From Trade to Territory Class 8 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 2

From Trade to Territory Class 8 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 2

From Trade to Territory Class 8 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 2 unveils the compelling saga of how trade routes, initially established for commerce and exchange, became the conduits for empires to expand their dominion. From ancient times to the colonial era, we’ll explore the journeys of traders, merchants, and adventurers who navigated the seas and crossed vast lands, leaving a lasting impact on the course of history. Read this also Extra Questions for Class 8 Social Science .

From Trade to Territory Class 8 Extra Questions and Answers Social Science History Chapter 2

From Trade to Territory Class 8 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
In which year did Aurangzeb died?
Answer:
Aurangzeb died in the year 1707.

Question 2.
Who led the Revolt of 1857 from the Mughal emperors?
Answer:
Among the Mughal emperors, the last Mughal king Bahdur Shah Zafar led the Revolt of 1857.

Question 3.
In which year did East India Company get the Royal Charter from kingship of England and who was the ruler of England at that time?
Answer:
In 1600, East India Company got the royal Charter from Kingship and Queen Elizabeth – I was the ruler of England.

Question 4.
Who was the Ist explorer from Portugal?
Answer:
Vasco da Gama was the Ist Explorer from Portugal in 1498.

Question 5.
What was reason behind the battles between the European trading companies.
Answer:
The reason behind the battles among the European trading companies was the rising competition.

Question 6.
Where was the Ist factory of British East India Company established and in which year?
Answer:
Ist English factory was established on the banks of river Hugli in the year 1651.

Question 7.
What is Factory according to the colonial time period in India?
Answer:
Factory was a place from where the factors were operated and it had a warehouse where goods for export were stored.

Question 8.
What was the Farman issued by Aurangzeb to the Company?
Answer:
Farman granted Right to trade duty-free to the Company.

Question 9.
Who was the Nawab of Bengal at the time of Battle of Plassey?
Answer:
Sirajuddaulah was the Nawab of Bengal at the time of Battle of Plassey.

Question 10.
Who was the commander of Sirajuddaulah who cheated him at the time of Battle of Plassey?
Answer:
Mir Jafar was the commander who cheated Sirajuddaulah at the time of Battle of Plassey.

Question 11.
In which year was the Company appointed as the Diwan of Bengal by the Mughal Emperor?
Answer:
In the year 1765, the Company was appointed as the Diwan of Bengal by the Mughal Emperor.

Question 12.
What was the outcome of the appointment of the Company as the Diwan of Bengal?
Answer:
Appointment of the Company as Diwan of Bengal resulted in the beginning of exploitation of the vast revenue of the Bengal.

Question 13.
How many wars were fought between Mysore Kingdom and the Britishers?
Answer:
Four Wars were fought between Mysore and Britishers.

Question 14.
Mention the time period in which prolonged war was fought between the Britishers and Afghanistan?
Answer:
1838 – 1842 was the time period when the prolonged war was fought and the Company rule was established in Afghanistan.

Question 15.
Name of the Governor-general who introduced several administrative reforms.
Answer:
Warren Hastings was the Governor-General who introduced several administrative reforms.

Question 16.
What was the main aim of the Company before the territorial expansion?
Answer:
Trading and earning profit from trade was the main aim of the Company before the territorial expansion.

Question 17.
Who was established as Nawab in replacement of Mir Jafar?
Answer:
Mir Qasim was installed as the Nawab in place of Mir Jafar.

Question 18.
Which state was annexed by the Company on the ground of misgovernance?
Answer:
Awadh was annexed by the Company on the ground of misgovernance.

Question 19.
Name country from which Tipu Sultan established a great relation.
Answer:
The French was the country from which Tipu established a great relation.

Question 20.
Mention the states which were annexed on the basic of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ policy.
Answer:
Satara, Sambalpur, Udaipur, Nagpur and Jhansi were the states annexed on the basis of this policy.

Question 21.
Define the word ‘Charter’?
Answer:
An offficial order is called charter.

Question 22.
When was the Battle of Buxar fought?
Answer:
The Battle of Buxar was fought in 1764.

Question 23.
Mention the period of Lord Dalhousie as Governor-General of India.
Answer:
From 1848 – 1856, Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General of India.

From Trade to Territory Class 8 Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Mention the aftermath of the death of Aurangzeb in 1707?
Answer:
Aurangzeb died in 1707 which resulted in:

  1. Establishment of several regional kingdoms.
  2. Governors under the Mughals took over the control over states.
  3. Existence of several regional kingdoms was seen.

Question 2.
It is said that before the Britishers, the Portuguese already got established in India. Explain how?
Answer:
Yes, the Portuguese had been settled in India before the establishment of the Britishers as in 1498, a Portuguese explorer named Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India resulting in establishment of base at Goa.

Question 3.
What were the things which India had for the purpose of trade?
Answer:
India had several things from which trade of the East India Company got wide and the rate of their profit got maximised. Those things were pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon.

Question 4.
What did the Company on its part declare about the Nawabs of Bengal?
Answer:
The Company on its part declared that the unjust demands of the Nawabs were ruining their trade and they could only trade when the duties would be removed from them. It was convinced that to expand trade the Company had to enlarge its settlements, buy up villages and rebuild its forts.

Question 5.
Why did Warren Hasting go through the impeachment process?
Answer:
When Hastings went back to England in 1785, Edmund Burke accused him of being involved and at individual level responsible for misgovernment of Bengal. This led to an impeachment process against Warren Hastings.

Question 6.
How did the new policy of paramountcy get challenged in Kitoor?
Answer:
When the British tried to annex the small state of Kitoor (in Karnataka today) Rani Channamma took arms in her hands and led an anti-British resistance movement. But after she died in prison, Rayanna a poor chowkidar of Sangoli in Kitoor carried on challenging the policy of the British.

From Trade to Territory Class 8 Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Name the policy devised by Lord Dalhousie for annexation purpose and explain how it worked and also name states annexed under this policy.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General from 1848 – 1856 and he was reason behind the final wave of annexations. He devised a policy that came to be known as Doctrine of Lapse. The policy declared that if an Indian ruler died without any male heir, his kingdom would lapse and that will become part of the Company territory.

The states which were annexed under this policy were:
Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853), and Jhansi (1854).

Question 2.
How did the Mysore grow in strength under the leadership of its powerful rulers Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan?
Answer:
Mysore had grown in strength under the kingship of the powerful rulers Haidar Ali (1761 – 1782) and his son Tipu Sultan (1782 – 1799). Tipu was also called ‘The Tiger of Mysore’. Mysore controlled the powerful trade of Malabar coast from where the Company purchased pepper and cardamoms.

Tipu stopped the export of sandalwood, pepper and cardamom through ports of his kingdom and disallowed the local merchants from trading with the Company. He also established a close relationship with the French in India and modernised his army with their help. This is how Mysore got strengthen under the kingship of Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan.

Question 3.
Explain the policy of Paramountcy, also explain the struggle of Kitoor in challenging this aggressive policy.
Answer:
The Company adopted an aggressive policy of territorial expansion. Under Hastings (1813 – 1823)
Governor Generalship, a new policy of paramountcy was initiated with which the Company claimed that its authority was paramount and supreme so the power of the Company was greater than that of Indian states. So in order to protect the Company’s interest it was justified annexing or threatening of annexation to the Indian states. This policy and its aim continued to guide the later British policies as well.

The struggle of Kitoor challenging this policy was really commendable. When the British tried to annex the small state of Kitoor in Karnataka, Rani Channamma took to arms and led an anti-British resistence movement. She got arrested in 1824 and died in prison in 1829. After her Rayanna, a poor chowkidar of Sangoli in Kitoor carried on resistence. With popular support many British camps and records were destroyed by him. He was later caught and hanged by the British in 1830. This is the struggle of Kitoor.

Picture Based Questions Class 10 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory

Look at the picture given below and answer the following questions:
From Trade to Territory Class 8 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 2 img-1

Question 1.
Describe briefly about the picture given above.
Answer:
The picture does represents ‘toy tiger’ of Tipu Sultan the great warriors. The picture is kept in the Victoria and Albert museum in London. The Britishers had took it away. When Tipu Sultan died while defending his capital Sheringpatnam on 4th May 1798.

Map Skills Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory

Question 1.
On the outline map of India represent the following under British rule.
(i) Lahore
(ii) Lucknow
(iii) Benaras
(iv) Calcutta
(v) Madras
(vi) Mysore
Answer:
From Trade to Territory Class 8 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 2 img-2

Can Cinnamon Help Your Sexual Health?

Narrative Writing For Class 3

Narrative Writing For Class 3 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Narrative Writing For Class 3 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Introduction

Narrative jotting can be defined as a kidney of writing that tells a story. It involves the use of characters, setting, and a plot to engage the anthology and convey a communication or experience. For Class 3 scholars, narrative jotting provides an occasion to develop their language proficiency, imagination, and liar chops.

Also Read: Narrative Writing Class 11

Format Of Narrative Writing For Class 3

When it comes to the format of narrative jotting, generally follows a three-part structure preface, body, and conclusion. In the preface, scholars set the stage by introducing the characters, and setting, and furnishing any necessary background information. The body of the narrative contains the main events and conduct, while the conclusion wraps up the story and leaves a lasting print on the anthology.

To make their narratives more effective, Class 3 scholars should concentrate on incorporating essential rudiments similar as characters, setting, and plot. Characters bring the story to life and help compendiums connect with the narrative. The setting creates a background for the story, furnishing details about the time and place. The plot is the sequence of events that move the story forward and produce suspension or interest.

also, Class 3 scholars should strive to present events in successional order and follow a chronological structure. This helps compendiums follow the narrative fluently and understand the cause-and-effect connections between the different corridors of the story.

Examples Of Narrative Writing For Class 3

To better understand narrative writing, let’s explore a couple of examples suitable for Class 3 students.

Example 1: A Trip to the Zoo

My students and I went on an exciting field trip to the local zoo one bright day. We were all ecstatic to get such a close look at the wonderful animals. The bright colors of the birds drew our attention as we entered the zoo. We explored the various parts, admiring the gorgeous giraffes, playful monkeys, and majestic lions. The feeding of the friendly elephants was the highlight of the vacation. It was an unforgettable event full of fun, learning, and happiness.

Example 2: My Birthday Party

I celebrated my birthday with friends and family last weekend. Our garden was converted into a wonderful fantasy for the party. The trees were festooned with colorful balloons and streamers, and a bouncy castle stood in the center. My buddies arrived one by one, and we had a great time playing games like musical chairs and passing the parcel. The cake was a work of beauty, adorned with my favorite cartoon characters. We danced, laughed, and created amazing memories that I will cherish for the rest of my life.

Examples Of Narrative Writing For Class 3

Topics For Narrative Writing For Class 3

When it comes to choosing topics for narrative writing, it’s essential to consider the interests and experiences of Class 3 students. Here are some suggestions that can engage their creativity and imagination:

1. My Best Birthday Celebration
2. A Day at the Amusement Park
3. The Magic Treehouse Adventure
4. My First Day of School
5. A Visit to the Zoo
6. The Mystery of the Missing Toy
7. My Family’s Exciting Vacation
8. The Day I Met a Talking Animal
9. A Rainy Day Adventure
10. The Treasure Hunt in Grandma’s Attic

Exercises For Developing Narrative Writing For Class 3

To help Class 3 students improve their narrative writing skills, engaging exercises and prompts can be beneficial. Here are a few exercises that stimulate storytelling abilities:

1. Story Starters: Provide students with sentence starters or story prompts to kick-start their narratives.
2. Picture Prompts: Show students a picture and ask them to write a narrative based on what they see. This exercise enhances their descriptive skills and encourages imagination.
3. Story Mapping: Ask students to create a story map or outline before writing their narratives. This helps them organize their ideas, develop a logical sequence of events, and maintain coherence.
4. Character Development: Have students create detailed character profiles for the main characters in their narratives. This exercise helps them understand their characters better and make their stories more engaging.
5. Peer Feedback: Encourage students to share their narratives with their peers and provide constructive feedback. This promotes collaboration, revision skills, and a deeper understanding of storytelling techniques.

Conclusion On Narrative Writing For Class 3

Narrative writing is an invaluable tool for Class 3 students to express their thoughts, experiences, and imagination. By understanding the format, exploring examples, choosing interesting topics, and practicing through exercises, students can hone their narrative writing skills. The benefits of narrative writing extend beyond language development, fostering creativity, critical thinking, and empathy. Encouraging students to engage in narrative writing at a young age sets a solid foundation for their future academic and personal growth.

6 Exercises That Reveal How Fit You Really Are

CBSE Previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 English Outside Delhi 2015

CBSE Previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 English Outside Delhi 2015

Time allowed : 3 hours                                                                                           Maximum Marks: 100
General Instructions :

  1. This paper is divided into three sections : A, B and C. All the sections are compulsory.
  2. Separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary. Read these instructions very carefully and follow them faithfully.
  3. Do not exceed the prescribed word limit while answering the questions.

SET I

SECTION —A
(READING)

1. Read the passage given below carefully:

  1. For four days, I walked through the narrow lanes of the old city, enjoying the romance of being in a city where history still lives – in its cobblestone streets and in its people riding asses, carrying vine leaves and palm as they once did during the time of Christ.
  2. This is Jerusalem, home to the sacred sites of Christianity, Islam and Judaism. This is the place that houses the church of the Holy Sepulchre, the place where Jesus was finally laid to rest. This is also the site of Christs crucifixion, burial and resurrection.
  3. Built by the Roman Emperor Constantine at the site of an earlier temple to Aphrodite, it is the most venerated Christian shrine in the world. And justifiably so. Here, within the church, are the last five stations of the cross, the 10th station where Jesus was stripped of his clothes, the 11th where he was nailed to the cross, the 12* where he died on the cross, the 13th where the body was removed from the cross, and the 14th, his tomb.
  4.  For all this weighty tradition, the approach and entrance to the church is non-descript. You’ have to ask for directions. Even to the devout Christian pilgrims walking along the Via Dolorosa — The Way of Sorrow — first nine stations look clueless. Then a courtyard appears, hemmed in by other buildings and a doorway to one side. This leads to a vast area of huge stone architecture.
  5. Immediately inside the entrance is your first stop. It’s the stone of anointing: this is the place, according to Greek tradition, where Christ was removed from the cross. The Roman Catholics, however, believe it to be the spot where Jesus’ body was prepared for burial by Joseph.
  6. What happened next ? Jesus was buried. .He was taken to a place outside the city of Jerusalem where other graves existed and there, he was buried in a cave. However, all that is long gone, destroyed by continued attacks and rebuilding; what remains is the massive – and impressive – Rotunda (a round building with a dome) that Emperor Constantine built. Under this, and right in the centre of the Rotunda, is the structure that contains the Holy Sepulchre.
  7. “How do you know that this is Jesus’ tomb ?” I asked one of the pilgrims standing next to me. He was clueless, more interested, like the rest of them, in the novelty of it all and in photographing it, than in its history or tradition.
  8. At the start of the first century, the place was a disused quarry outside the city walls. According to the gospels, Jesus’ crucifixion occurred ‘at a place outside the city walls with graves nearby Archaeologists have discovered tombs from that era, so the site is compatible with the Biblical period.
  9.  The structure at the site is a marble tomb built over the original burial chamber. It has two rooms, and you enter four at a time into the first of these, the Chapel of the Angel. Here the angle is. supposed to have sat on a stone to recount Christs resurrection. A low door made of white marble, partly worn away by pilgrims’ hands, leads to a smaller chamber inside. This is the ‘room of the tomb’, the place where Jesus was buried.
  10. We entered in single file. On my right was a large marble slab that covered the original rock bench on which the body of Jesus was laid. A woman knelt and prayed. Her eyes were wet with tears. She pressed her face against -the slab to hide them, but it only made it worse.

I. On the basis of your understanding of this passage answer the following questions with the help of given options :
(a) How does Jerusalem still retain the charm of ancient era ?
(i) There are narrow lanes.
(ii) Roads are paved with cobblestones.
(iii) People can be seen riding assess.
(iv) All of the above.
(b) Holy Sepulchre is sacred to————–.
(i) Christianity.
(ii) Islam.
(iii) Judaism.
(iv) Both (i) and (iii).
(c) Why does one have to constantly ask for directions to the church ?
(i) Its lanes are narrow.
(ii) Entrance to the church is non-descript.
(iii) People are not tourist-friendly.
(iv) Everyone is lost in enjoying the romance of the place.
(d) Where was Jesus buried ?
(i) In a cave.
(ii) At a place outside the city.
(iii) In the Holy Sepulchre
(iv) Both (i) and (ii)
Answer.
(a) (iv) All of the above.
(b) (i) Christianity.
(c) (ii) Entrance to the church is non-descript.
(d) (iv) Both (i) and (ii).

II. Answer the following questions briefly:
(e) What is the Greek belief about the ‘stone of anointing’ ?
(f) Why did Emperor Constantine build the Rotunda ?
(g) What is the general attitude of the pilgrims ?
(h) How is the site compatible with the Biblical period ?
(i) Why did the pilgrims enter the room of the tomb in a single file ?
(j) Why did ‘a woman’ try to hide her tears ?
(k) Find words from the passage which mean the same as :
(i) A large grave (para 3)
(ii) Having no interesting features/dull (para 4)
Answer.
(e) According to the Greek belief, the stone of anointing is a place where Christ was removed from the cross.
(f) Emperor Constantine built Rotunda to safeguard the Holy Sepulchre and the remaining structure around it.
(g) Pilgrims have a very casual attitude and they are completely unaware about the history and tradition. They are more into capturing pictures and appreciating the novelty of the church.
(h) According to the gospels, Jesus’ Crucifixion occurred ‘at a place outside the city walls with graves nearby…’ and as the archaeologists have discovered tombs from the Biblical era, the site is compatible.
(i) ‘Room of the tomb’ is a very small place, hence the pilgrims entered in a single file.
(j) The woman knelt down to pray looking at the large marble slab and wanted to hide her tears as she became very sentimental.
(k) (i) Tomb.
(ii) Non-descript.

2. Read the passage given below: [10]

  1. We often make all things around us the way we want them to be. Even during our pilgrimages we have begun to look for whatever makes our heart happy, gives comfort to our body and peace to the mind. It is as if external solutions will fulfil our needs, and we do not want to make any special efforts even in our spiritual search. Our mind is resourceful — it works to find shortcuts in simple and easy ways.
  2. Even pilgrimages have been converted into tourism opportunities. Instead, we must awaken our conscience and souls and understand the truth. Let us not tamper with our own nature of that of the Supreme.
  3. All our cleverness is rendered ineffective when nature does a dance of destruction. Its fury can and will wash away all imperfections. Indian culture, based on Vedic treatises, assists in human evolution, but we are using our entire energy in distorting these traditions according to our convenience instead of making efforts to make ourselves worthy of them.
  4. The irony is that humans are not even aware of the complacent attitude they have allowed themselves to sink to. Nature is everyone’s Amma and her fierce blows will sooner or later corner us and force us to understand this truth. Earlier, pilgrimages to places of spiritual significance were rituals that were undertaken when people became free from their worldly duties. Even now some seekers take up this pious religious journey as a path to peace and knowledge. Anyone travelling with this attitude feels and travels with only a few essential items that his body can Carry. ‘Pilgrims traditionally travelled light, on foot, eating light, dried chickpeas and fruits or whatever was available. Pilgrims of olden days did not feel the need to stay in special AC bedrooms, or travel by luxury cars or indulge themselves with delicious food and savouries.
  5. Pilgrims traditionally moved ahead, creating a feeling of belonging towards all, conveying a message of brotherhood among all they came across whether in small caves, ashrams or local settlements. They received the blessings and congregations of yogis and mahatmas in return while , conducting the dharma of their pilgrimage. A pilgrimage is like penance of sadhana to stay near nature and, to experience a feeling of oneness with it, to keep the body healthy and fulfilled with the amount of food, while seeking freedom from attachments and yet remaining happy while staying away from relatives and associates.
  6. This is how a pilgrimage should be, rather than making it like a picnic by taking a large group along and living in comfort, packing in entertainment, and tampering with environment. What is worse is giving a boost to the ego of having had a special darshan. Now alms are distributed, charity is done while they brag about their spiritual experiences !
  7. We must embark on our spiritual journey by first understanding the grace and significance of a pilgrimage and following it up with the prescribed rules and rituals – this is what translates into the ultimate and beautiful medium of spiritual evolution. There is no justification for tampering with nature.
  8. A pilgrimage is symbolic of contemplation, meditauon and acceptance, and is a metaphor for the constant growth or movement and love for nature that we should hold in our hearts.
  9. This is the truth!

I. On the basis of your understanding of the above passage answer the questions that follow with the help of given options:
(a) How can a pilgrim keep his body healthy ?
(i) By travelling light
(ii) By eating small amount of food
(iii) By keeping free from attachments
(iv) Both (i) and (ii)
Answer. (iv) Both (i) and (ii)

(b) How do we satisfy our ego ?
(i) By having a special darshan
(ii) By distributing alms
(iii) By treating it like a picnic
(iv) Both (i) and (ii)
Answer. (iv) Both (i) and (ii)

II. Answer the following as briefly as possible :
(c) What change has taken place in our attitude towards pilgrimages ?
Answer . Earlier pilgrimages were a penance to stay near nature and did not require luxury rooms and big cars to travel, now they have become more of a tourism opportunity where people go for a picnic.

(d) What happens when pilgrimages are turned into picnics?
Answer. When pilgrimages turn into picnics, the entire significance of pilgrimage as sadhana is lost. It becomes more of a social gathering, a life of comfort and a boost to ego, where pilgrims brag about charity and their special darshan.

(e) Why are we complacent in our spiritual efforts ?
Answer. Pilgrimages are no more of travelling on foot and living in the ashrams with basic necessities, it has become a picnic with all the comfort, AC rooms, travelling by car with a large group to have all the fun and entertainment. Hence, we are complacent in our spiritual efforts. ‘ ,

(f) How does nature respond when we try to be clever with it ?
Answer. When we try to be dever with nature it does a dance of destruction. Its anger washes away all imperfections are ruining our bodies because of the extra comfort that we are adapting our bodies into. We ate not making any efforts to make our body work and adjust in adverse conditions rather making it all the more tender. Nature is just like everyone’s Amma and would act destructive by affecting our health etc. Sooner or later and force us to understand this truth.

(g) In olden days with what attitude did people go on a pilgrimage ?
Answer. In olden days, pilgrimages were more of a sadhna to love people, stay close to the nature, understand it, stay healthy and eat healthy. It was also for seeking freedom from attachment.

(h) What message does the passage convey to the prilgrims ?
Answer. It conveys the mass age that pilgrimages are a religious connotation and undertaken for ritualistic purposes, to understand the realities of life, to stay close to nature and should not be taken as a tourism opportunity where you gather a large group, enjoy amongst all the luxuries and make a life rest upon only comfort.

(i)Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following:
(i) made/turned (para 3)
(ii) very satisfied (para 4).
Answer . (i) Rendered (ii) Complacent.

3. Read the passage given below:
It is surprising that sometimes we don’t listen to what people say to us. We hear them, but we don’t listen to them. I was curious to know,how hearing is different from listening. I had thought both were synonyms, but gradually, I realized there is a big difference between the two words.
Hearing is a physical phenomenon. Whenever somebody speaks, the sound waves generated reach you, and you definitely hear whatever is said to you. However, even if you hear something, it doesn’t always mean that you actually understand whatever is being said. Paying attention to whatever you hear means you are really listening. Consciously using your mind to understand whatever is being said is listening. .
Diving deeper, I found that listening is not only hearing with attention, but is much more than that. Listening is hearing with full attention, and applying our mind. Most of the time, we listen to someone, but our minds are full of needless chatter and there doesn’t seem to be enough space to accommodate what is being spoken.
We come with a lot of prejudices and preconceived notions about the speaker or the subject on which he/she is talking. We pretend to listen to the speaker, but deep inside, we sit in judgement and are dying to pronounce right or wrong, true or false, yes or no. Sometimes, we even come prepared with a negative mindset of proving the speaker wrong. Even if the speaker says nothing harmful, we are ready to pounce on him with our own version of things.
What we should ideally do is listen first with full awareness. Once, we do that, we can decide whether we want to make a judgement or not. Once, we do that, communication will be perfect and our interpersonal relationship will become so much better. Listening well doesn’t mean one has to say the right thing at the right moment. In fact, sometimes if words are left unspoken, there is a feeling of tension and negativity. Therefore, it is better to speak out your mind, but do so with awareness after listening to the speaker with full concentration.
Let’s look at this in another way. When you really listen, you imbibe not only what is being spoken, but you also understand what is not spoken as well. Most of the time we don’t really listen even to people who really matter to us. That’s how misunderstandings grow among families, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters.

(A) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate tide to it.
Answer .
1. Listening Vs. Hearing
1.1 Difference between the two synonyms .
1.2 Hearing but not listening
1.3 Paying attention
1.4 Hearing as a physical phenomenon
1.5 Consciously using your mind
1.6 Mind full of needless chatter
1.7 Accommodating what is said
2. Judgement about the speaker
2.1 Prejudiced and preconceived notions
2.2 Neg. mindset
2.3 Proving our ver. of things right
3. Ideal way of listening
3.1 Listen first
3.2 Listen with awareness
3.3 Think before you judge
3.4 Words unspoken leave a feeling of tension and negativity
3.5 Speak-your mind out
4. Listening to understand people
4.1 Imbibe what is not spoken
4.2 Times when we don’t listen to people who matter
4.3 Triggers misunderstanding
List of abbreviations used
1. Vs.—Versus
2. Neg. — Negative
3. Ver. – Version
4. Don’t – Do not
Tide – Listening Versus Hearing

(B) Write a summary of die passage in about 80 words.
Answer . Sometimes, we hear people but do not listen to them attentively. The difference between the two synonyms is that one is a physical phenomenon while the other is a conscious use of mind.
We, as listeners, often have preconceived notions about the speaker. We come prepared with a negative mindset, tend to prove them wrong and pounce our own version of things. Ideally, we should listen to them, understand their perception and stop judging them in order to avoid misunderstandings.

SECTION- B
(WRITING SKILLS)

4. lour school, Akash Public School, Agra needs a Canteen Manager. On behalf of the Principal, write an advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the classified columns of a local daily. Mendon the educational and professional qualifications, other qualities required in the manager, who to apply to and the last date for the receipt of applications.
OR
Your dub is going to organise an interclass singing competition. Write a notice in about 50 words inviting names of the students who want to participate in it. Give all the necessary details. You are Navtej/Navita, Secretary, Music Club, Akash Public School, Agra.
Answer.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-english-delhi-2016-1
OR
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-english-outside-delhi-2015-2

5. You are Navtej/Navita, Secretary, Environment Club, Akash Public School, Agra. You, along with a group of students, went on a 3-day tour through Corbett National Park. You – found how the tourists abuse the available facilities and thus endanger the environment. Write a letter in 120 -150 words to the editor of a national daily highlighting the situation. 
Suggest ways through which the environment of the Park can be saved.
OR
On Teacher’s Day, you read in a newspaper that privately owned and managed schools in small towns or even in the suburbs of metropolitan cities exploit their teachers by paying them just a fraction of their authorised salaries. This effects their performance in the classroom and thus the lives of their students. Write a letter in 120 -150 words to the editor of a national daily raising yoiir voice against such exploitation. Suggest ways to solve this problem. You are Navtej/Navita, 112 Taj Road, Agra.
Answer.
Akash Public School Agra
5 March 2015
The Editor, ,
The Hindu New Delhi
Subject : The harmful effects of tourism on the Corbett National Park –
Dear Sir,
Through the columns of your esteemed daily, I would like to draw the attention of the concerned authority to the rainpant abuse of available facilities in the Corbett National Park by tourists and the subsequent endangerment to the environment, . :
The tourists not only litter the place with non- biodegradable plastic packets and wrappers, but also use wood frqpi the forests for cooking purposes. Excessive trampling of the soil has been reported to have .a harmful effect on the natural ecosystem. The tranquility of the habitat, which is so crucial to the resident fauna, is habitually disturbed by tourists playing loud music in their safari jeeps and during their camps.
The Corbett National Park is the oldest in the country, established in 1936, to protect the endangered Bengal Tiger. The public should be made aware of the fact that eco-tourism should not be facilitated at the cost of harming the “environment. It is my request that this issue should be immediately taken up by your esteemed publication to generate further awareness. ‘
Yours sincerely,
Navita
Secretary
Environment Club
OR
112, Taj Road
Agra
2 March 2015
The Editor,
The Hindu New Delhi
Subject : The harmful effects of tourism on the Corbett National Park
Dear Sir,
It is said that the teachers in privately owned and managed schools in small towns and metropolitan suburbs are being exploited. On the occasion of Teacher’s Day, this issue was brought to light in another national daily, mentioning that the teachers employed in such schools are paid a fraction of their authorized salaries.
Such a malpractice is seen to affect the performance of the teachers in the classroom, as most teachers take up other jobs to put an end to such exploitation and do not put in the requisite hours of teaching in the schools. The school trust pays these teachers much less than the amount they were promised, leading to resignations and constant changes in the faculty. This has affected students performance and led to an atmosphere of uncertainty in the schools, which is detrimental to the cause of education.
As a nation that prides itself on revering its teachers, it must be noted that we cannot build a future for our students if we do not give due credit to our teachers. Therefore, I request your esteemed publication to take up this matter in order to investigate the issue further and mobilize the public towards calling for a complete overhaul in the education system of the country.
Yours sincerely,
Navtej

6. The government has banned the use of animals in the laboratories for the purpose of dissection. Write a debate in 150 — 200 words either for or against this decision.
OR
Some people feel that electronic media (TV news) will bring about the end of print media (newspapers). What are your views on the issue ? Write a debate in 150 – 200 words either for or against this view.
* use of visuals on TV
* authentic and fast .
* not enough news for 24-hour telecast
* may fabricate news
* become repetitive and dull
* even scandals become news
* print media – time tested
* analysed, verified news
* editorial comments
* cater to all interests
Answer . Good morning everyone, Today I am going to express my views against the motion “Banning the use of animals for dissection”.
Dissection of animals in the school laboratories, provides a practical experience for the theoretical knowledge that students gain from books. They procure an opportunity to actually put their learning into practice. It should not be looked at as a unjust practice because such an activity is meant to develop the student’s knowledge of the elements and functions of the living being.
The dissection of animals has a scientific purpose; it is a mode of hands-on education for students such that they learn outside of the pages of the textbook and actually look at what they are being taught. We should give more credit to the sensitivity and intelligence of our students, so as not to believe that a dissection class will make them more prone to animal violence. Students should be taught the value of animal life by making them understand how an animal has the same kind of organs as human beings that perform similar functions. The governing philosophy behind teaching students to dissect animals should be that life, whether human or animal, is the same; each living being is tied to each other by their inner similarity.
Thus, a ban on dissection of animals in school laboratories would not be the best course of action in such a case. I hope my views on this topic were substantial enough to throw a light on this topic.
Thank you.
OR
Good morning everyone. Today I take the opportunity to express my argument against the motion on the belief that electronic media (TV news) will bring about the end of print media (newspaper).
TV news that strives towards authentic and fast reportage , is always at risk of fabricating its content to continue being in circulation. The governing principle for the 24-hours news format is that whether or not news constitutes-the element of worthiness, it should be covered on the channel. If there is nothing worth reporting then the content can be made sensational just to gain better TRP and currency. It tends to become repetitive and dull, scandals are allowed to become news and popularity becomes the main objective. The ambition of TV news to be the soul guardian of objective truth in the field of journalism can be considered to be a tall claim as more often it becomes a site for promotion of commercial products and sensational content in the grab of news. Print media is a time tested medium of information dissemination. The time taken to publish engenders that the content of the report has been analyzed and verified to offer a composite picture to the reader. Editorial commentary ensures an informed view on the issues at hand. Newspapers are far from extinction, they are still a tried and time tested mode of receiving the world at our doorstep. Thus, the electronic media can never overrule the print media.
Thank you.
For :
The means for obtaining news of the world has been a paradigm shift from newspapers to television, especially due to the arrival of the 24-hours news format, reception of news is constant and on the go. The entire news landscape has changed as we are subjected to the concept of breaking news, that is, receiving news as it breaks and without waiting for the newspaper to arrive the next day with an account of events that have already been telecasts by then. The power of visuals on TV has a far wider reach and a more direct impact on the audience while print media still depends on some amount of education and comprehension on the part of readers. The power of the television medium is that the image is a direct message which does not need to be read or deciphered. TV news strives towards authenticity, covering all vantage points for maximum coverage and it is delivered fresh and fast. In such a case, it contributes towards the redundancy of the print media.

