant,kf for water is 1.86  kg mol-1. Assume van’t Hoff factor for NaCl is 1.87.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-16
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-17

Question.21. Describe the role of the following:
(i) NaCN in the extraction of silver from a silver ore
(ii)Iodine in the refining of titanium.
(iii)Cryolite in the metallurgy of aluminium.
OR
Describe the principle involved in each of the following processes of metallurgy :
(i) Froth floatation method
(ii)Electrolytic refining of metals
(iii)Zone refining of metals
Answer :
(i) NaCN is Used to leach the silver ore in the presence of air. Pure silver is obtained by replacement in the process of extraction of silver.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-18
(i) In this method, the ore particles are wetted with oil and come on the surface as froth and gangue particles get wetted by water and settle down.
(ii)In this method, impure metal is made to act as anode and a stripe of pure metal is made as cathode. Electrolyte is used in the cell to conduct electricity. When current is passed, metal ions from the electrolyte are deposited at cathode as pure metal and the impure metal from the anode dissolves into the electrolyte in the form of ions.
(iii)Zone refining is used to obtain high purity metal using the principle that impurities are more soluble in the molten state than in the solid state of metal,

Question.22. Explain the following cases giving appropriate reasons:

  1. Nickel does not form low spin octahedral complexes.
  2. The πcomplexes are known for the transition metals only.
  3. CO2+ is easily oxidized to CO3+ in the presence of a strong ligand.

Answer :

  1. The low spin octahedral complexes involve d2sp3 hybridisation which is not possible for nickel due its configuration [Ar] 3d84s2 therefore, Ni does not form low spin octahedral complexes.
  2.  Transition elements have vacant and partially filled d-orbitals leading to variable valency and hence π-complex formation.
  3. CO2+ ions are easily oxidized to CO3+ in presence of strong ligand because crystal field stabilization energy of CO3+ion is higher than CO2+ ion as CO3+has d 6 configuration and CO2+ has d7 configuration.

Question.23. How would you differentiate betweenSN1 and SN2 mech-anisms and give examples of each.
Answer: SN1generally involves a weak nucleophile in aqueous solution to form carbocation intermediate. The rate of reaction depends upon the concentration of only one reactant.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-19

Question.24. How would you convert the following:
(i) Phenol to benzoquinone
(ii)Propanone to 2-Methypropan-2-ol
(iii)Propene to propan-2-ol Answer:
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-20

Question.25. How would you account for the following :

  1.  NCl3 is an endothermic compound while NF3 is an exothermic one.
  2. XeF2 is linear molecule without a bend.
  3. The electron gain enthalpy with negative sign for fluorine is less than that for chlorine; still fluorine is a stronger oxidizing agent than chlorine.

Answer :

  1. This is because bond dissociation energy of F2 is lower than Cl2. Morever, fluorine forms stronger bond with nitrogen due to comparable size.
  2. XeF2has sp3d hybridization with 3 lone pairs in equatorial position and (F) attached at axial positions.
  3. Fluorine has smaller size compared to chloride and has low enthalpy of dissociation of F-F bond. Therefore it is a stronger .oxidizing agent than chlorine.

Question.26. Amino acids may be acidic, alkaline or neutral. How does this happen? ‘What are essential and non-essential amino acids? Name one of each type.
Answer : Amino acids can be acidic, basic on neutral depending up on the relative number of amine and carboxyl group in their molecule. Equal number of amine and carboxyl group make it neutral; more no. of amine (—NH2) than carboxyl groups make it basic and more carboxyl group as compared to amine group make it acidic.
The amino acids which the body is not able to synthesise are taken through diet are called essential amino acids. E.g. valine, while the amino acids which the body can synthesise are called non-essential amino acids, e.g Glycine.

Question.27. Explain the following terms with one example in each case:

  1. Food preservatives
  2. Enzymes
  3. Detergents

Answer :

  1. Food preservatives are chemical substances used to prevent microbial growth enhancing their appeal in food without changing the nutritive vklue. e.g. Sodium benzoate, sodium metasuphite.
  2. Enzymes are biocatalysts of body and are made up of amino acids. The enzyme is so built that it binds to the substrate in specific manner. pH as well as temperature specific, e.g. E. Coli
  3. Detergents are sodium salts of long chain alkylbenzene sulphonic acids. They do not form scum with hard water. e.g. Sodium laurylsulphonate, sodium n-dodecyl benzene sulphonote, etc.

Question.28. (a) Explain the following term:

  1. Rate of a reaction
  2. Activation energy of a reaction

(b) The decomposition of phosphine, PH3, proceeds according to the following equation :
It is found that the reaction follows the following rate equations:
4PH3(g)→P4(g)+ 6H2(g)
It is found that the reaction follows the following rate equations:
Rate =k[PH3]
The half-life of PH3 is 37.9 s at 120°C
(i) How much time is required for 3/4th of PH3 to decompose ?
(ii)What fraction of the original sample of PH3remains behind after 1 minute ?
OR
Explain the following term :
(i) Order of a reaction
(ii) Molecularity of a reaction
(b) The rate of a reaction increases four times when the temperature changes from 300 K to 320 K. Calculate the energy of activation of the reaction, assuming that it does not change with temperature. (R = 8.314 J K-1mol-1)
Answer :
(a) (i) The rate of decrease (or increase) in the concentration of reactants (or product) per unit time is called rate of reaction.
(ii) The minimum energy required to be given to the reactant to start a reaction is called activation energy.
(b) (i) Hence t1/2 = 37.9 s
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-21
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-22
(a) (i) The sum of powers of the concentrations of the reactants in the rate law expression is called the order of that chemical reaction.
(ii) The number of components i.e. atoms, ions or molecules taking part in elementary reaction and collide with one another to start the reaction is. called molecularity of a reaction.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-23
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-24

Question.29. (a) Complete the following chemical equations :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-25
(b)Explain the following observations :
(i)La3+ (Z = 57) and Lu3+ (Z = 71) do not show any colour in solutions.
(ii)Among the bivalent cations in the first series of transition elements, manganese exhibits the maximum paramagnetism.
(iii)Cu+ ions is not known in aqueous solutions.
Answer: (a)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-26
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-27

Question.30.(a) Illustrate the following name reactions giving a chemical equation in each case :

  1. Clemmensen reaction
  2. Cannizzaro’s reaction

(b) Describe how the following conversion can be brought about:
(i) Cyclohexanol to cyclohexan 1-one
(ii)Ethylbenzene to benzoic acid
(iii)Bromobenzene to benzoic acid
OR
(a) Illustrate the following name reactions :
(i) Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky Reaction (ii) Wolfif-Kishner reduction reaction
(b) How arc the following conversions carried out:
(i) Ethylcyanide to ethanoic acid .
(ii)Butan-l-ol to butanoic acid
(iii)Methylbenzene to benzoic acid
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-28
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-29
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-30
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-31

SET II

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining question have been asked in previous set.

Question.1. Which type of semi-conductor is obtained when silicon is doped with arsenic ?
Answer:

Question.2. Nitrogen is relatively inert as compared to phosphorus. Why?
Answer: Since P-P single bond is much weaker than N = N bond. Therefore, P is more reactive and N is inert.

Question.6. What are monosaccharides?
Answer : Monosaccharides are the carbohydrates that can’t be further hydrolysed to simpler smaller units, e. g. Glucose, fructose.

Question.8. What is meant by‘copolymerisation’?
Answer : The process of polymerisation from a mixture of two or more unsaturated monomer units is called copolymerization e. g. Buna-S, Nylon-6,6.

Question.13. Define the following:

  1.  Peptization
  2.  Reversible sols

Answer :

  1.  The process of converting 4 precipitate into a colloidal solution by shaking in dispersion medium and adding suitable electrolyte is called peptization.
  2. Reversible sols are lyophil’ic sols that can be remade by simple mixing dispersed phase with the dispersing medium.

Question.15. Complete the following chemical reaction equation:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-32

Question.17. Give the chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds :
(i) Methylamine and Dimethylamine
(ii)Aniline and N-Methylamine
Answer: (i) Methylamine gives carbylamine test when heated with alcoholic solution of KOH and chloroform and gives foul smell of methyl isocyanide. Dimethylamine does not give carbylamines test.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-33

Question.18. Draw the structure of the monomers of the following
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-34

Question.19. Silver crystallizes in face centred cubic unit cell. Each side of the unit cell is of length 409 pm. What is the radius of t silver atoms?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-35

Question.20. What mass of ethylene glycol (molar mass = 62.0 g mol1) must be added to 5.50 kg of water to lower the freezing point of water from 0° C to – 10.0°C? ( Kf  for water = 1.86 K kg mol-1)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-36
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-37

Question.27. What are analgesic drugs? How are they classified and when are they usually recommended for use?
Answer:  Analgesics drugs : The class of drugs used to relieve pain and inflammation are called analgesic drugs.
They are classified as :

  1. Narcotic analgesics
  2. Non-narcotic analgesics

Non-narcotic drugs are used in prevention of heart attacks like aspirin and Narcotic drugs are required for relief of cardiac pain, post operative pain. e. g. Morphine, heroin, etc.

SET III

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining question have been asked in previous sets.

Question.1.Write a distinguishing feature of metallic solids.
Answer : Metallic solids have metallic bonds. They have positive metal centres and mobile electrons due to which they have high electrical and thermal conductivity.

Question.3.Differentiate between molarity and molality of a solution.
Answer: Molarity is the number of moles of solute dissolved per litre of the solution
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-38

Question.8.What are the products of hydrolysis of sucrose?
Answer : Dextrorotatory glucose and laevorotatory fructose
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-43

Question.20. 15 g of an unknown molecular substance was dissolved in 450 g of water. The resulting solution freezes at -0.34°C. What is the molar mass of the substance? (Kf for water = 1.6 Kkg mol-1 )
Answer: Given,
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-39

Question.22. How would you account for the following:

  1.  The electron gain enthalpy with negative sign is less for oxygen than- that for sulphur.
  2. Phosphorus shows greater tendency for catenation than nitrogen.
  3. Fluorine never acts as the central atom in polyatomic interhalogen compounds.

