Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples

Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 1

An advertisement is a public announcement made through a popular medium like newspapers, magazines, T.V., Radio, and the Cinema. An advertisement may be displayed on a placard as well. It is a non-personal, oral, or visual message regarding a product, a service, or an idea.

Purpose: An advertisement attracts the immediate attention of the public. It is a very potent tool for promoting sales or services. It is used to influence the minds, tastes, and even motives of the masses. Remember, an advertisement is a play of words. It must be very attractive to catch the eye of the reader.

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Advertisements are of two types-

  • A. Classified Advertisements
  • B. Commercial or Display Advertisements

A. Classified Advertisements

These advertisements are called classified advertisements as they are divided into categories or classes in the newspaper or magazine according to their subject matter and the function they perform. Classified advertisements are brief and to the point, as the advertiser is charged per word, per column line or per column centimetre.

The main characteristics of classified advertisements are

  • They are categorised into columns according to different classes.
  • They are brief and occupy less space.
  • They are economical.
  • They are written in short phrases and words.
  • The language is simple and concise, factual and formal.

Points to be Kept in Mind

  • Advertisements should always be drafted in such a way that they attract the readers to go through them.
  • Advertisements should always be meaningful and interesting so that they can attract the attention of the readers.’
  • Advertisements should always have simple and effective language.
  • Advertisements should always be brief and to the point.
  • The name of the advertiser and the advertised product or service should be properly highlighted.

TIP To develop expertise in drafting classified advertisements, students are advised to read classified advertisement columns of leading newspapers.

Types Of Classified Advertisements

  • Situations Vacant/Wanted
  • Sale and Purchase
    • Property
    • Vehicle
    • Household/Office Goods
  • To Let
  • Missing (Persons and Pets)
  • Lost and Found
  • Tours and Travel
  • Matrimonial Alliance
  • Obituary
  • Appeal
  • Educational
  • Change of Name/Address /Other information

Making Scheme of Classified Advertisement
In the paper, a question on a classified advertisement will test the following value points.
Title Suitable heading/classification e.g. Situation Vacant (in capitals). (1 Mark)
Content Subject matter including a contact address, phone number (2 Marks)
Expression Grammatical accuracy, spelling, suitable style. (1 Mark)

TYPE 1
Situations Vacant/Wanted

Details Required

  • Give heading ‘Wanted’, ‘Required’, or ‘Situation Vacant’ (as appropriate).
  • Write the name of the organisation/ company, in the case situation Vacant’.
  • Indicate the post and number of vacancies.
  • State the essential qualifications and experience.
  • Give preferences, if any, such as age limits and gender of the candidate (if applicable).
  • Other preferences/ details like pay and perks, mode of applying etc are optional and may be included where relevant or not obvious.
  • The contact address and phone number of the advertiser is optional.

Advertisement Writing Examples with Answers for Class 11 CBSE Pdf

Classified Advertisement Class 11 Examples

Advertisement Writing Class 11 Examples with Simple Explanation

Format Of Situation Vacant/Wanted
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 2

Question 1.
You are Personnel Manager of Green Bio-Products Ltd., Sector 18, Industrial Area, Faridabad. You need an efficient P.A. /stenographer for your office. Write an advertisement for the ‘Situation Vacant’ column of a local daily.
Answer:

Situation Vacant

Wanted a smart, efficient P.A./stenographer for a leading manufacturing company. Qualifications-Graduate, age 25-30 years. Typing speed 60 w.p.m., shorthand 120 w.p.m. Preference to those who can handle computers. Salary negotiable. Apply with complete bio-data within 10 days to Personnel Manager, Green Bio-Products Ltd., Industrial Area, Faridabad-18.

Question 2.
You are General Manager of Orient Export House, Tri Nagar, Delhi. You want to appoint a Stenographer/ PA for your company. Draft an advertisement.
Answer:

Situation Vacant

Wanted a smart, confident PA/ Stenographer for a leading export house.
Qualification—graduate, age 20-35 years, typing speed 40 wpm, shorthand 100 wpm. Computer and MS-Office literacy essential. Salary negotiable.