7. Ragging has raised its ugly head again. A recent incident at a prestigious school has shown that this evil has not yet come to an end. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on ‘Ragging, an Evil’. You are Navtej/Navita.
* a practice from the British era
* original aim, respect for hierarchy
* enforcing traditions, discipline
* Prefect – a teacher substitute
* misuse of authority
* vulgar aspect
* fatalities
* solution
India is a tourist’s dream destination. Give your views on the tourism potential of India in an article in 150 – 200 words. You are Navtej/Navita.
* places of worship – religious tourism
* foreigners-places of historical interest
* the rich – hill stations during summers
— the sun-kissed beaches in winters
— leisure tourism
* medical tourism — world class hospitals
Answer.
The Evil of Ragging in Educational Institutions
By Navita
Ragging is an evil heirloom, left over from the British era when it was practised in English colleges and Universities to teach the social hierarchy and instill important values since it was believed that the students were lacking in such knowledge due to their immaturity. Unfortunately, these practices gradually became prevalent in educational institutions. The history of. the best Educational Institutions in India is blackened with traumatic cases of brutal ragging, especially in Engineering and Medical Colleges. Ragging was practiced to enforce traditions and discipline freshers into respecting their seniors and the academic hierarchy at such institutions. In a school, ‘Prefect’ is considered to be a teacher’s substitute. However, that does not mean that he/she can misuse his/her authority and indulge in the abuse of power, which happened in a recent case at a prestigious school. Schools are centres of learning and wholesome development, but when power equations within the student, displaying its vulgar aspect, it can lead to fatalities such as continued mental trauma or even death. The solution is to sensitize students and bring awareness to stop the harmful practice of ragging. In order to have able-bodied and healthy-minded future citizens of India, we need to eradicate such practices.
OR
Tourism Potential of India
By Navtej
India has been blessed with a geographical, cultural and linguistic diversity, which is so rich and varied that one will need a lifetime to explore each and every part of India. The tourism potential of India is immense and still to be explored fully. Each century has brought a new culture on to Indian soil leading to a diversified commingling that has shaped modern India.
India is well known all over the world, for its ancient civilization and the artifacts recovered and being excavated till today, prove the genuineness of the claims.
The ancient history of our culture has left behind exquisite monuments and temples together with archaeological finds for the tourist who are interested in them. Besides this, our country has been blessed with natural scenic beauty, right from the coast lines and beaches to the majestic mountains and hill stations.
Tourism is a high potential industry over the world and there are several economies which are totally based on the tourism industry for their survival. The amount of money involved and high value returns could be mind boggling and India likely, would successfully develop an infrastructure conducive to the promotion of the tourism industry.
There are so many places of historical interest, heirlooms left over from the various centuries. From the mosques to the temples and churches, India is a living testament to its vast and varied religious heritage. Being a democratic country, every religion in India has full liberty to celebrate its special festivals in which the entire country participates as a whole. For those looking to just get away from the madding crowd, hill stations during summers, the sun- kissed beaches in winter and leisure tourism are the go-to options. Over the years, medical tourism has also emerged as an extremely viable option, considering world-class facilities are made available at half the prices here, enabling more people to come to India for their health care.
The options enumerated so far are just some instances of India’s diversified tourist potential. There is so much more waiting to be explored in what can truely be the dream destination for tourists.

SECTION-C
(Literature: Text Books and Long Reading Text )

8. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
and looked out at young trees sprinting, the merry children spilling out of their homes, but after the airport’s security check, standing a few yards away, I looked again at her, wan, pale as a late winter’s moon and felt that old familiar ache,
(a) How can the trees sprint ?
(b) Why did the poet look at her mother again ?
(c) What did she observe ?
(d) Identify the figure of speech used in these lines.
OR
On their slag heap, these children
Wear skins peeped through by bones and spectacles of steel t With mended glass, like bottle bits on stones.
(a)Who are these children ?
(b) What is their slag heap ?
(c) Why are their bones peeping through their skins ?
(d) What does ‘with mended glass’ mean ?
Answer.
(a) The poetess is driving to the Cochin Airport. When she looks outside, the young tress seem to Jpe walking past them. With the speed of the car they seem to be running fast or sprinting. The poetess represents A contrast between her ‘dozing’ mother and the ‘sprinting’ young trees.
(b) The poetess looked at her mother again because she was pained to look at her ageing, pale face after she saw the world full of life and activity.
(c) She observed the pale and colourless face of her mother that resembles the late winter moon which lacks brightness as well as strength, like her mother did at that age.
(d) The figures of speech used in these lines are simile: The ‘wan, pale’ face to the mother is compared to ‘a late winter s moon, and personification: ‘trees sprinting….’
OR
(a) These are slum children who go to elementary school of . the slum.
(b) Their slag heap is the heap of waste on which they live, roam and play.
(c) Their bones are peeping through their skins as they are malnourished.
(d) ‘Mended glass’ means broken spectacles. This shows their poverty and inability to buy new glasses.

9. Answer any four of the following in 30 to 40 words :
(a) What did garbage mean to the children of Seemapuri and to their parents ?
(b) How did Rajkumar Shukla establish that he was resolute ?
(c) ‘Life is what it is all about…..’ How is keeping quiet related to life ?
(d) Mention any four things of beauty that add joy to our life.
(e) The manner of his (the Tiger King’s) death is a matter of extraordinary interest. Comment.
(f) In what condition did Dr. Sadao find the American soldier at the seashore ?
Answer.
(a) Small slum children scrounge heaps of garbage. They expect to get some coins, notes or valuable things in it. Sometimes they find a rupee or even a ten rupee note. This gives the hope of finding more. So, they search it excitedly. For children, garbage is wrapped in wonder. For the elders it is a means of survival. Thus, garbage has two different meanings.
(b) Rajkumar Shukla established that he was resolute as he had come all the way from Champaran District in the foothills of Himalayas to Luck now to speak to Gapdhiji. Shukla accompanied Gandhiji everywhere. He also followed him to the Ashram near Ahmedabad. For weeks he never left Gandhi’s side till Gandhiji asked him to meet at Calcutta.
(c) The poet says, ‘Life is what it is about…’ as he advocates and suggests the necessity of quiet introspection but does not advocate total inactivity and death. Total inactivity brings death, while stillness entails rest for a moment so that pne can have calm self-realization as otherwise the people of the world are over active and always on the move. The poet wants ‘no truck with death.’ Keeping quiet is related to doing activities in a purposeful and thoughtful manner.
(d) Everything of nature is a thing of beauty and a source of pleasure. Some of them are : the sun, the moon, old and young trees, flowers, small streams with clear water, masses of ferns, blooming musk-rose and lovely tales, etc. all of these are the things of beauty.
(e) The Maharaja of Pratibandapuram was told that a tiger would be the cause of his death and warned him to be careful of the hundredth tiger. When the Maharaja tried to shoot the hundredth tiger it had only fainted.
The king purchased a wooded tiger to offer to his son as a birthday present. It’s silver pierced Maharaja’s right hand. It is ironical that the infection spread and the king died. The manner of death made the prediction come true in the most extraordinary manner.
(f) Dr. Sadao found the American soldier in a wounded condition at the sea shore. He was very weak and pale. He had a bullet stuck in his wound. His face looked tortured and his back was stained with blood. From his battered cap, he learnt that he was a sailor from an’American Warship. He was almost at the verge of death, if Sadao had not saved him.

10. Answer the following in 120-150 words : –
Even today so many among us believe in superstitions. An astrologer predicted about ‘the Tiger King’ that he would – be killed by a tiger. He ‘killed’ one hundred tigers yet was himself ‘killed’ by a tiger. How did the superstitious belief ‘prevail’ ?
OR
Dr. Sadao faced a dilemma. Should he use his surgical skills to save the life of a wounded person or hand an escaped American P.O.W. over to the Japanese police ? How did he resolve this clash of values ?
Answer . On his birth, the astrologers had predicted that the Maharaja’s death would be caused by the hundredth tiger. As soon as the Maharaja learnt of this, he started killing tigers. This shows that though people believed in superstition, the Maharaja wanted to prove the prophecy wrong. After killing all the tigers in his kingdom, he married a girl whose state had a large tiger population. He killed the tigers in his father- in-law’s kingdom too. He was assured that he had killed hundred tigers and was still alive, but ironically, his death was caused by a wooden tiger. While playing with his son and his wooden tiger, a rough surface pierced the Maharaja’s hand causing infection that later led to his death. Destiny had taken its revenge for trying to overrule it. The superstitious belief prevailed as the hundredth tiger led to the Maharaja’s death.
OR
A conflict of interests arises in a situation when someone in a position of trust, such as a doctor, has competing interests that make it difficult to fulfill his duties. Dr. Sadao was a Japanese surgeon who lived in Japan during the Second World War. He had spent several years in the United States where he had experienced cultural prejudice and bias. He struggled with issues of duty, wartime medicine and racism. Yet he ris¬ked his life to save an enemy, an American and a prisoner of war. He, like a real hero stood up for what he believes in and does not calculate the repercussions. He strike a balance bet¬ween his duty towards humanity and his country. He tends to the soldier, reveals the truth about him to the General and later on helped the soldier escape to safety. He can be viewed as a true hero for his bravery and professional competence.

11. Answer the following question in 120 — 150 words :
Everybody during the last lesson is filled with regret. Comment. (The Last Lesson)
OR
Sophie lives in a world full of dreams which she does not know she cannot realise. Comment.
Answer. According to the order from Berlin, only German was to be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. This order left Mr. Hamel, the village people and Mr. Hamel’s students in deep regret. The villagers regretted not having made utmost use of the French lessons that had been given by Mr. Hamel. They had engaged themselves in their profession to earn a living and had not taken their French lessons seriously. The children and the villagers sitting in the class had always thought that they had enough time to learn the language. But now, during the last French lesson, everybody realised their mistake. They realised how little they knew of their native language. They all attended the last lesson to mark their respect towards their teacher and their country, which was no longer theirs.
OR
’The chapter “Going Places” begins with Sophie telling Julie that one day she would either have a boutique or be an actress. If she ever becomes an actress, she would have the boutique on the side as actresses do not work full time. This clearly shows that Sophie loves living in a world of dreams. Perhaps we can take these dreams as being achievable ones. But her fantasy about the football player Danny Casey shows us that she lives completely lost in her world of fantasies. She strongly believes that she has met Danny Casey despite people not believing in her words. She is so deeply lost in her world of dreams that she does not even doubt her capability of achieving them. Towards the end of the chapter, we see her imagination getting a boost when she sees Danny Casey crisply striking the ball into the goal.

12. Answer the following in 120-150 words :
Describe how Silas Mamber is betrayed by his friend, William Dane.
OR
Why and how did Griffin rob the Vicar’s house ?
Answer . Silas Marner and Dane had become close friends, spending almost all their time in each others company. Silas had for some months been engaged to a young woman servant -flamed Sarah. The two of them often used to meet each other and were quite often joined by William Dane whose presence they never resented. However, Dane had begun to feel jealous of Silas Marner because he had developed a liking for the girl • ; apd wanted to marry her.
Dane played a treachery on him. One night as Silas was watching the clergyman, he found that the deacon was dead and that Dane, had not come. Silas went out to inform the villagers and went home. Later, he was called to a meeting and charged with the theft-of the deacons money from near . his bed. Silas was shocked that Dane was his chief accuser. On search of Silas’ cottage, the empty bag of money was found concealed in a corner. The chapel members were convinced for Mariners guilt. Everyone went against him.
The fact that Sarah broke off the engagement with him and married William a month later also points to the fact that the latter betrayed Silas in order to remove him from his way.
OR
It was four in the morning before dawn; Mrs. Bunting woke up suddenly on hearing the door of their bedroom open and dose. The Vicar (priest) and his wife heard the noises in the house and went to investigate. They distinctly heard a fumbling going on at his study desk down stairs, and then a violent sneeze. Armed with poker, he descended the staircase as noiselessly as possible. Everything was still. Then something snapped, the drawer was opened, there was a rustle of papers. A match was struck and the study room was flooded with yellow light. A candle was lit on the desk, but there was no robber. They heard the sound of money, and realized that the robber had found the housekeeping reserve of gold. The money was gone from the drawer. As they rushed out in the passage, the kitchen door slammed. They entered the kitchen and found no one at the place. There was nobody to be found in the entire house.

13. Answer the following question in 120 – 150 words :
‘Evil begets evil’. In the light of this remark, describe the character of Dunstan Cass.
OR
Attempt a character sketch of Mrs. Hall.
Answer . Dunstan Cass is Squire Cass’ son and Godfrey’s younger brother. He is described as a “spiteful jeering fellow” at the very outset in the chapter 3. We know that he is not as handsome as his brother. He is a selfish and dishonest person who is given to drinking. He knows his brother’s weak points and takes advantage of them to the fullest. Towards the end of the chapter four, he comes out to be a little over-confident about his abilities and his luck. After striking a good bargain for Wildfire, he foolishly participates in the hunt to earn some extra money. However, the horse dies and he is left with nothing. On his way home, he stops at Silas’ cottage. Having a “mind of a possible felon” he quickly finds the bags of gold that Silas had hidden and gets off with them. Evil deeds brought sheer fun to Dunstan. A reader almost seems relieved when Dunstan’s life comes to an end.
OR
Mrs. Janny Hall was a warm-hearted hostess and owner of the inn “Coach and Horses”. The first impression that she creates, presents her in an unpleasant light. She rents the inn-parlour to a stranger without bothering to confirm his identity because he projects himself to be a rich customer.
At this point Mrs. Hall appears to be an opportunist and a money-minded woman. However, the manner in which she puts up with Griffin’s rude behavior shows that she was actually-a very polite hostess who took her duty seriously. She goes out of her way to make her guest’s stay comfortable. Her courteous nature and her hospitality win the appreciation of the reader. But her polite temperament does not make her weak in any way. When the invisible Man crosses all limits of etiquettes, Mrs. Hall firmly puts her foot down refusing to oblige him any further. She denies continuing with the assured services till he cleared all the pending bills. She stands up courageously against an arrogant man like Griffin. She charts her way without letting even her husband to influence her. Mrs. Hall can thus be considered as an independent business woman who is capable of taking her decisions without any support or assistance from others.

SET II

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

SECTION-B 
(Advanced Writing Skills)

7. Mid day meal scheme in the school introduced by the government serves several purposes. Millions of children from the deprived sections of society get nutritious food leading to good health, are attracted to the schools, kept from going astray and, thus developed into good citizens. The scheme may have some drawbacks too. Write an article in 150-200 words on all aspects of the scheme. You are Navtej/Navita.
OR
Morning assembly in the school gives a cool and calm start to the otherwise hectic schedule of the day. It can be a means of passing important information to the students. What are your views on this significant event of the day? Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Importance of Morning Assembly’. You are Navtej/Navita.
Answer. Mid day meal
By Navtej
The mid day meal scheme in schools was initiated with the dual objective of improving the nutritional status of children in classes, one to five in government schools and government- aided schools also encouraging children from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds to attend school regularly. It is a measure taken by the government to ensure that by meeting the nutritional requirements of the students, they would also be helping them in concentrating in school activities. The aim is also to keep children in schools, enable them to devote time to their education rather than leave the school to labour for food or get involved in criminal activities. The scheme estimates that a cooked mid day meal provides a child with a minimum of 300 calories and 8-12 grams of protein. This scheme was revised to cover children in the upper primary section, from the year 2007. The programme is carried out with the help of the local authorities. However, certain issues have cropped up. There has been a lot of eases of food poisoning resulting from the partaking of these mid day meals. In some schools, funds meant for such purposes have been funnelled off into the pockets of those in charge of distributing the grains. The government must inquire into all aspects of the schemes, check the supply chain of food grains, impose strict measures for observance of cleanliness in the school kitchens and ensure that the intention-with which the scheme was started, i.e., to help the students, continues to be the cornerstone of the scheme.
OR
Importance of Morning Assembly
By Navita
The morning assembly in schools starts the day on a cool and calm note, a short breath, before the hectic school day begins with classes, courses and extra-curricular activities, swamping our time. It offers a moment of reflection before the working day begins, the school community meets together and the assembly becomes a medium of communicating matters of significance to the students. The morning assembly is a time when the whole school assembles in the field or school auditorium, prays together, shares information and begins the day joindy on a note of quiet reflection, which is so crucial in preparing for the hectic day ahead. The most important thing is that the assembly imparts a clear sense of vision that there are moments of peace, even if the day seems like there is too much on our plates.

SECTION – C
(Literature : Text Books And Long Reading Text)

9. Answer any four of the following in 30-40 words each:
(a) What does Saheb look for in the garbage dumps ?
(b) How was Gandhi treated at Rajendra Prasad’s house ?
(c) Why does one feel ‘a sudden strangeness’ on counting to twelve and keeping quiet ?
(d) Mention any two things which cause pain and suffering (A Thing of Beauty).
(e) When was the Tiger King in danger of losing his throne
(f) What role did the American professor play in bringing Han a and Sadao together ?
Answer:
(a) For Saheb, the garbage dump was like a mysterious package, full of wonders and magic. He looked for different kinds of treasures in the garbage, like a silver coin or other tit bits.
(b) When Shukla took Gandhi to Rajendra Prasad’s house, he was out of town. The servants knew Shukla as a poor farmer who was pestering their master to help the indigo share croppers. Seeing Gandhi with him they presumed him to be another farmer and allowed him to stay as Shukla’s companion.’
(c) Counting to twelve and keeping quiet brings in us, a sudden strangeness because we are not used to such quiet and peaceful moments. We fail to understand ourselves, and have created a threat of self-destruction, which will be reduced by counting to twelve.
(d) The things that cause suffering and pain include the scarcity of people with a noble temperament and the unhealthy and miserable ways in which humanity is searching for meaning in life.
(e) It happened when a high-ranking British officer visited Pratibandapuram. He was very fond of hunting tigers and being photographed with the ones he had shot. However, he was refused by the Maharaja for hunting as well as being clicked with the killed tigers. This infuriated him and the Tiger King stood a chance of loosing his throne for this.
(f) Dr. Sadao had met Hana at his American professor s house. The professor and his wife were kind people who wanted to help the foreign students and so invited them to their house. After completing their studies in America, Sadao “and Hana returned to Japan and got married.

11. Answer the following question in 120-150 words :
How different from usual was the atmosphere at school on the day of the last lesson ? (The Last Lesson)
OR
How different is Jansie from Sophie ?
Answer . On usual days, when the school started there would be a huge bustle that could be heard out in the street. Sounds of desks being opened and closed and lessons repeated in unison could he heard. While repeating the lessons, students would put their hands on their ears for better understanding of their lessons and the sound of the teachers great ruler rapping on the table could also be heard. But, on the day of the last lesson, the school was as quiet as on a Sunday morning. The narrator saw his classmates already in their respective places and Mr. Hamel walking up and down holding the scary iron ruler under his arm. When the narrator felt frightened to enter the class Mr. Hamel kindly told him to quickly go to his place as they were about to begin the class without him. Moreover, he saw some villagers were sitting on the last benches.
OR
Though Jansie and Sophie were friends, Jansie was completely unlike Sophie. In the beginning of the chapter “Going places,” when we find Sophie telling Jansie about her dream of having
a boutique, Jansie, wearing an expression of doubt, tried to talk sense into Sophie by telling her that having a boutique required a good investment. When Sophie replied that she would manage to gather the sum, Jansie again revealed her practical mind by saying that it would take Sophie a long time to gather the required amount. She also told Sophie that she would not be made the manager straight away. This shows that Jansie had a fair idea about the hard truth of life, which Sophie lacked. She knew that both Sophie and she were destined to work in a biscuit factory and that Sophie’s dreams were just a wishful thinking.

SET III

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

SECTION – B
(Advanced Writing Skills)

6. Consumerism is increasing .day-by-day. Luxuries of yesterday have become necessities of today. The result is that the more we want the more miserable we become. Write a debate in 150-200 words on ‘The only way to minimize human suffering and pain is to control our needs.’ You are Navtej/Navita.
OR
Migration from villages to cities has led to the spread of urban slums. People living in these slums lead a miserable life. Economic disparity leads to the problems of law and order. Write a debate in 150-200 words on ‘Solution to the problem of misery in the urban slums lies in creating jobs in the villages.’ You are Navtej/Navita.
Answer . There is sufficiency in this world for man’s needs but not for man’s greed’ said Mahatma Gandhi. Respected panel of jury, teachers, my dear friends and not to forget my worthy but misguided opponents. Today, I, Navita, stand before you to speak for the motion on the topic “The only way to minimise human suffering and pain is to control our needs.”
We know that there is sufficiency, in this world for man’s needs, but what if a man mistakes his greed to be his need? Unfortunately, this is the scenario of today. The things that were regarded luxuries by our forefathers are now termed as necessities. We cannot imagine life without certain items like a blender, a washing machine or even a mobile phone. But weren’t our forefathers able to pull of their lives even without these things? It is time that we understand, that we have become slaves of a time when diseases like diabetes weren’t even heard ” . off, Why? It was because people worked hard without taking
the help of such things and so kept their body’s metabolism running. Whatever be the problem, there is only one simple Solution-Controlling our needs and differentiating them from our greed. The more we enslave ourselves, the more we suffer.
Thank You.
OR
Respected panel of jury, teachers, my dear friends and not to forget my worthy but misguided opponents. Today, I Navita, stand before you to speak for the motion of the topic “Solution to the problem of misery in the urban slums lies in creating jobs in the villages.”
Migration is’a major issue faced by cities. In search of a better and brighter future and to fulfill their dreams, people from small towns and villages leave their life back home and move to cities. Unfortunately, their dreams shatter as they get to live in the already overpopulated urban slums, where they gradually get entangled in the deplorable conditions. Besides, the economic disparity that they face in the cities leads them to the problems of law and order. But, have we ever wondered what is the root cause of migration and the problems attached to it? Yes, it is the dearth of jobs in their native place. There is a huge scope for expansion in villages and small towns but people refuse to see it. The more jobs we create in villages and small towns, the less people will migrate, thereby leading to an economically as well as medically stronger India.
Thank you

SECTION-C
(Literature : Text Books and Long Reading Text)

6.Answer any four of the following in 30-40 words each:
(a) “It is his karam, his destiny.” What is Mukesh’s family’s attitude towards their situation?
(b) What were the terms of the indigo contract between the . British landlords and the Indian peasants?
(c) How will ‘keeping quiet? protect our environment?
(d) Which objects of nature does Keats mention as sources of joy in his poem, ‘A Thing of Beauty’?
(e) Why did Tiger King decide to get married?
(f) What was Sadao’s father’s dream for him ? How did Sadao realise it?
Answer.
(a) Mukesh’s family had resigned themselves to their fate. His father was a poor bangle maker and could not send his sons to school. He could only teach them how to make bangles. His family accepted it as their fate and felt that God-given lineage could not be broken.
(b) Most of the arable land in the Champaran district was divided into large estates that were owned by Englishmen and Indian tenants worked for them. They got the agreements from the sharecroppers to pay them compensaton for being released from the 15% arrangement.
(c) By ‘Keeping Quiet’ the poet means that we should stop all our destructive activities that harm nature. If we count up to twelve, and do not talk, the environment will be saved from us.
(d) The poet says that, a beautiful thing is a source of ever
lasting happiness. The few things that add joy to our life are The Sun, The Moon, a bower of trees and a clear stream of water.
(e) The Tiger King was able to kill only seventy tigers in his kingdom. To prove the prophecy wrong, he needed to kill thirty more tigers. He decided to marry a girl from a royal family of a state with a large tiger population so that he could kill thirty more tigers.
(f) Sadao’s father dreamt of a bright future for his son. He wanted him to reach the sky as the Emit and take Japan towards a better future too. Sadao understood that education was the most important thing to his father and at the age of twenty two, he went to America to study Surgery and Medicine. At the age of thirty, he retuned having realised his fathers dream.

11.Answer the following question in 120-150 words ?
How did the order from Berlin change the situation in the school ? (The Last Lesson)
OR
It is not unusual for a lower middle class girl to dream big. How unrealistic were Sophie’s dreams?
Answer. The order from Berlin was received with an uncanny silence in the school. There were new copies for the students with Trance, Alsace’ written on them. They looked like little flags flooting everywhere in the classroom. This was in contrast to the usual scene when the school would be bazzing with activity. The sound of opening and closing of desks, lessons repeated in chorus and the teachers’ great ruler banging on the table could be heard on the street. But that day, everyone was working quietly and Mr. Hamel, who was dressed formally in the attire that he never wore except on special occasions, was walking up and down with his terrible iron rules under his arm. The only sound that was heard was, the scratching of pen over paper. The villagers had gathered in the classroom and were sitting quietly on the the lock benches.
OR
Answer . Sophie was a middle class girl who had great aspirations. To achieve a glamorous and sophisticated life, she wanted to own a boutique after she finished school. She felt as if she could save the money by working as a manager, or may become an actress as there was real money in it. She was a romantic, who was far removed from reality. Sophie did not have a decent house to live in; her father worked hard to fend for the family and her brother was a mechanic. Her mother worked hard to do the household chores daily. But Sophie dream of doing something beyond all this and wanted to own a shop like Mary Quant, which would be the most amazing shop that the city had ever seen. She also longed to go to places she had never seen. These places lured her thttps://soumyahospitals.com/benefits-and-side-effects-of-palm-toddy/owards them because they were distant and mysterious. Sophie’s dreams would never come true as they were unrealistic and not laced with practicality.

Benefits And Side Effects Of Palm Toddy

Letter To The Editor Class 12 CBSE Format, Topics, Examples, Samples

Letter To The Editor Class 12 CBSE Format, Topics, Examples, Samples

Letter writing is an essential skill. Despite the prevalence of emails and text messages, everyone has to write letters at some point. Letters of complaint, job applications, thank you letters, letters requesting changes or – making suggestions – the list goes on and on. Encouraging children to write letters from an early age will improve their communication, social and handwriting skills, and teach them what they need to know about writing and structuring letters.

Looking for an easy way to learn English Grammar? then you are in right place. Here we providing basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc…

Letter To The Editor Class 12 CBSE Format, Topics, Examples, Samples PDF

Letter To Editor Format

Sender’s Address
Or
Examination Hall
Date
The Editor
Name of the newspaper Address
(Salutation) (Dear Sir/Dear Madam)
Subject: ___________.
Body of the letter
  • 3 paragraphs
  • leave one line between paragraphs
  • start fresh paragraph from the margin

Yours faithfully
(Name)

Letter to Editor Questions with Answers Class 12 CBSE

Question 1.
You have realized the necessity of education and financial independence of women for their family, society and in turn for the nation. Write a letter to the Editor, ‘The National Times’ highlighting your ideas bn the importance of education of women leading to a better status for them. You are Tarun/Taruna, B – 7/9, Mall Road, Delhi. (100 – 125 words)
Answer:
B – 7/9, Mall Road
Delhi 1100XX
25 March 20XX
The Editor
The National Times
New Delhi 1100XX

Dear Sir,
Subject: Necessity of women’s education in India

Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I would like to highlight the burning issue of women’s education scenario today in India, leading to their status in the family, society and the nation as a whole.

It is unfortunate that women in India are not well – educated, especially rural women have remained illiterate for ages. Despite literacy campaigns in the villages, the female children’s education is neglected due to parents lackadaisical attitude towards them.

It is also a matter of deep concern that a women’s complete dependence on her husband or sons for financial needs makes her a slave in the family. Secondly, the reason for the poor status of women in the society is that sometimes the parents want to get rid of the burden of the daughter by getting her married underage.

In view of the necessity of women’s education and financial independence the authorities concerned need to look into the matter seriously.

Yours faithfully
Tarun

Question 2.
In our society we do not give our women the respect and status that they deserve. Women are stared at, stalked and even molested. We need to change the male mindset about women. Write a letter in 120 – 150 words to the editor of a national newspaper giving your views on the problem.

You are Omar/Amna, A 114 Mall Road, Delhi.
Answer:
A 114
Mall Road
Delhi 1100XX
14 March 2017
The Editor
The Times of India
Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg
New Delhi 1100XX

Dear Sir,
Subject: Safety of women

Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I would like to draw the attention of the reader and the higher authorities to the issue of women’s safety in our society. How shameful! In a country where goddesses are worshipped and people go all out to make all kinds of sacrifices for them, our women get stalked, stared at, teased and molested. Newspapers are full of incidents of such occurrences every day.

I appeal to all menfolk that it’s high time they changed their attitude and mindset. My request is also to the police and judiciary to punish the offenders and enforce strict laws that would deter and set an example for others. Only then will our women get the respect and status they deserve.

Yours faithfully
Omar

Question 3.
National Book Trust organised a week-long book fair at Anna Grounds, Chennai. You visited the fair and bought a few books. You were pleased with the arrangements, enthusiasm of the visitors and the fact that books have not yet lost their relevance in the world of the Internet. Write a letter in 120 – 150 words to the editor of a local newspaper to express your feelings. You are Lalit/Latha, 112, Mount Road, Chennai.
Answer:
112, Mount road
Chennai
23 March 20XX
The Editor
City Newspaper
New Delhi 1100XX

Dear Sir,
Subject: Relevance of books

I am writing this letter to share with your readers, my delightful experience of having visited a week long book fair recently, organized by National Book Trust at Anna Grounds. People thronged the place belying even the expectations of the organizers. The arrangement was something seen to be believed.

The parking lot had volunteers to guide, there were clear sign – boards indicating the directions to various halls and gate numbers. Each hall had different sections, well – demarcated, and the reception desks for queries.

One could see how enthusiastically, book lovers were making purchases. What impressed me the most and made me realize was that books still hold a special place in people’s hearts and have not lost their relevance in the tech – sawy world of the internet.

Yours faithfully
Latha

Question 4.
Apart from newspapers, 24 – hour news channels on TV are a major source of information for the common man. As compared to foreign news channels, the Indian channels are full of advertisements. Write a letter to the editor of a national newspaper urging the news channels to create a healthy balance between news and commercials. You are John/Elizabeth, 18, Civil Lines, Meerut.
Answer:
18, Civil Lines
Meerut
22 May 20XX
The Editor
The Indian Nation
New Delhi

Dear Sir
Subject: To create a healthy balance between news and commercials

Through the columns of your esteemed daily, I would like to raise the issue of news channels in India, airing more advertisements in comparison to foreign news channels. The 24 – hour TV news channels are a major source of information for the common man. However, of late the so – called “News” on TV has hit an all – time low. Driven primarily by ad sponsors and corporate lobbying, TV channels in India have been commercial – friendly. Look at the foreign news channels, news, prima facie, is more important than advertisements. The Indian TV news channels need to create a healthy balance between news and commercials. The main focus of TV news channels should be on education and entertainment. TV news channels should be entertainment – friendly rather than ad – friendly.

Yours faithfully
Elizabeth

Question 5.
Lack of job opportunities in rural areas is forcing eople to migrate to cities. Every big city thus has a number of slums in it. Life in these slums is miserable.

Write a letter in 120 – 150 words to the editor of a national newspaper on how we can improve the living conditions in these slums. You are Karan/Karuna, M114, Mall Road, Delhi.
Answer:
M114
Mall Road
Delhi 1100XX
1 March 20XX
The Editor
The Hindustan
Times KG Marg
New Delhi 1100XX

Dear Sir
Subject: Improving the living conditions of slum dwellers
Through the columns of your widely read daily, I would like to draw the attention of the authorities to the miserable living conditions of the slum dwellers. The pathetic conditions in which they live make their survival not only difficult but also unbearable. There is no drainage system, no lights, there are huge garbage dumps and these slums lack basic civic amenities.

These slums in the city are getting overcrowded also because more and more people are moving to cities due to lack of job opportunities and poverty in villages.

I would like to suggest that state governments should create more job opportunities, bring changes in the government policies and provide infrastructure to check the mass migration. Another area that needs serious attention is the sanitation and health sector. Non – governmental organizations (NGOs) should come forward and lend their support in terms of adopting a few villages.

Yours faithfully
Karuna

Question 6.
You are Kamini/Kamal of 10, Civil Lines Extension, Chanakyapuri, Agra. The main road leading to your locality has three open manholes causing frequent accidents at night, especially during the rainy season. Write a letter to the Editor, The Times of India, drawing attention of the Municipal Commissioner to this problem of the residents.
Answer:
10, Civil Lines Extn
Chanakyapuri
Agra 285XXX
The Editor
The Times of India
Agra 258XXX
Uttar Pradesh

Dear Sir,
Subject: Frequent accidents due to open manholes

Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I want to voice my grave concern about the frequent accidents which occur during the rainy season due to open manholes on the main road that lead to our locality. In fact these manholes<<pose a grow threat to our lives. The accidents occur because these manholes go unnoticed when the road gets inundated due to heavy rains.

The situation has worsened due to the following reasons. First, there is no proper drainage system in our area. Secondly, open manholes are not barricaded or demarcated by the municipal authorities concerned. Thirdly, there is no proper lighting on the road. Small children, women and senior citizens are the worst sufferers.

I appeal to the authorities to take immediate remedial action so that accidents do not occur.

Yours faithfully
Kamini

Question 7.
When cricket teams go abroad they are allowed to take their wives, even friends, along with them. Does this fact distract them or help them to focus on their game in a better way? Why don’t we allow our athletes to enjoy the same privilege? Write a letter to the editor of a national daily in 120 – 150 words, giving your views on the issue. You are Navtej/Navita, M – 114, Mount Kailash, Kanpur.
Answer:
M – 114
Mount Kailash
Kanpur XXXXXX
26 January 20XX
The Editor,
The Hindustan Times
KG Marg
New Delhi 1100XX

Dear Sir
Subject: Privileges for sportspersons

Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I wish to draw your attention to the difference in privileges given by the government to the cricket teams and athletes on overseas tours. Our government is biased towards cricketers allowing them to take their wives, even friends, along with them. On the contrary, the athletes are not allowed to enjoy the same privileges. Basically, this lackadaisical attitude is based on the popularity and money – earning factor that goes with cricket teams.

As regards allowing spouses, even friends, to go abroad with cricket team how does it help cricketers to perform well? Some think the cricketers get maximum support from their wives as they boost their morale while others think they are a big distraction because they disturb concentration.

I believe that if similar privileges were given to the athletes, they could perform better. So, I would request the government to be liberal on the sports front, especially with the athletes.