Answer:

  1. Due to high electronegativity and small size of oxygen compared to sulphur.
  2. Due to low electronegativity, large size and presence of d-orbitals in phosphorus.
  3. Fluorine has small size therefore, it cannot accommodate larger sized halogen atoms around it, d-orbitals are absent therefore, it does not show positive oxidation state of +3, +5 and +7 hence does not act as a central atom in polyatomic inter-halogen compounds.

Question.25. Write the name, the state of hybridization, the shape and the magnetic behaviour of the following complexes :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-40

Question.26. Differentiate between fibrous proteins and globular proteins. What is meant by the denaturation of a protein?
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-41
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2010-42
The breaking down of proteins into amino acids due to high temperature is known as denaturation.

Question.27. Explain the following terms with an example for each :

  1. Antibiotics
  2. Antiseptics
  3. Analgesics

Answer :

  1. Antibiotics are substances obtained from micro¬organisms to inhibit the growth or kill microorganisms, e. g. penicillin, ampicillin, etc.
  2. Antiseptics are antimicrobial substances that are applied
    to living tissues present microbial growth and also kill them. e. g. dettol, iodine, etc.
  3. Analgesics are substances that are used to get relief from pain. e.g. paracetamol aspirin, etc.

CBSE Previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Chemistry Outside Delhi 2013

CBSE Previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 Chemistry Outside Delhi 2013

Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                      Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:

  1. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Questions number 1 to 5 are very short-answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
  3. Questions number 6 to 10 are short-answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
  4. Questions number 11 to 22 are also short-answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
  5. Questions number 23 is a value based question and carry 4 marks.
  6. Questions number 24 to 26 are long-answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
  7. Use log tables, if necessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.

SET I

Question.1. Of physisorption or chemisorption, which has a higher enthalpy of adsorption ?
Answer: Chemisorption.

Question.2. Name the method used for refining of copper metal.
Answer: Electrolytic fefining of copper metal.

Question.3. Name two poisonous gases which can be prepared from chlorine gas.
Answer: Chloropicrin or tear gas (CCl3N02) and phosgene gas (COCl2).

Question.4. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-1

Question.5. Rearrange the following compounds in the increasing order of their boiling points: CH3 – CHO, CH3 – CH2 – OH2 -CH3 – CH2 – CHl3
Answer: CH3CH2CH3 < CH3CHO < CH3CH2OH

Question.6. Write the structure of n-methylethanmine.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-2

Question.7. What are the products of hydrolysis of sugar?
Answer: Glucose and fructose.

Question.8.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-3

Question.9. Account for the following:
(i) Schottky defects lower the density of related solids.
(ii) Conductivity of silicon increases on doping it with phosphorus.
Answer: (i) Due to the missing of equal number of cations and anions from lattice, the density of lattice solid decreases in Schottky defect.
(ii) Presence of one unshared electron in phosphorous increases its conductivity and make silicon an n-type semiconductor.

Question.10. Aluminium crystallizes in an FCC structure. Atomic radius of the metal is 125 pm, what is the length of the side of the unit cell of the metal ?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-4

Question.11.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-5

Question.12. (a) For a reaction A + B —> P , the rate law is given by [2] r = k [A]1/2 [B]2
(a) What is the order of this reaction?
(b) A first order reaction is found to have a rate constant k = 5.5 x 10-14 s-1. Find the half life of the reaction.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-6

Question.13. (a) Name the method used for removing gangue from sulphide ores.
(b) How is wrought iron different from steel?
Answer: (a) Froth floatation method.
(b) Wrought iron is the purest form of iron with 0.2-0.5% carbon and steel is an alloy of iron. Wrought iron is produced from cast iron.
Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements. It has carbon content of 0.1-1.5%.
They also have different properties, industrial and decorative applications.

Question.14. Draw the structures of the following molecules:
(i) XeOF4 (ii)H3PO3
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-7

Question.15. How are interhalogen compounds formed? What general compositions can be assigned to them?
Answer: Halogens react with each other to form interhalogen compounds.
Their general composition is XYn where X is the less electronegative halogen of the two. They can be expressed by the formulas AB3 to AB7.

Question.16. Explain the mechanism of the following reaction :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-8

Question.17. Write the equations involved in the following reactions :
(i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction
(ii) Williamson ether synthesis
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-9

Question.18. Define thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Give one example of each.
OR
What is a biodegradable polymer? Give an example of biodegradable aliphatic polyester.
Answer : Thermoplastic polymers : Intermolecular forces of attraction are intermediate between elastomers and fibres. Eg. Polythene.
Thermosetting polymers : These polymers are cross linked or heavily branchted forming 3-D chain, which can’t be moulded on heating. Eg. Bakelite.
OR
Natural polymers such as starch and cellululose that naturally disintegrate themselves, over a period of time are called biodegradable polymers. Example of biodegradable aliphatic polyester is PHBV (Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-hydroxy Vaterate).

Question.19. The rate of a reaction becomes four times when the temperature changes from 293 K to 313 K. Calculate the energy of activation (Ea) of the reaction assuming that it does not change with temperature. [R = 8.314 J/K mol-1, log 4 = 0.6021]
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-10

Question.20. What are the characteristics of the following colloids? Give one example of each.
(i) Multimolecular colloids (ii) Lyophobic sols (iii) Emulsions.
Answer: (i) On dissolution, a large number of atoms or molecules of a substance aggregate to form colloidal particles. This colloid is called a multimolecular colloid. E.g. Sulphur sol.
(ii) The colloids in which there is no affinity between the particles of dispersed phase and dispersion medium are called lyophobic colloids. They are not stable, that is easily coagulated and irreversible. They are produced only by special methods. Eg. AS2S3S0l, Fe(OH)3sol.
(iii) Emulsions are colloids in which both dispersed phase and dispersing medium are liquid and immiscible with each other Eg. Milk, cod liver oil, etc.

Question.21. Give reasons for the following:
(i) When R is an alkyl group R3 P = 0 exist but R; N = 0 doesn’t.
(ii) PbCl4 is more covalent than PbCl2.
(iii) N2 is much less reactive at room temperature.
Answer: (i) Due to absence of d-orbitals, N cannot form pπ -dπ multiple bonds. Thus, it cannot expand its covalency beyond 4. In R3 N = 0, N has covalency 5 so it does not exist. On the other hand, due to presence of d-orbitals, P forms pπ —dπ multiple bonds and expand its covalency beyond 4. In R3 P=0 covalency of P is 5 hence it exists.
(ii) Because ‘Pb’ is in +4 oxidation state in PbCl4 and has high charge/size ratio than Pb2+. According to Fazan’s rule, a higher charge on cation or anion makes compound more covalent, +4 state is more stable than +2 state. Hence PbCl4 is more covalent than PbCl2
(iii) N2 has. strong pπ -dπ overlap resulting to triple bond (N = N). Due to short bond length of (N = N) triple bond, N2 has high bond energy and hence it is less reactive at room temperature.

Question.22. For the complex [NiCl4]2-, write
(i) the IUPAC name (ii) the hybridization type
(iii) the shape of the complex
(Atomic no. of Ni = 28)
OR
‘What is meant by crystal field splitting energy? On the basis of crystal field theory, write the electronic configuration or d4 in terms of t2g and eg in an octahedral field when
(i) ∆0 > P
(ii) ∆0 < P
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-11

Question.23. Give reasons for the following;
(i) Ethyl iodide undergoes SN2 reaction faster than ethyl bromide.
(ii) (±) 2-Butanol is optically inactive.
(iii) C — X bond length in halobenzene is smaller than C — X bond length in CH3 — X.
Answer: (i) I ion is better leaving group than Br~ion, therefore, ethyl iodide reacts faster than ethyl bromide in SN2 reaction.
(ii) (±) 2-butanol is optically inactive because it is racemic mixture i.e. it has enantiomers in equal amount and hence they cancel each other’s rotation of plane polarised light.
(iii) In halobenzene halogen atom is attached to sp3 hybridized carbon while in CH3-X sp2 hybridized carbon which is smaller in size than sp3 hybridized carbon attached to the halogen. Therefore C-X bond in halobenzene is shorter than in CH3-X.

Question.24. Complete the following reactions :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-12
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-13

Question.25. (i) What class of drug is Ranitidine?
(ii) If water contains dissolved Ca2+ ions, out of soaps and synthetic detergents, which will you use for cleaning clothes?
(iii) Which of the following is an antiseptic? 0.2% phenol, 1% phenol
Answer: (i) Antacid.
(ii) Soap gets precipitated in hard water hence it can’t be used to wash clothes. On the other hand, synthetic detergents do not precipitate in hard water because its calcium salt is soluble in water. Therefore, it can be used to wash clothes in hard water.
(iii) 0.2% phenol.

Question.26. Calculate the emf of the following cell at 25°C :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-14

Question.27. Shanti, a domestic helper of Mrs. Anuradha, fainted while mopping the floor. Mrs. Anuradha immediately took her to* the nearby hospital where she was diagnosed to be severely ‘anaemic’. The doctor prescribed an iron rich diet and multivitamins supplement to her. Mrs. Anuradha supported her financially to get the medicines. After a month, Shanti was diagnosed to be normal.
(i) What values are displayed by Mrs. Anuradha?
(ii) Name the vitamin whose deficiency causes ‘pernicious anaemia’.
(iii) Give an example of a water soluble vitamin.
Answer: (i) Mrs. Anuradha was caring, helpful and compassionate for her domestic help.
(ii) Pernicious anaemia is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin B12.
(iii) Vitamin C.