Apply with complete bio-data within two weeks to General Manager, Orient Export House, Tri Nagar, Delhi-110061. Tel no 011-27345XX

Question 3.
Arun Gupta of M-3 Kamal Apartments, Shimla, has a very good knowledge of tourist places in Shimla. He wants to work as a tourist guide. Draft a suitable advertisement for publication in the Tours and Travels Section of a local newspaper.
Answer:

Situation Wanted

Seeking a job as a tourist Guide with Tours and Travels companies in the Shimla area. I am well acquainted with the hills and historical places around Shimla. I am well versed in English, Hindi, and Punjabi. Tours and Travels companies may contact Arun Gupta, M-3, Kamal Apartments, Shimla or call 98682XXXXX.

Advertisement Writing Examples for Class 11 CBSE Pdf

1. AK International School is looking for a receptionist for the school. Write an advertisement on behalf of the Administrative Officer in the classified columns of the local newspaper giving necessary details.

2. Santa Public School in Delhi requires cricket and hockey coaches. Draft a suitable advertisement for the ‘Situations Vacant’ column of the ‘Daily Herald’, stating your requirements regarding age, qualification, experience, etc. You are the Principal of the school.

3. Bosco Public School has a vacancy for transport in charge to look after the school transport fleet. Draft an advertisement on behalf of the Administrative Officer in the classified columns of a local daily giving necessary details.

4. You are AL Bhagat of C-108 Shakti Nagar, Delhi. You are a Chartered Accountant and are capable of handling accounts and managing company finances, having six years of experience. Draft an advertisement for ‘The Times of India’ seeking a job (full time/part-time).

5. You are P Sharma of VarAnswer:i. You want an English tutor for your daughter. Write out an advertisement to be published in the classified column of a local newspaper.

TYPE 2
Sale/Purchase (Property)

Details Required

  • Begin with For Sale/ Purchase or Available/ Wanted
  • Type of property/ building
  • Brief physical description
  • Fittings and fixtures (optional)
  • Type of property under consideration (Plot/ Residential / Commercial/ Industrial)
  • Contact name, phone number/ address/e-mail
  • Financial aspects/cost (optional)
  • Area (sq m) and location, size, number of rooms, floors / flat / bungalow etc
  • Location and surroundings
  • Facilities – power connection, parking, proximity to business/ shopping area

Format Of Sale/Purchase (Property)
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 3

Question 1.
You plan to sell your flat. Draft a suitable advertisement to be inserted in the classified columns of a local daily giving all necessary details of the flat.
Answer:

Flat For Sale

At Mukherjee Nagar, DDA Flat, SFS-II, Ground floor, Two bedrooms, D/D with full interiors for sale. Car parking available. East/ park facing. Reasonable price.
Contact AB Singh 011-2723XXXX

Question 2.
You are General Manager of PNT Company, NOIDA, which requires to purchase posh bungalows as guest houses. Draft an advertisement under classified columns to be published in ‘The Tribune’.
Answer:

Bungalows Wanted

Wanted high end bungalows in various posh locations in South Delhi to be run as guest houses. Uninterrupted water and electricity supply is a must. Near market and other facilities will be preferred. Owners please contact with lowest rates, terms and conditions etc to General Manager, PNT Company, Noida Phone no 0120- 42242XX.
e-mail : divyAnswer:h174@gmail.com

Question 3.
You are Surinder Singh from Ludhiana, Punjab. You want to buy a plot for constructing a warehouse. Draft an advertisement for the same in ‘The Times of India’ under the classified column.
Answer:

Plot Required In Ludhiana

Roadside plot for constructing warehouse on the outskirts of Ludhiana on GT Road. Minimum area of 500 sq mt. Contact Surinder Singh, R- 35, Naya Mohalla, Ludhiana, Punjab.
Call 098765XXXXX with the best terms.

Advertisement Writing Examples for Students

1. Maria Agnes, House no 196, Mapusa, Goa, wishes to sell her house as she is migrating to the USA. Draft an advertisement for her for publication in the ‘For Sale/Property’ section of the newspaper.
2. You wish to open a showroom for ‘Adidas’ and are looking for a suitable place to purchase. Draft an advertisement for it to be published in ‘The Tribune’, New Delhi, under classified columns, giving all relevant details.
3. You have a spacious bungalow in Saket. You want to sell the first floor to a genuine buyer. Draft an advertisement giving necessary details.
4. You are Dr. Geetanjali, MD. You are looking for an independent house in Gurgaon at a reasonable cost for a residence-cum-clinic. Draft a suitable advertisement to be published in ‘Hindustan Times’, New Delhi.
5. You want to dispose of your independent house situated in a prime locality of Ghaziabad. Draft an advertisement to be published in ‘The Times of India’ under the classified advertisements column. Sign as Manohar/Meenu.