Yours faithfully
Navita

Question 8.
You are Navtej/Navita, Secretary, Environment Club, Akash Public School, Agra. You, along with , a group of students, went on a 3 – day tour of Corbett National Park. You found how the tourists abused the available facilities and thus endangered the environment. Write a letter in 120 – 150 words to the editor of a national daily highlighting the situation. Suggest ways through which the environment of the park can be saved.
Answer:
Akash Public School
Sadar Road Agra XXXXXX
26 January 20XX
The Editor
The Hindu
MG Road
Agra XXXXXX

Dear Sir
Subject: Environmental pollution at Corbett National Park

Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I would like to draw the attention of the government to the rampant abuse of the available facilities in the Corbett National Park by tourists and the consequent endangering of the environment. I, along with a group of students from Akash Public School, Agra, went on a 3 – day tour of the national park. I found that tourists not only littered the place with non – biodegradable plastic packets and wrappers but also used fuel wood from the forests for cooking. The tranquility of the habitat was disturbed by the tourists playing loud music in their Safari jeeps.

The Corbett National Park is the oldest in the country, established in 1936, to protect the endangered Royal Bengal tiger. The public should be made aware of the fact that Ecotourism should not be allowed at the cost of endangering the environment.

The tourists must regard Corbett National Park as a paradise and should love flora and fauna of the park. The forest authorities should impose strict rules and regulations to improve the environment of the park.

Yours faithfully
Navita
Secretary
(Environment Club)

Question 9.
On the Teacher’s Day, you read in a newspaper that privately owned and managed schools in small towns or evert in the suburbs of metropolitan cities exploit their teachers by paying them just a fraction of their legitimate salaries. This is extremely unfair and affects their performance in the classroom and thus the lives of their students. Write a letter in 120 – 150 words to the editor of a national daily raising your voice against such exploitation. Suggest ways to solve this problem. You are Navtej/Navita, 112, Taj Road, Agra.
Answer:
112, Taj Road
Agra XXXXXX
22 January 20XX
The Editor
The Hindustan Times
KG Marg
New Delhi 1100XX

Dear Sir
Subject: Exploitation of teachers in private schools

Through the columns of your esteemed daily, I would like to draw the attention of the authorities to the exploitation of teachers in private schools in small towns and even in metropolitan cities. It is a pity that the management of private schools is depriving the qualified teachers of their legitimate authorised salaries as recommended by the Seventh Pay Commission. It is also regretted that teachers are getting only a fraction of the authorised salaries – that too sometimes, in installments. So, the teachers find it difficult to maintain their families with the meagre salaries. This affects classroom teaching. Teachers do not perform well in the class under these circumstances. As a result, quality of teaching is getting deteriorated. The student community is the sufferer in the long run.

Educational institutions are temples of learning. The authorities concerned should wake up to the situation and ensure that the teaching community is not exploited and is given its legitimate dues.

Yours faithfully
Navita

Question 10.
You have noticed many stray animals on the road during the busy hours of the dayThese animals . cause traffic jams as well as accidents. You have already written to the authorities concerned but no action has been taken so far. Write a letter to the Editor, The Hindu, drawing attention of the Municipal Commissioner, Chennai. You are Shantha/Suresh, 12 M.G. Road, Chennai.
Answer:
12, M.G. Road
Chennai XXXXXX
25 January 20XX
The Editor
The Hindu Chennai XXXXXX

Dear Sir
Subject: Stray animals on the roads

Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I want to raise the problem of stray animals roaming the roads, causing traffic jams and accidents. Of late it has been found that during the busy hours of the day many stray animals roam the roads, cause traffic jams and sometimes accidents.

It poses a serious threat to the people who are using roads daily to reach their destination of work and business.

The matter has been taken up with the municipal authorities many a time but the problem remains.

It is time the authorities concerned took cognisance of the situation and dealt with it sternly. Punitive action to remedy the situation is most welcome.

Yours faithfully
Shantha

Question 11.
You are Navid/Nafeesa of 10, Nehru Nagar, Ahmedabad. The 60 – foot wide main road in Nehru Nagar Market remains congested throughout the day, because of massive encroachments on both sides of the road, causing a lot of inconvenience to pedestrians, especially children and women. Write a letter to the editor of a national daily requesting him to highlight the problems faced by the residents, giving concrete suggestions for improving the situation.
Answer:
10, Nehru Nagar
Ahmedabad
26 January 20XX
The Editor
The Hindustan Times
Vikram Sarabhai Road,
Ahmedabad XXXXXX

Dear Sir
Subject: Encroachment of pavement in Nehru Nagar

Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I would like to draw the attention of the authorities concerned to the encroachment of pavement in Nehru Nagar area.

Unauthorized parking and encroachments on the road and bylanes have reached alarming levels in the last few months. Cabs, vans, matadors are parked on the main road and bylanes in every nook and cranny of Nehru Nagar. This has become the biggest nuisance to the residents. They cannot take out their vehicles due to vehicles parked on both sides. A residential house has been let out to a transport company beside the super market. It has become a big nuisance, as transport vehicles are parked everywhere.

The situation is worsening day by day. This needs immediate attention of authorities concerned.

Yours faithfully
Nafeesa Khan

Substance Abuse Nclex Questions

CBSE Previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Chemistry Delhi 2009

CBSE Previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 Chemistry Delhi 2009

Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                            Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:

  1.  All questions are compulsory. 
  2.  Questions number 1 to 5 are very short-answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
  3.  Questions number 6 to 10 are short-answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
  4.  Questions number 11 to 22 are also short-answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
  5.  Questions number 23 is a value based question and carry 4 marks.
  6.  Questions number 24 to 26 are long-answer questions and carry 5 marks each. 
  7.  Use log tables, if necessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.

SET I

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

Question.1. Which point defect in crystals does not affect the density of the relevant solid?
Answer : Frenkel defect does not alter the density of the relevant solids ?

Question.2. Define the term ‘Tyndall effect’.
Answer : Tyndall effect is the phenomenon due to which the yaath perpendicular to the path of the incident light becomes visible, when a beam pf light , is passed through a colloidal solution.

Question.3. Why is the froth flotation method selected for the concentration of sulphide ores?
Answer : The surface of sulphide ores is preferentially wetted by heavy oils like turpentine or pine oil while the gangue is wetted by water hence, froth floatation method is selected for concentration of sulphide ores.

Question.4. Why is Br(V) a stronger oxidant than Sb (V)?
Answer : Br (V) has a strong metallic character compared to Sb(V) which is a metalloid. The inert pair effect also contributes to Br (V) being a stronger oxidizing agent compound to Sb(V).

Question.5. Give the IUPAC name of the following compound:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-1
Answer: 2-Bromo-3-methyl-but-2-en-l-ol

Question.6. Write t! s e structure of 3-oxopentanal.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-2

Question.7. Why is an alkylamine more basic than ammonia?
Answer : Since alkyl groups are electron donating groups, the electron density on nitrogen»,atom in case of alkylamines increases making it to donate the lone pair more easily than ammonia. Hence, alkylamines are more basic than ammonia.

Question.8.Given an example of elastomers.
Answer : The example of elastomers are Buna-S and Buna-N.

Question.9. A reacti on is of second order with respect to a reactant. How will the rate of reaction be affected if the concentration of this reactant is
(i) Doubled,
(ii) Reduced to half ?
Answer : For second order reaction,
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-3
So rate becomes 4 times.
If [A] is reduced to half i.e, a/2
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-4

Question.10. Explain the role of

  1. Carbon electrolytic reduction of alumina.
  2. Carbon monoxide in the purification of nickel.

Answer :

  1. In the electrolytic reduction of alumina, cryolite is used to make it a good conductor of electricity and to lower the melting point of the mixture.
  2.  Carbon monoxide acts as a reducing agent in the process of purification of nickel. When nickel is heated in a stream of CO gas, it forms a volatile complex, nickel tetracarbonyl, which when subjected to higher temperature decomposes to give pure nickel.
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-5

Question.11. Draw the structures of the following molecules :
Answer.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-6

Question.12. Complete the following chemical reaction equations :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-7
Question.13. Differentiate between molality and molarity of a solution. What is the effect of change in temperature of a solution on its molality and molarity?
Answer : Molality is the number of moles of the solute dissolve per kg of the solvent.
Molarity is the number of moles of the solute dissolved per litre of the solution.
Molality does not change with temperature. On the other hand, molarity increases with rise in temperature but only to a certain limit.

Question.14. Which ones in the following pairs of substances undergoes Sn2 substitution reaction faster and why?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-8
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-9

Question.15. Complete the following reaction equations :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-10

Question.16. Explain what is meant by

  1. A peptide linkage
  2. A glycosidic linkage

Answer :

  1. Peptide linkage is the amide linkage formed by the condensation of an amino group of an a-amino acid with the carboxyl group of another molecule of the same or a different a-amino acid with dehydration.
  2.  The linkage between two monosaccharides through oxygen atom in an oligosaccharide or a polysaccharide is known as glycosidic linkage.

Question.17. Name two water soluble vitamins, their sources and the disease caused due to their deficiency in diet.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-11

Question.18. Draw the structures of the monomers of the following polymers:
(i) Teflon
(ii)Polyethene
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-12

Question.19.Iron has a body-centred cubic unit cell with a cell edge of 286.65 pm.The density of iron is 7.87 g cm”3. Use this information to calculate Avogadro’s number.(At. Mass of Fe = 56 g mol-1)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-13

Question.20. 100 mg of a protein is dissolved in just enough water to make 10.0 mL of solution. If this solution has an osmotic pressure of 13.3 mm Hg at 25°C, what is the molar mass of the protein?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-14
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-15

Question.21. A first-order reaction has a rate constant of0.0051 min-1. If we begin with 0.10 M concentration of the reactant, what concentration of reactant will remain in the solution after 3 hours?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-16

Question.22. How are the following colloids differ from each other with respect to dispersion medium and dispersed phase ? Give on example of each type. (i) An aerosol (ii) A hydrosol (iii) An emulsion
Answer :

  1.  An aerosol is a colloidal solution in which dispersion medium is gas whereas dispersed phase can be liquid or solid eg. Perfume, smoke, dust particles in air.
  2. A hydrosol is a colloidal solution in which the dispersion medium is water and dispersed phase is mostly solid, e.g. Carbonated drinks, starch sol.
  3. An emulsion is a colloidal solution in which both the dispersed phase and dispersing medium are in liquid state. e.g. Cold cream, milk.

Question.23. Account for the following

  1. NH3 is a stronger base than PH3.
  2. Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than
    oxygen.
  3. Bond dissociation energy of F2 is less than that of Cl2.

OR
Explain the following situations:

  1.  In the structure of HNO3molecule, the N-O bond (121 pm) is shorter than the N-OH bond   (140 pm).
  2. SF4 is easily hydrolysed whereas SF6 is not easily hydrolysed.
  3. XeF2 has a straight linear structure and not a bent angular structure.

Answer:

  1.  Due to the small size and greater electronegativity of nitrogen compared to phosphorus, it has greater electron density on its surface and hence NH3 is a stronger base than PH3.
  2. Due to presence of d-orbitals in sulphur and lower electronegativity of sulphur compared to oxygen, it has greater tendency for catenation as compared to oxygen.
  3. Due to small size and high electronegativity of F compared to Cl, the inter-electronic repulsion between lone pair of electrons is very large, hence bond dissociation energy of F2 is less than Cl2.

OR

  1.  In gaseous state the HNO3 molecule has a planar structure which is a resonance hybrid in which nitrogen atom is sp2 hybridized in nitrate ions. Hence, N-O bond is shorter than N-OH bond in HNO3.
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-17
  2. SF4 has sp3d hybridization with a lone pair of electrons in equatorial position which makes it unstable hence, it is easily hydrolyzed.
    SF6 does not have a lone pair and is therefore, exceptionally stable.
  3.  XeF2 has three lone pairs of electrons and two bond pairs and thus show sp3d hybridization. But according to VSEPR theory due to presence of l.p-l.p and l.p-b p. repulsion its geometry will in order to minimize repulsion and to have maximum stability.
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-18

Question.24. For the complex [Fe(en)2Cl2] Cl, (en = enthyiene diamine) identify
(i) The oxidation number of iron,
(ii)The hybrid orbitals and the shape of the complex,
(iii)The magnetic behaviour of the complex,
(iv)The number of geometrical isomers,
(v) Whether there is an optical isomer also, and
(vi)Name of the complex. (At. No. of Fe = 26)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-19
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-20

Question.25. Explain the mechanism of the following reactions :
(i) Addition of Grignard’s reagent to the carboxyl group of a compound forming an adduct followed by hydrolysis.
(ii)Acid catalysed dehydration of an alcohol forming an alkene.
(iii)Acid catalysed hydration of an alkene forming an alcohol.
Answer :
(i) Carboynl group under goes nucleophilic addi¬tion reaction with Grignard reagent to form an adduct which undergoes hydrolysis to give alcohol in the following manner
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-21
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-22
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-23

Question.26. Giving an example for each, describe the following reactions

  1.  Hofmann’s bromamide reaction
  2. Gatterman reaction
  3. A coupling reaction

Answer :

  1.  Hofmann’s bromamide reaction : This reaction involves the conversion of a primary amide to a primary amine on heating with a mixture of bromine in presence of
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-24
  2.  Gattermann Reaction : When Benzene diazonium chloride is treated with halo-acid in presence of Cu powder, it form arylhalide.
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-25
  3.  Coupling reaction : when benzene diazonium chloride reacts with phenol at 0.5°C, it form an azo compound i. e.,p -hydroxyazobenzene (orange dye).
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-26

Question.27. Explain the following types of substances with one suitable example, for each case s

  1. Cationic detergents
  2. Food preservatives
  3. Analgesics

Answer :

  1.  Cationic detergents are chloride, bromides or acetates of quarternary ammonium salts where the cationic part possesses a long hydrocarbon chain e.g. (Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide.)
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-27
  2. Food preservatives are substances used to preveht food spoilage due to microbial growth and help extend the life span of an edible substance without any decline in its nutritional value, e.g. Sugar, salt, sodium benzoate.
  3. The drugs that are used to rexluce or abolish pain without causing impairment of the consciousness mental confusion in co ordination or paralysis or some, other disturbance of nervous system, e.g. Novalgin, Butazolidine etc.

Question.28. (a) Define molar conductivity of a substance and describe how for weak and strong electrolytes, molar conductivity changes with concentration of solute. How is such change explained?
(b) A voltaic cell is set up at 25°C with the following half cells:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-28
(a) State the relationship amongst the cell constant of a cell, the resistance of the solution in the cell and the conductivity of the solution. How is molar conductivity of a solute related to the conductivity of its solution?
(b) A voltaic cell is set up at 25°C with the following half-cells :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-29
Answer : (a) Molar conductivity of a solution at a given concentration is the conductance of a volume ‘V’ of the solution containing a mole of electrolyte placed in between two electrodes with area of cross-section ‘A’ at distance of unit length Y, that is
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-30
Effect of change of concentrations on molar conductivity : Molar conductivity increases with decrease in concentration. This is because both number of ions as well as mobility of ions increases with dilution.
In case of strong electrolyte number of ions do not increase appreciably only mobility of ions increases therefore, Km increases as shown in graph as straight line.
Ir» case of weak electrolytes both no. of ions as well as mobility of ions increases therefore, Km increases sharply as shown by curve in the figure.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-31
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-32
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-33

Question.29. (a) Complete the following equations :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-34
(b) Explain the fallowing observations about the transition/ inner transition elements:
(i) There is in general an increase in density of element from titanium (Z = 22) to copper (Z = 29)
(ii)There occurs much more frequent metal-metal bonding in compounds of heavy transition elements (3rd series).
(iii)The members of the actinoid series exhibit a larger number of oxidation states than the corresponding members in the lanthanoid series.
OR
(a) Complete the following equations :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-35
(b) Give an explanation for each of the following observations:
(i) The gradual decrease in sire (actinoid contraction) from element to element is greater among the actinoids than among the lanthanoids (lanthanoid contraction).
(ii)The greatest number of oxidation states are exhibited by the members in the middle of a transition series.
(iii)With the same d-orbital configuration  (d4) Cr2+ ion is a reducing agent but Mn3+ ion is an oxidizing agent.
Answer: (a) (i)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-36
(b) (i) The density increases from titanium to copper due to decrease in atomic radii with increase in nuclear charge Hence the atomic volume decreases. At the same time, atomic mass increases, therefore, density increases.
(ii) It is due to more number of unpaired electrons and smaller size due to poor shielding effect of/orbitals and high enthalpy of atomization of heavy transition elements.
(iii)Actinoids are larger in size and have lower ionization energy, therefore it can show greater range of oxidation states. Secondary, 5/ 6dand7s orbitals have comparable energies in actinoid series.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-37
(i) This is due to poor shielding of 4f and 5f electrons in actions from element to element whereas in lanthanoids, there is poor shielding effect of 4electrons only, that is why nuclear charge increases from element to element in actinoids than lanthanoids.
(ii)The numbers in the middle of transition series elements posses one unpaired electron per d-orbital and hence exhibit greater number of oxidation states.
(iii) Mn3+ is strongly oxidizing as it gets reduced to much more stable Mn2+ ion. This involves change from 3d4to 3d5 configurations which is very stable being half filled.
Cr2+ is a reducing agent as it gets oxidized to more stable Cr3+ ion with half-filled 3d3 or t2g orbital.

Question.30. (a) Illustrate the following name reactions by giving example:
(i) Cannizzaros reaction
(ii)Clemmensen reduction
(b) An organic compound A contains 69.77% carbon, 11.63% hydrogen and rest oxygen. The molecular mass of the compound is 86. It does not reduce ToUen’s reagent but forms an addition compound with sodium hydrogen sulphite and gives positive iodoform test. On vigorous i oxidation it gives ethanoic and propanoic acids. Derive the possible structure of compound A.
OR
(a) How are the following obtained?
(i) Benzoic acid from ethyl benzene
(ii)Benzaldehyde from toluene
(b)Complete each synthesis by giving the missing material reagent or products:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-38
Answer: (a) (i) Cannizzaro reaction: When aldehydes which do not have a- hydeogen atom undergo disproportionation reaction, potassium salt of acid and alcohol are formed.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-39
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-40
Since hydrogen atoms are double than carbon atoms, therefore, it is likely to be aldehyde or ketone. It does not reduce Tollen’s reagent therefore, it is not an aldehyde. It is a ketone. It reacts with NaHSO3 and gives iodoform test therefore, it is a methyl ketone. On vigorous oxidation it gives ethanoic acid and propanoic acid.
Therefore, it must be pentan-2-one, CH3COCH2CH2CH3
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-41
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-42
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-43

SET II

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

Question.21. What is the difference between multimolecular and macromolecular colloids? Give one example of each. How are associated colloids different from these two types of colloids?
Answer : Multimolecular colloids : They are aggregates of atoms or molecules each having size less than lnm. e.g. Sulphur sol. Their molecular masses are not very high and they are held together by weak Vander Waals forces.
Micromolecular colloids : They themselves are large mole-cules of colloidal dimensions e.g. Starch sol. They have high molecular masses and Vander Waals forces holding the molecules are comparatively stronger.
Associated colloids: They are colloids which behaves as normal electrolytes at low concentration and as colloid at higher concentration, e.g. soaps, detergents etc. Their molecular masses are generally high and higher in the concentration, greater are the Vander Waals forces concentration, they exhibit colloidal properties.

Question.24. Explain the following observations :

  1. Fluorine does not exhibit any positive oxidation state..
  2.  The majority of known noble gas compounds are those of xenon.
  3. Phosphorus is much more reactive than nitrogen.

Answer :

  1.  Fluorine is the most electronegative element, has the maximum reduction potential and has no d-orbitals for octet expansion, therefore it shows only a negative oxidation state of-1.
  2. Due to low ionization energy and large atomic radius, Xenon readily forms compounds, particularly with fluorine and oxygen.
  3. Phosphorus is more reactive than nitrogen because bond dissociation energy to break N = N triple bond is very large as compared to the energy required to break P-P single bond, which makes nitrogen inert and unteactive.

Question.27. How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants? Give one example of each type.
Answer : Antiseptics are the chemical substance that are applied to living tissues to kill or prevent the growth of micro-organisms. They are safe to be applied to living tissues and are generally applied on wounds, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces e.g. Dettol, furacin, soframycin etc.
Disinfectants, on the other hand, are chemical substances which are applied to non-living objects to kill micro-organisms. They are not safe to be applied to the living tissues and are generally used to kill micro-organisms present in the drains, toilets, floors etc. eg., 1% phenol solution or SO2 in low concentration.

Question.28. (a) Complete the following equations :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-44
(b) Explain the following observations :
(i) Transition elements are known to form many interstitial compounds.
(ii)With the same dd-orbital configuration Cr2+ ion is reducing while Mn3+ion is oxidizing.
(iii)The enthalpies of atomization of transition’ elements are quite high.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-45
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-46
(b)(i) Because of their ability to accommodate small non- metallic atoms owing to spaces or voids present between atoms due to their variable valency transition elements form many interstitial compounds.
(ii)Cr2+ has the configuration which easily changes to d^ due to stable half-filled t2g orbitals. Therefore Cr2+ is reducing agent. While Mn2+ has stable half-filled d^ configuration. Hence, Mn3+easily changes to Mn2+ and acts as an oxidizing agent.
(iii)As transition metals certain a large number of unpaired electrons, they have strong interatomic attractions (metallic) bonds. Hence, they have high enthalpies of atomization.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-47
(b)(i) Transition elements generally have unpaired electrons in their d-orbitals and hence due to d → d transition of electrons, their compounds are coloured.
(ii)Due to incompletely filled d-orbitals, the oxidation states of transition metals vary.
(iii)Due to small energy gaps between, 5f,6dand 7s subshells, actinoids exhibit a greater range of oxidation states.

Question.29.(a) What type of a cell is lead storage battery? Write the anode and cathode reactions and the overall reaction occurring in the lead storage battery while operating. 
(b) A voltaic cell is set up at 25°C with the half cells, Al/Al3+ (0.001 M) and Ni/Ni2+ (0.50 M). Write the equation for the reaction that occurs when the cell generates an electric current and determine the cell potential.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-48
(a) Express the relation amongst the cell constant, resistance of the solution in the cell and conductivity of the solution. How is molar conductivity of a solution related to the conductivity of the solution ?
(b) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-49
Answer : (a) A lead storage battery is a secondary cell and it can be recharged. During discharging, the cell reactions at anode and cathode are as follows :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-50
(a) The relationship between cell constant of a cell (G*) resistance of the solution in the cell (R) and conductivity (K) is given by –
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-51

SET III

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining question have been asked in previous sets.

Question.8. What does the part ‘6,6’ mean lh the name nylon-6,6?
Answer : ‘6,6’ refers to the 6 carbon atoms in monomers molecules of nylon-6,6, i.e. adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine.

Question.19. Calculate the freezing point depression expected for 0.0711 m aqueous solution of Na2S04. If this solution actually freezes at -0.320°C, what would be the value of Van’t Hoff factor?
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-52

Question.24. Compare the following complexes with respect to their shape, magnetic behaviour and the hybrid orbitals involved :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-53
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-54
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-55

Question.27. What are the following substances?.Give an example of each

  1. Antacid
  2. Non-ionic detergent
  3. Antiseptics

Answer :

  1. Antacids are drugs that help to overcome the problem of hyperacidity by neutralizing the excess acid and raising the pH to. an appropriate level in stomach eg. Rantidine, sodium bicarbonate etc.
  2. Non-ionic detergents do not contain any ion in their constitution as they are esters by high molecular mass alcohol which are obtained by reaction between polyethylene glycol and steric acid. e.g. Polyethylene glycol sterate, lawyrl alcohol ethoxylate.
  3. Antiseptics are the drugs applied to living tissues in order to prevent microbial growth, e.g, iodoform for wounds, boric acid for eyes.

Question.28. (b) (i) In general the atomic radii of transition elements decreases with atomic number in a given series.
(ii)The E°Mn2+ |M for copper is positive (+0.24 V). It is the only metal in the first transition series showing this type of behavior.

OR
(a) What is meant by lanthanoid contraction? What is it due to and what consequences does it have on the chemistry of elements following lanthanoids in the periodic table?
(b) Explain the following observations:
(i)Cu2+ is unstable in aqueous solution
(ii) Although CO2+ appears to be stable, it is easily oxidized to CO3+ ion in the presence of a strong ligand.
(iii) The E°Mn2+|Mn value for manganese is much more than expected from the trend of the other elements in the series.

(iii) The E° value for Mn3+|Mn2+ is much more positive than for Fe3+|Fe2+ or Cr3+|Cr2+.        
Answer : (b)
(i) When moving from left to right across a period, because of increase in effective nuclear charge and weak shielding effect of d-electrons the atomic radii decreases.
(ii)Because of its high enthalpy of atomization and low hydration enthalpy. Hence E°Mn2+|M for copper is positive.
(iii)This is because of the much larger third ionization
enthalpy of Mn (where the required charge is d5to d4 )
OR
(a) Lanthanoid contraction is the steady decrease in the
atomic radii of lanthanoids with increasing atomic number due to mutual imperfect or poor shielding of the electrons in the Af orbital – As we move along the lanthanoid series, the effective nuclear charge increases on addition of electrons and the electrons thus added in f-subshell causes imperfect shielding which is unable to counter balance the effect of the increased nuclear charge. As a result, the contraction in size occurs.
Consequences :
(i) Due to lanthanoid contraction, zirconium (Zr) and Hafnium (Hf) have a comparable size. They are also known as chemical twins due to their similar radii.
(ii) Due to lanthanoid contraction, the chemical properties of lanthanoids are very similar due to which their separation becomes very difficult.
(b) (i) Since Cu+ in aqueous solution undergoes dispropertio- nate i.e.
2Cu+ (aq)–> 2 Cu2+(aq)+Cu (s)
The E° value for this is favourable.
(ii)CO(III) is stablised because of higher crystal field splitting energy [or strong ligand causes pairing of electron to give more stable CO(III) ion]
(iii)The comparatively high value for Mn shows that Mn2+( d5) is particularly stable.

Question.29. (a) Corrosion is essentially an electrochemical phenomenon. Explain the reaction occurring during the corrosion of iron kept in an open atmosphere.
(b) One half-cell in a voltalic cell is constructed from a silver wire dipped in silver nitrate solution of unknown concentration. Its other half-cell consists of a zinc electrode dipping in 1.0 M solution of Zn(NO3 )2. A voltage of 1.48 V is measured for this cell.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-56
Use this information to calculate the concentration of silver nitrate solution used.
Answer:
(a) Corrosion is the wearing away of a metal due to gases and water vapour present in the atmosphere. It results generally in the formation of oxides, sulphides or carbonates.
In the atmosphere, pure iron surface behaves as a small electro chemical cell in the presence of Oxygen and water vapour.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-chemistry-delhi-2009-57
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The Sound of Music Class 9 Extra Questions with Answers

The Sound of Music Class 9 Extra Questions with Answers

In this article, we present a collection of delve into the depths of “The Sound of Music Class 9 Extra Questions with Answers.” From character analysis and musical themes to the historical context and production insights, these thoughtfully crafted questions will add a new dimension to your appreciation of this iconic masterpiece. Read this also Extra Questions for Class 9 English with Answers.

The Sound of Music Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What were Evelyn’s feelings as she stood on the platform waiting for the London underground?
Answer:
As she stood on the platform Evelyn felt both nervous and excited because she was waiting for a train in London to take her to her dream destination – to join the prestigious Royal Academy for Music. She was apprehensive as she was a young, seventeen-year-old from Scotland going to join such a prestigious music institute. Moreover, she was profoundly deaf and despite her disability, she had made it to the Music Academy.

Question 2.
How old was Evelyn when she went to the Royal Academy of Music? Why was she nervous on her way to the academy?
Answer:
Evelyn was only seventeen years of age when she was selected to the Royal Academy of Music, London. She had come straight from a farmland in Scotland, she had not experienced much of the world. In addition, she was profoundly deaf and was going to a big institute like The Royal Academy of Music. Her nervousness was the result of her young age, her lack of exposure and her hearing disability.

Question 3.
Why was Evelyn “nervous yet excited” as she waited for the train?
Answer:
While leaving for the Royal Academy of Music, Evelyn was excited despite her nervousness as going to the Royal Academy of Music, London was a dream come true for her. She was going to join a three-year course in an institute she had dreamed of joining. It excited her to think that despite her hearing impairment she had made her way to such a prestigious institute.

Question 4.
Why was Evelyn Glennie going to face a bigger challenge at the prestigious Royal Academy of Music in London?
Answer:
Evelyn Glennie was passionate about music, and would not let anything stand in her way, but studying music at the prestigious Royal Academy of Music in London was a challenge for her for two reasons: in the first place she was deaf and in the second, she was brought up on a Scottish farm. It was a challenge for a deaf village girl to compete with other singers who had perfect hearing.

Question 5.
When and how was Evelyn’s hearing problem noticed?
Answer:
Evelyn was only eight-year-old when her hearing problem was noticed by her mother when she was eight years old and she did not respond to a call for a performance on piano. However, her loss of hearing was gradual and her deafness was confirmed at the age of eleven when her poor academic performance forced her parents to consult a specialist.

Question 6.
Who advised Evelyn’s parents to take her to a specialist? Why?
Answer:
Evelyn managed to hide her growing deafness from students and teachers for some time. However, by the time she was eleven years old, her performance in school deteriorated and her marks began to fall. It was then that the headmistress advised her parents to consul a specialist.

Question 7.
When was Evelyn’s deafness confirmed? What advice was given to her?
Answer:
Evelyn’s deafness was gradual. By the time she was eleven, her marks had deteriorated. Her teachers advised her parents to take her to a specialist. The specialist discovered that her hearing was badly impaired because of gradual nerve damage. He advised her parents that she should be fitted with hearing aids and sent to a school for the deaf.

Question 8.
“Everything suddenly looked black”. Why did Evelyn feel this way?
Answer:
When Evelyn was advised to use hearing aids and join a school for the deaf, she felt that her future was bleak and dark. She was depressed, as she felt she would not be able to lead a normal life nor pursue her interest in music.

Question 9.
How did Evelyn Glennie respond to the discovery of her deafness?
Answer:
On learning about her deafness due to gradual nerve damage, Evelyn Glennie, felt at first that her future was dark and bleak. However, instead of giving up, she decided to lead a normal life like other children and pursue her dream of learning music.

Question 10.
How did Evelyn’s teachers respond when she expressed her desire to play a xylophone?
Answer:
Evelyn had always loved music and despite her deafness, she expressed a desire to play the xylophone when she saw another girl playing it. However her teachers felt that she would not be able to play it because of her impaired hearing and they discouraged her from doing so.

Question 11.
Most of the teachers discouraged her but percussionist Ron Forbes spotted her potential. How did he respond to it?
Answer:
When her teachers discouraged her from pursuing a career in music, Ron Forbes, the percussionist, encouraged and helped Evelyn to continue with music. He noticed her potential and decided to help her develop it. He told Evelyn to train different parts of her body to sense musical notes. He tuned two drums with different notes to make her sense the higher ones from the upper part of her body and the lower ones from her waist down.

Question 12.
“I had learnt to open my mind and body to sounds and vibrations,” says Evelyn. How did she do this?
Answer:
Guided by Ron Forbes, Evelyn leamt to listen through different parts of her body other than her ears. Her mind and body became sensitized to notice and differentiate various sounds and vibrations of music. Her body compensated for the loss of hearing with her awakened and sharpened senses in other parts of her body.

Question 13.
What kind of recognition did Evelyn get at the Royal Academy of Music?
Answer:
When Evelyn was seventeen, she joined the Royal Academy of Music. She scored the highest marks in the history of the academy. She was one of the most brilliant students of the academy and won many top awards during her three-year course.

Question 14.
Why did Evelyn say, “Men with bushy beards give me trouble”?
Answer:
Evelyn could understand what others were saying by reading the movement of lips and by watching faces and eyes. It was difficult for her to read the movement of lips of the men with bushy beards in order to grasp what they were saying. She jokingly remarked that men with bushy beards gave her trouble.

Question 15.
Which qualities of character enabled Evelyn to achieve unprecedented success in life?
Answer:
Unfaltering determination and hard work enabled Evelyn to move ahead in life. Instead of yielding to her handicap, she decided to overcome it and lead the life of a normal person. She was devoted to music and her sincere efforts helped her achieve unprecedented success.

Question 16.
She never looked back from that point onwards. Explain.
Answer:
Evelyn learnt to feel the vibrations and sensations in every part of her body, she leant to open her body and mind to the sounds and vibrations. These tingled in her skin, her cheekbones and even in hair. After that, she never looked back, because from that time on she was very successful in her chosen career.

Question 17.
How did Evelyn get admission in the Royal Academy of Music, London?
Answer:
Evelyn gave audition for admission to Royal Academy of Music, London. Her score in the audition was one of the highest in the history of the academy. Therefore, she got selected for a three-year course.

Question 18.
Evelyn continued to work hard at the Royal Academy of Music. Do you agree?
Answer:
At the Royal Academy of Music, London, Evelyn began as one of the performers in orchestra. But gradually she moved on to give solo performances. At the end of her three-year course, she had bagged the biggest awards in the Academy. This shows Evelyn did not rest on her laurels but continued to work hard.

Question 19.
What did James Blades say about Evelyn’s music?
Answer:
James Blades remarked that God may have taken away her sense of hearing but He has given her something extraordinary. What we hear, she feels, far more deeply than any of us. She is a talented musician who expresses music so beautifully.

Question 20.
How is Evelyn a source of inspiration to people who are in any way disabled?
Answer:
Evelyn’s achievements, gained through determination and hard work, are an example for other handicapped people. They gain confidence from her example and believe that they too can achieve them goals in life by overcoming their challenges and disabilities with firm determination.

Question 21.
How does Evelyn regard her own success?
Answer:
Evelyn is extremely modest and does not consider her achievements to be heroic deeds. She feels that if one is focussed on the goal and puts in hard work, one is sure to succeed. She says, “If you work hard and know where you are going, you’ll get there.”