Question.28. (a) State Raoult’s law for a solution containing volatile components. How does Raoult’s law become a special case of Henry’s law?
(b) 1.00 g of a non-electrolyte solute dissolved in 50 g of benzene lowered the freezing point of benzene by 0.40 K. Find the molar mass of the solute. (Kfor benzene = 5.12 K kg/ mol)
OR
(a) Define the following terms :
(i) Ideal solution (ii) Azeotrope (iii) Osmotic pressure.
(b) A solution of glucose (C6H1206) in water is labelled , as 10% by weight. What would be the molality of the solution? (Molar mass of glucose = 180 g/mol)
Answer : (a) Raoult’s law states that the partial pressure of a vapour of a component in the solution in directly proportional to its mole fraction in the solution.
Wauuiis’jaw’necomes a special case of Yienry s’law as it states that the partial pressure of gas in vapour phase is directly proportional to the mole fraction of the gas in the solution.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-15
(a) (i) A solution that obeys Raoult’s law. over all ranges of temperature and concentration and shows no attractive forces between components, is called as ideal solution.
(ii) A liquid mixture which distill at constant temperature without undergoing any change in composition is called Azeotropes.
(iii) The minimum external pressure required to prevent osmosis is known as osmotic pressure.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-16

Question.29. (a) Give reasons for the following:
(i) Mn3+ is a good oxidising agent.
(ii) E°M2/M values are not regular for fist row transition metals (3d series).
(iii) Although ‘F’ is more electronegative than ‘O’, the highest Mn fluoride is MnF4, whereas the highest oxide is Mn2 G 7
(b) Complete the following equations :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-17
(a) Why do transition elements show variable oxidation states?
(i) Name the element -showing maximum number of
oxidation states among the first series of transition metals from Sc (Z = 21) to Zn (Z = 30).
(ii) Name the element which shows only +3 oxidation state.
(b) What is lanthanoid contraction? Name an important alloy which contains some of the lanthanoid metals.
Answer : (i) Mn+3 has electronic configuration 3d4 40. It gains one electron on reduction and become 3d340 which is half filled stable configuration. Hence it is a good oxidizing agent.
(ii) Due to extra stability of half and fully filled d-orbitals and variations in ionization energies E°M2/M values are not regular.
(iii) Due to the ability of oxygen to form multi bonds with, metals and because oxygen stabilizes the highest oxidation state even more than fluorine.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-18
OR
(a) Due to the presence of incomplete d-orbitals.
(i) Manganese shows oxidation states from +2 to +7.
(ii) Lanthanum.
(b) Lanthonoid contraction refers to the steady and regular decrease in atomic size along the period from La3+ to Lu3+ eg. Misch metal alloy which contains 95% lanthanoids and 5% iron.

Question.30. (a) How will you convert the following:
(i) Propanone to Propan-2-ol
(ii) Ethanal to 2-hydroxy propanoic acid
(iii) Toluene to benzoic acid
(b) Give simple chemical test to distinguish between:
(i) Pentan-2 -one and Pentan-3 -one
(ii) Ethanal and Propanal
OR
(a) Write the products of the following reactions:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-19
(b) Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-20
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-21
(b) (i) F-CH2-COOH is a stronger acid than Cl-CH2– COOH, because F is more electronegative than Cl, so it will favour release of H+ ion faster by dragging electron density towards itself more as compared to Cl.
(ii) Acetic acid is stronger acid than phenol. Acetic acid forms carboxylate ion and phenol forms phenoxide ion. Carboxylate ion is more stable than phenoxide ion due to resonance

SET II

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining question have been asked in previous set.

Question.1. Write the structure of 2-aminotoluene.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-22

Question.2. Which aerosol depletes ozone layer?
Answer: Chloroflurocarbon (CFCs) present in aerosols depletes ozone layer.

Question.4. Ethanal is soluble in water . why?
Answer: Ethanal is soluble in water due to hydrogen bonding.

Question.5. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-23

Question.8. Give one example of a condensation polymer.
Answer: Dacron or Nylon-6, 6.

Question.9. (a) Why does presence of excess of lithium makes LiCl crystals pink?
(b) A solid with cubic crystal is made of two elements P and Q Atoms of Q are at the comers of the cube and P at the body-centre. What is the formula of the compound?
Answer: (a) Excess of Li in LiCl causes metal excess defect due to anionic vacancy in the crystal. Pink colour results due to excitation of electrons on absorbing visible light.
(b) Atoms of Qare present at the corners of the cube. Therefore, member of atoms of Q in one unit cell =8 x 1/8= 1. Atoms of P are present at the body centre. Therefore, number of atoms of P in one unit cell = 1. Hence, the formula of compound is PQ.

Question.14. Draw the structures of the following molecules :
(i)XeF6 (ii)H2S207
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-24

Question.18. Outline the principles of refining of metals by the following methods:
(i) Zone refining (ii) Vapour phase refining
Answer: (i) This method is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in the molten state than in thesolid state of metal.
(ii) In this process the metal is converted to its volatile compound and collected elsewhere and then decomposed to give pure metal.

Question.19. Define the following terms giving an example of each:
(i) Associated colloids (ii) Lyophilic sol
(iii) Adsorption.
Answer: (i) Associated colloids are colloidal substances which at low concentrations behave as normal electrolytes but at higher concentration they aggregate to form colloids. Eg. Soaps and detergents.
(ii) Lyophilic sols are the colloids in which the particles of dispersed phase have a strong affinity for the dispersion medium. They are reversible in nature because on precipitation they can be easily converted back to colloidal form by adding dispersion medium, eg. Starch sol
(iii) The aggregation of a substance on the surface of liquid or solid is known as adsorption eg. Platinum adsorbs H2 gas.

Question.22. Write the main products of the following reactions:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-25
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-26

Question.27. Give reasons for the following:
(i) Oxygen is a gas but sulphur is a solid.
(ii) O3 acts as a powerful oxidising agent.
(iii) BiH3 is the strongest reducing agent amongst all the hydrides of Group 15 elements.
Answer: (i) Oxygen is smaller in size than sulphur. Due to small size, it can effectively form pπ — pπ bonds, and forms diatomic 0molecule. The intermolecular forces in oxygen are weak van der Waals forces, which causes it to exit as gas. On the other hand, sulphur does not form strong S=S double bonds and exists as puckered structure held together by covalent bonds and exists as polyatomic molecule. So, it exists as solid.
(ii) O3 act as powerful oxidising agent because it decompose to give nascent oxygen.
(iii) On moving down the group, the bond length, increases and its strength decreases. Bi-H bond is the weakest. It can break easily and evolves H2 gas which is a strong reducing agent. Hence, BiH3 is the strongest reducing agent among group 15 elements.

SET III

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining question have been asked in previous sets.

Question.1. What is especially observed when a beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution ?
Answer: Tyndall effect is observed due to scattering of light.

Question.2. What is the basicity of H3PO3 and why?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-27
Third hydrogen is directly attached to phosphorous is not acidic.

Question.3. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-28

Question.8. Write the structure of prop-2-en-1-amine.
Answer: H2C=CH-CH2-NH2

Question.12. Draw the structures of the following molecules :
(i) N2O5 (ii) XeF2
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-29

Question.13. (a) What change occurs when AgCl is doped with CdCl2? (b) What type of semiconductor is produced when silicon is doped with boron ?
Answer: (a) When AgCl is doped with CdCl2 impurity defect is produced one Cd2+ ion will replace two Ag+ ions to maintain electrical conductivity. One position is occupied by Cd2+ ion and other will be left as a hole similar to schottky defect.
(b) n-type semiconductor.

Question.18. Name the principal ore of aluminium. Explain the significance of leaching in extraction as aluminium.
Answer: Bauxite (Al203.2H20) is the principal ore of aluminium. The significance of leaching in extraction of aluminium is to prepare pure alumina from the bauxite ore in the following steps :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-outside-delhi-2013-30

Question.19, Define the following terms with an example in each case:
(i) Macromolecular Sol (ii) Peptization
(ii) Emulsion.
Answer: (i) Macromolecular sol: They are molecules of large size having high molecular masses. Due to long chain, the van der Waals forces are stronger. Eg. rubber, nylon, etc.
(ii) Peptization : It is the process of converting a precipitate into colloidal solution by shaking it with dispersion medium in the presence of small amount of electrolyte. E.g. A preciptate of Agl can be peptized by shaking with a dilute solution of silver nitrate.
(iii) Emulsion : A type of colloidal solution in which both the dispersed phase and dispersion medium are liquid and are immiscible with each other is called emulsion. Ex. milk.

Question.21. Give reasons for the following:
(i) Though nitrogen exhibits +5 oxidation state, it does – not form pentahalide
(ii) Electron gain enthalpy with negative sign of flourine is less than that of chlorine.
(iii) The two oxygen-oxygen bond lengths in ozone molecules are identical.
Answer: (i) Due to lack of empty d-orbitals in nitrogen, it does not form pentahalide.
(ii) Due to small size, fluorine atom has high electro negativity and strong electron – electron repulsions in its compact 2p orbitals, its electron gain enthalpy is less than that of chlorine.
(iii) The two oxygen bond lengths in ozone are identical due to resonance.

CBSE previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 English Outside Delhi 2011

CBSE previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 English Outside Delhi 2011

Time allowed : 3 hours                                                                                           Maximum Marks: 100
General Instructions :

  1. This paper is divided into three sections : A, B and C. All the sections are compulsory.
  2. Separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary. Read these instructions very carefully and follow them faithfully.
  3. Do not exceed the prescribed word limit while answering the questions.