TYPE 2B
Sale/Purchase (Vehicle)

Details Required

  • Start with ‘Sale / Purchase’ or ‘Available / Wanted’
  • Model, year of manufacturing
  • Features/ accessories fitted
  • Ownership details
  • Insurance details
  • Type/ make of vehicle
  • Colour
  • Mileage and condition, new or second hand
  • Kilometres run/ done/price expected
  • Contact address/ e-mail/ phone number

NOTE: Some details are optional

Format Of Sale/Purchase (Vehicle)
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 4

Question 1.
You want to sell your flat in Ashok Vihar. Write out an advertisement giving necessary details in about 50 words.
Answer:

FOR SALE

For Sale Ashok Vihar, DDA flat, first floor, two bedrooms. Drawing/ Dining with full interiors, Car parking available. North/ park facing, located near the main market. Reasonable price. Contact: M.L. Goyal, 27263412

Question 2.
You plan to sell your motorcycle. Draft a suitable advertisement to be published in the classified column of the ‘Hindustan Times’, Delhi. Invent all necessary details.
Answer:

Motorcycle For Sale

Top Model Hero Karisma-2010 Available a yellow Hero Karisma with disk brakes, double speed engine, 180cc, alloy wheels, digital meter, tail brake lights, 50 km/h, sparingly used, fully insured, good condition. Sale price negotiable.

Contact Shravan Kumar, 78124679XX

Question 3.
You wish to buy a second-hand owner-driven car in good condition. Draft an advertisement for the same in ‘The Indian Express’ under the classified column, giving your preferences.
Answer:

Required Small Car

Required purchase of the second-hand owner-driven small car in good condition. Preferred makes Maruti/ Hyundai/ Ford. Must be Delhi registered. Contact with the best price, Alok Mohapatra, Flat 304, SKS Society, Sector 29, Gurgaon. Phone 098123XXXXX

Advertisement Questions for Class 11

1. You want to dispose of your car as you are going abroad. You are Ritesh of House no 17, Kailash Colony, New Delhi. Draft an advertisement to be published in the daily, ‘The Hindu’, under classified columns.

2. You wish to purchase a Harley-Davidson motorcycle. Draft an advertisement for it to be published in ‘The Statesman’, Kolkata, under classified columns giving your preferences.

3. You plan to sell your mini-bus, as you are going abroad. Invent all necessary details dong with the facilities available on the bus. Draft this advertisement to be published in the locd ddly under classified columns.

4. You are Harpd Singh, owner of Harpd Transport Agency. You wish to sell one of your trucks used in
transportation. Draft a suitable advertisement to be published in ‘Punjab Kesari’, Delhi, under classified columns.

5. You would like to purchase a Ford Endeavour car, 2009 model. Giving dl its required details, draft an advertisement for a national daily in the classified columns.

Type 2C
Sale/Purchase (Household/Office Goods)

DETAILS REQUIRED

  • Start with Sale! Purchase or Available / Wanted
  • Product brand, model, year of manufacture
  • Duration used? period of usage/ when purchased
  • Price offered? expected (optional)
  • Contact address f e-mail I phone number
  • Name/ Type of household/ office item
  • Product features
  • Condition
  • Specify material (in case of furniture)

Format Of Sale/Purchase (Household / Office Goods)
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 5

Question 1.
You are Sunny! Sammy. You wish to dispose of an old washing machine. Draft a suitable advertisement with your contact details.
Answer:

For Sale – Lg Washing Machine

Quick Sale LG Washing Machine, Model TO 1129, 2008 purchased, white, excellent condition, fully automatic, under warranty. Attractive price. Contact Sunny, Sitapur Road, Lucknow, 81181191 XX.

Question 2.
You are moving to a new city with your family. Draft an advertisement for disposing of items of furniture and electrical equipment to be published in a local newspaper.
Answer:

For Sale – Household Items

Available 6 seater sofa, teakwood, in excellent condition with Dunlop seats, glass centre table, two LG AC’s, LG Microwave, Samsung fridge, dining table with four chairs, two double beds. Reasonable sale offer, owner moving to a new city. Contact Brijesh Saini 99944422XX

Question 3.
You are the Distribution Manager of Alka Foods in Ambala, where you have recently taken an office on rent. You wish to buy new/used office furniture for the office. Draft an advertisement giving details of the same in ‘Punjab Kesri’ under the classified column.
Answer:

Require Office Furniture

Require office furniture (new/used in good condition) including sofa set, office tables, and chairs, water coolers, stools for new distributor office at Sadar Bazar, Ambala. Contact with details and best prices, Distribution Manager, Alka Foods on phone 098456XXXXX.