Question 22.
Name the various places and causes for which Evelyn performs.
Answer:
Evelyn performs in concerts internationally. In addition, she also gives concerts free of charge in prisons and hospitals. In addition, she holds classes for young musicians.

Question 23.
What is Evelyn’s contribution to percussion?
Answer:
Evelyn has contributed to percussion by securing for it a front place in orchestra. She has shown how the music of the percussion instruments is deeply moving and touches the hearts and emotions of people.

Question 24.
What are Evelyn’s main achievements?
Answer:
Evelyn has brought percussion to the front of the orchestra. She has given inspiration to those who are handicapped. Besides this, she has brought great pleasure to millions.

The Sound of Music Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Evelyn did not succumb to her disability. Comment.
Answer:
Evelyn Glennie was always interested in music. In fact, her mother realised she was having problems with her hearing when at the age of eight years Evelyn was to give a piano recital and she didn’t hear her name being called. By the age of twelve, Evelyn had lost her hearing. However, she did not let this stand in the way of her pursuing her passion music.

Though she was advised to wear a hearing aid and to attend a special school for the deaf, Evelyn did not give up. Despite facing discouragement from her teachers, she wanted to lead a normal life and play xylophone. However, Ron Forbes, a great percussionist, trained her to listen to the musical sounds and vibrations not through ears, but through other parts of her body.

He created two drums with different sounds to make her hear the higher beats from the upper part of her body and the lower beats from below her waist. The experiment was so effective that Evelyn opened her mind and body to the fine sounds of music. Evelyn now believes that music penetrates into her through every part – through her skin, cheekbones and even her hair.

When she plays xylophone, she feels that the sounds move from the stick into the tips of her fingers. When the drums are played, she can feel the resonant sounds pouring into her body. She takes off her foot wears on a wooden stage and the vibrations of the instruments pass from her bare feet into her legs. Thus, Evelyn has sensitized the different parts of her body to the different sounds of music.

Question 2.
“If you work hard and know where you are going, you’ll get there,” remarks Evelyn Glennie. What does it reveal about her character?
Answer:
Evelyn’s firm determination, her hard work and her focus on her goal are well revealed in her statement. These values of her character have enabled her to successfully overcome her handicap of deafness. Though she developed hearing impairment at the young age of eight, and became profoundly deaf by the age of twelve, she has never let it become a stumbling block in her way to success.

Firmly determined to pursue music and to lead a normal life, Evelyn did not let her disability stand in her way. The encouragement and training provided by percussionist Ron Forbes paved the way for her advancement and she stuck to the path with unshakeable self-confidence. It was this confidence and faith in herself that made her dare to audition for the Royal Academy of Music, London where she received the top most awards.

Evelyn is very hard working. She has worked hard, in fact much harder than the other classical musicians to bring percussion to the front stage in orchestra. She believes that no goal is unachievable for those who work hard and are focussed on the goal. With her earnest efforts, she moved from orchestra to solo performances and eventually became an internationally renowned percussionist owing to her command over a large number of instruments. Her courage and confidence to rise above her disability has made her a soprce of inspiration for all.

Question 3.
Evelyn is very down-to-earth and does not succumb to hero worship. Comment.
Answer:
Evelyn Glennie did not let her loss of hearing get her down. She was determined to make a career in music, and with the help of percussionist Ron Forbes, she trained herself to feel music through every part of her body. She never looked back from that point onwards. She toured the United Kingdom with a youth orchestra and by the time she was sixteen, she had decided to make music her life. She auditioned for the Royal Academy of Music and scored one of the highest marks in the history of the academy.

She gradually moved from orchestral work to solo performances. At the end of her three-year course, she had captured most of the top awards. And for all this, Evelyn doesn’t accept any hint of heroic achievement. “If you work hard and know where you are going, you’ll get there.” And she got right to the top, the world’s most sought-after multi-percussionist with a mastery of some thousand instruments, and hectic international schedule.

Question 4.
Evelyn is an inspiration to all. Justify.
Answer:
Despite her disability, Evelyn rose to great heights as a musician. When talking of music, she explains, “It pours in through every part of my body. It tingles in the skin, my cheekbones and even in my hair.” When she plays the xylophone, she can sense the sound passing up the stick into her fingertips. By leaning against the drums, she can feel the resonances flowing into her body. On a wooden platform, she removes her shoes so that the vibrations pass through her bare feet and up her legs.

Not surprisingly, Evelyn delights her audiences. In 1991 she was presented with the Royal Philharmonic Society’s prestigious Soloist of the Year Award. Says master percussionist James Blades, “God may have taken her hearing but he has given her back something extraordinary. What we hear, she feels — far more deeply than any of us. That is why she expresses music so beautifully.”

Evelyn confesses that she is something of a workaholic. “I’ve just got to work … often harder than classical musicians. But the rewards are enormous.” Apart from the regular concerts, Evelyn also gives free concerts in prisons and hospitals. She also gives high priority to classes for young musicians. Ann Richlin of the Beethoven Fund for Deaf Children says, “She is a shining inspiration for deaf children. They see that there is nowhere that they cannot go.”

Evelyn Glennie has already accomplished more than most people twice her age. She has brought percussion to the front of the orchestra, and demonstrated that it can be very moving. She has given inspiration to those who are handicapped, people who look to her and say, ‘If she can do it, I can.’ And, not the least, she has given enormous pleasure to millions.

The Sound of Music Extra Questions and Answers Reference to Context

Read the extracts given below and answer the questions that follow.

Question 1.
It was her first day at the prestigious Royal Academy of Music in London and daunting enough for any teenager fresh from a Scottish farm. But this aspiring musician faced a bigger challenge than most.

(a) Who is referred to as the ‘aspiring musician’?
Answer:
Evelyn Glennie is referred to as the aspiring musician.

(b) How old was this ‘aspiring musician’ when she went to the Royal Academy of Music?
Answer:
She was seventeen years old when she went to the Royal Academy of Music in London.

(c) What was likely to ‘daunt any teenager’?
Answer:
The first day in a great and renowned institute like The Royal Academy of Music, London was likely to daunt any teenager.

(d) Why did she “a bigger challenge than most”?
Answer:
She faced a ‘bigger challenge’ than most as she was profoundly deaf and was yet joining a music academy.

Question 2.
Evelyn Glennie’s loss of hearing had been gradual. Her mother remembers noticing something was wrong when the eight-year-old Evelyn was waiting to play the piano.
“They called her name and she didn ’t move. I suddenly realised she hadn ’t heard, ” says Isabel Glennie.

(a) Who is Isabel Glennie?
Answer:
Isabel Glennie is Evelyn Glennie’s mother.

(b) Why did Evelyn Glennie not move to play the piano?
Answer:
Evelyn did not move because she had not heard her name being called.

(c) When was her deafness first noticed?
Answer:
Evelyn’s deafness was first noticed when she was eight years old.

(d) How did Evelyn lose her hearing?
Answer:
Evelyn’s hearing impairment happened as a result of gradual nerve damage.

Question 3.
They were advised that she should be fitted with hearing aids and sent to a school for the deaf.

(a) Who are ‘they’? By whom were they advised?
Answer:
‘They’ are the parents of Evelyn Glennie. They were advised by the specialist to whom Evelyn’s parents had taken her for a check-up.

(b) Who is ‘she’?
Answer:
‘She’ is Evelyn Glennie.

(c) What was the course of action recommended for her?
Answer:
It was recommended that she should be provided with hearing aids in order to be able to hear and that she be sent to a school for the deaf.

(d) How had her mother realised that Evelyn was having problems with her hearing?
Answer:
Evelyn’s mother realised she was having problems with her hearing when Evelyn did not go for her piano recital when her name was called.

Question 4.
But Evelyn was not going to give up. She was determined to lead a normal life and pursue her interest in music. One day, she noticed a girl playing a xylophone and decided that she wanted to play it too. Most of the teachers discouraged her but percussionist Ron Forbes spotted her potential.

(a) Evelyn was not going to give up. Why was she not going to give up?
Answer:
She was not going to give up because of her interest in music. Music was her passion.

b) What did she want to do?
Answer:
She wanted to learn to play the xylophone.

(c) Why did her teachers not encourage her?
Answer:
They did not encourage her because they felt it was impossible for a deaf girl to pursue her career in music.

(d) Who encouraged her? What did he say?
Answer:
Ron Forbes, who saw her potential and capabilities, encouraged her. He suggested she ‘hear’ with the whole of her body.

Question 5.
She never looked back from that point onwards. She toured the United Kingdom with a youth orchestra and by the time she was sixteen, she had decided to make music her life.

(a) Who is ‘she’?
Answer:
She refers to Evelyn Glennie.

(b) What does ‘that point’ refer to?
Answer:
‘That point’ refers to the time when Evelyn learnt to listen to music by feeling the vibrations through her body.

(c) Where did she go with a youth orchestra?
Answer:
She toured United Kingdom with a youth orchestra.

(d) What was her age when she decided to make music her life?
Answer:
She was just sixteen when she decided to make music her life.

Question 6.
She gradually moved from orchestral work to solo performances. At the end of her three-year course, she had captured most of the top awards.

(a) How did Evelyn advance in her career?
Answer:
Initially Evelyn performed in a group of orchestra. Gradually, she started giving solo performances.

(b) Where did she pursue her three-year course?
Answer:
She pursued her three-year course in the most prestigious institute of music in England, The Royal Academy for Music, London.

(c) What were her achievements at the end of her course?
Answer:
At the end of her course, she had bagged the biggest awards in her field.

(d) What made her achievements so great?
Answer:
The fact that she had won the awards despite her hearing disability made her achievements so great.

Question 7.
And for all this, Evelyn won’t accept any hint of heroic achievement. “If you work hard and know where you are going, you ’ll get there. ”

(a) What does ‘all this’ refer to?
Answer:
“All this” refers to the fact that by the end of her three-year course at the Royal Academy she had captured most of the top awards

(b) Why is it a heroic achievement?
Answer:
It is a heroic achievement as she has achieved success in music despite being profoundly deaf.

(c) To what does Evelyn give credit for her achievement?
Answer:
Evelyn gives credit for her achievements to her focus on her aims and her hard work.

(d) What quality of Evelyn’s character is reflected in this?
Answer:
This shows Evelyn is a humble and down-to-earth person.

Question 8.
In our two-hour discussion she never missed a word. “Men with bushy beards give me trouble, ” she laughed. “It is not just watching the lips, it’s the whole face, especially the eyes. ”

(a) Who is ‘she’? Why is it strange that she never missed a word?
Answer:
She refers to Evelyn Glennie. She is profoundly deaf yet she heard each word.

(b) How does she hear the words?
Answer:
She hears the words by reading lips and by studying the whole face and eyes of the speaker.

(c) Why do men with bushy beards give her trouble?
Answer:
She is unable to read their lips and their face.

(d) Which are the languages that she speaks?
Answer:
She has managed to leam French and master basic Japanese.

Question 9.
As for music, she explains, “It pours in through every part of my body. It tingles in the skin, my cheekbones and even in my hair. ’’ When she plays the xylophone, she can sense the sound passing up the stick into her fingertips. By leaning against the drums, she can feel the resonances flowing into her body.

(a) Who is the speaker in the first line?
Answer:
In the first line, the speaker is Evelyn Glennie, the famous multi-percussionist.

(b) What is it that pours in through every part of her body?
Answer:
Music and its vibrations pour in through every part of her body.

(c) How was she able to hear sounds and vibrations?
Answer:
She was able to hear sounds and vibrations by sensing them through her body and her mind. Being deaf, she could not hear with her ears so she had trained and sensitized her body and mind.

(d) How did Ron Forbes help her to continue with music?
Answer:
Percussionist Ron Forbes tuned two large drums to different notes. He asked her not to listen to them through her ears but to try and sense the sound in some other manner.

Question 10.
“I’ve just got to work… Often harder than classical musicians. But the rewards are enormous. ’’Apart from the regular concerts, Evelyn also gives free concerts in prisons and hospitals. She also gives high priority to classes for young musicians. Ann Richlin of the Beethoven Fund for Deaf Children says, “She is a shining inspiration for deaf children. They see that there is nowhere that they cannot go. ”

(a) Evelyn works harder than classical musicians. What does it imply?
Answer:
Classical music needs a lot of practice. However, Evelyn works even harder than the others.

(b) For whom does Evelyn perform for free?
Answer:
Evelyn gives free concerts in prisons and hospitals.

(c) “ … there is nowhere that they cannot go.” Who are they here?
Answer:
They are deaf children.

(d) What quality of Evelyn’s character is shown by her actions?
Answer:
Evelyn is committed to music. She is also compassionate and generous towards those in need.

The Shehnai of Bismillah Khan

The Sound of Music Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Why did Aurangzeb ban the playing of the pungi?
Answer:
Aurangzeb banned the playing of musical instrument pungi because it had a loud, shrill, and unpleasant sound. He prohibited its play in the royal court.

Question 2.
Why did the pungi become a generic name for “reeded noisemakers”?
Answer:
The pungi was made from a reed and it produced noisy, unpleasant sounds. It became a generic name for “reeded noisemakers”.

Question 3.
How is a shehnai different from a pungi?
Answer:
Shehnai has a better tonal quality than pungi. It is a natural hollow stem pipe with holes on its body and is longer and broader than the pungi. When some of the holes are closed and opened while it is played on, soft and melodious sounds are produced instead of the loud, jarring sound of a pungi. Thus, shehnai is, in a way, an improvement upon the pungi.

Question 4.
How was the pungi revived?
Answer:
After Aurangzeb had banned the playing of the pungi in the royal residence, a barber who belonged to a family of professional musicians revived it by taking a wider and longer hollow stem and making seven holes in it. The opening and closing of these holes in the improved pungi produced soft and sweet sounds.

Question 5.
How did the improved and modified pungi get its new name?
Answer:
It is believed that the barber (nai) who improved the pungi, played his improved and modified instrument in the chamber of the emperor {shah). From the combination of the two words shah and nai, the new instrument got is new name shehnai.

Question 6.
Where was the shehnai played traditionally? Why?
Answer:
The music of the shehnai was melodious and soft. It was made a part of the naubat or or traditional ensemble of nine instruments found at royal courts. Soon, it came to be believed that it was auspicious. Therefore, it came to be played in the holy temples and on the happy auspicious occasions of weddings.

Question 7.
Although the shehnai was played in temples and at weddings. How did Bismillah Khan change this?
Answer:
The shehnai was traditionally played in royal courts, temples and weddings. Ustaad Bismillah Khan, an undisputed shehnai maestro, brought the instrument onto the classical stage by adding new raagas and modifying old ones.

Question 8.
Where and how did Bismillah Khan begin his career in music?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan began his career in music at the age of five by singing the Bhojpuri Chaita in the Bihariji temple regularly in his native town Dumraon in Bihar. At the end of the song the local Maharaja would give him a big laddu weighing 1.25 kg as a prize.

Question 9.
How did Bismillah Khan inherit music from his paternal and maternal ancestors?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan hailed from a family of musicians in Bihar. His paternal grandfather Rasool Bux Khan was a shehnai player in the royal court of the king of Bhojpur. His father Paigambar Bux and many paternal and maternal uncles were also shehnai vaadaks. In fact, Bismillah Khan was apprenticed with his maternal uncle Ali Bux to learn how to play the shehnai.

Question 10.
Write a short note on Ali Bux.
Answer:
Ali Bux was the maternal uncle of Bismillah Khan. He was a great shehnai player and was employed to play the shehnai in the Vishnu temple of Benaras. In fact, at a very young age Bismillah was apprenticed to his uncle. Bismillah Khan started accompanying him and got lessons in playing the shehnai from him. The young boy would sit for hours listening to his uncle and later practise throughout the day. As such he and may be regarded as his mentor and trainer.

Question 11.
What significance did the Ganga have in Bismillah Khan’s life?
Answer:
The young Bismillah Khan often sat on the banks of the Ganga to practice his music there in solitude. The flowing waters of Ganga inspired him to improvise and invent raagas which were earlier considered beyond the range of the shehnai. In fact, when much later, his student invited him to head a shehnai school in the USA, Khansaab asked him if he would be able to transport River Ganga as well, implying thereby that he could not live without the Ganga.

Question 12.
When and how did Bismillah Khan get his big break?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan got his big break in 1938. All India Radio opened in Lucknow and Bismillah Khan played shehnai on radio. He soon became an often-heard player on radio. He became the first Indian to greet the nation with his shehnai from the Red Fort on 15 August, 1947.

Question 13.
Where did Bismillah Khan play the shehnai on 15 August 1947? Why was the event historic?
Answer:
On 15 August 1947, Bismillah Khan played the Raag Kaafi on his shehnai from the Red Fort prior to the speech of Pandit Nehru. The event was historical because it was on the occasion of the declaration of India’s Independence from British Rule. On that day, Bismillah Khan was the first Indian to greet the nation and he poured his heart out while playing the melodious raaga on his shehnai.

Question 14.
What honours and awards were bestowed upon Ustad Bismillah Khan in foreign countries?
Answer:
His first trip abroad was to Afghanistan where King Zahir Shah, taken in by the maestro, gifted him priceless Persian carpets and other souvenirs. In fact, an auditorium in Teheran was named after him —Tahar Mosiquee Ustaad Bismillah Khan. The King of Afghanistan was also fascinated with Bismillah’s music. He was the first Indian to be invited to perform at the prestigious Lincoln Centre Hall in the United States of America. He also took part in the World Exposition in Montreal, in the Cannes Art Festival and in the Osaka Trade Fair.

Question 15.
How did the film director Vijay Bhatt honour Bismillah Khan?
Answer:
The film director, Vijay Bhatt, once heard the shehnai recital of Bismillah Khan in a festival. He was so fascinated by the performance that he decided to name his next film after the instrument and called it Gunj Uthi Shehnai. The film also had a song that was composed by Bismillah Khan.

Question 16.
Why did Bismillah Khan leave the glamour of the film world and return to Benaras? What does this tell you about him?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan returned to Benares after providing music for two films – Vijay Bhatt’s Gunj Uthi Shehnai and Vikram Srinivas’s Kannada venture, Sanadhi Apanna. This was because he disliked the artificiality and glamour of the film world. He said, “I just can’t come to terms with the artificiality and glamour of the film world.” This incident indicates that truthfulness and simplicity of Bismillah Khan’s character.

Question 17.
How did India honour and reward the great musician, Bismillah Khan?
Answer:
India honoured Bismillah Khan by conferring on him the greatest national awards – the Padmashri, the Padma Bhushan, and the Padma Vibhushan. He was also awarded the Bharat Ratna in 2001, the highest civilian award in India.

Question 18.
What advice did Bismillah Khan give Indian youth?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan had a great regard for Indian music and the rich heritage of Hindustani music. He wanted that children must not cut off their bond from this grand tradition which was fascinating even for the people of the west. He advised Indians to teach their children music, as it was Hindustan’s richest tradition.

Question 19.
What offer did Bismillah Khan’s student make to him? What was his reply?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan’s student, who himself was settled in the USA, wanted that the great maestro to head a shehnai school in the UAS. He promised that he would create the ambience of Benaras by erecting the temples like those in India. Bismillah Khan refused the proposition because he would not live away from Hindustan, specifically, from Benaras, the River Ganga and Dumraon.

Question 20.
How does Bismillah Khan embody India’s rich cultural and secular tradition?
Answer:
Indian culture has always displayed a liberal attitude to all communities and religions. The society and its cultural heritage is a blend of various religious and ethnic groups. Bismillah Khan’s life perfectly represents this blend. Although he was a devout muslim, he began his singing career by singing Chiaf in Bihariji temple and practicing shehnai in Vishnu temple and Mangala Maiya temple of Varanasi. He practised the shehnai on the banks of the Ganga and played it in the Kashi Vishwanath temple every morning.

Question 21.
Find at least two instances in the text which tell you that Bismillah Khan loves India and Benaras.
Answer:
The first instance is when he turned down his student’s offer to start a shehnai school in USA. The second instance is when Khansaab was asked by Shekhar Gupta about moving to Pakistan during the partition, he said that he would never leave Benaras.

The Sound of Music Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Why did Emperor Aurangzeb ban the playing of the pungi and how was it improved?
Answer:
Emperor Aurangzeb banned the playing of the pungi in the royal residence because it had a shrill and unpleasant sound. But a barber belonging to a professional family of musicians was able to improve it. He chose a reed pipe with a natural hollow stem that was longer and broader than the one used for the pungi. He made seven holes on the body of the pipe. He played the instrument in the royal chambers of Emperor Aurangzeb.

Everyone was impressed by the new instrument and the shehnai was made a part of the naubat or traditional ensemble of nine instruments found at royal courts. Its sweet and melodious notes caused it to be played only in temples and weddings and other auspicious occasions. Since it was first played in the Shah’s chambers and was played by a nai (barber), the instrument was named the shehnai.

Question 2.
How was Bismillah Khan associated with the film world?
Answer:
Film director Vijay Bhatt heard Bismillah Khan at a festival. He was so impressed by Bismillah Khan that he named a film after the shehnai – Gunj Uthi Shehnai. The film was a huge hit and one of Bismillah Khan’s compositions Dil ka khilona hai toot gaya turned out to be very popular. In spite of his great success in the film world, Bismillah Khan’s experience in the film world was limited to two films – Vijay Bhatt’s ‘Gunj Uthi Shehnai’ and Vikram Srinivas’s ‘Sanadhi Apanna’. Bismillah Khan, however, made it clear that he could not come to terms with the artificiality and glamour of the film world and returned to Benaras.

Question 3.
Write a note on the life and achievements of Bismillah Khan as a ‘shehnai vaadak’. What values of life do you derive from his story?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan’s journey as a shehnai maestro embodies the moral values of dedication, simplicity and patriotism. It started at the young age of three and continued up to the age of ninety. The journey ranged from playing the instrument in the temples to getting international fame.

Hailing from a family of musicians, Bismillah Khan inherited an interest in the shehnai. At a young age of three, he started accompanying his maternal Uncle Ali Bux to the Vishnu temple in Benaras and learnt a lot from him. He would sing scriptures like the Bhojpuri ‘chaita Bismillah Khan got an important break when he started playing for the All India Radio, Lucknow in 1938.

His music was so admired that he was invited to play at the historic moment of Indian independence on 15 August, 1947. In recognition of his talent, he was conferred upon with the greatest awards of India – the Padmashri, the Padma Bhushan, and the Padma Vibhushan. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in India, in 2001. Bismillah Khan ventured into the film world but abandoned it after he found it to be too artificial and glamorous. On the international level, he mesmerized the King of Afghanistan with his shehnai music.

He was the only Indian to be invited to play shehnai in the Lincoln Central Hall, USA. He also played in international events like the World Exposition, Montreal, the Cannes Art Festival and the Osaka Trade Fair. As a token of appreciation, the Teheran government has named an auditorium after Bismillah Khan. Bismillah Khan had a deep devotion to his motherland and was proud of its heritage of music. Hence, he declined the offer to settle down in foreign countries. The journey of his life teaches the values of dedication to one’s talent and persistent efforts to reach the greatest heights of excellence.

Question 4.
What important lesson does the life of Evelyn Glennie and Bismillah Khan teach us?
Answer:
Evelyn Glennie and Bismillah Khan, the two eminent music maestros, through their achievements, have proved to the world that the values of determination, hard work and unwavering efforts are always rewarded. Evelyn Glennie became an internationally admired multi-percussionist only because of her untiring work which helped her rise above her handicap.

Instead of yielding to her deafness, she worked hard to sensitise her body to sense the vibrations and sounds of music through different parts of her body and never looked back. With her persistent efforts, she made it to the Royal Academy of Music, London and bagged the most prestigious awards. Her sincere devotion to her art has given percussion a new place on the international stage.

Bismillah Khan, like Evelyn, was dedicated to his art and attained greatest heights as a shehnai player. He, too worked diligently and transformed the shehnai into a classical instrument. He added enormously to what he had inherited by widening the range of the shehnai. He invented many new raagas.

Starting with playing in the temples of Benaras and on the banks of Ganga, he achieved international acclaim. His hard work enabled him to win the most prestigious awards in India and in the world. Thus, the lives of both Evelyn Glennie and Bismillah Khan are perfect examples of how dedicated efforts and persistent hard work lead to grand achievements.

The Sound of Music Extra Questions and Answers Reference to Context

Read the extracts given below and answer the questions that follow.

Question 1.
Emperor Aurangzeb banned the playing of a musical instrument called pungi in the royal residence for it had a shrill unpleasant sound. Pungi became the generic name for dreaded noisemakers. Few had thought that it would one day be revived. A barber of a family of professional musicians, who had access to the royal palace, decided to improve the tonal quality of the pungi.

(a) Why did the Emperor Aurangzeb ban the pungi?
Answer:
He banned the pungi because it had a shrill and unpleasant sound

(b) How was the pungi revived?
Answer:
The pungi was revived after its tonal quality was improved.

(c) Who revived the pungi?
Answer:
It was revived by a barber who belonged to a family of musicians.

(d) What was its new name? Why?
Answer:
The pungi s new name was shehnai. It was played in the Shah’s (Emperor’s) chambers by a nai (barber).

Question 2.
Few had thought that it would one day be revived. A barber of a family ofprofessional musicians, who had access to the royal palace, decided to improve the tonal quality of the pungi.

(a) What does ‘it’ refer to?
Answer:
It refers to a reeded musical instrument called the pungi.

(b) Why did ‘it’ need to be revived?
Answer:
The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb had banned the pungi as he found its sound to be shrill and unpleasant. Therefore, it needed to be revived.

(c) Why did the barber have an interest in ‘it’?
Answer:
The barber hailed from a family of professional musicians. That is why he had interest in the reeded musical instrument, the pungi.

(d) Did he succeed in improving ‘it’? If yes, how?
Answer:
Yes, he succeeded in improving the tonal quality of the pungi. He took a reed or a pipe with natural hollow stem which was wider and longer than the pungi. He made seven holes in it. When he played on it, closing and opening some of these holes, it produced soft and melodious music.

Question 3.
As the story goes, since it was first played in the Shah’s chambers and was played by a nai (barber), the instrument was named the shehnai.

(a) What does ‘it’ refer to?
Answer:
‘It’ refers to the shehnai – a musical instrument, made with a hollow stem with seven holes in it.

(b) What is the significance of the instrument being played in the royal court?
Answer:
The pungi had been banned by the emperor Aurangzeb in the royal residence. Therefore, concerts of the shehnai in the royal court made it a significant instrument.

(c) How is a shehnai different from a pungi ?
Answer:
A shehnai is a pipe with a natural hollow that is longer and broader than a pungi. It has seven holes on the body of the pipe.

(d) Where was the instrument traditionally played?
Answer:
The instrument was traditionally played in temples and at weddings.

Question 4.
Till recently it was used only in temples and weddings. The credit for bringing this instrument onto the classical stage goes to Ustad Bismillah Khan.

(a) Which instrument is being referred to as ‘it’ in the extract?
Answer:
The instrument being referred to as ‘it’ in the extract is the shehnai.

(b) When and where was ‘it’ generally played? Why?
Answer:
The sounds of shehnai were so melodious that they were considered to be auspicious. Therefore, it was played in temples and weddings.

(c) What was the naubat? Where was it played?
Answer:
Naubat was the name given to the traditional ensemble of nine instruments found at royal courts. The shehnai was part of these nine instruments.

(d) How did Bismillah Khan bring the shehnai to the classical stage?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan did a great service to shehnai as it came to be regarded as an instrument of classical music because of the new melodies produced by him.

Question 5.
As a five-year old, Bismillah Khan played gilli-danda near a pond in the ancient estate of Dumraon in Bihar. He would regularly go to the nearby Bihariji temple to sing the Bhojpuri Chaita, at the end of which he would earn a big laddu weighing 1.25 kg, a prize given by the local Maharaja.

(a) Where did Bismillah Khan grow up?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan grew up in Dumraon in Bihar.

(b) How did Bismillah Khan spend his childhood?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan spent his childhood playing gilli-danda and singing in the temple.

(c) Why did Bismillah Khan go to the nearby Bihariji temple daily?
Answer:
He used to visit the temple daily to sing the Bhojpuri Chaita for which he was given a big laddu by the local maharaja.

(d) Which musical instrument did Bismillah Khan play? From whom did he learn it?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan played the shehnai. He learnt to play it from his maternal uncle, Ali Bux.

Question 6.
For years to come the temple of Balaji and Mangala Maiya and the banks of the Ganga became the young apprentice’s favourite haunts where he could practise in solitude. The flowing waters of the Ganga inspired him to improvise and invent raagas that were earlier considered to be beyond the range of the shehnai.

(a) Who does “the young apprentice” refer to?
Answer:
“The young apprentice” refers to Bismillah Khan.

(b) Why is he referred to as the young apprentice?
Answer:
An apprentice is one someone who has agreed to work for a skilled person for a particular period of time and often for low payment, in order to leam that person’s skills. He is referred to as the young apprentice because from a very young age he had been getting lessons in playing the shehnai from his Uncle, Ali Bux.

(c) What kind of impact did the waters of the Ganga have on ‘him ‘?
Answer:
The waters of the Ganga inspired him to improvise the old raagas and invent new ones for the shehnai.

(d) How did he widen the range of the shehnai?
Answer:
There were certain raagas or musical notations which were considered to be outside the range of the shehnai. He modified those raagas and invented and played new ones on the shehnai and made its range wider.

Question 7.
When India gained Independence on August 15, 1947, Bismillah Khan became the first Indian to greet the nation with his Shehnai. He poured his heart out into Raag Kafi from the Red Fort to an audience which included Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, who later gave his famous Tryst with Destiny speech.

(a) Who was the first Indian to greet the nation?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan was the first Indian to greet the nation with his Shehnai on 15th August 1947.

(b) What was the occasion? Which raaga did he play on the occasion?
Answer:
He played Raag Kafi just before Jawaharlal Nehru’s speech declaring India’s independence.

(c) Why was he chosen to play on the occasion?
Answer:
He was chosen to play on the occasion as he played upon the shehnai, the music of which is considered auspicious in India.

(d) Explain the expression: “He poured his heart out.”
Answer:
The expression implies that the music played on the shehnai came from the depths of the heart of Bismillah Khan who, as a true patriot, was excited at the declaration of the independence of India.

Question 8.
Despite this huge success in the celluloid world, Bismillah Khan’s ventures in film music were limited to two: Vijay Bhatt’s Gunj Uthi Shehnai and Vikram Srinivas’s Kannada venture, Sanadhi Apanna. “Ijust can’t come to terms with the artificiality and glamour of the film world, ” he says with emphasis.

(a) What is meant by celluloid world? Why is it so called?
Answer:
The term celluloid world refers to the film world because celluloid is a name for film used in shooting movies. Because of its use in making films, this term came to stand for movies in general.

(b) What did Bismillah Khan do in the celluloid world?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan provided music for two films.

(c) Which two characteristics of the film world did he dislike?
Answer:
He disliked the artificiality and glamour of the film world.

(d) What do you leam about his character from this incident?
Answer:
It indicates that truthfulness and simplicity were two significant traits of Bismillah Khan’s character.

Question 9.
A student of his once wanted him to head a shehnai school in the U.S.A., and the student promised to recreate the atmosphere of Benaras by replicating the temples there.

(a) Why did Bismillah Khan’s student want of him?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan’s student wanted him to shift to USA and head a shehnai school there.

(b) What did he promise to do?
Answer:
He promised to recreate the atmosphere of Benaras in the USA by building similar temples as the ones in Benaras there.

(c) What was Bismillah Khan’s reply?
Answer:
Bismillah Khan refused to accept the offer as he did not wish to leave the Ganga.

(d) What do you leam about him from this?
Answer:
It reveals that Bismillah Khan was a true patriot, who passionately loved the Ganga and never wanted to live away from it.

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Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers Industries

Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers Industries

In this chapter, “Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers Industries,” we’ll traverse through the vast domains of factories and production units, discovering the various types of industries and their role in economic development. From understanding the concept of industrialization to exploring the challenges and opportunities in the industrial sector, this narrative unveils the significance of industries in shaping modern societies. Read this also Extra Questions for Class 8 Social Science .

Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers Industries

Industries Class 8 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 5 Very Short Answers Type

Question 1.
What is the basic function of secondary activities or manufacturing?
Answer:
The basic function of secondary activities or manufacturing is to change raw materials into products of more value to people.

Question 2.
Of what is the paper made up from?
Answer:
The paper is made up from pulp.

Question 3.
Name the classification of industries on the basis of raw material used by them.
Answer:
The industries classified on the basis of raw materials used by them are:

  1. Agro-based industries
  2. Mineral-based industries
  3. Marine based industries
  4. Forest-based industries

Question 4.
By whom are the private sector industries owned and operated?
Answer:
Private-sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.

Question 5.
What does an industrial system consist of?
Answer:
An industrial system consists of input, processes and outputs.

Question 6.
How does an industrial region emerge?
Answer:
Industrial region emerges when a number of industries are located close to each other and share the benefits of their closeness.

Question 7.
What is meant by industrial disaster?
Answer:
In industries, accidents/disasters mainly occur due to technical failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material. This is known as industrial disaster.

Question 8.
Define Sunrise Industries.
Answer:
Emerging industries are also known as ‘Sunrise Industries’. These include Information technology, Wellness, Hospitality and Knowledge.

Question 9.
Define the process ‘smelting’.
Answer:
It is the process in which metals are extracted from their ores by heating beyond the melting point.

Question 10.
What is the full form of TISCO?
Answer:
TISCO: Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited.

Question 11.
On what basis are industries classified?
Answer:
Industries are classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership.

Question 12.
Under which category is production of automobile and heavy machinery is placed?
Answer:
Under large scale industry.