SET I

SECTION – A
(Reading)

Question.1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions
that follow:

  1.  For many years now the governments has been promising the eradication of child-labour in hazardous industries in India. But the truth is that despite all the rhetoric, neither the government so far has succeeded in eradicating this evil, nor has been able to ensure compulsory primary education for every Indian child. Between 60 and 100 million children are still at work instead of going to school, and around 10 million are working in hazardous industries. India has the largest child population of 380 million in the world, plus the largest number of children who are forced to earn a living.
  2.  We have many laws that ban child-labour in hazardous
    industries. According to the Child-Labour (Prohibition
    and Regulation) Act 1986, the employment of children below the age of 14 in hazardous occupations has been strictly banned. But each state has different rules regarding the minimum age of employment. This makes implementation of these laws difficult.
  3.  Also, there is no ban on child-labour in non-hazardous occupations. The Act applies to the organised or factory sector and not the unorganised or informal sector where most children find employment as cleaners, servants, porters, waiters etc. among other forms of unskilled
    work. Thus, child-labour continues . because the
    implementation of the existing laws is lax.
  4.  There are industries, which have a special demand for child labour because of their nimble fingers, high level of concentration and capacity to work hard at abysmally low wages. The carpet industry in U.P. and Kashmir employs children to make hand-knotted carpets. There are 80,000 child workers in Jammu and Kashmir alone. In Kashmir because of the political unrest, children are forced to work while many schools are shut. Industries like gem cutting and polishing, pottery and glass want to remain competitive by employing children.
  5.  The truth is that it is poverty which is pushing children into the brutish labour market. We have 260 million people below the poverty line in India, a large number of them are women. Poor and especially woman-headed families, have no’option but to push their little ones in this hard life, in to hostile conditions, with no human or labour rights.
  6.  There is a lobby which argues that there is nothing wrong
    with children working as long as the environment for i work is conducive to learning new skills, but studies have
    shown that the children are made to do boring, repetitive and tedious jobs and are not taught new skills as they grow older. In these, hell-holes like the sweet shops for the old there is no hope.
  7.  Children working irr hazardous industries are prone to debilitating diseases which can cripple them for life. By sitting in cramped, damp and unhygienic spaces, their limbs become deformed for life, inside matehstick, fire¬works and glass industries they are victims of bronchial diseases andT.B. Their mental and physical development is permanently impaired by long hours of work. Once trapped, they can’t get out of this vicious circle of poverty. They remain uneducated and powerless. Finally, in later years, they too are compelled to send their own children to work. Child-labour perpetuates its own nightmare.
  8.  If at all the government was serious about granting children their rights, an intensive effort ought to have been made to implement the Supreme Court’s Directive of 1997, which laid down punitive action against employers of child-labour. Only compulsory primary education can eliminate child-labour,
  9. Surely, if 380 million children are given a better life and elementary education, Indians human capital would be greatly enhanced. But that needs, as former President Abdul Kalam says, “a second vision”.

(a) (i) On which two accounts has the government not succeeded so far in respect of children ?
Answer : The government has not succeeded so far in respect of children on account of eradication of child-labour in hazardous industries in India and to ensure compulsory primary education for every Indian child.
(ii) What makes the implementation of child-labour law
difficult ? 
Answer : Each state has different rules regarding the minimum age of employment. Also, there is no ban on child-labour in non-hazardous occupation, The Act does not apply to the unorganized or informal sector. This makes the implementation of child-labour law difficult.
(iii) Why do the industries prefer child-labour ?
Answer : There are industries which have a special demand for child-labour, it is because of their nimble fingers, high level of concentration and capacity to work hard at low wages.
(iv) What are the adverse effects of hazardous industries
on children ? Give any two.
Answer: Children working in hazardous industries are prone to debilitating diseases which can cripple them for life. By . sitting in cramped, damp and unhygienic spaces, their limbs become deformed.
Secondly, they become victim of bronchial diseases by working in matehstick, fire-works and glass industries.
(v) What does the Supreme Court’s Directive of 1997 provide ?
Answer : The Supreme Court’s Directive of 1997 laid down punitive action against employers of child-labour. Only compulsory primary education can eliminate child-labour.
(b) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following ?
(i) risky/dangerous (para 1)
Answer: hazardous .
(ii) very unfriendly (para 5)
Answer: hostile
(iii) intended as punishment (para 8)
Answer: punitive

Question.2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 
There is nothing more frustrating than, when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Samuel Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various facets of your physical and internal environment,” she adds.
To begin’ with one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focussed thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library.
She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh. “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books’?
Also do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one should try and provide as little stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh.
The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish, what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of * time. The human mind recognises fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more than random thoughts”. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focused system will follow.
She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to. For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.
Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects.
More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
1. Notes
(i) Tech, to enhance concentration
(a) create phy envirmnt.
(b) identify the factors resp
(c) music not the ideal accomp
(ii) Recommendations
(a) dvd schedule
(b) choose sub that you like or dislike
(c) don’t sit for more than 40 min
(iii) More suggestions
(a) don’t get dishrtnd
(b) concentrn is merely a discipline of mind
(c) rqurs practice and patience

Abbreviations used
Tech                technique
Phy                  physical
Envirmnt       environment
Resp                responsible
Accomp          accompaniment
Dvd                 divide
Dishrtnd        disheartened
Concentrn     concentration
Rqurs              requires
Title : Concentration – Key to Success (or) Techniques to Enhance Concentration
(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80
words.

SUMMARY

According to Samuel Ghosh, a social counsellor, study needs concentration which depends on various factors. These include physical environment and avoiding distractions.
Music should not be listened as it lessens the ‘attention and retention power. One should -not keep study table or desk in front of a window to provide little stimulus to mind. Another important thing is to set goals. Once thoughts and goals are in line, a focused system will flow. Ghosh recommended that the schedule to study and recreation hours should be divided. Choose the subject first which is disliked. Do not sit for more than 40 minutes, take a break in between and do not get disheartened.

SECTION-B
(Advanced Writing Skills)

Question.3.You are Secretary of Gymkhana Club, Madurai. Write a
notice in not more than 50 words informing the members to attend an extraordinary meeting of governing body. Include details like date, time, venue etc. Sign as Prabhu/ Pratibha.
OR
Due to sudden landslide and inclement weather, St. Francis School, Vasco has to be closed for a week. As a Principal of that school, draft a notice in not more than 50 words to be displayed at the school’s main gate notice board.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-english-outside-delhi-2011-1
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-english-outside-delhi-2011-2

Question.4.You are Poorva/Partha, Cultural Secretary of your school,
D. B. Senior Secondary School, Ambur. A week long Music and Dance festival was organized by your school. Write a report in 100-125 words for your school magazine. Invent details.
OR
The Debating Society of your school has recently held a workshop on Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) introduced for the students of class X in all the schools. The students discussed the assessment made by the school on the basis of their participation in various activities and the system of grading. Write a report in 1 GO- 125 words for your school magazine. You are Parveen/ Payal, Secretary of Society.
Answer.
Music And Dance Festival
Report: By Poorva (Cultural Secretary)
D.B. Sen. Sec. School
25th November, 2014 ,
D. B. Senior Secondary School, Ambur, organized a week long music and dance festival in the school auditorium last week. The chief guest of the function was none other than very popular Ad Guru, Mr. Piyush Pandey. The function commenced with the garlanding of Lord Ganesha and lightening up of the lamp. Students gave cultural performance on this occasion. A group of 50 girls presented Rajasthani folk dance accompanied with a band of 25 girls playing the music at the background, which received a huge applaud from the audience. Our Principal, honourable Mr. M. K. Singh read the annual report of the school. The festive cheer echoed the building of the school. One could see the exuberant enthusiasm of the artists which made the festival special. The function concluded with the speech by the Chief Guest.
OR
Workshop on Continuous and ”
Comprehensive Evaluation
Organized by : Debating Society
Report: By Parveen (Secretary of Society)
26 November 20XX
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation, refers to a system of school based evaluation of students that covers all aspects of students’ development. Keeping this in mind, the debating society of our school has recently held a workshop on CCE.
The students discussed about the assessment made by the school based on their performance in scholastic as well as co¬scholastic areas. They found that this system has lessened the burden of children to a great extent and it will go a long way. It includes the Formative and Summative Assessment. With this new system it has become possible to learn through do-it- yourself and fun-filled way. With the introduction of grading system, it encourages specific abilities of the students who do not excel in academics. Learning has become a pleasure as it has taken away the fear of examination. The students told that they are enjoying it and it is a positive approach towards learning.