Example Questions

1. You are Mayank. You are leaving for Germany to pursue an engineering course and so wish to sell your high definition motion gaming console with built-in 85 exciting real action wireless games. Draft a suitable advertisement for publication in ‘Hindustan Times’ advertising the sale of the gaming system, giving features and relevant details.

2. You are Anmol Juneja. You want to purchase a second-hand laptop. Draft a classified advertisement for a local daily giving necessary details.

3. You wish to sell your Kaff chimney along with Kaff gas stove. Draft a suitable advertisement for a local daily, giving all the necessary details. You are Samarth / Samarthi of 21 A, First floor, Shalimar Bagh.

4. You are Rajat/ Radha and wish to buy a new set of furniture and dispose of the old one. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words. Give all the necessary details.

5. You have been transferred to another city. You want to sell certain household goods. Draft a suitable advertisement to be inserted in a newspaper in 50 words.

TYPE 3
To Let

Details Required

  • Give heading ‘To Let’ or ‘Available’ or other suitable phrases
  • Details of accommodation — number of bedrooms, size of rooms, bathrooms, etc
  • Brief description of the accommodation
  • Fixtures and fittings (if any)
  • Location and surroundings
  • Facilities — water/electricity supply, park facing, proximity to market, school, etc. Type of construction
  • Preference of tenants—small family, company lease, etc. Rent expected, the agreement required, other terms
  • Contact address/ e-mail/ phone number

Format Of To Let
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 6

Question 1.
You want to let out a flat. Prepare an advertisement to this effect for publication in a newspaper, giving the location of the building, nature of accommodation, rent expected etc.
Answer:

To Let

Available on rent Sushant Lok, Ansals MIG flats, II floor, two B/Rs, lobby, balcony, fully furnished, well-ventilated. Walking distance from the main market & taxi stand. Rent expected 5000 (fixed). Company lease preferred. Contact Subodh 2B/31, Sushant Lok, Ph. 27521012

Question 2.
A US-based NRI wants to let out his three-bedroom independent floor in Green Park, New Delhi. Write an advertisement for publication in the classified columns of a local daily. Provide suitable details.
Answer:

To Let

Available on lease for two years 3BFIK independent floor in Green Park, New Delhi. Park facing with all modern amenities. Well-ventilated and modern construction. 24-hour water supply, power back-up, lift facility, strong security, fully furnished, parking space. Owner US-based NRI.

Contact Milind Oberoi, Phone 998899XXXX

Question 3.
You are Advocate TL Gupta. You are looking for an independent shop in Gurgaon on a reasonable rent for your office. Draft a suitable advertisement to be published in a local newspaper.
Answer:

Required Shop On Rent

Independent shop required in Gurgaon main road for lawyer’s office, reasonable rent. Contact TL Gupta on phone 098765XXXXX or e-mail details on tig456@gmail.com.

Advertisement Questions for Students

1. You are the Regional Manager of Lakshmi Bank, Mumbai. As your bank is introducing 24 hours banking facility for its customers, some ATM machines are being installed in certain localities. Write an advertisement to be published in the classified columns of a newspaper for suitable premises on rent to be used as ATM centres for the company.

2. You own a commercial flat suitable for an office/ bank. You wish to rent it out. Draft an advertisement to be published in ‘The Times of India’, New Delhi under the classified columns.

3. You are running a real estate agency in Faridabad. You have to give an advertisement for tenements and apartments available for rent. Draft an advertisement for the ‘To Let’ column.

4. You are Rohit Roy of 24, Chitranjan Park, Kolkata. You want to let out your own house only to some Central Government employees. Draft an advertisement to this effect for publication in the Statesman, Kolkata, giving the details of the building and rent expected.

5. You want to hire accommodation for your newly started business in readymade garments in Chennai. Write an advertisement for the same to be published in the classified columns of ‘The Hindu’.