Question 13.
What may be the inputs in case of textile industry?
Answer:
In case of textile industry, the inputs may be cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost.

Question 14.
What was the official death total in 1989 in Bhopal tragedy?
Answer:
Official death total was 3,598 in 1989.

Question 15.
What is MIC?
Answer:
MIC is Methyl Isocynate gas responsible for gas tragedy of Bhopal.

Question 16.
Which is the major IT hub of India?
Answer:
Bengaluru.

Question 17.
Where was TISCO started in?
Answer:
It was started in Sakchi.

Question 18.
What is the date of Bhopal gas tragedy?
Answer:
On 3rd December 1984.

Question 19.
Which industries use produce from sea and oceans as raw materials?
Answer:
Marine based industries.

Question 20.
In which part of the world is silicon valley located?
Answer:
It is located next to the rocky mountains of North America.

Industries Class 8 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 5 Short Answers Type

Question 1.
Why was Sakchi chosen to set up the steel plant? Give reasons.
Answer:
Sakchi was chosen to set up the steel plant for several reasons because:

  1. the place was only 32 km away from Kalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway line.
  2. It was close to the iron ore, coal and manganese deposits as well as to Kolkata, which provided a large market.
  3. TISCO gets coal from Jharia coalfields, and iron ore, limestone, dolomite and manganese from Odisha and Chattisgarh.
  4. The Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers ensured sufficient water supply. Government initiatives provided adequate capital for its later development.

Question 2.
What was the ideal location for iron and steel industry before 1800 A.D and after 1950 how did the concept for ideal location of iron and steel industries change?
Answer:
Before 1800 A.D. iron and steel industry was located where raw materials, power supply and running water were easily available. Later, the ideal location for the industry was near coal fields and close to canals and railways.

After 1950, iron and steel industry began to be located on large areas of flat land near sea ports. This is because by this time steelworks had become very large and iron ore had to be imported from overseas.

Question 3.
How is the steel used by other industries as raw materials?
Answer:
Steel is used by other industries as raw material in many ways.

  1. Steel is tough and it can be easily shaped, cut, or made into wire.
  2. Special alloys of steel can be made by adding small amount of other metals such as aluminium, nickel and copper.
  3. Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness or ability to resist rust.
  4. Steel is often called the backbone of modern industry.

Question 4.
Define the concept of industrial system briefly.
Answer:
An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs. The inputs are the raw materials, labour and cost of land, transport, power and other infrastructure. The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products. The outputs are the end products and the income earned from it.

In case of textile industry the inputs may be cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost. The processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing. The output is the shirt you wear.

Question 5.
What does the concept of information technology industry deals in and which are the major hubs of the IT industry?
Answer:
The information technology industry deals in the storage, processing and distribution of information. Today, this industry has become global. This is due to a series of technological, political and socio-eco¬nomic events.

The main factors guiding the location of these industries are resource availability, cost and infrastructure. The major hubs of the IT industry are the Silicon Valley, California and Bengaluru, India.

Industries Class 8 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 5 Long Answers Type

Question 1.
How is the classification of industries done on the basis of raw materials size and ownership? Explain.
Answer:
Industries are classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership:
1. Raw materials: Industries may be agro-based, mineral-based, marine-based and forest-based depending on the type of raw materials used by them.

  • Agro-based industries: These industries use plant and animal-based products as their raw materials.
  • Mineral-based industries: These industries use mineral ores as their raw materials, and the products of these industries feed other industries.
  • Marine based industries: They use the products from the sea and oceans as raw materials.
  • Forest-based industries: It utilises forest produce as raw materials.

2. Size: It refers to the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production.
Based on size, industries can be classified into small scale and large scale industries.

  • Small scale industry: Cottage or household industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans. These industries use lesser amount of capital and technology as compared to large scale industry.
  • Large scale industry: These are industries that produce large volumes of products. Investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior in large scale industries.

3. Ownership: Industries can be classified into private sector, state-owned or public sector, joint sector and cooperative sector.

  • Private-sector industries: These are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
  • Public sector industries: These are owned and operated by the government.
  • Joint sector industries: These are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
  • Cooperative sector industries: The are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both.

Picture Based Questions Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Industries

Look at the picture given below and answer the following questions:
Picture-1
Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers Industries img-1
(i) What does the above picture show?
(ii) Where was the iron and steel industry located before 1800 A.D.?
Answer:
(i) It shows the changing location of iron and steel industry.
(ii) Before 1800 A.D. iron and steel industry was located where raw materials, power supply and running water were easily available.

Picture-2
Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers Industries img-2
(i) Name the major railway station shown in the figure.
(ii) What does the picture show?
Answer:
(i) Tatanagar railway station.
(ii) It shows the location of iron and steel industry in Jamshedpur.

Map Skills Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Industries

Question 1.
On an outline Map of World show the major iron ore producing areas.
(i) Brazil
(ii) South Africa
(iii) Australia
(iv) Germany
(v) India
Answer:
Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers Industries img-3

Question 2.
On an outline Map of World show the important iron and steel producing centres.
(i) Jharkhand
(ii) Odisha
(iii) Chhattisgarh
(iv) West Bengal
Answer:
Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers Industries img-4

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Unseen Passage for Class 10 Factual CBSE With Answers

Unseen Passage for Class 10 Factual CBSE With AnswersFactual passages: convey information in a straightforward and direct manner about a particular subject. Usually, the language and style are simple and clear. Factual passages may give instructions or descriptions or report of an event or a new finding.

Looking for an easy way to learn English Grammar? then you are in right place. Here we providing basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc…

Unseen Passage for Class 10 Factual CBSE With Answers

Unseen Passage With Answers for Class 10 CBSE

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 1
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

High-altitude climbing is still a very dangerous task in spite of the availability of oxygen masks and other protective equipment, which modern climbers take with them. These, of course, are indispensable accessories of climbing, but more important than these is the stamina of the climber, which ultimately determines the success of his attempt. Throughout his journey, death is his constant companion, which he can keep at a distance only with his superb presence of mind.

He has to tread every inch of the ground with utmost care, for a false step may not only strike him a fatal blow, but also bring disaster to the whole expedition. That is why all expeditions invariably take with them local guides who are experienced climbers and who have a thorough knowledge of the nature of the terrain. Moreover, a huge amount of capital is needed for financing these expeditions, and this is generally provided by governments or rich private organisations.

The primary object of a mountaineering expedition is to get to the top of a high mountain, which, in the past has withstood all attempts to conquer it. But it should not be presumed that the expedition is a complete failure if it does not reach its destination. Sometimes operations are temporarily suspended because of bad weather, loss of some valuable equipment or the sudden death of a very important member of the party.

Every big expedition takes with it men who are interested in botany, biology, geology and various other branches of science, and these men carry with them equipment for recording their observations concerning the weather, the terrain, and different forms of life in higher altitudes. Other scientists, explorers and expeditionists utilise the fruits of their observations. Thus, every unsuccessful expedition contributes to the success of later expeditions.

The British Expedition led by Colonel Hunt would have found their way to Everest much more difficult had not earlier expeditions armed them with useful knowledge about the death-dealing weather which they had to encounter in the vicinity of the summit.

To ordinary people, mountaineering need not be a fearfuljourney in the land of snowstorms, where the brave adventurer is always face to face with death. They can scale less ambitious heights, rest their weary limbs under a quiet shelter and feast their eyes in the distant landscape. In the company of friends they can enjoy an outing near a waterfall or cross into the next valley with haversacks full of provisions dangling from their shoulders. All those who can afford to go to hill station should seek this innocent pleasure, for it can be had without any risk to life or limb.

Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) What determines the success of the climbers?
(ii) What accessories does a climber have to be equipped with?
(iii) How useful are the local guides in these expeditions?
(iv) How does an unsuccessful expedition contribute?
(v) How is mountaineering different for ordinary people?
(vi) Why are expeditions sometimes suspended?
(vii) How should the terrain climbers tread every inch of their climb?
(viii) What precautions should the climbers take during their journey?
Answer:
(i) The stamina of the climbers determines the success of their attempt.
(ii) A climber has to be equipped with oxygen masks and other protective equipment.
(iii) The local guides are experienced climbers and also have a thorough knowledge of the nature of the terrain.
(iv) An unsuccessful expedition contributes to the success of later expeditions.
(v) They can scale less ambitious heights, rest their weary limbs, feast their eyes in the distant landscape in the company of their friends.
(vi) They are suspended due to bad weather, loss of some valuable equipment or sudden death of a very important member.
(vii) Terrain climbers should tread every inch of their climb with utmost care.
(viii) They should seek guidance of local guides during their journey.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 2
Read the passage carefully.

We give undue importance to our health and the treatment of diseases. A large number of medicines treat only the symptoms of the disease, and not the root cause. In fact, the cause of many chronic ailments is still being researched. It is here that Yoga therapy comes to our assistance. Yoga emphasizes treatment of the root cause of an ailment. It works in a slow, subtle and miraculous manner. Modern medicine can claim to save a life at a critical stage, but, for complete recovery and regaining of normal health, one must believe in the efficiency of Yoga therapy.

The Yogic way of life includes a code of ethics, regulations, discipline, combined with prayer and meditation. Even a discussion of these subjects helps one relieve mental tensions and change attitudes. Simple Asanas help to stretch and relax the whole body and release tensions. The sincere practice of Yoga postures is beneficial , for the mind and body.

The continued practice of Yoga has a profound effect on the inner dimensions of life. Yoga aims at developing the mental, physical, spiritual and emotional facilities. Other formsof physical exercises, like aerobics, assure only physical well-being. They have little to do with the development of the soul and mind.

Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) What do most of the medicines treat?
(ii) What does the phrase ‘Chronic ailments’ refer to?
(iii) How is yoga different from other forms of treatment?
(iv) What does the yogic way of life include?
(v) How does ‘Simple Asanas’ help?
(vi) How does sincere practice of yoga benefit us?
(vii) How does yoga therapy work?
(viii) Is yoga better than physical exercises? Why?
Answer:
(i) Most of the medicines treat only the symptoms and not the root cause.
(ii) They are Diseases that are recurrent and last, for a long time.
(iii) It emphasises on the treatment of the root cause of an ailment.
(iv) The yogic way of life code of ethics, regulations includes discipline, prayer and meditation.
(v) Simple asanas help to stretch and relax the whole body and release tensions.
(vi) Sincere practice of yoga is beneficial for the mind, body and concentration.
(vii) It works in a slow, subtle and miraculous manner.
(viii) Yoga aims at developing the physical, mental, spiritual and emotional faculties where as physical exercises only develop the body.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 3
Read the passage carefully.

Just by the use of colours you can balance your diet. All you need to do is to pay a little attention to the food you eat. Nutrition experts strongly recommend adding colours to your diet. Sweets and candy bars are generally colourful, but remember they do not contain natural colours and hence are not healthy. The key solution is a variety of naturally coloured foods. The deeper the colour, the greater the benefits.

Getting more colours in your diet doesn’t mean you have to drastically change your current eating habits. Have a glass of 100% juice in the morning. Keep a mix of dried fruits on hand for a quick snack. Grab an apple or banana on your way out. Include at least two vegetables in your dinner. Get into the habit of starting your dinner with a salad. Eat fruit for dessert. Always add greens to sandwiches.

Most red fruits and vegetables contain antioxidants, which offer protection against ultraviolet rays and cancer, and helps to prevent urinary tract infections and diseases related to the circulatory system. Green vegetables along with being appealing possess excellent antioxidant properties that protect the eyes by keeping the retina in good condition and reduce the risk of cancerous tumours.

The orange and yellow group is rich in beta-carotene, an antioxidant that improves cell communication and thereby helps to stop the spread of cancer. While the blue and purple group adds an element of richness to your plate, influences the pineal gland (the third eye) and the nervous system. The white group contains sulphur compounds that protect the DNA and flavonoids, an antioxidant that protects cell membranes.

Therefore, the more colourful your diet is, the better equipped your immune system would be to cope with diseases.

Complete the following sentences:
(i) ___________ can balance one’s diet.
(ii) Sweets and candy bars ___________ so they are unhealthy.
(iii) One should substitute ___________ for pudding at the end of a meal.
(iv) Antioxidants help to ___________.
(v) The word ‘drastically’ in Paragraph I means ___________
(vi) Green vegetables reduce the risk of ___________.
(vii) Blue aind purple vegetables add ___________ in plate.
(viii) Colourful diet helps our ___________ to cope with ___________.
Answer:
(i) use of colours.
(ii) do not contain natural colours.
(iii) fruits.
(iv) offer protection against ultraviolet rays and cancer and help to prevent urinary tract infection and circulatory system diseases
(v) sudden, serious or violent measures.
(vi) cancerous tumours and keep the retina in good condition.
(vii) an element of richness.
(viii) immune system; diseases.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 4
Read the passage carefully.

Spices bring to mind images of tempting cuisine, fascinating voyages and the bitter struggle for independence. Expressions like ‘variety is the spice of life’ and ‘sugar and spice and all that is nice’, explain how spices play upon the literary abilities of men of letters.

To orientals, spices are indeed the soul of their food. In the western world, it evokes dreams of exotic tropical islands, exciting expeditions, and the rise and fall of empires. Columbus went westwards in 1492, from Europe, to find a sea route to the land of spices, but found the New World. Eight years later, Vasco da Gama went round Africa and touched Kozhikode on the south west coast of India. Long before that, Arabs started trading with the Orients through land routes. During the 13th century, Marco Polo began the travelling and experienced attraction of spices. The European conquests and trade arrangement in India and the East Indies also have a lot to do with spices.

Thousands of years ago, great masters of Ayurveda notably Susruta and Charaka discussed in detail the uses of spices for culinary and medicinal purposes. Enterprising soldiers of fortune carried the knowledge of spices to Egypt. There they used spices and aromatic herbs in food, medicine, cosmetics and for embalming. The conquest of Egypt and Asia by Alexander the Great, made spices an article of commercial value in the Mediterranean countries and central and northern Europe. There are reports of pepper being used in the preservation of meat, and to mask the unpleasant odour of stale meat available after the long winter storage.

Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, and Theophrastus, a Greek scholar and botanist, wrote treatises on medicinal plants, including spices.

Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) Why do spices fascinate people?
(ii) What does “Variety is the spice of life” mean?
(iii) Where did Columbus want to reach?
(iv) What is meant by ‘cuisine’?
(v) What did Susruta and Charaka discuss in detail?
(vi) What made spices an article of commercial value in Mediterranean countries?
(vii) Who have written treatises on medicinal plants, including spices?
(viii) The word in the passage that means ‘interesting’ is ___________.
Answer:
(i) They bring to mind images of tempting cuisine, fascinating voyages and the bitter struggle for independence.
(ii) It means that life becomes exciting when we adopt to change.
(iii) Columbus wanted to reach the land of spices.
(iv) Refers to different styles of cooking.
(v) They discussed the use of spices for culinary and medical purposes in detail.
(vi) The conquest of Egypt and Asia by Alexander the Great made species an article of commercial value in Mediterranean countries.
(vii) Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, and Theophrastus, a Greek scholar and botanist, wrote treatises on medicinal plants, including spices.
(viii) fascinating.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 5
Read the passage carefully.

Demonetization refers to an economic policy where a certain currency unit leases to be used as a legal tender. It occurs whenever there is a change in the national currency: The existing form or forms of money is pulled from circulation and retired, to be replaced with new notes or coins. Sometimes, a country completely replaces the old currency with new currency.

On 8 November, 2016, the Indian government decided to demonetize the 500 and 1000 rupee notes, the two biggest denominations in its currency system. These notes accounted for 86% of the country’s circulating cash. With little warning, India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced to the citizenry that these notes would be rendered immediately ineffective with immediate effect. People were given time till the end of the year to deposit or exchange them for newly introduced 2000 rupee and 500 rupee notes.

The government’s goal was to combat India’s thriving underground economy on several fronts: eradicate counterfeit currency, fight tax evasion (only 1% of the population pays taxes), eliminate black money accumulated from money laundering and terrorist¬financing activities, and to promote a cashless economy. Individuals and entities with huge sums of black money Acquired from parallel cash systems were forced to take their large- denomination notes to a bank, and account for them satisfactorily and submit proof if tax paid. If the owner could not provide proof of making any tax payments on the cash, he possessed a penalty of 200% on the tax due was imposed.

Demonetisation had a severe impact on the gold market. The extraordinary demand for the yellow metal, made a stiff hike in the cost. However, the Government made it mandatory that every buyer had to submit his/her PAN card details for purchases made. Erring jewelers were brought to book.

Many Indians switched to alternative payment methods. The biggest gainers \yere mobile wallet companies that offered easy transactions through a large network of partners. Alibaba-backed Paytm saw a sevenfold increase in overall traffic. Prepaid cash cards were another option that the customers found useful. Other alternatives were mobile payment systems linked to e-commerce businesses like Ola Money, FreeCharge, Flipkart Wallet.

Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) What is meant by demonetization?
(ii) When did the government demonetize the 500-and 1000-rupee notes?
(iii) What announcement did Prime Minister Narendra Modi make on Nov. 8?
(iv) What did the government want to accomplish by the demonetization?
(v) When was a penalty of 200% imposed?
(vi) Explain the idiom, ‘brought to book’.
(vii) Find a word in the passage which means ‘to provide or supply’.
(viii) Which were the alternate payment methods available for Indians post demonetization?
Answer:
(i) Demonetization refers to an economic policy where a certain currency unit leases to be used as a legal tender.
(ii) The government demonetized the 500-and 1000-rupee notes on Nov. 8,2016.
(iii) Prime Minister Modi announced that the 500- and 1000- rupee notes would be rendered ineffective immediately. The Indian citizenry were given time till the end of the year to deposit or exchange them for the newly introduced 2000 rupee and 500 rupee notes.
(iv) The government wanted to eradicate counterfeit currency, fight tax evasion, eliminate black money amassed from money laundering and terrorist-financing activities, and to promote a cashless economy.
(v) If the owner could not provide proof of making any tax payments on the cash he possessed, a penalty of 200% on tax due was imposed.
(vi) to be punished officially under the law.
(vii) Furnish.
(viii) The Indians started using the services of mobile wallet companies (Alibaba-backed Paytm) and prepaid cash cards. The other alternatives include mobile payment systems linked to e-commerce businesses like Ola Money, FreeCharge, Flipkart Wallet.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 6
Read the passage carefully.

English is a West Germanic Language that was first spoken in the early medieval England. It has now acquired the status of being the 3rd most widely Spoken Language in the world.

Therefore, the need to be proficient in the language is becoming necessary for every one who has a dream.

How can one gain proficiency in any language? Most certainly by following the LSRW technique, i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing. Engage with people who are conversant with the language and assimilate what you hear, one at a time. Do not let adversities dampen your progress. “Rome was not built in a day”. Develop your speaking skills gradually. To acquire mastery in the language, one needs to venture on to next step which is extensive reading.

Moving from simple to complex, according to personal preferences. This will help you learn more words and their meanings. Once your vocabulary is developed, experiment with your writing skills. Soon you will find yourself confident, comfortable and fluent with using the language.

Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) Pen down two specialities of the English language?
(ii) How can we acquire proficiency in a language?
(iii) Explain “Rome was not built in a day”.
(iv) How can one build up one’s vocabulary?
(v) What can dampen your progress?
(vi) What is the strategy to be used to develop reading skills?
(vii) Find the synonym of – of the middle ages, (in Para 1)
(viii) Find the synonym of Skillfulness, (in Para 2)
Answer:
(i) English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in the early medieval England. It has now acquired the
status of being the 3rd most widely spoken language in the world.
(ii) Most certainly by following the LSRW technique, i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing. Engage with people who are conversant with the language, and assimilate what you hear, one at a time.
(iii) This expression means that no task can be accomplished easily or in a short period of time.
(iv) Reading and understanding word meanings will develop one’s vocabulary.
(v) Adversities can dampen your spirits.
(vi) Moving from simple to complex, according to personal preferences. This will help you learn more words and their meanings.
(vii) Medieval
(viii) Proficiency

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 7
Read the passage carefully.

A Norwegian Mathematician Vejomo-Johansson of the KTH Royal Institute of Stockholm, Sweden developed an interest in a unique concept — the technique of knotting a tie and recorded 17,147 of doing so. It is curiosity on the subject increased after viewing a video on YouTube by a film celebrity, on the technique of knotting a tie adopted by the characters in the Matrix film series and in Merovingian series.

To gain further knowledge in the subject, his research led him to the earlier findings of 85 techniques that were recorded at the University of Cambridge, by the experts Yong Mao and Thomas Fink. They had not considered the fancy styles in their study which accounted for the poor count.

They had considered only the normal, traditional and conventional ways of knotting a tie and had used ordinary everyday language to define their work. Johansson discovered that this common methodology was not used in the Matrix series, that involved several tucks, many folds and edges. He eventually set about rewriting the process by including numerous expressions that explained more elaborately different ways of knotting a tie.

Subsequently, tie wearers have been provided with a variety of options to choose from to complete their office attire.

Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) What is the researcher referring to in the passage?
(ii) To which faculty does the researcher belong and what is his name?
(iii) Who were the researchers from Cambridge?
(iv) Mention the drawbacks of their research.
(v) What inspired Johansson to do research?
(vi) What special technique was used in the Matrix series?
(vii) Identify the word that means special and unusual in para 1.
(viii) Identify the word need for ‘describe in a detailed manner,’ in para 3.
Answer:
(i) He is referring to the technique of knotting a tie.
(ii) He is a Mathematician by the name Vejomo Johansson.
(iii) the researchers from Cambridge were Yong Mao and Thomas Fink.
(iv) They had not considered the fancy styles of knotting a tie.
(v) The Cambridge researchers got a poor count, and had used everyday language to define their work. This discovery inspired Johansson to do research.
(vi) Matrix series included many tucks, several folds and edges.
(vii) Unique
(viii) Elaborately.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 8
Read the following passage carefully.

My grandmother’s house is like a chambered sea shell it has many rooms, yet it is not a mansion. Its proportions are small and its design simple. It is a house that has grown organically, according to the needs of its inhabitants. To all of us in the family it is known as la casa de Mama. It is the place of our origin ; the stage for our memories and dreams of Island life.

I remember how in my childhood it sat on stilts ; this was before it had a downstairs-it rested on its perch like a great blue bird-not a flying sort of bird, more like a nesting hen, but with spread wings. Grandfather had built it soon after their marriage. He was a painter and house builder by trade-a poet and meditative man by nature. As each of their eight children were born, new rooms were added. After a few years, the paint didn’t exactly match, nor the materials, so that there was a chronology to it, like the rings of a tree, and Mama could tell you the history of each room in her casa, and thus the genealogy of the family along with it.

Her own room is the hjeart of the house. Though I have seen it recently- and both woman and room have diminished in size, changed by the new perspective of my eyes, now capable of looking over countertops and tall beds-it is not this picture I carry in my memory of Mama’s casa. Instead, I see her room as a queen’s chamber where a small woman loomed large, a throne room with a massive four poster bed in its center, which stood taller than a child’s head.

It was on this bed, where her own children had been born, that the smallest grandchildren were allowed to take naps in the afternoons ; here too was where Mama secluded herself to dispense private advice to her daughters, sitting on the edge of the bed, looking down at whoever sat on the rocker where generations of babies had been sung to sleep. To me she looked like a wise empress right out of the fairy tales I was addicted to reading.

And there was the monstrous wardrobe she kept locked with a little golden key she did not hide. This was a test of her dominion over us ; though my cousins and I wanted a look inside that massive wardrobe more than anything, we never reached for that little key lying on top of her Bible on the dresser. This was also where she placed her earrings and rosary when she took them off at night. God’s word was her security system. This wardrobe was the place where I imagined she kept jewels, satin slippers, and elegant silk, sequined gowns of heartbreaking fineness.

I lusted after those imaginary costumes. I had heard that Mama had been a great beauty in her youth, and the belle of many balls. My cousins had ideas as to what she kept in that wooden vault : its secret could be money (Mama’s did not hand cash to strangers, banks were out of the question, so there were stories that her mattress was stuffed with dollar bills, and that she buried coins in jars in her garden under rose-bushes, or kept them in her untouched wardrobe there might be that legendary gun salvaged from the Spanish American conflict over the Island. We went wild over suspected treasures that we made up simply because children have to fill locked trunks with something wonderful.

Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) What was the la casa de Mama in the family?
(ii) What did the changing face of the house reflect?
(iii) Briefly explain the structure of Grandmother’s house.
(iv) How did the narrator’s Grandmother assert herself?
(v) Why did Mama not keep the little golden key hidden?
(vi) What had the author heard of Mama as a young woman?
(vii) Find the word from the passage – authority/control (para 4)
(viii) Find the word from the passage – a string of beads to count prayers (para 4)
Answer:
(i) To all of us in the family it is known as la casa de Mama. It is the place of our origin; the stage for our memories and dreams of Island life.
(ii) In his childhood, it sat on stilts; this was before it had a downstairs—it rested on its perch like a great blue bird-not a flying sort of bird, more like a nesting hen, but with spread wings. As each of their eight children was born, new rooms were added. So that there was a chronology to it, like the rings of a tree.
(iii) My grandmother’s house is like a chambered sea shell; it has many rooms, yet it is not a mansion. Its proportions are small and its design simple. It is a house that has grown organically, according to the needs of its inhabitants.
(iv) There was the monstrous wardrobe Mama kept locked with a little golden key she did not hide. This was a test of her dominion over us.
(v) We never reached for tha) little key lying on the top of her Bible on the dresser. God’s word was her security system.
(vi) I had heard that Mama had been a great beauty in her youth, and the belle of many balls.
(vii) Dominion
(viii) Rosary.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 9
Read the passage carefully.

In the early 1920’s, settlers came to Alaska looking for gold. They travelled by boat to the coastal towns of Seward and Knik, and from there by land into the gold fields. The trail they used to travel inland is known today as the Iditarod Trail, one of the National Historic Trails designated by the Congress of the United States. The Iditarod Trail quickly became a major thoroughfare in Alaska, as the mail and supplies were carried across this Trail. People also used it to get from place to place, including the priests, ministers, and judges who had to travel between villages. In the winter, the settlers’ only means of travel down this trail was via dog sled.

Once the gold rush ended, many gold-seekers went back to where they had come from, and suddenly there was much less travel on the Iditarod Trail. The introduction of the airplane in the late 1920’s meant dog teams were no longer the standard mode of transportation, and of course with the airplane carrying the mail and supplies, there was less need for land travel in general. The final blow to the use of the dog teams was the appearance of snowmobiles.

By the mid 1960’s, most Alaskans didn’t even know the Iditarod Trail existed, or that dog teams had played a crucial role in Alaska’s early settlements. Dorothy G. Page, a self- made historian, recognized how few people knew about the former use of sled dogs as working animals and about the Iditarod Trail’s role in Alaska’s colourful history. To raise awareness about this aspect of Alaskan history, she came up with the idea to have a dog sled race over the Iditarod Trail. She presented her idea to an enthusiastic musher, as dog sled drivers are known, named Joe Redington, Sr. Soon the Pages and the Redingtons were working together to promote the idea of the Iditarod race.

Many people worked to make the first Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race a reality in 1967. The Aurora Dog Mushers’ Club, along with men from the Adult Camp in Sutton, helped clear years of overgrowth from the first nine miles of the Iditarod Trail. To raise interest in the race, a $25,000 purse was offered, with Joe Redington donating one acre of his land to help raise the funds. The short race, approximately 27 miles long, was put on a second time in 1969.

After these first two successful races, the goal was to lengthen the race a little further to the ghost town of Iditarod by 1973. However in 1972, the U.S. Army reopened the trail as a winter exercise, and so in 1973, the decision was made to take the race all the way to the city of Nome- over 1,000 miles. There were many who believed it could not be done and that it was crazy to send a bunch of mushers out into the vast, uninhabited Alaskan wilderness. But the race went on! Twenty-two mushers finished that year, and to date over 400 people have completed it.

Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) Mention two ways by which the Iditarod trail was used.
(ii) How was the dog team replaced?
(iii) Who created an awareness of Alaskan history?
(iv) What was the role of the US army?
(v) Who is a musher? .
(vi) What is the role of the US army in the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race?
(vii) Give the meaning of following word: Designated
(viii) Through fare (Para 1)
Answer:
(i) The Iditarod Trail quickly became a major throughfare in Alaska, as the mail and supplies were carried across this. Trail. People also used it to get from place to place.
(ii) The introduction of the airplane in the late 1920’s meant dog teams were no longer the standard mode of transportation. The final blow to the use of the dog teams was the appearance of snowmobiles.
(iii) Dorothy G. Page, a self-made historian, raised awareness about the Iditarod trail role of Alaskan history. She came up with the idea to have a dog sled race over the Iditarod Trail.
(iv) In 1972, the U.S. Army reopened the trail as a winter exercise, and so in 1973, the decision was made to take the race all the way to the city of Nome over 1,000 miles.
(v) A dog sled driver.
(vi) Cleared the entire trail of about 1,000 miles all the way to Nome.
(vii) Chosen/selected.
(viii) Main road.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 10
Read the passage carefully.

1. After water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world. Its popularity has survived thousands of years and has played an important role in many cultures. It is enjoyed both hot and cold, as a refreshing drink, as part of a ceremony, or as a tonic for improved health.

2. The drink of Asia for hundreds of years, tea is believed to have been brought to Europe by the Dutch. Today, from remote Ladakh in India to Buckingham Palace in. London, tea is synonymous with cheer. It is rightly said that there will be no agreement on a perfect cup of Jea. Though for tea drinkers the brew is addictive, the preferred method of preparation and taste differ from person to person and region to region. From traditional black teas, to the newer, and extraordinarily healthy white teas, and recognisable flavoured teas such as Earl Grey, to exotic blends such as Rooibos Love, there is a flavour and a blend for everyone. Today many varieties of tea and tea brands are available in the market. An innovation is the tea-bag that is easy, quick and less messy than traditional ways of brewing tea. Green tea is popular in China and the Far East.

3. In Japan, the tea ceremony is a traditional way of greeting guests and is a social occasion. Unlike the tea we are familiar with, green tea is not drunk with sugar or milk. It is an olive-coloured liquid served in porcelain cups. In Morocco, green tea is infused with freshly plucked mint.

4. Some scientists believe tea prevents tooth decay because it is a rich source of fluoride.

5. Tea is also a folk remedy for stomach upsets, flu and diarrhoea. Tea is also said to have antioxidants that fight cancer and also has anti-ageing properties ‘that fight the free radicals in our bodies. Research suggests that drinking tea reduces the risk of heart disease and cancer and lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.

6. A welcome thought for inveterate tea drinkers. Tea is the new apple-a-day to keep the doctor away.

Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) Who introduced tea to Europe?
(ii) What does the line “Tea is synonymous with cheer” mean?
(iii) What is the new and convenient way of making tea?
(iv) Where is the tea ceremony a way of greeting guests?
(v) How are the fluoride useful in tea?
(vi) Whom do you call ‘an inveterate tea drinker’?
(vii) What are the benefits of drinking tea?
(viii) Where is ‘Green tea’ popular?
Answer:
(i) The Dutch introduced tea to Europe.
(ii) A cup of tea makes people healthy and happy.
(iii) New and convenient way of making tea is by using tea bags.
(iv) In Japan tea ceremony is a way of greeting guests.
(v) Fluoride in tea prevents tooth decay.
(vi) An inveterate tea drinker is one who uses tea as a beverage habitually or is a habitual tea drinker.
(vii) It is a remedy for stomach upsets, flu and diarrhoea. It is an antioxidant that fights cancer and also has anti-ageing properties that fight the free radicals in our bodies.
(viii) Green tea is popular in China.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 11
Read the passage carefully.

Education of a child starts from the family and mother is the first teacher. But, the irony in India is that although the deity of education is a female i.e. Goddess Saraswati according to the Hinduism, innumerable number of women are illiterate. They do not remain uneducated by their own wish but they are forbidden from receiving education because of the patriarchal system in our society. Right from the early Vedic period people have been celebrating the birth of a son, but in those days daughters born into a family were not neglected but were educated properly.

However, the scene changed during the later Vedic Age and the daughters were considered a social burden. Only the girls belonging to upper class families enjoyed the right of education and got proper nourishment. In medieval period the conditions deteriorated for the females and even in royal families. Girl could not get the same status as the boys. In Muslim households they were taught at their homes while Hindu girls enjoyed the privilege of getting primary education along with the boys in schools. The prevalence of child marriage was excessively practised.

However, in the nineteenth century many social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Annie Besant, M. G. Ranade, Joytiba Phule, Swami Dayanand Saraswati etc. came forward for the emancipation of women in India. Especially Raja Ram Mohan Roy advocated female education.

Since then there has been tremendous progress in every field but unfortunately still the girls are neglected. In most of the families the birth of a girl child is not desired and if accepted they are thought inferior to boys and their education is not considered important because it seems a wastage of money to most of the parents. They think it unreasonable because afterwards they would be compelled to spend a heavy amount on their dowry.

So the female literacy rate is unsatisfactory and it has a direct impact upon the overall development of a nation and its population growth. If India wants to be one of the developed nations it must concentrate on female education because if we educate a man, we educate an individual but if we educate a woman we educate an entire family. Again the root cause of all problems facing the women is lack of education.

If all women are educated, then all problems like female infanticide, dowry, female suicides, domestic battering, malnutrition of women, child marriage and other related atrocities would vanish from India. Education provides an essential qualification to fulfill certain economic, political and cultural functions and improves women’s socio economic status. It brings reduction in inequalities. If their standard of living is improved, it will indirectly uplift the level of society. If they are financially strong they will take proper care of their children and provide them with good education.

Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) Why were women not allowed to receive education?
(ii) Why was it considered unnecessary?
(iii) What are the advantages of educating a girl?
(iv) What are the problem that women face in India?
(v) What is the irony about education in India?
(vi) How can education help women?
(vii) Find the words from the passage which means the same as declined (para 2)
(viii) Find the words from the passage which means the same as cruelties (para 3)
Answer:
(i) They do not remain uneducated by their own wish but they are forbidden from receiving education because of the patriarchal system in our society.
(ii) They think it unreasonable because afterwards they would be compelled to spend a heavy amount on their dowry.
(iii) If we educate a man, we educate an individual but if we educate a woman we educate an entire family.
(iv) Women in India face problems like female infanticide, dowry, female suicides, domestic battering, malnutrition of women, child marriage and other related atrocities.
(v) the irony in India is that although the deity of education is a female i.e. Goddess Saraswati according to the Hinduism, innumerable number of women are illiterate.
(vi) Education of women can do away with the problems faced by women and also help in the development of the country.
(vii) Deteriorated.
(viii) Atrocities.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 12
Read the poem given below and answer the questions that follow.

On the door step of the temple
Under the hot sun
I see her everyday.
Her hands and feet are
Withered like limbs of a dead tree.

Her eyes tired of searching
For rays of hope
Are sunk deep like caves In a rock.
Neither they receive light
Nor give it.

Her three yard saree
Has torn in thirty places
Her body has absorbed.
Sixty years of dirt.

Her knotty matted hair
Is the abode of worm and lice
Here and there some black teeth,
Stand as guards in her open mouth.
The lines on her face.
Have spread far and deep.
Like the crow’s feet.

Raising her shaking hands
With hope in her eyes
She looks at me
And an electric current
joins together our two hearts
Time goes back fifteen years.
Her face changes, her eyes twinkle
When she smiles her teeth dazzle
In that one magic moment, I
I see the image of my dead mother

Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) Where does the poet see her?
(ii) What has happened to her hands and feet?
(iii) What do her eyes search for?
(iv) How does she look at the poet?
(v) What does he say about her dress and body?
(vi) Describe her teeth and mouth.
(vii) What happens when she looks at the poet?
(viii) What is the magic that follows?
Answer:
(i) The poet sees her on the door step of the temple under the hot sun.
(ii) Her hands and feet are withered like limbs of a dead tree.
(iii) Her eyes were searching for rays of hope.
(iv) She looks at the poet with hope in her eyes.
(v) He says that she is wearing a very dirty and tattered saree.
(vi) Her teeth have become black in colour and they stand as guards in her open mouth.
(vii) When she looks at the pqet, she experiences an electric current passing through her heart and her mind flashes back in time.
(viii) The poet sees the image of his dead mother in that magic moment.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 13
Read the following passage carefully:

The time is now to save these magnificent cats, before they vanish from the earth forever. There is little time left to preserve these animals; immediate action is required. The latest predictions state that tigers will be extinct in the wild by the year 2015. That is less than 04 short years from now. That’s less than 04 years to save a creature that has been around for longer than us.

I cannot imagine, nor would I wish to live in a world without tigers… without these magnificent creatures in our forests living free – without captive populations carrying on the gene pool. The power and beauty of these animals is indisputable. Tigers are an integral part of the ecosystem, as they are a major link in the food chain. Tigers have been bestowed magical and supernatural properties by many societies, and have also been revered as gods. All living creatures of mother earth depend on one another for survival. We as human beings are brothers and sisters to every living being, from the plants to the – animals to each other.

Crimes like these – the killing of tigers – must be stopped. They are often killed in the most barbaric, the most unbelievably cruel ways. I ask you- the reader – if learning of things like this moves you at all, then take that energy and do what you can to stop the killing of these magnificent animals. Write to your government, write to the governments of tiger countries and urge them to protect tigers. Penalties for killing tigers, and other protected wildlife need to be strongly enforced – and strong enough as to be a complete deterrent to the poaching of tigers, and also deter those who profit from such killings.

Extremist groups would ban all exotic animals from captivity because of small numbers of individuals that mistreat their animals, and unfortunately the whole zoo “industry” and caring private owners get painted with the same brush. The vast majority of zoos, big and small, treat their animals well, feed them well and give them proper environment and enrichment. The numbers of bad homes are small, but they do exist. The Animal Rights Organizations should make sure they target only the bad homes and leave those providing a good, happy and healthy home for animals alone.

They don’t realize that banning all exotics from captivity could spell the end for many species of animals. Species whose numbers in the wild are extremely low, such as the Clouded Leopard, Siberian tiger, South China tiger and so forth. Zoos, sanctuaries and responsible, knowledgeable and caring private owners are rapidly becoming the last havens to preserve ever – dwindling species of animals. These places may well, in the not so far future, hold the last remaining tigers – gems for the future who should be nurtured and protected.

Caring for a tiger is an immense responsibility. Not just to the single tiger in your care, but to his or her species, and all tigers. Simply to own a tiger and keep him or her in your backyard as a pet is not enough, nor is it acceptable to keep this animal to yourself. You, the owner, owe it to all tigers – wild and those held in captivity – and to the future generations of these animals to educate the public about tigers – and help to change people’s opinions about wildlife preservation. Education is key to developing sensitivity to and awareness of our environment. Our children hold the hope for the future of the tiger. Heightened awareness of environmental issues will help assure our children grow up to respect and care for our global environment.

Think Globally – Act Locally!

Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) What is the need of the hour?
(ii) How can we save tigers from extinction?
(iii) Why should penalties be imposed?
(iv) What are tigers known for?
(v) How can you say that the tigers are on the verge of extinction?
(vi) What role can common people play in the conservation of tigers?
(vii) Find the word from the passage which means the same as hindrance (para 3)
(viii) Find the word from the passage which means the same as refuge (para 5)
Answer:
(i) It is the need of the hour to take immediate action to save magnificent cats.
(ii) Write to the governments of countries and urge them to protect tigers.
(iii) They are a deterrent to the poaching of animals.
(iv) Power and beauty.
(v) The latest predictions state that the tigers could get extinct by the year 2015 that is less than 04 short years now.
(vi) They can educate the public about tigers and change people’s opinion about wild life preservation.
(vii) Deterrent
(viii) Haven

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 14
Read the following passage carefully:

It’s not “cool” to be fat, but that has not prevented an obesity epidemic from occurring among America’s youth. Childhood obesity increased from 5 percent in 1964 to about 13 percent in 1994. Today, it is about 20 percent – and rising. Excessive time spent watching television, using the computer, and playing video games is partly to blame for this escalating rate. Children, on an average, spend up to five to six hours a day involved in these sedentary activities. Perhaps it wouldn’t matter if they were sufficiently active at other times, but most of them aren’t.

To make matters worse, children are bombarded with well – crafted TV ads from fast – food chains and other purveyors of high – fat, high – sugar meals and snacks. A recent study reported that two-to-six-year-olds who watch television are more likely to choose food products advertised on TV than children who do not watch such commercials. These highly effective advertising campaigns, combined with a physically inactive lifestyle, have produced a generation of kids who are at high risk for obesity-associated medical conditions.

The major health threat is the early development of Type 2 diabetes (adult onset), particularly in children with a family history of disease. Doctors are reporting a surge in young adolescents developing Type 2 diabetes – which can lead to heart disease, high blood pressure, kidney disease, stroke, limb amputations, and blindness. People who develop diabetes in adolescence face a diminished quality of life and shortened life span, particularly if the disease progresses untreated. It’s a scary prospect for our children but, in many cases, obesity and diabetes are preventable.

When children are spending most of their free time sitting in front of televisions and computers, they are not outside running, jumping or engaging in team sports that would keep their weight down. Parents need to set limits on the time their children are engaged in passive activities. Pediatricians recommend restricting children to one to two hours per day on TV and computers combined – though older children may need additional time for learning activities.

Parental involvement remains the most important key to our children’s healthy diets. Programs to educate parents about nutrition are essential. Fast foods should be consumed only in moderation. Caregivers, who are often busy and harried, must avoid the temptation to whisk their kids into fast-food restaurants or to pick up fast food for dinner at home. Changing eating habits and lifestyles is not easy, but the health benefit for our children is a wonderful payoff for parents willing to take on the task.

Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) What is the main cause of obesity?
(ii) Who does Type 2 diabetes normally affect and what does it lead to?
(iii) What should the parents do to check obesity?
(iv) What do pediatricians suggest?
(v) How are advertisements responsible for an obesity-associated medical problem?
(vi) How does diabetes affect adolescents?
(vii) Find the word from the passage which means as Inactive (para 1)
(viii) Find the word from the passage which means as Declined (para 3)
Answer:
(i) Sedentary life style.
(ii) With a family history of the disease. It leads to heart disease, high blood pressure, kidney disease, blindness, etc.
(iii) Set limits on the time their children are engaged in passive activities.
(iv) Paediatricians suggest that the most important factor to improve our children’s diet is to take healthy and balanced food.
(v) Children who watch advertisement on Television are more likely to choose advertised fast food products which lead to obesity associated medical problems.
(vi) They face a diminished quality of life and shortened life span. It can lead to many diseases also.
(vii) Sedentary
(viii) Diminished.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 15
Read the following poem carefully:

The Fallen Leaves
-Robert Service

Why should I be the first to fall
Of all the leaves on this old tree?
Though sadly soon I know that all
Will lose their hold and follow me.
While my birth brothers bravely blow,
Why should I be the first to go?
Why should I be the last to cling
Of all the leaves on this bleak bough?
I’ve fluttered since the fire of spring
And I am worn and withered now.
I would escape the Winter gale.
And sleep soft silvered by a Snail.
When swoop the legions of the snow
To pitch their tents in roaring weather
We fallen leaves will lie below
And rot rejoicingly together;
And from our rich and dark decay
Will laugh our brothers of the May.

Answer the following questions on the basis of your reading of the above poem:

(i) Who is complaining?
(ii) Which season is being referred to here?
(iii) What is the complaint of the last leaf?
(iv) From when have the leaves been fluttering?
(v) What does the snail do? Which season is mentioned?
(vi) How do the fallen leaves react now?
(vii) Why would they escape the Winter gale?
(viii) Explain the last 2 lines.
Answer:
(i) The 1st leaf to fall off the tree is complaining.
(ii) Autumn is the season mentioned in the poem.
(iii) The last leaf does not like being the last leaf on the bough.
(iv) They’ve been fluttering from the onset of spring.
(v) The snail sleeps beside the fallen leaves, looking like silver because of the snow on its shell.
(vi) They lie below the snow and rot rejoicingly together.
(vii) They would escape the Winter gale as they are already fallen and covered by the snow.
(viii) From the manure that is created by the rotten leaves, new plants will be born in May with the spring.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 16
Read the poem carefully:

The Shark

A treacherous monster is the
Shark He never makes the least remark.

And when he sees you on the sand,
He doesn’t seem to want to land.

He watches you take off your clothes,
And not the least excitement shows.

His eyes do not grow bright or roll,
He has astounding self-control.

He waits till you are quite undrest,
And seems to take no interest
And when towards the sea you leap,
He looks as if he were asleep.

But when you once get in his range,
His whole demeanour seems to change.

He throws his body right about,
And his true character comes out.

It’s no use crying or appealing,
He seems to lose all decent feeling.

After this warning you will wish
To keep clear of this treacherous fish.

Answer the following questions on the basis of your reading of the above poem:

(i) Why does the shark not make any remark?
(ii) How do you know he has self-control?
(iii) How does his demeanor change?
(iv) How does he appear when you leap into the sea?
(v) How does he react when you come into his range?
(vi) Can you appeal to him?
(vii) What is the meaning of demeanor on the basis of stanza?
(viii) What is the meaning of treacherous on the basis of stanza?
Answer:
(i) Because he is a treacherous Monster.
(ii) His eyes do not roll or become bright when you take off your clothes.
(iii) When you get into his range, his demeanour changes.
(iv) He appears to be asleep.
(v) He will throw his body right about.
(vi) Once he gets into his true character, there is no use of crying or appealing to him.
(vii) Behaviour
(viii) Deceit

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 17
Read the following passage carefully.

1. Most people can remember a phone number for up to thirty seconds. When this short amount of time remove of, however, the numbers are erased from the memory. How did the information get there in the first place? Information that makes its way to the short-term memory (STM) does so via the sensory storage area. The brain has a filter which only allows stimuli that is of immediate interest to pass on to the STM, also known as the working memory.

2. There is much debate about the capacity and duration of the short- term memory. The most accepted theory comes from George A. Miller, a cognitive psychologist who suggested that humans can remember approximately seven chunks of information. A chunk is defined as a meaningful unit of information, such as a word or name rather than just a letter or number. Modern theorists suggest that one can increase the capacity of the short-term memory by chunking, or classifying similar information together. By organizing information, one can optimize the STM, and improve the chances of a memory being passed on to long-term storage.

3. When making a conscious effort to memorise something, such as information for an exam, many people engage in “rote rehearsal”. By repeating something over and over again, one is able to keep a memory alive. Unfortunately, this type of memory maintenance only; succeeds if there are no interruptions. As soon as a person stops rehearsing the information, it has the tendency to disappear. When a pen and paper are not handy, people often attempt to remember a phone number by repeating it aloud.

If the doorbell rings or the dog barks to come in before a person has the opportunity to make a phone call, he will likely forget the number instantly. Therefore, rote rehearsal is not an efficient way to pass information from the short-term to long¬term memory. A better way is to practise “elaborate rehearsal”. This involves assigning semantic meaning to a piece of information so that it can be filed along with other pre¬existing long-term memories.

4. Encoding information semantically also makes it more retrievable. Retrieving information can be done by recognition or recall. Humans can easily recall memories that are stored in the long-term memory and used often; however, if a memory seems to be forgotten, it may eventually be retrieved by prompting. The more cues a person is given (such as pictures), the more likely a memory can be retrieved. This is why multiple-choice tests are often used for subjects that require a lot of memorisation.

Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) According to the passage, how do memories get transferred to the STM?
(ii) Where can memory be stored?
(iii) Why does the author mention a dog’s bark?
(iv) What is rote rehearsal? Is it useful?
(v) How do theorists believe a person can remember more information in a short time?
(vi) How can a lost memory be retrieved?
(vii) What is ‘remove of rehearsal’?
(viii) What is an efficient way to pass information from the short-term to long-term memory and how is it efficient?
Answer:
(i) They are filtered from the sensory storage area.
(ii) Memory can be stored in the short-term memory, long-term memory, and sensory storage area.
(iii) It’s an example of a type of interruption.
(iv) When making a conscious effort to memorize something, such as information for an exam, many people engage in “rote rehearsal”.. By repeating something over and over again, one is able to keep a memory alive. Unfortunately, this type of memory maintenance only succeeds if there are no interruptions. As soon as a person stops rehearsing the information, it has the tendency to disappear.
(v) It can be done by organizing the information.
(vi) A lost memory can be retrieved by prompting. The more cues a person is given (such as pictures), the more likely a – memory can be retrieved.
(vii) It is assigning semantic meaning to a piece of information so that it can be filed along with other pre-existing long¬term memories.
(viii) ‘Elaborate rehearsal’ is an efficient way to pass information from the short-term to long-term memory. This involves assigning semantic meaning to a piece of information so that it can be filed along with other pre-existing long-term memories.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 18
Read the following passage carefully.

1. Walter Elias “Walt” Disney was born on December 5, 1901, in Hermosa, Illinois. He lived most of his childhood in Marceline, Missouri, where he began drawing, painting and selling pictures to neighbours and family friends. Disney attended McKinley High School in Chicago, where he took drawing and photography classes and was a contributing cartoonist for the school paper. At night, he took courses at the Chicago Art Institute.

2. When Disney was 16, he dropped out of school to join the army but was rejected for being underage. Instead, he joined the Red Cross and was sent to France for a year to drive an ambulance. When Disney returned from France in 1919, he moved back to Kansas City to pursue a career as a newspaper artist. His brother Roy got him a job at the Pesmen-Rubin Art Studio, where he met cartoonist Ubbe Eert Iwwerks, better known as Ub Iwerks. From there, Disney worked at the Kansas City Film Ad Company, where he made commercials based on cutout animation. Around this time, Disney began experimenting with a camera, doing hand-drawn cel animation, and decided to open his own animation business. From the ad company, he recruited Fred Harman as his first employee.

3. Walt and Harman made a deal with a local Kansas City theater to screen their ‘ cartoons, which they called Laugh-O-Grams. The cartoons were hugely popular, and Disney was able to- acquire his own studio, upon which he bestowed the same name. Laugh-O-Gram hired a number of employees, including Harman’s brother Hugh and Iwerks. They did a series of seven-minute fairy tales that combined both live action and animation, which they called Alice in Cartoonland. By 1923, however, the studio had become burdened with debt, and Disney was forced to declare bankruptcy.

4. Disney and his brother, Roy, soon pooled their money and moved to Hollywood. Iwerks also relocated to California, and there the three began the Disney Brothers’ Studio. Their first deal was with New York distributor Margaret Winkler, to distribute their Alice cartoons. They also invented a character called Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, and contracted the shorts at $1,500 each.

Answer the following questions briefly:

(a) What did Walt Disney learn in his childhood?
(b) Why was Walt not selected in the army?
(c) How did Walt’s brother help him in Kansas?
(d) What did Walt learn at Kansas City Film Ad Company?
(e) Name the first employee of Ad Company.
(f) What deal was made with the Kansas City theatre?
(g) Write briefly about Alice in the Cartoonland.
(h) What was the deal made with Margaret Winkler?
Answer:
(a) In his childhood, Walt Disney learnt drawing, painting and selling pictures to neighbours and family friends.
(b) Walt was not selected in the army because he was underage.
(c) Walt’s brother got him a job at the Pesmen-Rubin Art Studio, where he met cartoonist Ubbe Eert Iwwerks, better known as Ub Iwerks.
(d) Walt learnt to make commercials based on cutout animation.
(e) Fred Harman was the first employee of the Ad company.
(f) The deal was to screen their cartoons, which they called Laugh-O-Grams.
(g) Alice in Cartoonland was a series of seven-minute fairy tales that combined both live action and animation.
(h) The deal made with Margaret Winkler was to distribute their Alice cartoons.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 19
Read the following passage carefully:

One of the greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computers. They are widely used in industries and in universities. Now there is hardly any sphere of human life where computers have not been pressed into service of man. We are heading fast towards the day when a computer will be as much part of man’s daily life as a telephone – or a calculator.

Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. These machines can be put to varied uses. For instance, they can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic jams. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us has been called ‘automation.’ In the future automation may enable human beings to enjoy more leisure than they do today. The coming of automation is bound to have important social consequences.

Some years ago an expert on automation, Sir Leon Bagrit, pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that these machines could ‘think.’ There is no possibility that human beings will be “controlled by machines.” Though computers are capable of learning from their mistakes and improving on their performance, they need detailed instructions from human beings to operate. They can never, as it were, lead independent lives or “rule the world” by making decisions of their own.

Sir Leon said that in future, computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. Ordinary people would then be able to use them to obtain valuable information; Computers could be plugged into a national network and be used like radios. For instance, people going on holiday could be informed about weather conditions. Car drivers can be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams. It will also be possible ‘ to make tiny translating machines. This will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without any difficulty or to read foreign publications.

Answer the following questions briefly:

(a) What is the greatest advancement in modern technology?
(b) What complicated works are computers capable of doing?
(c) Write one use of computers.
(d) Explain automation?
(e) Why can’t computers lead independent lives or rule the world?
(f) How would computers as translating machines help people?
(g) What was the prediction of Sir Leon about computers in future?
(h) How can computers help people going on holiday?
Answer:
(a) The greatest advancement in modern technology is the invention of computers.
(b) Computers are capable of doing complicated works like solve mathematical problems and put thousands of unrelated facts in order.
(c) Computers can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic jams. They can be used in industries, universities and to carry out complicated work in all branches of learning.
(d) Automation is the process by which machines can be used to work for us.
(e) Computers need detailed instructions from human beings to operate/ cannot make decisions of their own. Therefore computers cannot lead independent lives or rule the world.
(f) Computers as translating machines help people in many ways. They enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without any difficulty. They will also help to read foreign publications.
(g) Sir Leon predicted that in the future computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. Ordinary people would be able to use these pocket computers to obtain valuable information. Computers could be plugged in to a national network and be used like radios.
(h) Computers can help people going on holiday in numerous ways. They can be informed about weather conditions. They can also help car drivers by giving alternative roads when there are traffic jams. They can also make tiny translating machines.

Sample Unseen Passage for Class 10 CBSE – 20
Read the following passage carefully:

I was born in the small but beautiful mountain village of Nakuri near Uttarkashi in Garhwal, with the gurgling, playful Bhagirathi river flowing nearby. My parents were a hard-working and extremely self-contained couple. Even though our family was poor, barely managing the essentials, my father taught us how to live and maintain dignity and self-respect — the most treasured family value till today. At the same time my parents also practised the creed, “Kindness is the essence of all religion.” They were large-hearted, inviting village folk passing by to have tea at our home, and gave grain to the sadhus and pandits who came to the house. This characteristic has been ingrained in me so deeply that I am able to reach out to others and make a difference in their lives — whether it is in my home, in society or at the workplace.

I was the third child in the family — girl, boy, girl, girl and boy in that order — and quite a rebel. I developed a tendency to ask questions and was not satisfied with the customary way of life for a girl-child. When I found my elder brother, Bachchan, encouraging our youngest brother, Raju, to take up mountaineering I thought, why not me ? I found that my brothers were always getting preferential treatment and all opportunities and options were open to them. This made me even more determined to not only do what the boys were doing, but to do it better.

The general thinking of mountain people was that mountaineering as a sport was not for them. They considered themselves to be born mountaineers as they had to go up and down mountain slopes for their daily livelihood and even for routine work. On the other hand, as a student, I would look curiously at foreign backpackers passing by my village and wonder where they were going. I would even invite them to my house and talk to them to learn more about their travels. The full significance of this came to me later when I started working. The foreigners took the trouble to come all the way to the Himalayas in order to educate themselves on social, cultural and scientific aspects of mountaineering, as well as to seek peace in nature’s gigantic scheme of things.

Answer the following questions briefly:

(a) What does the author tell us about the financial condition of her parents?
(b) What is the most treasured value of the author’s family?
(c) Give an example to show that the author’s parents were very hospitable.
(d) What kind of girl was the author?
(e) How do you know that the author’s parents discriminated between sons and daughters?
(f) Why do the mountain people consider themselves to be born mountaineers?
(g) Why would the author invite foreign mountaineers to her house?
(h) Why were foreigners drawn to the Himalayas?
Answer:
(a) The author tells us that the financial condition of the author’s parents was not very good and they struggled to secure even the essentials.
(b) The most treasured family value, taught by the author’s father was, how to maintain one’s self-respect and dignity in life.
(c) The author’s parents were large-hearted. They were in the habit of inviting village folk home to have tea and giving alms in the form of grains to sadhus and pundits who stopped by their house.
(d) The author, third among five children, was a rebel. She had the tendency of asking questions and was not satisfied with the customary way of life that was specified for a girl-child.
(e) The author was discriminated against by her parents. Her brothers were being given preferential treatment and all opportunities and options were given only to the boys.
(f) The mountain dwellers considered themselves to be born mountaineers because they had to go up and down the mountains for their livelihood and routine work.
(g) The author invited foreign travellers to her house to talk to them and learn more about their travels.
(h) The foreigners came to the Himalayas to educate themselves on the social, cultural and scientific aspects of mountaineering, as well as to seek peace in nature’s gigantic scheme of things.

Emergency and disaster nursing nclex questions

CBSE previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 English Delhi 2011

CBSE previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 English  Delhi 2011

Time allowed : 3 hours                                                                                           Maximum Marks: 100
General Instructions :

  1. This paper is divided into three sections : A, B and C. All the sections are compulsory.
  2. Separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary. Read these instructions very carefully and follow them faithfully.
  3. Do not exceed the prescribed word limit while answering the questions.

SET I

SECTION – A
(Reading)

Question.1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions
that follow:

  1.  For many years now the governments has been promising the eradication of child-labour in hazardous industries in India. But the truth is that despite all the rhetoric, neither the government so far has succeeded in eradicating this evil, nor has been able to ensure compulsory primary education for every Indian child. Between 60 and 100 million children are still at work instead of going to school, and around 10 million are working in hazardous industries. India has the largest child population of 380 million in the world, plus the largest number of children who are forced to earn a living.
  2.  We have many laws that ban child-labour in hazardous
    industries. According to the Child-Labour (Prohibition
    and Regulation) Act 1986, the employment of children below the age of 14 in hazardous occupations has been strictly banned. But each state has different rules regarding the minimum age of employment. This makes implementation of these laws difficult.
  3.  Also, there is no ban on child-labour in non-hazardous occupations. The Act applies to the organised or factory sector and not the unorganised or informal sector where most children find employment as cleaners, servants, porters, waiters etc. among other forms of unskilled
    work. Thus, child-labour continues . because the
    implementation of the existing laws is lax.
  4.  There are industries, which have a special demand for child labour because of their nimble fingers, high level of concentration and capacity to work hard at abysmally low wages. The carpet industry in U.P. and Kashmir employs children to make hand-knotted carpets. There are 80,000 child workers in Jammu and Kashmir alone. In Kashmir because of the political unrest, children are forced to work while many schools are shut. Industries like gem cutting and polishing, pottery and glass want to remain competitive by employing children.
  5.  The truth is that it is poverty which is pushing children into the brutish labour market. We have 260 million people below the poverty line in India, a large number of them are women. Poor and especially woman-headed families, have no’option but to push their little ones in this hard life, in to hostile conditions, with no human or labour rights.
  6.  There is a lobby which argues that there is nothing wrong
    with children working as long as the environment for i work is conducive to learning new skills, but studies have
    shown that the children are made to do boring, repetitive and tedious jobs and are not taught new skills as they grow older. In these, hell-holes like the sweet shops for the old there is no hope.
  7.  Children working irr hazardous industries are prone to debilitating diseases which can cripple them for life. By sitting in cramped, damp and unhygienic spaces, their limbs become deformed for life, inside matehstick, fire¬works and glass industries they are victims of bronchial diseases andT.B. Their mental and physical development is permanently impaired by long hours of work. Once trapped, they can’t get out of this vicious circle of poverty. They remain uneducated and powerless. Finally, in later years, they too are compelled to send their own children to work. Child-labour perpetuates its own nightmare.
  8.  If at all the government was serious about granting children their rights, an intensive effort ought to have been made to implement the Supreme Court’s Directive of 1997, which laid down punitive action against employers of child-labour. Only compulsory primary education can eliminate child-labour,
  9.  Surely, if 380 million children are given a better life and elementary education, Indians human capital would be greatly enhanced. But that needs, as former President Abdul Kalam says, “a second vision”.

(a) (i) On which two accounts has the government not succeeded so far in respect of children ?
Answer : The government has not succeeded so far in respect of children on account of eradication of child-labour in hazardous industries in India and to ensure compulsory primary education for every Indian child.
(ii) What makes the implementation of child-labour law
difficult ? ,
Answer : Each state has different rules regarding the minimum age of employment. Also, there is no ban on child-labour in non-hazardous occupation, The Act does not apply to the unorganized or informal sector. This makes the implementation of child-labour law difficult.
(iii) Why do the industries prefer child-labour ?
Answer : There are industries which have a special demand for child-labour, it is because of their nimble fingers, high level of concentration and capacity to work hard at low wages.
(iv) What are the adverse effects of hazardous industries
on children ? Give any two.
Answer: Children working in hazardous industries are prone to debilitating diseases which can cripple them for life. By . sitting in cramped, damp and unhygienic spaces, their limbs become deformed.
Secondly, they become victim of bronchial diseases by working in matehstick, fire-works and glass industries.
(v) What does the Supreme Court’s Directive of 1997 provide ?
Answer : The Supreme Court’s Directive of 1997 laid down punitive action against employers of child-labour. Only compulsory primary education can eliminate child-labour.
(b) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following ?
(i) risky/dangerous (para 1)
Answer: hazardous .
(ii) very unfriendly (para 5)
Answer: hostile
(iii) intended as punishment (para 8)
Answer: punitive

Question.2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
There is nothing more frustrating than, when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Samuel Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various facets of your physical and internal environment,” she adds.
To begin’ with one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focussed thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library.
She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh. “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books’?
Also do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one should try and provide as little stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh.
The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish, what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of * time. The human mind recognises fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more than random thoughts”. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focused system will follow.
She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to. For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.
Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects.
More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
1. Notes
(i) Tech, to enhance concentration
(a) create phy envirmnt.
(b) identify the factors resp
(c) music not the ideal accomp
(ii) Recommendations
(a) dvd schedule
(b) choose sub that you like or dislike
(c) don’t sit for more than 40 min
(iii) More suggestions
(a) don’t get dishrtnd
(b) concentrn is merely a discipline of mind
(c) rqurs practice and patience

Abbreviations used
Tech                technique
Phy                  physical
Envirmnt       environment
Resp                responsible
Accomp          accompaniment
Dvd                 divide
Dishrtnd        disheartened
Concentrn     concentration
Rqurs              requires
Title : Concentration – Key to Success (or) Techniques to Enhance Concentration
(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80
words.

SUMMARY

According to Samuel Ghosh, a social counsellor, study needs concentration which depends on various factors. These include physical environment and avoiding distractions.
Music should not be listened as it lessens the ‘attention and retention power. One should -not keep study table or desk in front of a window to provide little stimulus to mind. Another important thing is to set goals. Once thoughts and goals are in line, a focused system will flow. Ghosh recommended that the schedule to study and recreation hours should be divided. Choose the subject first which is disliked. Do not sit for more than 40 minutes, take a break in between and do not get disheartened.

SECTION B
(ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS)

Question.3. You are Srinivas/Srindhi of D.P. Public School, Nagpur. As Student Editor of your school magazine, draft a notice in not more than 50 words for your school notice board inviting articles/sketches from students of all classes.
OR
You want to rent out your newly constructed flat in the heart of the city. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in ‘The Deccan Herald’, Bangalore under classified columns. Give all the necessary details. You are Mohan/Mahima of Jayanagar, Bangalore.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-english-delhi-2011-7
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-english-delhi-2011-8

Question.4. You are cultural secretary of PND Xavier School, Jamshedpur. Your school organized a debate on the topic, ‘The impact of reality shows on the younger generation.’ Write a report in 100-125 words to be published in ‘The Times of India’, Jamshedpur.
OR
A major bus mishap which left several people seriously injured took place at Nicholas Road, Nungambakkam, Chennai. Luckily no life was lost. Collect the information from the eye witnesses and send a report in 100-125 words to ‘The Nungambakkam Times. You are Vinod/Vinodini, reporter.
Answer:
‘The Impact of Reality Shows on the
Younger Generation’
Pnd Xavier School, Jamshedpur’
By : Xyz (Cultural Secretary)
‘The Times Of India’, Jamshedpur 30th January, 2014.
PND Xavier School, Jamshedpur hosted the inter-school debate competition in which 27 schools participated. The panel of judges was formed by special correspondent, NDTV,
Chief Justice Mr. Verma and English Lecturer of Jamshedpur College. Coordinator CBSE board was* the’ chief guest. Our Principal welcomed the guest with garland and inspirational speech on the influence of media on children. The first round consisted of 16 students from different schools. In the second round there were shortlisted 8 students who presented their views on the impact of reality shows. They told that reality shows are the latest rage on the television, that are challenging, thrilling and exciting. Above all they have made a star of the common man. Finally 4 students were left, out of whom, 3 were awarded the winners and 1st and 2nd runners up awarded prizes. The winner was given the prize on the basis of concluding lines in which he told that reality shows prompt the younger generation to do stunts at home, thus putting their life in danger, so they should be watched under the vigilance of parents.
OR
A Major Bus Mishap
Report By: Vinodini ‘The Nungambakkam Times 20th August, 2014
It’s alarming that road accidents have been taking place almost daily. The rising toll of accidents indicates, that it is only due to violation of traffic rules and absolute negligence. A similar accident took place at Nicholas Road, Nungambakkam, Chennai, according to an eye witness, a bus going towards the main city, collided with a truck laijen with steel rods. Before the truck driver could do anything, the truck rammed into the bus from the right side and damaged the whole side. The seats were completely torn and the passengers were thrown out of their seats. Fortunately all the passengers were saved but were badly injured. The witness called the police helpline and within few minutes the patrolling police arrived with three ambulances. The injured were immediately rushed to the hospital where a team of expert doctors treated them. The police registered a case against the driver for careless and negligent driving.