Question.5.You are Raman / Roma, a member of Parents Teacher Association of Little Valley Senior Secondary School, Hyderabad. Write a letter to the Principal of the school asking him to introduce vocational stream in the school providing facility of teaching such.subjects as computer, insurance etc. so that the students may not needlessly continue academic studies. You are residing at 15, Anand Colony, Hyderabad.
OR
Write a letter to the Manager (Publication) of Little Flower Company, Hyderabad, placing an order for four books on management and administration recently published by them. You are Ronit/Rohini, Librarian, H. P. Engineering College, Tirupathi.
Answer:
15, Anand Colony
Hyderabad
10th May, 2014
The Principal
Little Valley Senior Secondary School Hyderabad
Subject: Introduction of Vocational Stream in School Dear Sir,
I, would like to draw your attention towards the changing need of time. The world is growing at a faster speed and we have to keep our pace with it. Students of today are the visionaries of tomorrow. So. we have to develop their personality and skills in such a way that they develop into responsible human beings. Keeping this in mind, vocational stream should be started in the school so as to facilitate students in such a way that they do not have to study academics without purpose. This will provide educational and vocational guidance in the field in which they are interested etc. The introduction of the subjects as computer, insurance would not only help them in ; choosing their career, but interest them also. It would assist
them in exploring various career options. Thus, I request you to introduce vocational stream in the school.
Hope you will give your due attention to my request. Thanking you,
Yours sincerely,
Roma (Member of Parents Teacher Association)
OR
H.P. Engineering College
Tirupathi
12th April, 2014
The Manager (Publication)
Little Flower Company,
Hyderabad
Subject: Order for the books of Dear Sir.
On behalf of the college, I want to place an order for four books
on Management and four books on Administration which you
have recently published. As our college has urgent need of these books, I would be grateful if you supply them at the earliest, as the session is soon’going to start. You could send these books
by V.EP. and attach the bill along with. I will dispatch a cheque of the required amount in favour of Little Flower Company, Hyderabad within 10 days after receiving the books. I hope that a discount of 25% on the printed price will be applicable to us as per rules for Libraries and Education Institutions.
I would feel obliged if the delivery of the books will be done within 10 days.
Yours truly,
Rohini (Librarian)
H.P. Engineering College Tirupathi

Question.6.The invention of mobile phone has brought about a revolution in the lives of the people in the country. If used properly it can be a blessing but if misused it can prove to be a curse. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Mobile phone – a boon or bane.’ You are Kartik/Krishna. [10] OR
With the rising number of people in almost all the big cities of the country, the rate of crime has also increased proportionately. The police needs to be trained in new methodology of combating the crime besides changing its mindset. Write an article in 150-200 words on “The Role of Police in maintaining law and order in the Metropolitan Cities”. You are Ravi/Ravina.
Answer:
‘Mobile phone — a boon or bane’
By: Krishna
Modern Technology and Science has brought a revolution on earth. The best of it, is the invention of gadgets. We have become so prone to these gadgets that we feel handicapped without them. Among them one is mobile phones which are most important. Earlier it was supposed to be a luxury but now it has become necessity. It has reached in the hands of every common man. Even children carry it with them. Mobile phones have brought a revolution in the world of communication. We can say that they are blessings if used in a proper way. They can be useful at the time of any emergency, conveying important message or saving a precious life. But on the other hand, if they are not used wisely, they can prove to be a curse. Using mobiles while driving can prove fatal to -» any life, excessive use by the children make them addicted to it or sometimes the family life gets disturbed. There are certain laws which restrict the use of mobile phones while driving because many accidents have taken place due to it but how many of us abide by the laws. So mobile phones should be used only when required and not as a source of entertainment.
OR
“The Role of Police in maintaining law and order in the Metropolitan Cities”
By: Ravina
The law and order situation of the country is deteriorating day by day. The crime graph of the Metropolitan Cities is heating up. There is not a single day when we do not read the cases of burglary, murder, accident, kidnapping or stabbing in newspapers. It is the symbol of total disrespect towards the laws and regulations of the Constitution. Chain snatching has become the most common problem. Girls don’t feel safe while moving out alone especially after evening. Now personal security has become the major issue and police will have to take strict action against it adopting some different methods to tackle these criminals. They should be given training in such a way that they are able to read the minds of the criminals and know their planning before they commit any barbarous crime. People living in Metropolitan Cities are suffering from a strong feeling of insecurity, lawlessness and ignorance. They are losing their faith in the police. In order to gain the faith of the public; police should study the psychology of the criminals and then initiate adequate steps towards stopping the crime.

SECTION -C
(Text Books)

Question.7. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Break O break open till they break the down And show the children to green fields, and make their world Run azure on gold sands, and let their tongues Run naked into books the white and the green leaves open
History theirs whose language is the sun.
(a) To whom does ‘they’ refer ?
Answer : ‘They’ refers to the children of the slum sitting in the classroom of an elementary school.
(b) What would they break ? .
Answer : They would break free from the chains of the slum. They would break all the windows which have sealed their fate and enjoy a new lease of life and freedom.
(c) What other freedom should they enjoy ?
Answer : They should enjoy equal rights like other citizens and given proper education and should have a bright future like others.

Question.8. Answer any three of the following in 30-40 words each :
(a) What is the sadness that the poet, Pablo Neruda refers to in the poem, “Keeping Quiet” ?
Answer : The poet talks about the sadness that is within the people. In order to fulfill their desires and completing their duty, they become so selfish that they forget others and live without happiness and universal brotherhood.
(b) What is the message of the poem, ‘A Thing of Beauty’ ?
Answer : The poet conveys the message that the world is full of unwavening beauty that gives eternal pleasure. Such beautiful things are valuable and never pass into nothingness. So they should not be destroyed.
(c) What were Kamala Das’ fears as a child ? Why do they surface when she is going to the Airport ?
Answer : Kamala Das, fears that her mother would leave her alone one day. They surface when she takes an intense look at her mother who is seated beside her while going to the Airport.
(d) Why do you think Aunt Jennifer created animals that are so different from her own character ?
Answer: Aunt Jennifer had experienced constraints through-out in her married life. The ring around her finger symbolizes the weight of her marriage so she created tigers which are representative of the freedom that she aspires for.

Question.9. Answer the following in 30-40 words each :
(a) Franz thinks, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons ?” What could this mean ?
Answer: This means that the Germans had made it compulsory to teach German in the schools but they cannot take away their love for their mother tongue, French which was mixed in their blood.
(b) Which factors led Douglas to decide in favour of Y.M.C.A. pool ?
Answer : Douglas wanted to learn swimming so he decided in favour of Y.M.C.A. pool because it was not too deep at the shallow end and he found it safe as the drop at the other end was gradual. ,
(c) Why was peddler surprised when he knocked at the door of the cottage ?
Answer : The peddler was surprised to see that the owner of the cottage did not get irritated when he knocked at the door at night, but gave him a warm welcome and provided him with food and shelter. He was treated like a guest.
(d) What thoughts came to Sophie’s mind as she sat by the canal ?
Answer : While sitting by the canal, Sophie was thinking about Danny Casey only. She started fantasizing, his actions and the dialogues as he was a hero in her eyes. She did not even care about other’s view about her.

Question.10. Answer the following in 125-150 words each :
Why do you think Gandhiji considered the Champaran episode to be a turning point in his life ?
OR
‘Lost Spring’ explains the grinding poverty and traditions that condemned thousands of people to live a life of abject poverty. Do you agree ? Why/why not ?
Answer : Champaran episode was the turning point in Gandhiji’s life because it released the farmers from the British Landlords and made them realize their rights. It was also Gandhiji’s first non-cooperative movement. Gandhiji went to Bihar and there he heard the problems of peasants and came to know about their pathetic condition. He resolved to fight for the peasants and release the poor sharecroppers from the British landlords. From Patna, he went to Muzaffarpur where he met the lawyers and convinced them that they were there to serve the peasants. He also rebuked them for charging a hefty fee from the poor sharecroppers. His main aim was to make the peasants fearless, as the freedom from fear was more important than legal justice for them. The British planters were forced to leave the land of the owners.
Therefore,Champaran episode proved to be a turning point in his life as he understood that people of India could win freedom by truth and non-violence.
OR
Yes, ‘Lost Spring’ explains the grinding poverty and traditions, that condemned thousands of people to live a life of abject poverty. The slum of Seemapuri, in Trans-Yamuna area of Delhi is full of people living in pathetic conditions.
The family of Saheb-E-Alam, also came from Bangladesh and settled there. They have no work to do, no shelter, no sufficient food, no proper clothes and even no chappals. So they began to do the work of rag picking. The chapter deals with the lives of children like Mukesh and Saheb-E-Alam who worked in bangle making factory and did the work of rag picking respectively. These children were deprived of basic necessities like going to school and having fun. They are forced to do work in an unhealthy environment at a very early stage. There, they are exploited and become the victims of the cruel masters. Thus, the title is justified as the spring which is a ‘season of bloom’ is lost from their lives.

Question.11. Answer the following in 125-150 words each :
Dr. Sadao was compelled by his duty as a doctor to help the enemy soldier. What made Hana, his wife, sympathize with him in the face of open defiance from the domestic staff ?
Answer : Dr. Sadao was a maft of principles. Once when he was standing out of his house, situated on the beach, he saw a man flung out of the ocean. He noticed that the man was an enemy soldier and was wounded badly. He thought of throwing him back into the ocean but could not do so. Although, he had no love for Americans and he was a true patriot still he saved him realizing his sacred duty to save a, dying man. This brought an open defiance of his domestic staff and they all left him. His wife had to do all the household work. But when she saw her husband doing his duty, she sympathized with him and helped her husband in giving anesthesia to the wounded man. She even, washed the wound’s of the enemy solider when the maid refused to do so. She set an example that feeling of humanity was way above the feeling of nationalism.

Question.12. Answer the following in 30-40 words each :
(a) Why does Mr. Lamb leave his gates always open ? Answer : Mr. Lamb lived alone in his house. He had no company so he left the gates open so as to let the children enter. He had an apple orchard from where he pulled down the crab apples and save them to the children.
(b) How did the governor react to the two phone calls he
received in quick succession ? :
Answer : The Governor accepted the calls in a strict manner but replied positively. The call was from the secretary who informed that they had forgotten to put the correction slip in the examination package. The Governor allowed them to explain the correction to Evans without any doubt.
(c) What advice did Annan offer Bama ?
Answer : Annan advised Bama to study with care and learn all she could. If one is ahead in lessons, people would attach themselves to you. He told her that education was the only key to open the gates of respect and dignity. The community would also be benefitted by this.