TYPE 4
Missing (Persons and Pets)

Details Required

  • Give heading ‘Missing’
  • Contact address / e-mail / phone number

Person

  • Name, age, complexion, height and build
  • Brief physical description
  • Health and mental condition
  • Clothes and other identifying features
  • Photo (optional)
  • Date and place (since when / from where missing)
  • Indicate reward, if any

Pet

  • Brief physical description
  • Name, breed, age, colour of fur / skin etc
  • Identifying features
  • Answer to what name etc

Format Of Missing (Persons And Pets)
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 7

Advertisement Questions and Answers Class 11 CBSE

Question 1.

You are Prashant /Purnima of 202, Laxmi Nagar, New Delhi. You lost your briefcase while travelling by bus from Laxmi Nagar to Connaught Place, New Delhi. The briefcase contains some valuable documents, including your Board’s certificate for Ml India Secondary School Examination. Draft a notification in not more than 50 words to be published in The Indian Express under their column “Lost & Found”. Include all necessary details about the lost briefcase to establish your claim.
Answer:
I lost my brown VIP ‘classic’ brand briefcase with ‘Prashant’ written near the handle while travelling by DTC route no. 89 from Laxmi Nagar to Connaught Place. It contains some valuable documents. The finder will be suitably rewarded. Contact: Prashant, 202 Laxmi Nagar, New Delhi or Phone 27190048

Question 2.
Your cat is missing since the last two days. Write an advertisement to be published in the missing column of classified advertisements in ‘The Tribune’.
Answer:

Missing

a beautiful tabby cat named Tessa, white and brown fur, 1-year-old, healthy, since 4th March 2OXX from Khan Market. If found please contact Saravjeet Kaur, House no 83, Lajpat Nagar, Delhi, Phone number 011 -267628XX.

Question 3.
Your old grandfather left the house a week back to go to the market and has not returned. Draft an advertisement for the newspaper.
Answer:

Missing

My grandfather, who Answer to the name of Sandeep Taneja, left our home at 5 PM to go to the market on 27th July, 20XX, and has not returned. He wears a black shirt and white trousers and he is 174 cm tall. He is mentally unstable. Anybody who gives information which leads to finding him will be suitably rewarded. Contact Paras Taneja, A – 22, Sector 63, Faridabad. Phone 92136XXXXX

Advertisement Examples for Class 11

1. You had visited the International Trade Fair that was very crowded and your 6-year-old son got lost in the crowd. He has been missing since then. Write an advertisement for the newspaper.

2. Your horse is missing for a week. Write an advertisement to be published in the missing column of classified advertisements in ‘The Indian Express’.

3. Your niece, a child of 10, has got lost while she went on a school picnic. Giving full details of the missing child, draft an advertisement for a newspaper.

4. You are Poonam / Prateek Gupta of 70, Chandni Chowk, New Delhi. Your pet dog Buzo is missing. Write an advertisement for the missing pet column of a newspaper.

5. A neighbour’s child has gone missing. The neighbour seeks your help in drafting a suitable classified advertisement for the missing child. Draft an advertisement in which you should mention a reward for the recovery of the child.

TYPE 5
Lost and Found

  • Give heading ‘Lost’ or ‘Found’
  • Specify the items
  • Brief description
  • When and where lost/found
  • Reward, if any
  • Contact address/e-mail/phone number

Format Of Lost And Found
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 8

Question 1.
Mr Aggarwal lost his passport while travelling in the Metro on the yellow line from Model Town ’ to Rajiv Chowk Metro Station. Draft an advertisement to be placed in the Lost and Found section of the classified columns Hindustan Times’.
Answer:

Lost

An Indian passport bearing No A330007 in the name of Satish Aggarwal along with an Air France ticket to Paris got Lost on 17th February on the Metro route from Model Town to Rajiv Chowk at approximately 10 AM. Finder contacts Satish Aggarwal, Flouse no 243, Model Town, New Delhi. Phone- 97112402XX. The suitable reward promised.

Question 2.
You have found a briefcase in a bus to Ajmer. Write an advertisement for the ‘Lost and Found’ column in the newspaper.
Answer:

Found

A black American Tourister briefcase was found while travelling by a bus from Delhi to Ajmer on 19th March, 20XX, contains documents and driving license. Will be returned to the owner after the particulars and details of the content are given. Please contact Swaraj Singh, 99222348XX.