Question.5. Write a letter to the Dean, D.P. I School of Management, Mumbai requesting him to apprise you of the details such as eligibility criteria, fees, hostel facility, prospects of placement etc. for admission to P.G. Diploma in HRM. You are Ram/Ramola of 21 Civil Lines, Bareilley.
OR
Write a letter to the Editor, Deccan Times’, Bangalore about the inadequate parking facilities in the Commercial Street, M.G. Road which is causing a lot of inconvenience to the people. Offer your sugeestions. You are Anoop/Ritu, 24 Hennus Road, Bangalore.
Answer:
21, Civil Lines ,
Bareilley
25th April, 2014
The Dean
D.P. I School of Management
Mumbai
Subject: Enquiry about the HRM course Dear Sir,
I have come to know that your institute provides excellent training in Post Graduate Diploma in ‘Human Resource’ Management. I came to know about this from the National newspaper’s classified columns and thus developed a keen interest in doing the course. In this connection, I would like to put forth that I have done my schooling from CBSE board in the stream of Commerce with 92 percent and graduated from the eminent city college with 87 percent.
It would be great on your part if you could kindly let me know the eligibility criteria, course fee, duration of the course and timings. Beside that, I am interested to know about the hostel facility as, I am an outsider and would be requiring hostel to stay in.
I would be highly obliged if you could please send me the prospectus at the earliest, so that I can avail this opportunity. Yours truly,
Ramola
OR
24, Hennus Road Bangalore,
12th November, 2014 The Editor Deccan Times,
Bangalore
Subject: Inadequate Parking Facility Dear Sir,
Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I would like to express my views on the inadequate parking facilities in the commercial street, M.G. Road which is causing a lot of incoveince to the people. There is not a single day when the street is without chaos. It is due to lack of space as well as lack of sense of responsibility. As it is a very busy area, vehicles are parked all over in a haphazard manner. Even the shopkeepers have to manoeuvre their way to make a safe passage. It is -» necessary to start an awareness campaign to enlighten the sense of parking in addition to the proper parking area and the Municipal Corporation should assign the duty to responsible people who could control the traffic properly.
Hope my letter will find place in your newspaper.
Thanking You
Yours Sincerely
Ritu

SECTION-C

Question.8. Answer any three of the following in 30-40 words each :
(a) Do you think the poet Pablo Neruda advocates total inactivity and death ? Why ? Why not ?
Answer : No, the poet Pablo Neruda doest not advocate total inactivity and death. He only wants us to remain quiet for sometime. So, that we can asses ourselves and stop destructive activity in favour of mankind. Then there would be no war or violence.
(b) Why and how is Grandeur associated with the mighty dead ?
Answer: Grandeur is associated with the mighty dead because the huge tombs and buildings are erected in the memory of great personalities and they become more important than they were when alive. Thus Grandeur is associated with their death.
(c) X
(d) How do denizens and ‘chivalric’ add to our understanding of the tigers’ attitude?
Answer : These two words mean inhabitants and fearless which are applicable to the tigers with reference to the poem. The tigers are the king of jungle and they are suppossed to be the bravest species on earth. They have a respectable position in the animal kingdom. So they are fearless inhabitants which also symbolizes Aunt Jennifer’s attitude.

Question.9. Answer the following in 30-40 words each :
(a) What was Franz expected to be prepared with for the school that day ?
Answer : Franz was expected to be prepared with rules for the use of participles, but he came to the school thinking that he would be punished as he had not learnt his lesson.
(b) Why was Douglas determined to get over his fear of
water ?
Answer : Douglas could not enjoy water sports like canoeing, boating and swimming because of his fear of water; therefore he wanted to overcome his fear. Although he wanted to get into the waters of cascades but his fear held him back. He felt paralyzed at the very thought of water, so he decided to overcome it.
(c) Why was the crofter so talkative and friendly with the peddler ?
Answer : Crofter was alone in his house and he needed a company desperately. So, when the peddler came to spend the night in his house, he wanted to share his feelings with him and peddler had sufficient time to listen to him.
(d) *
(e) Why didn’t Sophie want Jansie to know about her story with Daney ?
Answer: In Sophie’s view, Jansie was a stupid girl who had no sense of keeping any secret. If she had told her about meeting with Daney, there was possibility that Jansie would tell it to everybody and her father would be angry.

Question.10. Answer the following in 125-150 words :
Give a brief account of the life and activities of the people like Saheb-e-Alam, settled in Seemapuri.
Answer : Saheb, was a poor boy whose name contradicted his status which meant the lord of the world. He was from a poor
family from Bangladesh. In order to earn livelihood his family
Question is not included due to change in present syllabus. shifted to Delhi where they settled in the Seemapuri area. But when they found no work to do they became rag pickers. They had to search the garbage like others for something to make their livelihood. Saheb, whose age was to enjoy the life, go to school and live his childhood, also looked into the heaps of garbage for some coins. This was a tedious task as they had to leave their houses barefoot early in the morning, with a bag on their shoulders. They did not have chappals, so they were not in a habit to wear them. -Since their fields and homes were swept away in the flood in Bangladesh, they came to the big city with a hope. But here’also they led a miserable life.

Question.11. Answer the following in 125-150 words :
The lesson ‘On The Face of It’, is an apt depiction of the loneliness and sense of alienation by people on account of a disability. Explain.
OR
What precautions were taken by the prison authorities to ensure that the German exam was conducted smoothy and also under strict security?
Answer : The lesson ‘On the Face of It’ is a heart touching story about two different people who had entirely different attitudes towards life. Both were handicapped and were leading a secluded life but they looked at the world with different angles. Derry, a young boy of fourteen had a burnt face whereas Mr. Lamb had a tin leg. Derry was withdrawn from the society as he had faced people who were scared of him due to his ugly face or felt disgusted. Therefore, he began to avoid people and locked himself up in a room. Similarly Mr. Lamb led a lonely life after he lost his leg in war. Children called him ‘Lamey Lamb’, but he adjusted himself with this impairment. He even supported Derry and gave him courage and confidence to face his handicap boldly.
Thus it is true that society is more inclined to the healthy person and they outcaste the one who is disabled. Physical pain is much more bearable than the pain of alienation by the society.
OR
The Governor of Oxford Prison took all the necessary precautions to conduct the exam. It was arranged in the cell only and the doors were closed a day before. All the possible actions were taken so that Evans, who had escaped earlier too should not be able to do this time. Jackson, the senior prison officer had himself searched all the places. Evans nail scissors and nail file had been removed from the cell to avoid any risk. After he had done his shaving, his razor had also been removed away from there. The Governor, could listen to all the conversation going on in the cell through a device that was kept above the door. He remained in the office to listen to the conversation so that no mishap took place. Stephen, was appointed at the door of the cell to peep through the hole and Rev. McLeery was. thoroughly searched before the commencement of the examination. Everything was properly checked and everyone was perfectly positioned.

Question.12. Answer the following in 30-40 words :
(a) **
(b) How did Dr. Sadao ensure that, the American sailor left his house but he himself remained safe and secure?
Answer : Dr. Sadao was a docor by profession, so it was his duty to save a person’s life whether he was an enemy or not. He treated the American war prisoner as a doctor and on the other hand informed the General as a true patriot. He sought his help to get rid of him but then let him escape.
(c) What part of story did Jack himself enjoy the most and why ?
Answer. Jack used to tell stories to Joe, his daughter before she retired to bed. The basic story remained the same but
the hero was changed. He enjoyed the part only when Joe listened carefully without disturbing him. Otherwise he always got irritated.
(d) What did Zitkala-Sa feel when her long hair was cut ?
Answer : Zitkala-Sa belonged to one of the tribes, of native Americans and their tradition was to keep long and heavy hair. When her long hair was cut, Zitkala-Sa felt exteremely hurt. Keeping short hair at that time meant the sign of mourning and also the hair of prisoners of war shingled by captors.

SET II

Note s Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.
7. Read the extract give below and answer the questions that follow:
…………..but soon
Put that thought away, and Looked out at young
Trees sprinting, the merry children spilling
Out of their homes,………..
(a) Which thought did the poet put away?
Answer : The poet put away the thought of looking at her mother.
(b) What do the ‘sprinting trees’ signify?
Answer : The sprinting trees in the poem signify the young age. They appear to be running fast when seen from the vehicle in motion. Similarly, the young age of poet’s mother is also passing fast.
(c) What are ‘the merry children spilling out of their homes’ symbolic off ?
Answer : In order to avoid looking at her mother’s pale face, the poetess looks outside the car. She watches the young and happy children coming out of their homes in open to play. These children symbolize young age, energy and life.

Question.5.You are Rohit/Yasmin, a resident of 10, Civil Lines, Saharanpur. During your college life, you participated in various curricular and co-curricular activities with meritorious performance. Write a letter to the Principal of your college i.e. Gurunanak College, Ambala requesting him to issue you a testimonial including the details of your performance.
OR
 As Cultural Secratary of G.D. Birla School, Jamshedpur, you are. organizing an inter school poster marking competition, in connection with the Diamond Jublee Celebratins of your school. Draft a circular letter to be . sent to various schools in your city requesting their participation. Invent details.
Answer:
10, Civil Lines
Saharanpur .
14th August, 2014 The Principal
Gurunanak College,
Ambala
Subject: Issuing of testimonials Dear Sir,
This is to inform you that I have been a student of your college in the year 2007, and passed out in the year 2010. During my college life, I took part in several curricular and co- curriculared activities and achieved a great amount of success. I represented the college in the swimming competition on the regional level and won a gold medal for the college. The State—level tennis championship was also won by me. In the inter-college debate competition too, I was awarded the first prize and won the trophy. My photos also appeared in ‘The Express’. Now, I have to apply for the job and I hope these credentials will be helpful for me.
I would be highly obliged if you could kindly issue me the testimonials, including the details of performances achieved by me.
Thanking You Yours Sincerely,
Yasmin
G.D. Birla School, Jamshedpur We are pleased to inform all the schools of the city that G.D. Birla School, Jamshedpur is organizing an inter-school poster making competition, in connection with the Diamond Jublee Celebrations of the school on Friday, 28th August 2014 at the school playground from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. The theme of the competition is ‘Green India, Clean India’. There is no participation fee. The chief guest for the function is Police Commissioner of the city, Mr. Jay Sharma. The prize distribution ceremony will be followed by an inspiring speech by our honorable Principal Sir.
The Management, staff and students of the school cordially invite you to this colourful event. Hope, you will provide full support by joining this event and make it more exciting.

6. Corruption has become the order of the day. It has entered all walks of life. Write an article for your school magazine in 150-200 words on ‘The Role of Youth in Combating Corruption5. You are Vijay/ Vineeta.
OR
You are Sanjay/ Geetha, a student of St. Martha’s Sr. Sec. School, Ghaziabad. You have read the news about the inhuman treatment meted out to the new entrants by the seniors in educational institutions. You are shocked to read about it. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘The Evil of Ragging in Educational Institutions’ to be published in ‘The Hindu5, Delhi.
Answer:
‘The Role of Youth in Combating Corruption’
By Vineeta
We know that the problem of corruption is spreading everywhere like mushrooms and these create economic crisis. Ultimately, the poor get poorer and the rich get richer. If these problems cannot be solved then the fate of country will be doomed. People are becoming greedy for the need of more and more money and for this they are using all the unfair means. It- is high time that the young people should come forward and take some action. This is their duty to care about their future. It is said that “Youth is a spark which can either burn or lighten the country.” Today there is tremendous pressure on the youth of our country in almost every field. It is their duty to carry a nation forward. Although it is the duty of every citizen but the eyes are predominantly on the youth. They should root out the corruption keeping in mind that no one is above law. If one thinks about the success of the country, then automatically corruption will be rooted out. It is up to the youth to derive inspiration from their ideals high. The higher the goal, the greater will be the potential to do the work and fruitful will be the results.
OR
‘The Evil of Ragging in Educational Institutions’
By Geetha (Student, St. Martha Sr. Sec. School)
The Hindu ‘
Ragging in educational institutions, is a distorted form of introduction of the juniors by their seniors. It involves insults in physical as well as verbal terms. There are many complex activities which are supposed to be done by the ‘ juniors which make them feel humiliated. It has become increasingly unpopular due to several complaints of serious injuries to the victims and strict laws regarding ragging. In other words, we can say that ragging is an extreme form of bullying that is omnipresent not only in schools but social
areas also. Few days ago, I came across a news in which a group of seniors, from a reputed college ragged their juniors savagely and they carried on their activities of hooliganism, extortion, drug peddling etc. throughout Although an FIR was lodged against these rogues, but the torture suffered by the new entrants broke them completely before their college life began. It is not a mere news but, it gives clear message about the evil of ragging -that is flourishing in educational institutions. We must be responsible and sensible enough to think hard as to how the educational institutions be made an altar of study, and not, the breeding ground for criminals. As parents, teachers and citizens, we should take a step forward to stop such inhuman activities. .

Question.9. Answer the following in 30-40 words each :
(a) What had been put up on the bulletin board?
Answer : The bulletin board contained an order from Berlin, that from then onwards, German will be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine.
(b) What did Douglas experience when he went down to the bottom of the pool for the first time?
Answer : When Douglas went down to the bottom of the pool for the first time, he jumped. He did not spring upwards to the surface, but surfaced gradually. His eyes and nose were out of water. He tried to catch a rope but failed.
(c) Why was the crofter so talkative and friendly with the peddler?
Answer: Crofter was alone in his house and he was in need of a companion desperately. So when the peddler came to spend the night in his house, he wanted to share his feelings with him and peddler had sufficient time to listen to him.
(d) Did Geoff keep his promise to Sophie? How do you know?
Answer : Yes, Geoff kept his promise as he talked very less. Most of the time he remained silent and also knew that his sister had big dreams of becoming a manager, and she used to form wild stories, so he never shared anything with anybody. Thus, we know that he had kept his promise.

12. Answer the following in 30-40 words each:
(a) What sort of brightness and silence prevailed in Antarctica during summer?
Answer : During the summer there was a surreal 24-hour austral summer light, and a universal silence, that was interrupted only by the occassional avalanche or calving ice sheet.
(b) Why did Hana wash the wounded soldier herself?
Answer : Hana had to wash the wounded man herself as her domestic maid Yumi refused to do so because the man, was an enemy. Not only this, but all the servants were against Dr. Sadao and his wife Hana in this respect, so they all left the house.

SET III

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

Question.5.Judith Public School Pune has recently introduced Diploma Course in Lab Technology under vocational stream. The prospects of this course are not clear to your mind. Write a letter to the Principal of the school inquiring about the future prospects of the course and requesting him to send prospectus if any. You are Cham an/ Chanchal, 25 Ashirwad Apartments, Kolhapur.
OR
Write a letter to the Municipal Chairman of New Town, North Arcot District about the dilapidated condition of public monument requesting him to take urgent steps for the preservation of this valuable heritage. You are Anar kali/ Akbar, 10, Pudupet, New Town.
Answer:
25, Ashirwad Apartment Kolhapur
15th April, 2014 The Principal
Judith Public School,
Pune
Dear Sir,
Subject : Inquiring about the Diploma Course in Lab Technology
I, have come to know that your institution has recently introduced Diploma course in Lab Technology under vocational stream. I saw your advertisement in the newspaper and I am Very much interested in doing this course. I have completed my schooling from Central Government School this year and have secured a good percentage in the Commerce stream. Since I don’t plan on sitting idle long, hence I went through the details provided and I have enountened a few doubts regarding the future prospects of the course.
I woukLbe obliged, if you could provide me clear details on the prospects of the course along with the duration, charges, timings and the date of the commencement of the course and send the prospects on the above given address, so that I can avail the opportunity of this course.
Thanking You Yours Sincerely „ Chanchal
OR
10, Pudupet
New Town
24 th December, 2014
The Municipal Chairman New Town,
North Arcot District
Subject: Dilapidated condition of Public Monument Dear Sir,
This is to bring to your notice that our Cultural Heritage is taking a bad shape. India is known for its varied and vast culture and therefore, it is the best counted tourist destination among the other countries. Since ages, the monuments like Sanchi Stupa, Nalanda, Mahabalipuram Rathas, Khajuraho Temples, Hampi are bearing their own grand history. Many folktales are connected with these Forts, but these are not properly conserved and protected. The situation is alarming as the structures in the city are in dilapidated condition. City’s unprotected monuments are dying a slow death. This pathetic situation’ can be overcome only when the Department of Archaeological Survey of India would undertake this responsibility. In addition to it, if the respected Chairman takes some steps to prevent deterioration of these monuments urgently.
Hope, my letter would help in awakening the consciousness of the Government as well as the related authorities. Thanking You
Your Sincerely .
Anarkali

Question.6.There is a growing trend among the youth to participate in adventurous activities. Write an article in 150-200 words for your school magazine on the topic, ‘Why would you prefer to have an adventurous life?’
OR
. Children up to the age of 12 years have been participating in TV programmes, bearing a lot of stress and neglecting their studies at such a prime time of their life. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘How far is it justified for children to participate in TV programmes?’ You are Sukra/ Sukanya.
Answer:
‘Why would you prefer to have
an adventurous life?’
Adventurous life has attracted youth a lot and it has become the upcoming trend. That is why adventure tourism has grown in decades. Adventurous life excites and rejuvenates a man, hence more and more youth are fascinated by it. Experiencing the life in the lap of nature rock, climbing, river rafting, jungle safari, skiing etc. is totally a different experience. As the lifestyle is getting more stressful, people want a vacation that helps them to relax. Now a days
adventure tour operators are ready with exciting packages. 9. Earlier, trekking and mountaineering Were supposed to be done by the NCC Cadets only, but the boundaries are now broken and open for a common man. Adventure in life is a mix of holiday along with the beauty of nature thus making it an adventurous life. It is a getaway from the tiresome life of the city and find something thrilling that rejuvenates both mind and body. State tourism offers variety of adventure holidays. Besides, there are challenging safaris to support the interests of the youth.
“How far is it justified for children to
participate in TV programmes?”
By: Sukanya
The unbearable pressure of competitions, has provoked the , children to do something ay a very early stage in their life. Taking part in the television programmes is the result of such unhealthy competitions. This is the time when they should concentrate more on studies but their time is consumed or rather wasted in such participations. The children are so obsessed with the programmes, that they do not pay least attention towards their books. They are occupied with their schedule so much that after returning home they have least 12. stamina to study. Thus, the golden time of their life is invested in doing TV programmes and entertainment. Others enjoy their act but how many of us bother about their prospects?
What would they become when they are grown up, as it is not always possible for a child artisr-to gain same success on maturity. People should first prioritize their basic studies and then come into this line. Therefore, in my opinion it is not justified for children below the age of 12 years to be involved in TV programmes.

Question.9.Answer the following in 30-40 words each :
(a) Who did M. Hamel blame for the neglect of learning on the part of boys like Franz?
Answer: Mr. M. Hamel blamed the parents for the neglect of learning on the part of boys like Franz who got their children engaged in the work of farming. He too assigned them the work of gardening, so boys couldn’t learn French.
Question.(b) Why did Douglas go to lake Wentworth in New Hampshire?
Answer : Douglas went to Fake Wentworth in New Hampshire to overcome his fear of water, as he was not sure that terror had left him even after the training. He made it a point by swimming two miles in the lake all alone to get rid of his fear.
(e) How did Sophie’s father react when Geoff told him about her meeting with Daney Casey?
Answer : Sophies father was not a day dreamer like her. He knew that his daughter had a habit of weaving wild stories but he was a realist. When Geoff told him about her meeting with Daney Casey, he did not show any concern. He was just worried that this would land Sophie in trouble one day.

12.Answer the following in 30-40 words each :
(a) Chapter deleted
(b) How does the writer indicate that Dr. Sadao’s father was a very traditional and conventional man?
Answer: Dr. Sadao’s father was a traditional and conventional man as he thought that Japan’s future depended on the islands. His only aim was to educate his son, so he was serious with him everytime. Although he was a strict father but he cared for his son a lot. Moreover, he had strong belief in arranged marriages.

Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 9

Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 9

[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.]                                                                                              [Maximum Marks] : 100

General Instruction:

  1. All Questions are compulsory.
  2. Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
  3. Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
  4. Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  5. Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
  6. Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.

Question.1. Define ‘Shock-Therapy’.
Answer. The Shock-Therapy was the state of affairs which signifies the collapse of communism followed by a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system.

Question.2. Why is human security more important in the contemporary world than territorial security ?
Answer. Human Security is more important in the contemporary world than territorial security because this concept of security goes beyond military threats to include a wide range of threats and dangers affecting human existence.

Question.3. Why were the States reorganised on linguistic basis in India in 1956 ?
Answer.

  • The states were reorganised on linguistic basis to accommodate plurality and adopt a flexible approach in dealing with the demands of the regions.
  • It also reduced the threat of division and separatist attitude among states.

Question.4. When and where was the 1st non-Congress state government formed after India’s independence ?
Answer.

  • In March 1957 in Kerala the 1st non-Congress state government was formed after Independence.
  • After the defeat of Congress, CPI formed the coalition government.

Question.5. In which year did the Congress Party win 415 Lok Sabha seats ? Who became the Prime Minister at that time ?
Answer. The Congress party won 415 seats in the Lok Sabha election in 1984. Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime minister.

Question.6. Why is it said that the collapse of Berlin Wall signified the collapse of the bi-polar world ? 
Answer. The Berlin Wall which symbolised the division between capitalist and the communist world was demolished by the people on 9th November, 1989.
This marked the unification of Germany and the beginning of the end of the communist bloc and led to the end of the bi-polar politics.

Question.7. State any one measure to deal with terrorism as a new source of threat to security.
Answer. In the case of terrorism military should be engaged for human security mission because terrorism, which is political violence, targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. For example, terrorist attack on US World Trade Center in New York on 11th September 2001.

Question.8. Why do indigenous people need special protection to protect their rights ?
Answer. Indigenous people are the people who help to bring the issues of environment resources and politics together. The UN defines Indigenous populations as comprising the descendants
of peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from the other parts of the world and overcame them. . ..

  1. These people need protection because issues related to the rights of the indigenous communities have been neglected in domestic and international politics for very long.
  2. During the 1970s growing international contacts among indigenous leaders from around the world led to a sense of common concern and shared experiences. The World Council of Indigenous Peoples was formed in 1975.

Question.9. Enumerate any two principles of Nehru’s Foreign Policy.
Answer.

  1. The first Prime Minister of India Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was the “chief architect” of India’s foreign policy.
  2. The three major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were to :
    (a) preserve the hard earned sovereignty
    (b) protect territorial integrity, and
    (c) promote rapid economic development.

Question.10. Why did the Communist Party of India split in 1964 ?
Answer. The Communist Party went through a major split in 1964 following an ideological rift between th6 Soviet Union and China.
The pro-Soviet factors remained as the CPI, while the opponents formed the CPI (M) i.e. Marxist. Both these parties continue to exist to this day significantly in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Question.11. What is the rationale of the Non-Aligned Movement after the end of Cold War?
Answer. Non-alignment as a strategy evolved in the Cold War context, but the end of Cold War and emergence of a unipolar world did not see the end of the non-alignment.
Non-alignment still contains some core values and end-using ideas. These are :

  1. Its emphasis has shifted from “political issues to economic issues”.
  2. Liberalisation of third world economies for rapid development of the countries of south now remains the main concern of NAM.
  3. Issues like democracy, disarmament, human rights and neo-colonialism are as relevant
    today as earlier.
  4. With the disintegration of the erstwhile USSR, there is only one super power, therefore,
    it is very essential for NAM to make sincere efforts to check USA from taking unilateral decisions.
  5. Now its emphasis has also shifted towards poverty alleviation, New International Economic Order based on equality, equity and justice and promotion of industrialisation. NAM must make efforts to reshape and democratise the United Nations so that the domination of powerful countries is checked.
    Besides, NAM must ensure that in the era of globalisation, liberalism and explosion of Information Technology (IT), the developed and developing nations derive the maximum benefit and are not allowed to be exploited.
    Therefore, the concept of non-alignment is applicable even in normal situation. Its essence is that every international issue is discussed on merit. This is an attitude which must be reflected in international affairs.

Question.12. Why was the US attacked by the terrorists on 11th September, 2001 ? How did the US react to it?
Answer.

  1. The 9/11 attacks were one of the major human disasters. On 11 September 2001, nineteen hijackers hailing from a number of Arab countries took control of four American commercial aircraft shortly after takeoff and flew them into important buildings in the US.
    Two airliners crashed into the North and South Towers of the World Trade Center in New York.
    The third Aircraft crashed into the Pentagon building in Arlington where the US Defence Department is headquartered.
    The fourth aircraft, presumably bound for the capital building of the US Congress came down in a field in Pennsylvania.
    The 9/11 attacks killed nearly three thousand people. The shocking part for the Americans was that they have been compared to the British burning of Washington DC in 1814 and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. However in terms of loss of life, 9/11 was the most severe attack on US soil since the founding of the country in 1776.
  2. The US response to 9/11 was swift and ferocious. The then President Bush had a much harder view of US interests and of the means by which to advance them.
    (a) As part of its global war on terror, the US launched Operation Enduring Freedom against all those suspected to be behind this attack, mainly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
    (b) The US forces made arrests all over the world, often without the knowledge of the government of the persons being arrested, transported these persons across countries and detained them in secret prisons.
    (c) Some of the prisoners were kept at Guantanamo Bay, a US naval base in Cuba where prisoners did not enjoy the protection of International law.

Question.13. “Global commons have not only common, but differentiated responsibilities.” Do you agree with this view ? Why ?
Answer. Common but differentiated responsibility signifies that states have common but differentiated responsibilities to check Global environmental degradation. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of pressures their societies place on the global environment and the technological and financial resources they command.
Conventions and Declarations on Differentiated Responsibilities.
We can implement the ideas with the help of Conventions and Declarations like :

  1. The Rio Declaration of 1992 convened on Environmental issues says that “states shall ‘ cooperate in the spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem.
  2. The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change (UNFCCC) also provides that the parties should act to protect the Climate system on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.
  3. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. The protocol was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto in Japan, based on principles set out in UNFCCC.

Question.14. What is meant by globalisation ? Explain any three cultural consequences of globalisation.
Answer. Globalisation means integrating the economy of a country with the economies of other countries in the process of free flow of trade and capital.
In another way Globalisation means integrating our economy with the World Economy.
As far as cultural consequences are concerned, it would be a mistake to assume that cultural consequences of globalisation are only negative. Culture is not a static thing. All cultures accept outside influences all the time. Some external influences are negative because they reduce dur choices.
But some times external influences simply enlarge our choices and modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional norms. For example burger is no substitute for a masala dosa and therefore does not pose any real challenge.
In the same way blue jeans can go well with a homespun khadi kurta. Here the outcome of outside influences is a new combination, that is unique. This clashing combination has been exported back to the country.
So we can safely say that globalisation broadens our cultural outlook and promotes cultural homogenisation.
The cultural globalisation leads to a fear that this process poses a threat to cultures in the world. The rise of a uniform culture is not the emergence of globalisation or a global culture. What we have in the name of a global culture is the imposition of western culture on the rest of the world.

  1. The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves its imprint on a less powerful society, and the world begins to look more like a dominant power wishes it to be.
  2. This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the humanity on the whole for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.

Question.15. Highlight the developments in India’s nuclear programme.
Answer. India’s Nuclear policy advocates ‘no first use’ and reiterates India’s commitment to global verification on non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament leading to a nuclear weapons free world.
(a) The nuclear programme in India was initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of H J. Bhabha.
(b) When China conducted a nuclear test in 1964, India realised its strategic importance.
(c) India’s first nuclear experiment was conducted in 1974 and India declared that it was only for peaceful purposes.
(d) At the same time India refused to sign the CTBT in 1995 because of its discriminatory nature.
(e) India also conducted a series of nuclear tests in May 1998, demonstrating its capacity to use nuclear energy for military purposes.
Our former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam had written about our nuclear strategy in his book India’s Vision-2020. .

Question.16. Explain the impact of coalition governments on Indian politics.
Answer. With the election of 1989, a long phase of coalition governments began in India. Since then there have been nine governments at the centre, all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties which did not join the government.
In this new phase any government could be formed only with the participation or support of many regional parties.
The above statement is justified because in the new era of coalition politics, the emphasis of political parties is on pragmatic considerations rather than an ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement. For instance :

  1. Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.
  2. Thus most parties of the NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutava’ ideology of the BJP, yet they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.

Question.17. In India hero worship plays a part in its politics unequalled in magnitude by the part it plays in the politics of any other country…. but in politics,……  hero worship is a sure road to degradation and eventual dictatorship. Analyse the statement.
                                                                                                                                          Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar.
Answer. The above statement of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar states that the leaders of Independent India took up the more difficult path to accommodate social diversities. In this way they were deeply committed to the idea of democracy. Leaders did not see politics as a problem; they saw it as a way of solving the problems.
But in society there are always different policy alternatives to choose from. There are different groups with different and conflicting aspirations.
All these differences led to the degradation of the society.

Question.18. “Tomorrow we shall be free from~the slavery of the British domination, but at midnight India will be partitioned. Tomorrow will thus be a day of rejoicing as well as mourning.” Analyse.
                                                                                                    [Mahatma Gandhi 14th August 1947, Kolkata]
Answer.Through the above statement Mahatma Gandhi wanted to express that the partition of the country appeared to prove everyone’s worst fears and there were serious questions about the future of India, i.e., would India survive as a unified country.
Hence, it is well said that 15th August was a day of rejoicing as well as mourning.

Question.19. Read this extract from the Rio Declaration and answer the following questions: “States shall cooperate in the spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the earth’s ecosystem. In view of the different contributions of the global environmental degradation, states have common but differentiated responsibilities.”
(a) Give two examples of the ecosystem being talked about here.
(b) Which part of the world has greater responsibility for environmental protection ? And why ?
(c) To what extent was this spirit followed by the states in their action since the Rio Summit ?
Answer.
(a) Climatic change (global warming), Bio-diversity, Global commons, relationship between economic development and environmental management.
(b) The developed countries have greater responsibility for environmental protection because ecological degradation of today in the world is the outcome of their industrial production and their scientific experiments.
(c) Since the Rio summit, most of the states are making efforts to protect the environment.
Forest policy and other environmental programmes have been started. International organisations undertook many projects to encourage such activities and created awareness in cooperation with the concerned states.
Use of non-conventional resources, protection of flora and fauna which are specific to the regions are given importance.

Question.20. Study the political outline map of the world given below in which six countries have been marked as (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5). Identify these countries and name them. Also classify them as First World, Second World and Third World countries. Write your answer in the Answer-Book as per the following format:
No. of the Country
Name of the Country
First World/Second World/Third World
solved-cbse-sample-papers-for-class-12-political-science-set-9-1
Answer.
solved-cbse-sample-papers-for-class-12-political-science-set-9-2

Question.21.What does the cartoon indicates
solved-cbse-sample-papers-for-class-12-political-science-set-9-3
solved-cbse-sample-papers-for-class-12-political-science-set-9-4

  1. What led to the revival of the Congress and its eventual transformation into a mass political party ?
  2. Describe any two reasons for Congress’ clear majority in 1980.

Answer.

  1. The given cartoon indicates the sweeping majority of the Congress party in general and victory of India Gandhi in particular.
  2. The political crises i.e. inability of the party in power to incorporate the aspirations
    of the people.
    The party in power after 1977 election had absolute majority and yet its leadership decided to suspend the democratic process.
  3. The Congress party now (after 1977 political crisis) identified itself with the popular
    ideology-claiming to be the only socialist and pro-poor party.
    The charismatic personality of Indira Gandhi as people appealed for one leader who could provide safeguard to the nation.

Question.22. “Examine any six factors which led to the disintegration of the former Soviet Union.
Or
‘It is not enough to have representative form of democracy. It is necessary to participate in popular movements to make democracy a success.’ Do you agree with this view ? Why ?
Answer. The sudden disintegration of Soviet Union, the second world power was the matter of shock or surprise to the world. The causes and reasons for the collapse were very much inherent in the Soviet system and the Soviet Socialist Bloc. Undoubtedly it is said that the internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions, which failed to meet the aspirations of the people, were responsible for the collapse of the system.
Economic stagnation for many years led to serve consumer shortages and a large section of Soviet society began to doubt and question the system openly.
The causes of the disintegration of Soviet Union can be analysed as under:
solved-cbse-sample-papers-for-class-12-political-science-set-9-5
During the cold war era the Soviet Union gradually became stagnant in an administrative and political sense due to various factors like

  1. the communist party that had ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people.
  2. ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administrati 1, rampant corruption, the inability of the system to correct mistakes it had made, the unwillingness to allow more openness in government and the centralisation of authority in a vast land.
  3. worse still, the party bureaucrats gained more privileges than ordinary citizens.
  4. people did not identify with the system and with rulers and the government increasingly lost popular backing.
    All these factors are responsible for the stagnant administrative and political structure. Mikhail Gorbachev was the last leader of the Soviet Union. He introduced economic and political reform policies of Perestroika. The main features of his reforms are as follows:
    (a) Reform polices were based on restricting of administrators system and openness of economic affairs.
    (b) Reform policy also aimed at keeping information and technological development in the USSR abreast of the information and technological revolutions taking place in the west.
    (c) Gorbachev introduced the democratisation of Soviet Union policy with the aim to normalise relations with the west and democratise the Soviet Union to tow free economic affairs in world arena.

In this way, Gorbachev’s reforms promised to deal with the existing problems of economic stagnation and administrative system.
The rise of nationalism and desire for sovereignty in various republics, like Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Ukraine, Georgia and others proved to be the final and most immediate cause for the disintegration of the USSR. Nationalist urges and feelings were very much at work throughout the history of the Soviet Union.
However nationalist dissatisfaction with the Soviet Union was strongest in the more “European” and prosperous Russian and the Baltic areas as well as Ukraine and Georgia. Ordinary people IK re felt alienated from central Asians and from each other and also concluded that they were paying too high an economic price to keep the more backward areas within the Soviet Union.

Or
Yes, to some extent movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy. We have mixed reactions, both for and against.
Arguments in favour : The history of movements and protests help us to “understand better the nature of democratic politics”.

  1. We have observed that these non-party movements like Anti-Arrack Movement, Chipko Movement, NBA are neither sporadic in nature nor are these a problem.
  2. These movements came to rectify some problems in the functioning of party politics and should be seen as integral part of our democratic politics.
  3. Popular movements ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands. This reduced the possibility of deep social conflicts and disaffection of these groups from democracy.
  4.  Besides, popular movements suggested new forms of active participation and broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy, e.g., Anti-Arrack movement and “Dalit Panthers Movement”.