SET II

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

SECTION B
(ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS)

Question.3. You are Secretary of J. P. Narain Housing Society, R. W. A. Meerut. Draft a notice in not more than 50 words stating that the second installment of maintenance
charges falls due on 31st March, 2011 and requesting the members to pay before the due date. Sign as Anil/Anita.
OR
You are Scout Master/Guide Captain of K. R. Public School, Mysore. You have decided to send a troop of scouts and guides of your school to the jamboree to be held at Lucknow for a week. Draft a notice in not more than 50 words to be placed on the school notice board inviting the names of those scouts and guides who are interested to participate in the jamboree. Invent the necessary details. .
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-english-outside-delhi-2011-3
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-english-outside-delhi-2011-4

Question.4. You visited a Job fair organized by Ability Foundation at Chennai recently. You were impressed to see that nearly 55 companies from various sectors such as information technology, telecommunication, electronics etc. offered jobs to the final year students of various colleges. As a reporter of ‘The Deccan Times’, Chennai, prepare a report in 100-125 words. You are Peeyush/Priya.
OR
You are Anand/Anandi, a ‘Times Of India’ correspondent. You attended the inaugural function of Tamilnadu Hospital, Chennai. Mentioning the specialities of the hospital, the number of beds, all available facilities etc. and details about the ceremony, write a report in 100-125 words for your newspaper.
Answer:
Ability Foundation Organised
Job Fair, At Chennai
Report by : Priya (‘The Deccan Times’),
Chennai
16th May, 20XX
Recendy a Job Fair was organized by Ability Foundation at Chennai. It was a two day job fair and was held at Madras University sports complex. It was a unique event which saw nearly, 55 companies from various IT sectors, offering jobs to the final year students. The Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu inaugurated the job fair and called it a constructive step as, large number of students will be benefitted by this. They were able to gain employment adeast with one of the organization. It was able to satisfy the students completely because they are now looking for offbeat jobs like Fashion designing, Publishing, Aviation, Film making, Geologists, Journalists, and many more. Seeing the queue at the registration desk, one could guess at first sight that it would be a hopeful event. Companies at job fair included Wipro, Max Bupa, Convergys, etc. The Minimum package offered to the students at the fair was 2 Lakh per annum and the Maximum was 8 Lakh per annum.
OR
Tamilnadu Hospital Inaugurated
Report By : Anandi (Toi Correspondent)
17th June, 20XX
A Swanky 18 th floor structure of Tamilnadu Hospital in the heart of Chennai city was inaugurated by the Chairman, Apollo Group of Hospitals. It is furnished with world class facilities. Every type of quality healthcare services is promised to be provided by the hospital. It has a capacity of 140 beds, housed with ultra-modern facilities. The womens health care, High Tech Laboratory, ICU facilities, Digital Imaging, On Call Doctor Service, Emergency are some of the features offered by the hospital. Other facilities would include round the clock frequent visits by doctors and Pharmacy. No consultation fees will be charged for the first week of the inauguration. It would provide a unique opportunity to the patients as well as the Medical Students. Beside treatment, the hospital will work on different research areas as told by senior doctor, Dr. Swami Iyer. Overall it can be said that, we all have high expectations ftom this hospital.

SECTION – C

Question.9. Answer the following in 30-40 words each : 
(a) “What a thunder clap these words were to me!” Which were the words that shocked and surprised little Franz ?
Answer : The words that shocked little Franz were that it was their last French lesson and these were spoken by their French Teacher, M. Hamel. There was an order from Berlin that German would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine and the new teacher would be arriving from the next day.
(c) What made the peddler change his ways ?
Answer : The behavior and hospitality shown by Edla, the ironmasters daughter, changed the ways of peddler. He was, living a monotonous life of a vagabond, but love and kindness of Edla changed him completely. ‘
(e) Which was the only occasion when Sophie got to see Danny Casey in person ?
Answer : The only occasion when Sophie met Danny Casey in person, was when she went to see football match with her family. Although she saw him from a distance but she fancied . her actions and dialogues.

Question.12. Answer the following in 30-40 words each :
(c) “I felt like sinking to the floor”, says Zitkala-Sa.
When did she feel so and why ?
Answer : The tradition of the community to which Zitkala-Sa belonged was to keep long hair. When her long hair was cut, it was like sinking to the floor for her. Short hair in her community %as the sign of slavery and worn by mourners and cowards.

SET III

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

SECTION – B
(ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS)

Question.3.You are the Sports Secretary of Lalwani Public School, Udaipur. Draft a notice in not more 50 words for your school notice board asking the students to give their names for participation in various events to be held on the Annual Sports Day of your school. Invent the details of the events. Sign as Lalit/Lalita.
OR
You are the Secretary of Sri Parthasarthy Sahha, Salem. Draft a notice in not more than 50 words to be sent to the members of the Sabha, requesting them to attend an extraordinary meeting. Invent necessary details such as items on the agenda, date, time, etc. Sign as Kamal/ Komal.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-english-outside-delhi-2011-5
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-english-outside-delhi-2011-6

Question.4. You witnessed a programme by differendy abled persons on Zee TV You were very much impressed by their performance and were emotionally touched. Highlighting their talent, reaction of the judges to their performance etc. prepare a report in 100-125 words for your school magazine. You are Gopal/Gopi, student editor of the magazine.
OR
You are Latha/Lalith of Gurgaon. You had attended the inaugural ceremony of the newly opened vocational stream and hobby classes at the secondary school level in Paras Public School, Gurgaon. Draft a report in 100-125 words to be published in ‘Gurgaon Times’. Invent other details.
Answer:
Wonderful Performance by
Differently Abled
Report By : Gopi (Student Editor) .
27th January, 20XX
Yesterday I witnessed a programme on Zee TV presented by the differendy abled people, which moved me a lot. The roles, characters, performances done by them were marvelous. All the actors managed an enthralling performance. They even portrayed the emotional and personal side of the characters perfecdy. No one could tell that this was a performance by special people of our society. Hats off to them who managed to do so in spite of their disabilities. Even the judges were overwhelmed. The performances kept the judges as well as public gripped throughout the programme. I felt glad to have watched this, as it opened the gates of inspiration for many. Although it was hard to do but it included the resdess efforts of the directors and organizers.
OR
Answer:
Inaugural Ceremony of Voctional
Stream And Hobby Classes
A Report: Latha
Gurgaon Times
15th November, 20XX
The opening ceremony of the vocational stream and the hobby classes witnessed a huge gathering on the grounds of secondary school level in Paras Public School, Gurgaon. Honorable Principal extended a warm welcome to the HRD Minister who was the Chief Guest for the ceremony. The faculty for the newly opened streams were also welcomed whole heartedly. The Principal revealed that these new streams and hobby classes would meet the need of the students which would help them in their future prospects. They will be able’ to actualize their potential to the fullest instead of competing for the top three positions. It would also provide a platform for the budding artists. To enhance the learning skills of t children, certain measures were counted. Keeping in mind the requirements and interest of the children, these streams would assist them in vocational guidance and choosing their profession. In the end the ceremony was concluded with vote of thanks by the Head of the Department, Humanities.

SECTION – C

Question.9. Answer the following in 30-40 words each:
(a) What announcement did Mr. M. Hamel make ? What was the impact of this on Franz ?
Answer: Mr. M. Hamel made an announcement that French would no longer be taught hence forth in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine and it was their last lesson in French. This announcement came as a shock to not only Franz but all the other people. Franz realized the importance of his mother tongue and thought that he would not be able to read and speak in French again.
(c) Why did the peddler keep to the woods after leaving crofter’s cottage ? How did he feel ?
Answer : After leaving crofter’s cottage, the peddler kept to the woods in order to avoid the police. He felt that he was caught in the worlds rattrap because after stealing crofters money he realized that it was bait for him and if he took to the road, police would catch him.
(e) Why did Jansie discourage Sophie from entertaining thoughts about the sports star, Danny Casey ?
Answer: Jansie very well knew that Sophie was a day dreamer and she fancied wild stories whereas Jansie herself was a realist and knew that they belonged to a middle class family and Sophies dreams would never come true. So she discouraged her to avoid any type of disappointment.

Question.12. Answer the following in 30-40 words each :
(c) What did Judewin tell Zitkal-Sa? How did she react to it ?
Answer : Judewin told Zitkal-Sa to get ready for hair loss as the school authorities were strong enough. But Zitkal-Sa reacted very furiously over it because keeping long hair was a symbol of bravery and courage in her community.

CBSE Previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Physics Delhi 2011

CBSE Previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 Physics Delhi 2011

Time allowed : 3 hours                                                                                           Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:

  1.  All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.
  2.  This question paper has five sections : Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
  3. Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section E contains three questions of five marks each.
  4.  There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such questions.
  5. You may use the following values of physical constants wherever necessary:

cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-outside-delhi-2016-1.

SET I

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining question have been asked in Previous Set.
Question.1.A point charge is placed at point O as shown in the figure. Is the potential difference VA-VB positive, negative or zero, if Qis (i) positive (ii) negative
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-1
Answer : If Q is positively charged, VA-VB = positive If Q is negatively charged, VA-VB = negative.

Question.2.A plane electromagnetic wave travels in vacuum along Z-direction. What can you say about the direction of electric and magnetic field vector?
Answer : In electromagnetic wave, the electric field vector E and magnetic field vector g show their variations perpendicular to’ the direction of propagation of wave as well as perpendicular to each other.. As the electromagnetic wave is travelling along z-direction, hence E and B show their variation in xy-plane..

Question.3.A resistance R is connected across a cell of emf e and internal resistance r. A potentiometer now measures the potential
difference between the terminals of the cell as V. Write the expression for ‘r’ in terms of ε, V and R.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-2

Question.4.The permeability of magnetic material is 0.9983. Name the type of magnetic materials it represents.
Answer: Paramagnetic material.

Question.5.Show graphically, the variation of the de-Broglie wavelength (λ) with the potential (V) through which an electron is accelerated from rest.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-3

Question.6. In a transistor, dopping level .in base is increased slightly. How will it affect

  1.  collector current and
  2. base current?