Question 3.
You have lost your suitcase while travelling in the sleeper compartment of a train. Draft a suitable advertisement for the classified columns of the local daily giving all relevant details and promising a reward.
Answer:

Lost

A brown suitcase measuring 100 cm X 60 cm containing clothes and other personal belongings while travelling in sleeper S – 7 of Toofan Express from Agra Cantt to Durgapur on 12th-13th May. Finder contact Binod Mukherjee on phone 098658XXXXX or e-mail: bmukherjee265@gmail.com. Reward promised.

Advertisement Examples for Class 11

1. Shivangi Mittal has lost her original school certificates while travelling on the Delhi Metro from Vishvidyalaya to Green Park. Write an advertisement for the ‘Lost and Found’ column of a national daily.

2. You have lost your newly purchased I-Phone 6s in a cinema hall. Draft a suitable advertisement for the ‘Lost and Found’ column of a national daily.

3. You have found a book in the name of Sakshi Thakur lying on a table in a coffee shop. Draft a suitable advertisement for the ‘Lost and Found’ column of a national daily.

4. You have lost your wristwatch in a public park. Draft a suitable advertisement for the classified columns of the local daily giving all relevant details.

5. Write a classified advertisement for the ‘Lost and Found’ column of a local newspaper stating the loss of your purse containing some cash and other important documents.

Type 6
Tours And Travel

Details Required

  • Give heading ‘Package Available’ or another suitable phrase
  • State the name of the travel agency
  • Specify destinations, duration etc
  • Details of package – food! boarding! lodging! sight-seeing etc
  • Indicate the cost and special discount, if any
  • Contact address? e-mail? phone number

Format Of Tours And Travel
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 9

Question 1.
You are the proprietor of Shatabdi Travels and have organised a 3 nights? 4 days package for Singapore. Draft the advertisement for a national daily to draw people to it.
Answer:

Tours And Travel

Attractive package available for Singapore, 3 nights! 4 days, breakfast and dinner, stay at 4-star hotels, inclusive of sight-seeing and transfers, 49,999 per person. Special Diwali discount for bookings before 10th November. Contact Shatabdi Travels, N-24, Outer Circle, Connaught Place, New Delhi. Phone 98122567XX, O11-225672XX

Question 2.
As a travel agent, draft a suitable advertisement offering an attractive package.
Answer:

Tours And Travel

Star Line Cruises offers special cruises to Dubai, Singapore, Mauritius, Seychelles, and the Maldives. Most exciting and thrilling itineraries for individuals/couples and groups. Deluxe hotels and choice of Continental, Chinese, Indian and local cuisine. Courteous and multi-lingual tour guides for sight-seeing. Daily departures at very attractive rates. Special discounts for families. Children below 8 years free. Contact for booking Star Line Cruises, 26, 1st Floor, Khan Market, New Delhi. Phone 011-411411XX

Question 3.
Shanti Travels at 208, Western Road, Meerut offers a pilgrimage tour ‘Char Dham Yatra’by bus from Delhi for 10 days. Draft a suitable advertisement on behalf of Shanti Travels for the classified columns of a newspaper.
Answer:

Char Dham Yatra

Shanti Travels offers a 10-days pilgrimage tour to Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri every week starting Delhi 17 May. Cost per person is ? 18500 inclusive of Deluxe bus travel, overnight stay, all meals, and taxes. Contact us at 208, Western Road, Meerut or on Phone 0992557XXXXX during working hours.

Advertisement examples for Class 11

1. You are the General Manager of Dream Travels. You want to insert your advertisement in the classified columns because the holiday season is approaching and lots of people will like to go on guided tours. Draft a suitable advertisement.

2. You are the proprietor of Happy Travels and have organised a 20-day tour of Europe for 2,10,000 inclusive of two meals a day. Draft an advertisement for a national daily.

3. First Flight Travels, Shop No 62, Upper Basement, Pacific Mall, Subhash Nagar, New Delhi offers its patrons the cheapest air tickets for any destination by an airline on booking two months in advance. Draft a suitable advertisement.

4. Draft a classified advertisement on behalf of ‘Trips and More’ offering attractive holiday packages especially suited for honeymoon couples.

5. Easy Travels offers customised package tours where customers can decide the mode of travel and duration of stay. Draft a suitable advertisement on behalf of Easy Travels for the classified columns of a newspaper.