Arguments Against

  1. Critics of these movements often argue that collective actions like strikes, sit-ins and rallies disrupt the functioning of the government, delay decision making and destabilise democracy.
  2. The frequency and the methods u_,ed by the movements suggest that the routine functioning of democracy did not have enough space for the voices of these social groups.
    That is perhaps why these groups turned to mass actions and mobilisations outside the election arena. This can be seen in the recent case of the new economic policies.
  3. Yet the real impact of these movements on the nature of public policies seems to be very limited. This is partly because most of the contemporary movements focus on a single issue and represent the interest of one section of society, thus it is possible to ignore their reasonable demands.
  4. Democratic politics requires a broad alliance of various disadvantaged social groups. Such an alliance does not seem to be shaping under the leadership of these movements.
  5. Political parties are required to bring together different sectional interests, but they also seem to be unable to do so. Parties do not seem to be taking up issues of marginal social groups.
  6. Thus, the relationship between popular movements and political parties has grown weaker over the years, creating a vacuum in politics. And in recent years, this has become a major problem in Indian politics.

Conclusion 
Keeping in view both negative and positive arguments, while concluding we can sum up that movements are not only about collective assertions or only about rallies or protests.
They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations.
Movements are also about making people aware of their rights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions. Social movements in India have been involved in these educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions. The struggle for the right to information is a case in point.

Question.23. Explain the three types of U.S. hegemony and give suitable examples for each.
Or
‘India and China are emerging as great economic powers.’ Do you agree ? Justify your answer with any three arguments.
Answer. The word Hegemony implies the leadership or predominance of one state. The roots of the word hegemony lie in classical Greece. At that time it was used to denote the preponderant position of Athens vis-a-vis the other city of Ancient Greece.
Presently, hegemony means, world power in the form of military domination, economic power, political clout and cultural superiority.
I. Hegemony as Hard Power : The very (first) nature of American hegemony advocates relations, patterns and balance of military capability between states. It is this notion of Hegemony which signifies military status that is especially applicable to the current position and role of the US in world politics.

  1. The very essence of contemporary US power lies in the overwhelming superiority of its military power. American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US today has military capabilities that can reach any point on the planet accurately and no other power today can remotely match it.
  2. The US military dominance is based on both the higher military spend and on a qualitative gap i.e.a technological know-how.

II. Hegemony as structural Power: signifies the Economic Prospects of the hegemon power. This notion emerges from a particular understanding of the world economy.

  1. The basic idea is that an open world economy requires a hegemon or dominant power to support its creation and existence.
  2. The hegemon must possess both the ability and the desire to establish certain norms for order and must sustain the global structure.
  3. Hegemony in this sense is reflected in the role played by the US in providing global public goods which signifies those goods that can be consumed by one person without reducing the amount of the goods available for someone else.
  4. A classical example of the structural power of the US is the academic degree called the Master’s in Business Administration (MBA). The idea behind this was that business is a profession that depends upon skills that can be taught in a university which is uniquely American.

III. Hegemony as soft Rower: The US hegemony is not only purely military or economic in nature of status but it has its cultural dimension also which specifies the nature of “Hegemony as soft power.”

  1. Here, this sense of Hegemony implies class ascendancy in the social, political and particularly ideological spheres.
  2. In the field of world politics, this notion of hegemony suggests that a dominant power deploys not only military power but also ideological resources to shape the behaviour of competing and lesser powers.
  3. Here, consent goes hand in hand with and is often more effective than coercion. For example, the predominance of the US in the world today is based not only on its military power and economic powers but also on its cultural presence, like most of the dreams of individuals and societies across the globe, are dreams churned out by practices prevailing in twentieth-century America.
    Thus, this third sense of hegemony as soft power is about the capacity to manufacture consent.

Or
China has emerged as the third alternative since its Economic reforms of 1978. China has been the fastest growing economy since the reforms first began there.
(a) Now it is projected to overtake the US as the world’s largest economy by 2040.
(b) Its economic integration into the region makes it the driver of East Asian growth, giving it enormous influence in regional affairs.
(c) Besides, the strength of its economy, together with other factors such as population, land mass, resources, regional location and political influence have added to its power in a significant way and made it the third alternative power in the world sphere.
For India
The same is true regarding India. After the 1991 economic reforms India too has been the fastest growing economy along with China.

  • Its increasing Foreign Direct Investment and foreign exchange makes it a leading global trade partner.
  • Besides, the economic growth, the other factors like human resource development, Infrastructure, government policy, provision of SEZ have added feathers to its economic power.

Question.24. Assess the outcome of planned development towards the foundation of India’s economic growth and land reforms.
Or
Explain any two causes of the partition of India in 1947. Analyse its any four major consequences.
Answer. The term development refers to the process of improving living standards and attaining an economically viable level of industrial production.
It has to be judged by the improvement it makes in the quality of life of the people, creation of a harmonious equality based society and a self-reliant nation.
During the planning years the foundations of India’s future economic growth were laid down :

  1. Some of the largest developmental projects in India’s history were undertaken during this period. These included mega dams like Bhakhra-Nangal and Hirakud for irrigation and power generation.
  2. Some of the heavy industries in the public sector steel plants, oil refineries, manufacturing units, defence production, etc. were started during this period.
  3. Infrastructure for transport and communication was improved substantially. Agrarian sector witnesed a serious attempt at land reforms. Its main features were as follows:
  • The most significant and successful of these was the abolition of the colonial system of zamindari. This has released land from the clutches of a class that had little interest ’ in agriculture and reduced the capacity of the landlords to dominate politics.
  • Attempts were made at consolidation of land i.e. bringing small pieces of land together in one place so that the farm size could become viable for agriculture.

Drawbacks of Land Reforms
But the other two components of land reforms were much less successful.

  1. Though the laws were made to put an upper limit or ‘ceiling’ on how much agricultural land one could own, people with excess land managed to evade or violate the law.
  2. Similarly, the tenants who worked on some one else’s land were given greater legal security against eviction, but this provision was rarely implemented.
    It was not easy to turn these well meaning policies on agriculture into genuine and effective action. This could happen only if the rural, landless poor were mobilised. But the landowners were very powerful and wielded considerable political influence. Therefore, many proposals for land reforms were either not translated into laws, or when made into laws, they remained only on paper. This shows that economic policy is part of the actual political situation in the society.

Or
(a) In the Indian context the word partition signifies the division of British India into India and Pakistan. The process of partition started in 1940 — when the Muslim league propounded the “Two-Nation Theory”.
According to this theory India consisted of not one but two “people”, Hindus and Muslims. Several political developments in 1940s, the political competition between the Congress and the Muslim league and the British role led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan. The partition year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfers of population that human history has known.
(b) Communal Riots: In the name of religion people of one community ruthlessly killed and maimed people of the other community. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border. Cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata became divided into “communal zones”.
(c) Social Sufferings : People went through immense sufferings. They were forced to abandon their homes and move across borders. Minorities on both sides of the border fled their homes and often secured temporary shelter in “refugee camps”. Thousands of woman were abducted on both sides of the border. In many cases women were killed by their own family members to preserve the “family honour”.Many children were separated from their parents. Those who did manage to cross the border found that they had no home. Hence, for lakhs of these “refugees” the country’s freedom meant life in ‘refugee camps’.
(d) Administrative concerns and Financial strains: The partition saw not merely a division of properties, liabilities and assets or a political division of the country and the administrative apparatus, what alsd got divided were the financial assets and things like tables, chairs, typewriters, paper-clips, books and also musical instruments of police band.

  • The employees of government and the railways were also divided.
  • Above all, it was a violent separation of communities who had hitherto lived together as neighbours. It is estimated that the partition forced about 80 lakh people to migrate across the new border. Between five to ten lakh people were killed in partition related violence.
  • Besides, the partition had also created severe conflict between the two communities, i’.e., Hindus and Muslims. Keeping in view all this, writers, poets and film makers in India and Pakistan have expressed the ruthlessness of the killings and the sufferings of displacement and violence in their novels, short stories, poems and films. They coined a phrase to describe partition – as a “division of hearts”.

Question.25. Why was the national emergency declared in India on June 25, 1975 ? Analyse any three consequences of this emergency.
Or
Evaluate any three factors which were responsible for Indira Gandhi’s achieving a thumping majority in 1971 Lok Sabha elections.
Answer. The Congress Government declared an emergency in response to Jayaprakash Narayan’s nationwide Satyagraha for the resignation of Indira Gandhi. Observing the situation the government decided that a grave crisis had arisen which made the proclamation of a state of emergency necessary.
Thus, on 25 June 1975, the government declared that there was threat of internal disturbances and therefore, it invoked Article 352 of the constitution. Under the provision of this article the government could declare a state of emergency on grounds of external threat or a threat of internal disturbances.

  1. Effect on civil liberties of citizens
    During Emergency the government made extensive use of preventive detention. Using this provision, the government made large scale arrests.
  2. Effect on relationship between the executive and judiciary.
    As the impact of emergency, the Parliament also brought in many new changes in the constitution. In the background of the ruling of the Allahabad High Court in the Indira Gandhi case, an amendment was made declaring that elections of Prime Minister, President and Vice-president could not be challenged in the court.
  3. Effect on the function of Mass Media
    Deciding to use its special powers under the emergency provisions, the government suspended the freedom of the press. Newspapers were asked to get prior approval for all material to be published, i.e. “Press consorship”. For example, apprehending social and communal disharmony, the government banned Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Jamait-e-Islami. Protests and strikes and public agititations were also disallowed.

Or
In the early of 1970s the government of Indira Gandhi gained popularity due to various factors such as:

  1. During this period the government made conscious attempts to project its socialist credentials.
  2. Indira Gandhi vigorously campaigned for implementing the existing land reform laws and undertook further land ceiling legislation.
  3. Not only this, in order to end her dependence on the other political parties, strengthen her party’s position in the Parliament and seek a popular mandate for her programmes, Indira Gandhi’s government recommended the dissolution of the Lok Sabha in December 1970.
  4. The crisis in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh added one more feather to the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
  5. In this way, Indira Gandhi and her government was seen not only as the protector of the poor and the underprivileged but also as a strong government.
  6.  The Congress was now in power in almost all the states and restored its dominance. It was also popular across different social sections.

Question.26. What is meant by Chipko Movement ? When did it start and where ? What is the significance of this movement in the conservation of the environment ?
Or
‘Towards the end of the 1980s, five major changes took place in Indian political system. In the light of this statement, examine any three changes.
Answer. The Chipko Movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural
tools. However, the forest department allotted the same patch of land to a sports goods manufacturer for commercial use.
This enraged the villagers and they protested against the move of the government.

  1. This was a yery unusual form of collective action in which men and women from a village were engaged in early 1973. These villagers were protesting against the practices of commercial logging that the government had permitted.
  2. They used a novel tactic for their protest that of hugging the frees to prevent them from being cut down.

Impact of Chipko Movement
The Chipko Movement soon spread across many parts of Uttarakhand region. Larger issues of ecological and economic exploitation of the region were raised.

  1. The movement achieved a victory when the government imposed a ban on felling of trees in the Himalayan region for fifteen years, until the green cover was fully restored.
  2. Besides, women’s active participation in the Chipko agitation was a very novel aspect of the movement.
  3. But more than that the Chipko Movement which started over a single issue, became a symbol of many such popular movements emerging in different parts of the country during the 1970s and later.

Or
The end of 1980s witnessed major developments which made a long lasting impact on Indian politics. Among the five major changes as follws : three changes were remarkable like

  1. Mandal Issue : The year 1989 marked the end of ‘Congress System’ and the National Front led by V.P. Singh witnessed the rise of ‘Mandal Issue’ in national politics.
    The decision of National Front to implement the recommendation of the Mandal Commission led to violent ‘Anti-Mandal’ protests in different parts of the country.
  2.  New Economic Policy : In 1991, the Congress led by Narasimha Rao, introduced the ‘New Economic Policy’ with liberalisation and globalisation as its main planks. Even though it was criticised by various movements and organisations it was followed by the later governments.
  3. Changes in the Political System : The era of coalitions in 1989 symbolically indicated the decline of Congress, i.e., the end of Congress dominance over the Indian Party system.
    The decade of 1990s saw an era of multi-party system. It also saw the emergence of – powerful parties and movements that represented the dalits and backward castes.
    The role of left parties changed with time regarding alliances. For example, in 1996 they supported BJP then the Congress government and now again they oppose Congress. Since 1990, a long phase of coalition politics began in India. There have been nine governments at the centre, all of which have either been coalition governments (or) minority government supported by other parties. This could be seen as National Front (1989), the United Front (1996) and (1997), the NDA (1999) and the UPA (2004 and 2009).

Question.27. What are the constraints on American hegemony today ? Which one of these do you expect to get more important in the future ?
Or
Suggest any four reforms required to make the United Nations more effective.
Answer. As history reveals every empire declines because of its weaknesses inherent in itself, so the biggest constraints to American hegemony lie within the heart of hegemony itself. Moreover, we can identify “three constraints on American power”, which were actually not in operation in the years following 9/11. Recently all these constraints are slowly beginning to operate.
Institutional Architecture : The very first constraint lies in the institutional architecture of the American state. A system of division of powers between the three branches of government places significant brakes upon the unrestrained and immoderate exercise of America’s military power by the executive branch.
Open nature of American society possesses constraint : The second constraint on American hegemony is also domestic in nature and stems from the open nature of American society. In spite of mass media’s promotion or imposition of a particular perspective on domestic opinion in the US, there is nevertheless a deep scepticism regarding the purposes and methods of government in American political culture.
And this factor, in the long run is a huge constraint on US military action overseas, i.e. towards the “Invasion Policy of America.”
NATO as a constraint on American hegemony: The most important constraint on American hegemony is possessed by NATO. It is the only organisation in the international system that could possibly moderate the exercise of American Hegemony today.
Actually the US has an enormous interest in keeping the alliance of democracies that follow the market economics alive and therefore it is possible that its allies in the NATO will be able to moderate the exercise of US hegemony through their liberal economic policy.
Or
In the era of decolonisation, end of the cold war and globalisation, the NAM members are making demands for more democratisation of the United Nations. Some of the suggestions leading to reforms in the United Nations can be summed up as under:

  1. Role of Third world countries : With the process of decolonisation the newly independent third world countries should be given a major role.
  2. Tenure should be fixed/limited for the permanent members : In the era of globalisation the membership of the Security Council should not be permanent. The maximum tenure should be for a period of ten years.
  3. Strengthened position of the General Assembly: The position of the General Assembly to be strengthened. To avoid overcrowded agenda in the General Assembly, its agenda needs to be shortened.
  4. Reform in the Veto Power : The veto of the permanent Security Council members should be remodelled so as to help Security Council work effectively.
  5. Significant powers to the Secretary General: The Secretary General’s position should be strengthened since he emodies the principles and is the executive arm of the UN. But at the same time the post of the Secretary General of the UN should not be given, twice to the same individual.
  6. Restructuring the Security Council: The UN Security Council should be restructured and democratised, especially its permanent members, so as to give adequate representation to Afro-Asian countries.

CBSE Solved Papers For Class 12 Computer Science (C++) Paper 4

CBSE Solved Papers For Class 12 Computer Science (C++) Paper 4

SECTION ‘A’

Question 1:
(a) Find the correct identifiers out of the following, which can be used for naming variable, constants or functions in a C + + program :
While, FLOAT, Switch, – 123, + Two, Add5, typedef, First_Name
(b) Read the following code and answer the questions (i) and (ii).
void main ()
{
char name [20];
int Roll no =20;
gets (name);
puts (name);
cout«Roll no;
}
What are the header files to be included?
(c) Rewrite the following program after removing the syntactical error(s) if any Underline each correction.
#include<iostream.h>
const int Dividor 5;
void main ()
{
Number =15;
for (int count =1 count =<5; count++, Number -=3)
if (Number %Dividor==0)
cout «nuraber/Dividor «endl;
else
cout« Number+Dividor « endl;
}
(d) Find the output of the following C+ + program: [2]
#include<iostream.h>
void repch(char s [] )
{
for(int i=0;s [i] ! =’\0′;i++)
{
A( ( (i%2) !=0) &&(s [i] !=s [i + 1]))
{
S [ i ] = ‘ @’ ;
cout << “Hello”;
}
else if (s [i]==s [i + 1])
{
S [i + 1]=’ ! ‘ ;
i++;
}
}
}
void main ();
{
char str[]=”SUCCESS”;
cout<<“Original String”<<str<<endl; repch(str);
cout<<“Changed String”<<str;
}
(e) Find and write the output of the following C++ program code : [2]
Note :
Assume all required header files are already included in the program.
typedef char STRING[80]; .
STRING MIXITNOW(STRINGS)
{
int SIZE=strlen (S);
for(int I=0;I<size-1;I+=2)
{
char WS=S [I];
S[I]=S[I+1];
S[I+1]=WS;
}
for (I=1; I<size; I+=2)
if(S[I]>=’M’&& S[I]<=’U’)
S[I]=’@’;
}
void main()
{
STRING Word = “CRACKAJACK”;
STRING Str;
Str = MIXITNOW(Word);
cout<<Str<<endl;
}
(f) In the following program, find the correct possible output(s) from the options: [2]
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<iostream.h>
void main ()
{
randomize ();
char City [ ] [10]={“DEL”, “CHN”, “KOL”, “BOM”, “BNG”};
int Fly;
for (int I=0; I<3; I+ +)
{
Fly=random(2) + I;
cout«City [Fly]«”:”;
}
}
Outputs:

  1. DEL:CHN:KOL:
  2. CHN:KOL:CHN:
  3. KOL:BOM:BNG:
  4. KOL:CHN:KOL:

Solution:
(a) Adds, First_Name
(b) #include<iostream.h>
#include<stdio.h>
(c) #include<iostream.h>
const int Dividor=5;
void main ()
{
int Number = 15;
for (int count=l;
count<=5; count ++) Number-=3;
if (Number % Dividor= = 0)
{
cout«number/Dividor«endl;
}
else
cout<<Number+Dividor <<endl;
(d) Original String SUCCESS <- Hellos@C!ES!
(e) RCCAAKAJCK
(f) The possible out puts of the above program are :
CHN : KOL : CHN :
KOL : CHN : KOL :

Question 2:
(a) What is Encapsulation? Explain it with an example?
(b) Answer the questions
(i) and  (ii) after going through the following class:
class Student {
int class;
char subject [20];
public:
Student () //Function 1
{ class=12;
strcpy (subject, “C++”);
Student (char sub [J]) //Function 2
{
class=12;
strcpy (subject, Sub);
}
Student (int C) //Function 3
classic;
strcpy (subject, “C++”);
Student (char sub [ ], int c) //Function 4
{
class=c;
strcpy (subject, Sub);
};

  1. Write statements in C++ that would execute Function 3 and Function 4 of class Student. [1]
  2. Which feature of Object Oriented Programming is demonstrated using Function 1, Function 2, Function 3 and Function 4 in the above Class Student? [1]

(c) Define a Class Student with the following specifications:

roll-No. integer
name 20 characters
class 8 characters
marks [5] integer
percentage float

Calculate () a function that calculates overall percentage of marks and returns the percentage of marks. [Assume total marks as 500 i.e., max. marks per subject is 100].
Public Members:
Readmarks () a function that read marks and invokes the calculate function, displaymarks () a function that prints the marks.
(d) Answer the questions (i) to (iv) based on the following code: class Trainer
{
char TNo [5], TName [20], Specialization [10];
int Days;
protected:
float Renumeration;
void AssignRem (float) ;
public:
Trainer ();
void TEntry ();
void TDisplay ();
}
class Learner
{
char Regno [10], LName [20], Program [10]; protected:
int Attendence, grade;
public:
Learner ();
void LEntry ();
void LDisplay ();
};
class Institute : public Learner, public Trainer
{
char ICode [10], IName [20];
public:
Institute ();
void TEntry ();
void TDisplay ();
} ;

  1. Which type of Inheritance is depicted by the above example? [1]
  2. Identify the member function(s) that cannot be called directly from the object of class Institute from the following: [1]
    TEntry ()
    LDisplay ()
  3. What will be the size of object of class Institute ? [1]
  4. If class Institute was derived privately from class Learner and privately from class Trainer, then name the member function(s) that could be accessed through, object of class Institute.

Solution:
(a) Data Encapsulation: Wrapping up of data and functions together in a single unit is known as Data Encapsulation.
Example:
class Item /* Class wraps Data & Functions together in a single unit. */.
{
int Ino: char Desc [20] ;
public: void Purchase ();
void Sale ();
};
(b)

  1. For function 3 : student S(10);
    For function 4 : Student C(“cluestech”, 100);
  2. Function overloading or constructor overloading or polymorphism.

(c) class Student {
private: int roll_no;
char name [20];
char clhss [8];
int Marks [5];
float percentage;
float Calculate ()
{
int sum=0;
for (int i=0; i<5; i++)
sum=sum+marks [i];
return (sum/5);
}
public:
void Readmarks ()
{
cout<<“Enter the student’s name”;
gets(name);
cout<<“\n Enter the roll no”;
cin>>roll_no;
cout«”\n Enter the student’s class”;
cin»class;
cout«”\n Enter 5 marks”;
for (int i=0; i<5; i++)
cin>>marks [i];
percentage=calculate();
}
void displaymarks ()
{
cout«”\n Name entered is”; puts (name) ;
cout«”\n Class of the student is”<<class;
cout«”\n Roll number of the student is” <<roll_no;
cout«”\n Marks entered are”;
for (int i=0; i<5; i++)
cout<<marks [i ] «” “;
cout«”\n percentage of the student is”«percentage;
}
};
(d)

  1. Multiple Inheritance is depicted by the given example.
  2. Both the given member functions can be called directly from the objects of the class Institute.
  3. 37 bytes.
  4. The member functions are:
    Institute()
    TEntry()
    TDisplay()

SECTION ‘B’ 

Question 3:
(a) An array A[10] [20] is stored in the memory along the row, with each of the element occupying 2 bytes, find out the memory location for element A[2] [5], if an element A[5] [10] is stored at the memory location 3020. [3]
(b) Write definition for a function SHOWMID (int P[][5], int R, int C) in C++ to display the elements of middle row and middle column from a two dimensional array P having R number of rows and C number of columns.
For example, If the content of array is as follows:

115 112 116 101 125
103 101 121 102 101
185 109 109 160 172

The function should display the following as output:
103 101 121 102 101 116 121 109
(c) Top is a pointer variable pointing to the top element of a Stack, with each node having the following structure declaration:
struct Stack {int Data; Stack*Next;| considering the above explanation, what does the following code do?
int count=0, Sum=0;
Stack*Temp = Top;
while (Temp —» Next!= NULL)
{ count++;
Sum+=Temp -+Data;
Temp=Temp —>Next;
}
count«Sum/count ;
Also find output if stack contains data as 10, 20, 9, 10.
(d) Given a class declaration as below to implement a Queue using a circular array. Complete the class definition with all member functions. [4]
class Queue
{
int F,R;
int Element [100];
Queue (); //To initialize F and R
void Addition (); //this function should check over flow Condition before adding elements
void Deletion () ; //this function should check empty Queue condition before deleting elements
(e) Convert the expression (x*3+y*3+z*3) / (x + y + z) into postfix expression. Show the content of the stack during the conversion.
Solution:
(a) Array is of A [10] [20].
Total rows, m = 10.
Total columns, n = 20 Width of elements, W = 2 bytes.
If it is stored along row
Formula : Address of A [I] [J] = B + W ((I-Ir)n + (J-Jc)) row = 0 & Jc = Lowest number & column = 0 Position of A [5] [10] = 3020 Therefore, 3020 = B + 2 (5 x 20 + 10)
3020 = B + 2 (110)
3020 = B + 220
B = 2800. [IV*]
Now, position of A [2] [5]
2810 + 2 (2 x 20 + 50)
2810 + 2 (45)
2810 + 90
2900.
(b) void SHOWMID (int P[][5],int R,int C)
{
If (R%2 ! =0);
int X = R + 1;
else
X = R;
If (C%2!=0)
int Y = C+1;
else
Y = R;
forCintJ=Q;J<C;J++)
cout«P[X/2] [J]«””;
cout«endl;
for(intl=0;I<R;I++)
cout«P[I] [Y/2]«””;
(c) It will calculate the average of stack values. Output will be 9.
(d) class Queue {
int F,R;
int Element [100];
Queue ()
{
R=Null;
F=Null;
}
void Addition ();
void Deletion ();
} ;
void Queue :: Addition ()
{
int val;
if ((R+l) % 100 = =F)
cout «”Queue is full”;
else
{
R=(R+l)%Element;
Element [R] =Val;
}
}
void Queue :: Deletion ()
{
int val;
if (F!=R)
{
F=(F+1)%100;
val=Element [F];
cout<< “Removed value =” <<val;
}
else
{
cout<< “Queue is empty”;}
}
}
(e) (x*3 + y*3 + z*3)/ (x+y+z)

Symbol Scanned Stack Expression
( (
( ((
x (( x
* ((* x
3 ((* x
+ ((+ x*
y ((+ x* y
* ((+* x* y
3 ((+* x* y
+ ((+ x* y*+
z ((+ x* y*+z
* ((+* x* y*+z
3 ((+* x* y* + z3
) ( x* y* z3 *+
/ (/ x* y* z3 *+

 

Symbol Scanned Stack Expression
( (/( x* y* z*+
x (/( x* y* z*+x
+ (/(+ x* y* z*+x
y (/(+ x* y* z*+xy
+ (/(+ x* y* z*+xy+
z (/(+ x* y* z*+xy+z
) (/ x* y* z*+xy+z+/
) x* y* z*+xy+z+/

Question 4:
(a) Observe the program segment carefully and answer the question that follows :
class Labrecord
{
int. Expno;
char Experiment[20];
char Checked;
int Marks;
pubilc:
void Enter_Exp();
void Show_Exp();
char RChecked()
{
return Checked;
}
void AssignMark(int M)
{
Marks = M;
}
};
void Modify Marks()
{
fstream File;
File.open(“Marks.Dat”,ios::binary:ios::in|ios::out);
Labrecord L;
int Rec=0;
while(File.read((char*)&L, sizeof(L)))
{
if(L.Rchecked()==’N’)
L.Assignmark(0);
else
L.AssignMark(10);
——————–//Statement 1
——————–//Statement 2
Rec ++;
}
File.Close ();
If the function ModifyMarks() is supposed to modify marks for the records in the file MARKS.DAT based on their status of the member checked (containing value either ‘Y or ‘N’). Write C++ statements for the statement 1 and statement 2 where statement 1 is required to position the file write pointer to an appropriate place in the file and statement 2 is to perform the write operation with the modified record.
(b) Write a function in C++ to count the number of uppercase alphabets present in a text file [2] “Article.TXT”
(c) Given a binary file DATABASE.DAT, containing records of the following structure type : [3]
struct product
{
int prod_id;
char grade;
float price;
};
Write a function in C++ that would read contents from the file ‘DATABASE.DAT and creates a file named ‘IMPORTED.DAT’ copying only those records from DATABASE.DAT whose price ranges from 2000 to 5000.
Solution:
(a) Statement 1: File Seekp (size of (L));
Statement 2: File write ((clear*)&L, size of (L));
(b) void Countupper()
{ int count=0; char c’h;
infstream fin (“Article . txt”) ;
while (Ifin.eof () )
{
fin»ch;
if(isupper(ch))
count ++;
}
cout «”No of uppercase characters = “«count;
fin. close () ;
}
(c) void create filed
{
ifstream fin;
ofstream fout;
fin.open (“DATABASE.DAT”, ios : :binary) ;
fout.open(“IMPORTED.DAT”, ios::binary);
product p;
while (fin.read(( char*)&p, sizeof (p) )
{
if(p.price>=2000&& p.price<=5000)
fout.write ((char*) & p, size of (p));
}
fin. close () ;
fout. close ();
}

SECTION ‘C’

Question 5:
(a) What do you understand by primary key and candidate key? [2]
(b) Consider the following tables Item and Customer. Write SQL commands for the statement (i) to (iv) and give outputs for SQL queries (v) to (viii).
Table: Item

I_Id Manufacturer Price Item Name
PC01 ABC 35000 Personal Computer
LC05 ABC 55000 Laptop
PC03 XYZ 32000 Personal Computer
PC06 COMP 37000 Personal Computer
LC03 PQR 27000 Laptop

Table: Customer

C_ID City IJD Customer Name
01 Delhi LC03 N Roy
06 Mumbai PC03 H Singh
12 Delhi PC06 R Pandey
15 Delhi LC03 C Sharma
16 Banglore PC01 K Agarwal
  1. To display the details of those customers whose city is Delhi. [1]
  2. To display the details of Items whose price is in the range of 35000 to 55000 (Both values included) [1]
  3. To display the customer Name, City from table customer and Item Name and Price from table Item, with their corresponding matching I_Id. [1]
  4. To increase the price of all Items by 1000 in the table Item. [1]
  5. SELECT DISTINCT City FROM CUSTOMER; [1/2]
  6. SELECT Item Name, MAX (Price)
    FROM ITEMGROUP BY Item Name;
  7. SELECT Customer Name, Manufacturer [1/2]
    FROM ITEM, CUSTOMER WHERE ITEM.IJd = CUSTOMER.I_Id;
  8. SELECT Item Name, Price *100 VM
    FROM ITEM WHERE Manufacturer = ‘ABC’

Solution:
(a) Primary key: Primary key is the key that uniquely identifies a particular record in a file. i.e. in a table.
Candidate key:

  1. If a relation scheme has more than one primary key, each is called a candidate key.
  2. One of the candidate keys is arbitrarily designated to be the primary key and the others are called secondary keys.

(b)

  1. SELECT * FROM Customer WHERE City = ‘Delhi’; [1]
  2. SELECT * FROM Item WHERE Price > = 35000 and Price < = 55000;
  3. SELECT Customer Name, City FROM Customer, Item WHERE Customer.I_Id=Item. I_Id;
  4. Update Table Item Set Price=Price+1000;

City

Delhi
Mumbai
Banglore

6.

Item: Name Price
Personal Computer Laptop 37.000

57.000

7.

Customer Name Manufacturer
K Agarwal H Singh
R Pandey
C Sharma N. Roy
ABC
XYZ
COMP
PQR
PQR

8.

Item Name Price
Personal computer Laptop 35.0. 00
55.0. 00

Question 6:
(a) State and define principle of duality. Why is it so important in Boolean Algebra ?
(b) Write the equivalent Boolean Expression for the following Logic Circuit: [2]
cbse-solved-papers-for-class-12-computer-science-c-paper-4-3
(c) Derive a Canonical SOP expression for a Boolean function F, represented by the following truth table:

   p     Q     R    P(P,Q,R)
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1

(d) Reduce the following Boolean expression using K-map: F(a,b,c,d) = Σ(0,2,3,8,10,11).
Solution:
(a)
Principal of duality : Daulity principle states that from every boolean relation another boolean . relation can be derived by :

  • Changing each or sign (+) to an AND sign (-).
  • Changing each AND sign (-) to an or sign (+) ex. Daul of A + A’B = A.(A’+B)

Importance in Boolean Algebra : The principle of daulity is an important concept in boolean algebra to prove various theorems.
(b) (A+B). (A+B’)
(c) F (P, Q, R) = (P+Q+R).(P+Q’+R’).(P’+Q+R).(P’+Q+R’) OR
F(P,Q,R) = π(0,3,4,S)
Note:
Deduct ½ mark if wrong variable names are used.
(d) F (a,b,c,d) = Σ(0,2,3,8,10,11)
The K-map is:
cbse-solved-papers-for-class-12-computer-science-c-paper-4-1
Hence F(a,b,c,d)= b’c+b’d’ + b’c = b’c + b’d’.

Question 7:
(a) Out of the following which is the fastest

  1. wired and
  2. wireless medium of communication.
    Infrared, Coaxial cable, Ethernet cable, Microwave, Optical fiber. [2]

(b) Expand the following terminologies: [1]

  1. SMS
  2. VOIP.

(c) What is MODEM? [1]
(d) Describe the following in brief: [2]

  1. MOSAIC
  2. Usenet

(e) ABC SWITCH GEARS LTD in Srinagar is setting up the network between its different departments located in different wings. There are 4 wings named as Manufacturing (M). Research (R), Administration (A) and Personnel (P).
Distance between various wings are :

Wing A to wing M 100 m
Wing A to wing R 200 m
Wing A to wing P 400 m
Wing M to wing R 300 m
Wing M to wing P 100 m
Wing R to wing P 450 m

Number of Computers:

Wing M 15 m
Wing R 100 m
Wing A 50 m
Wing P 150 m
  1. Suggest a suitable Topology for networking the computers of all wings.
  2. Name the wing where the server is to be installed. Justify your answer.
  3. Suggest the placement of Hub/Switch in the network.
  4. Mention an economic technology to provide Internet Accessibility to all the wings.

Solution:
(a)

  1. Wired : Optical Fiber
  2. Wireless : Infrared (or Microwave)

(b)

  1. SMS : stands for Short Message Service.
  2. VOIP : Voice-Over-Internet-Protocol.

(c) Modem : (Modulator Demodulator)

  1. It is a device which converts analog signal to digital signals & vice versa.
  2. It is a device used to connect and communicate with other computers.

(d)

  1. MOSAIC: It is an easy method to navigate through internet. It was developed by Mark Anderson in 1993, at NCSA (National Center of Super-Computing Applications) at University of Illinois.
  2. Usenet: It is a group of individuals sharing a particular interest to discuss the views regarding their interest i.e newsgroups.

(e)

  1. Suitable network topology for all wings is BUS Topology.
    cbse-solved-papers-for-class-12-computer-science-c-paper-4-2
  2. Wing P should be used to install server as it has maximum number of computers.
  3. The Hub /Switch should be installed in all the four wings.
  4. The economic technology to provide Internet Accessibility to all wings is co-axial.
    Cable Network or Broadband Network.