Answer :

  1. Collector current decreases slightly
  2.  Base current increases slightly

Question.7. Define the term ‘wattless current’.
Answer : Current flowing in a circuit without any net dissipation of power is called wattless current.

Question.8. When monochromatic light travels from one medium to another its wavelength changes but frequency remains the same, Explain.
Answer : Atoms (of the second medium) oscillate with the same (incident light) frequency and in turn, emit light of the same frequency.

Question.9. Two uniformly large parallel thin plates having charge densities +σ and – σ are kept in the X-Z plane at a distance ‘d apart. Sketch an equipotential surface due to electric field between the plates. If a particle of mass m and charge ‘-q’ remains stationary between the plates, what is the magnitude and direction of this field?
OR
Two small identical electrical dipoles AB and CD, each of dipole moment ‘p’ are kept at an angle of 120° as shown in the figure. What is the resultant dipole moment of this combination? If this system is subjected to electric field (cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2010-61) directed along +X direction, what will be the magnitude and direction of the torque acting on this?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-4
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cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-6

Question.10. A magnetic needle free to rotate in a vertical plane parallel to the magnetic meridian has its north tip down at 60° with the horizontal. The horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field at the place is known to be 0.4 G. Determine the magnitude of the earth’s magnetic field at the place.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-7

Question.11. Figure shows two identical capacitors, C1 and C2, each of lpF capacitance connected to a battery of 6 V. Initially switch ‘S’ is closed. After sometime ‘s’ is left open and dielectric slabs of dielectric constant K = 3 are inserted to fill completely the space between the plates of the two capacitors. How will the (i) charge and (ii) potential difference between the plates of the capacitors be affected after the slabs are inserted?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-8
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-9

Question.12. Two convex lenses of same focal length but of aperture A1 and A2 (A2 < A1), are used as the objective lenses in two astronomical telescopes having identical eyepieces. What is the ratio of their resolving power? Which telescope will you prefer and why? Give reason.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-10

Question.13. Draw the output waveform at X, using the given inputs A and B for the logic circuit shown below. Also, identify the logic operation performed by this circuit.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-11

Question.14. Name the semiconductor device that can be used to regulate an unregulated dc power supply. With the help of I-V characteristics of this device, explain its working principle.
Answer : A Zener diode is a specially designed diode which is operated in reverse breakdown region continuously with any damage. When Zener diode is operated in the reverse break down region, the voltage across it remains practically constant (Vz) for a large change in reverse current. Therefore, for any increase/decrease of the input voltage there is a increase/deer ease of the voltage drop across series resistance (Rs) without any change in the voltage across Zener diode,
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-12

Question.15. How are infrared waves produced? Why are these referred to as ‘heat wave’? Write their one important use.
Answer: Infrared rays are produced by hot bodies and molecules. Infrared waves are Called heat waves as they cause heating effect. Infrared waves are used to maintain earths warmth, in physical therapy, remote switches etc.

Question.16. Draw the transfer characteristic curve of a base biased transistor in CE configuration. Explain clearly how the active region of the V0 versus Vi– curve in a transistor is used as an amplifier.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-13

Question.17.

  1.  Define modulation index.
  2. Why is the amplitude of modulating signal kept less than the amplitude of carrier wave?

Answer :

  1.  Modulation index is defined as the ratio of amplitude of modulating signal to amplitude of carrier wave. It is given by
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-14
  2.  The amplitude of modulating signal is kept less than the amplitude of carrier wave to avoid noise.

Question.18. A current is induced in coil C1due to the motion of current carrying coil C2. (a) Write any two ways by which a large deflection can be obtained in the galvanometer G. (b) Suggest an alternative device to demonstrate the induced current in place of a galvanometer.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-15
Answer : (a) Any two ways to obtain large deflection in G :
(i) Moving C2 faster towards C1
(ii)Insertion of soft iron core in C1
(b) Alternative device that can be used in place of galvanometer is LED.

Question.19. Define the terms (i) drift velocity, (ii) relaxation time. A conductor of length L is connected to a dc”source of emf 8. If this conductor is replaced by another conductor of same material and same area of cross-section but of length 3L, how will the drift velocity change?
Answer : (i) Drift velocity : The average velocity with which the free electrons drift towards positive terminal under the influence of an external field is called drift velocity.
(ii) Relaxation time : Average time interval between two successive collisions of an electron with the ions / atoms of the conductor.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-16

Question.20.Using Gauss’s law obtain the expression for the electric field due to a uniformly charged thin spherical shell of radius R at a point outside the shell. Draw a graph showing the variation of electric field with r, for r > R and r < R.
Answer : Electric field at point P at a distance V’outside the spherical shell.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-17
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-18

Question.21.An electron and a photon each have a wavelength 1.00 nm. Find
(a) their momenta,
(b) the energy of the photon and
(c) the kinetic energy
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-19
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-20

Question.22. Draw a schematic diagram showing the (i) ground wave (ii) sky wave and (iii) space wave propagation modes for em waves. ,
Write the frequency range for each of the following :
(i) Standard AM broadcast
(ii) Television
(iii) Satellite communication
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-21

Question.23. Describe Youngs double slit experiment to produce interference pattern due to a monochromatic source of light. Deduce the expression for the fringe width.
OR
Use Huygens principle to verify the laws of refraction.
Answer : S is a narrow slit (of width about 1 mm) illuminated by a monochromatic source of light. At a suitable distance (= 10 mm) from S, two slits S1 and S2 are placed parallel to S. When a screen is placed at a large distance (about 2m) from the slit S1 and S2, alternate dark and bright bands appear on the screen. These are the interference bands or fringes. The band disappear when either slit is covered.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-22
Explanation : According to Huygens principle, the monochromatic source of light illuminating the slit S tends out spherical wavefront.
The two waves of same amplitude and same frequency super impose on each other, Dark fringes appear on the screen when the crest of one wall falls on the trough of other and they neutralize the effect of each other. Bright fringes appear on the screen when the crest of one wave coincides with the crest of other and they reinforce each other.
Expression for the fringe width :
Let d = distance between slits S1 and S2
D = distance of screen from two slits and
x = distance between the central maxima
‘O’ and observation point P.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-23
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-24
Now the intensity at point P is maximum :or minimum according as the path difference is an integral multiple of wavelength or an odd integral multiple of half wavelength.
OR
Wavefront : The continuous locus of all the particles of a medium, which are vibrating in the same phase is called wavefront.
Laws of refraction : Let PP’ represent the surface separating medium 1 and medium 2 as shown in fig.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-25
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-26
Which is Snell’s Law of refraction of light (first law)
Second Law : Incident wavefront, refracted wave front, normals all lie in the same plane.

Question.24. (a) Describe briefly, with the help of suitable diagram, how the transverse nature of light can be demonstrated by the phenomenon of polarization.
(b) When unpojarized light passes from air to a transparent medium, under what condition does the reflected light get polarized?
Answer:
(a) When a polaroid P1 is rotated in the path of an unpolarised light, there is no change in transmitted intensity. v The light transmitted through polaroid P1 is made to pass through polaroid P2. On rotating polaroid P2, in path of light transmitted from P1 we notice a change in intensity of transmitted light. This shows the light transmitted from P1 is polarized. Since light can be polarized, it has transverse
nature.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-27
(b) Whenever unpolarised light is incident from air to a transparent medium at an angle of incidence equal to polarizing angle, the reflected light gets fully polarized.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-28

Question.25. The energy levels of a hypothetical atom are shown below. Which of the shown transitions will result in the emission of a photon of wavelength 275 nm? 
Which of these transitions correspond to emission of radiation of (i) maximum and (ii) minimum wavelength?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-29
Hence transition B would result in the emission of a photon of wavelength 275 nm.
(i) Transition A corresponds to maximum wavelength .
(ii)Transition D corresponds to minimum wavelength

Question.26. State the law of radioactive decay. Plot a graph showing the number (N) of undecayed nuclei as a function of time (t) for a given radioactive sample having half lifeT1/2.
Depict in the plot the number of undecayed nuclei at (i) t = 3 T1/2. and (ii) t = 5 T1/2..
Answer : The number of nuclei undergoing decay per unit time, at any instant, is proportional to the total number of nuclei in the sample at that instant.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-30

Question.27. In the circuit shown, R1 = 4 Ω, R2 = R3 = 15 Ω, R4 = 30Ω and E = 10 V. Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit and the current in each resistor.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-31
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-32

Question.28.State Biot-Savart law, giving the mathematical expression for it. Use this law to derive the expression for the magnetic field due to a circular coil carrying current at a point along its
How does a circular loop carrying current behave as a magnet?
OR
With the help of a labelled diagram, state the underlying principle of a cyclotron. Example clearly how it works to accelerate the charged particles.
Show that cyclotron frequency is independent of energy of the particle. Is there an upper limit on the energy acquired by the particle? Give reason.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-33
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cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-36
Working : High frequency oscillator maintains moderate alternating potential difference between the dees. This potential difference establishes an electric field that reverse its direction periodically. Suppose a positive ion of moderate mass produced at the centre of the dees, finds D2 at negative potential. It gets accelerated towards it. A uniform magnetic field, normal to the plane of the dees, makes it move in a circular track. Particle t races a semicircular track and returns back to the region between the dees. The moment it arrives in the region electric field reverses its direction and accelerate the charge towards. D1. This way charge keeps on getting accelerated until it is removed out of the dees.
Centripetal force, neede d by the charged particle to move in circular track, is provided by the magnetic field.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-37
Thus, frequency of revolut/ion is independent of the energy of the particle. Yes, there is an upper limit on the energy acquired by the charged particle. The charged part icle gains maximum speed when it moves in a path of radius equal to the radius of the dees.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-38

Question.29. (a) Draw a ray diagram to show refraction of a ray of monochromatic light passing through a glass prism.
Deduce the expression for the refractive index of glass in terms of angle of prism and angle of minimum deviation.
(b) Explain briefly how the phenomenon of total internal reflection is used in fibre: optics.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-39
Here the ray of light propagation from a rarer medium of refractive index ( n1) to a denser medium of refractive index ( n2) is incident on the convex side of spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R.
(b) Draw a ray diagram to show the image formation by a concave mirror when the object is kept between its focus and the pole. Using this diagram, derive the magnification formula for the image found.
Answer: (a)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-67
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-41
Each optical fibre consists of a core and cladding, refractive index of the material of the core is higher than that of cladding. When a signal, in the form of light, is directed into the optical fibre, at an angle greater than the critical angle, it undergoes repeated total internal reflections along the length of the fibre and comes out of it at the other end with almost negligible loss of intensity.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-42
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-43
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cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-45

Question.30.(i) With the help of a labelled diagram, describe briefly the underlying principle and working of a step up transformer.
(ii) Write any two sources of energy loss in a transformer.
(iii) A step up transformer converts a low input voltage into a
high output voltage. Does it violate law of conservation of energy? Explain.
OR
Derive an expression for the impedance of a series LCR circuit connected to an AC supply of variable frequency. Plot a graph showing variation of current with the frequency of the applied voltage.
Explain briefly how the phenomenon of resonance in the circuit can be used in the tuning mechanism of a radio or a TV set.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-46
Principle : It works on the principle of mutual induction. When alternating current is passed through a coil an induced emf is set up in the neighbouring coil.
Working : When an alternating voltage is applied to the primary, the resulting current produces an alternating magnetic flux which links the secondary and induces an emf in it. We consider an ideal transformer in which the primary has negligible resistance and all the flux in the core links with both primary and secondary windings. Let (ø) be the flux in each turn in the core at any time t due to current in rlie primary when a voltage Vp is applied to it.
Then the induced emf or voltage Es, in the secondary with
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-47
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-48
(ii) Sources of energy loss in transformer are : Joule’s loss in the resistan ce of windings, loss due to eddy currents.
(iii) No. A step up transformer steps up the voltage while it steps down the current. So the input and output power remain srime (provided there is no loss). Hence there is no violation of the principle of energy conservation.
OR
impedance (Z) in LCR circuit. The effective resistance offered by a series LCR circuit to the flow of current is called its impedance. It is denoted by Z.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-49
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-50
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The given graph showing’variation of curr ent with the frequency of the applied voltage.
The radio and TV receiver sets are the practical applications of series resonant circuits. Signals of several different frequencies
are available in air. By turning the tuning knob of the radio set, we vary the frequency of the LC circuit till it mat ches the frequency of the desired signal.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-52
A series resonant circuit allows maximum current through it. So, it is called acceptor circuit. A series resonance circuit is that circuit in which inductance L, capacitance C and resistance R are connected in series. The impedance of this circuit has a minimum value and the current through the circuit is maximum.

SET II

Note : Except for the following questions, all the rem aining question have been asked in Previous Set.

Question.2. The susceptibility of magnetic material is 1.9 x 10 -5. Name the type of magnetic materials it represents.
Answer : Paramagnetic substance because susceptibility of magnetic material is positive.

Question.4. A plane electromagnetic wave travels in vacuum along x-direction. What can you say about the direction of elect tic and magnetic field vectors?
Answer: The electric and magnetic field vectors are in YZ-plane.

Question.10. A magnet is quickly moved in the direction indicated by am arrow between coils C1and C2 as shown in figure. What will be the direction of induced current in each coil as seen, from the magnet? Justify your answer.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-53
Answer: For coil C1: As the N-pole of the magnet is moving away from the coil C1, the end of the coil will behave as S-pole so as to oppose the motion of the magnet. Therefore, looking from the end, the current in the coil C1 will be in clockwise direction.
For coil C2 : The end of the coil should behave as S-pole so as to repel the approaching magnet. Looking from the end, the direction of current in the coil of C2 will be clockwise direction.

Question.11. Figure shows two identical capacitors C1 and C2 each of 2μF capacitance, connected to a battery of 5V. Initially switch ‘S’
is dosed. After sometime ‘S’ is left open and dielectric slabs of dielectric constant k = 5 are inserted to fill completely the space between the plates of the two capacitors. How will the (i) charge and (ii) potential difference between the plates of the capacitors be affected after the slabs are inserted?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-54
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-55
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-56

Question.16. How is forward biasing different from reverse biasing in a p-n junction diode?
Answer: Forward Biasing : The positive terminal of the external battery is connected to p-side and negative terminal of battery to n-side of p-n junction. The forward bias voltage oppose the potential barrier. Due to this, the potential barrier is reduced and hence the depletion becomes thin.
Reverse biasing : The negative terminal of the external battery is connected to p-side and positive terminal of battery to n-side of p-n junction. The reverse bias voltage supports the potential barrier. Due to this, the potential barrier is increased. The resistance of p-n junction becomes high.

Question.20. In the circuit shown, R1 = 4 Ω, R2 = R3= 5 Ω, R4 = 10 Ω, and E = 6V Work out the equivalent resistance of the circuit and the current in each resistor.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-57
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-58

Question.23. An electron and a photon each have a wavelength of 1.50 nm. Find.
(i) their momenta
(ii) the energy of the photon
(iii) the kinetic energy of the electron
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-59

SET III

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining question have been asked in Previous Set.

Question.2.A plane electromagnetic wave travels in vacuum along y-direction. What can you say about the direction of electric and, magnetic field vectors?
Answer : For an electromagnetic wave propagating along T-direction, the electric and magnetic field vectors vary sinusoidally along X-direction and Z-direction respectively.

Question.7.The susceptibility of a magnetic material is -4.2 x 10 -6 Name the type of magnetic materials it represents.
Answer : Diamagnetic substance.

Question.9.Explain how a depletion region is formed in a junction diode.
Answer : Depletion region is formed in a junction diode ‘ because depletion region is created around the p-n junction w ho is devoid of free charge carriers and has immobile ions. It is created due to diffusion of majority carriers across the junction when p-n junction is formed.

Question.14. Figu re shows two identical capacitors C1and C2 each of 1.5 μF capacitance, connected to a battery of 2V. Initially switch
S’ is closed. After sometime ‘S’ is left open and dielectric slabs of dielectric constant K=2 are inserted to fill completely the space between the plates of the two capacitors. How will the (i) charge ahd (ii) potential difference between the plates of the capacitors be affected after the slabs are inserted?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-60
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-61

Question.16. Write the truth table for the logic circuit shown below and identify the logic operation by this circuit.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-62

Question.17. Predict the polarity of the capacitor when the two magnets are quickly moved in the directions marked by arrows.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-68
Answer: In this situation shown, A will become positive with respect to B, as current induced is in clockwise direction.

Question.23. In the circuit shown, R1 = 2 Ω, R2 = R3 = 10 Ω, R4 = 20 Ω, and E = 6V. Work out the equivalent resistance of the circuit and the current in each resistor.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-63
Answer.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-64
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-65

Question.25. An electron and a photon each have a wavelength of 2 nm. Find
(i) their momenta
(ii)the energy of photon
(iii)the kinetic energy of the electron
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-physics-delhi-2011-66

Essay Writing Class 11

Essay Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Essay Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Introduction:

Essay writing is an important part of academic writing. It requires the ability to express thoughts and ideas clearly and coherently. Essay writing skills are essential for students in class 11, as it is a crucial year in their academic journey. In this essay, we will discuss the format, examples, topics, and exercises that can help class 11 students improve their essay writing skills.

Format Of An Essay Writing Class 11:

The format of an essay is essential, as it provides a structure for organizing ideas and thoughts. The typical essay format consists of an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.

Introduction:

The introduction is the first paragraph of an essay. It should be engaging and capture the reader’s attention. The introduction should include a thesis statement, which is a sentence that summarizes the main point of the essay.

Body Paragraphs:

The body paragraphs are where the writer provides evidence to support the thesis statement. Each paragraph should focus on one main idea and provide supporting evidence to back it up. The body paragraphs should be organized logically and coherently.

Conclusion:

The conclusion is the last paragraph of an essay. It should summarize the main points of the essay and restate the thesis statement in different words. The conclusion should leave the reader with a clear understanding of the writer’s argument.

Also Read: Essay Writing Topics For Class 6 

Examples Of Essay Writing Class 11:

1. The Impact of Social Media on Society
2. The Importance of Education in Today’s World
3. Climate Change: Causes and Solutions
4. The Role of Women in Society
5. The Pros and Cons of Technology
6. Democracy vs. Authoritarianism: Which is better?
7. The Effects of Globalization on Culture
8. The Importance of Mental Health
9. The Future of Artificial Intelligence
10. The Role of Sports in Society

Examples Of Essay Writing Class 11

Essay Exercises For Essay Writing Class 11:

1. Choose a topic from the above list and write an essay on it. Make sure to follow the essay format discussed above.
2. Write a persuasive essay on a topic of your choice. Provide evidence to support your argument and convince the reader to agree with your point of view.
3. Write a descriptive essay on a place that is important to you. Use sensory details to paint a vivid picture in the reader’s mind.
4. Write a compare and contrast essay on two different subjects. Identify similarities and differences and provide evidence to support your analysis.
5. Write a narrative essay about a personal experience that taught you a valuable lesson. Use descriptive language to bring the story to life.

Conclusion On Essay Writing Class 11:

Essay writing is a skill that can be learned and improved upon with practice. Class 11 students can improve their essay writing skills by following the essay format discussed above, choosing interesting topics, and completing essay exercises. By improving their essay-writing skills, students can become better communicators and critical thinkers, which will benefit them in their academic and professional lives.