Type 7
Matrimonial Alliance

Details Required

  • Give heading ‘Wanted’, ‘Required’, ‘Available’ etc
  • Give personal details such as

Looks and appearance
Age, height, complexion
Educational/ professional qualifications
Family background, community etc

State your preferences, if any
Contact address/ phone number/ PO box number/ e-mail

Format Of Matrimonial Alliance
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 10

Question 1.
You are looking for a suitable match for your smart, good-looking daughter. Draft an advertisement for publication in the newspaper.
Answer:

Groom Wanted

Suitable match for a cultured, smart, good-looking, MBA girl, 23/5’5″ daughter of Army Officer. Boy must be well qualified from a good family. Caste no bar. Early marriage. Box No 7252 Hindustan Times, New Delhi.

Question 2.
Write a suitable matrimonial advertisement for your divorcee but an educated friend.
Answer:

Bride Wanted

Suitable match for a 31 yrs, Iyer boy. Issueless divorcee after three months of marriage. 170 cm, wheatish complexion, lean, modest, M Tech, IT literate, well settled, only child of a well-to-do harmonious family. Requires a smart, educated girl from a good family. Simple early marriage. Caste no bar. Contact Box No 8484, The Indian Express, New Delhi.

Question 3.
You are Raj Kumar, a divorcee aged 55 years residing in Dubai as an NRI and want to return to India. Draft a suitable advertisement for a match for you in ‘The Times of India’ under the classified column.
Answer:

Bride Wanted

NRI Divorcee, 55. Hindu, good looking, slim, wheatish, well-settled businessman, planning to settle in India, internationally travelled, Caste no Bar. Photo pis. rajkumar51@hotmail.com

Advertisement Questions for Class 11

1. A 26-year-old highly qualified software engineer seeks a suitable alliance with an educated bride. Write a suitable matrimonial advertisement for a match for him for the classified columns of a newspaper.

2. Draft a matrimonial advertisement on behalf of your neighbour who is seeking a suitable match for his physically handicapped daughter.

3. A highly qualified IT professional settled in New York seeks a matrimonial alliance with an exceptionally beautiful, educated, cultured and tall girl of good status Punjabi family. Write a suitable advertisement for the matrimonial column of a national daily.

4. You are the only child of your father. Soon you are going to get married, leaving your father alone, as you lost your mother when you were just 9 years old. Draft a matrimonial advertisement seeking a suitable match for your father.

5. Write a matrimonial advertisement for publication in a newspaper for a suitable match for your sister who is a widow with a 3-year old son.

TYPE 8
Obituary/Remembrance

Details Required

  • Photograph and name of deceased
  • Date and cause of death
  • Message from family/company
  • Background/accomplishments/a tribute to his/her work
  • Names of persons giving obituary with their relationship to the deceased
  • Details of any special ceremony being held.

Format Of Obituary/ Remembrance
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 11

Question 1.
Draft a suitable advertisement announcing the death of your uncle to be published in a newspaper in the ‘Obituary ‘column.
Answer:

Obituary

With profound grief and sorrow, we regret to inform the untimely demise of our beloved uncle Mr. Harinder Prakash on 7th June, 20XX. The Uthala/ Chautha ceremony for the departed soul will be held on 11th June, 20XX at Arya Samaj Mandir, Usha Nagar, Delhi from 3 pm to 5 pm.

Grief-stricken: Family and friends of deceased

Question 2.
Write out a classified advertisement remembering your son, Himanshu Kumar on his 27th Birthday.
Answer:

Remembrance

In loving memory of Himanshu Kumar S/o Shrishanth Kumar. Himanshu left for his heavenly abode on 2nd September, 20XX at Bengaluru. He was a lively soul and played the lead singer in his music band. “We all miss you in every moment of our life and cherish your memories.”
Remembered by
Mrs and Mr Shrishanth Kumar
Nakul Kumar
Payal Kumar

Question 3.
A brief illness and old age resulted in your grandmother’s death. Draft an advertisement expressing your grief and informing people of the last prayers.
Answer:

Chautha

Our grandmother, Ms Sarla Mittal, aged 90, passed away on 21st May after a brief illness. Family deeply grieved at death of our matriarch. Chautha will be held on 24th May in Guldasta Park, Samerpur at 12 noon. Kalwant Mittal and family. Phone 096145XXXXX.

Advertisement Examples for Class 11

1. Siddarth Kalra lost his life in a car accident two years ago. Draft a classified advertisement in his loving memory on behalf of his family members.

2. After fighting against cervical cancer for the last two years, your neighbour’s wife passed away yesterday. Draft a classified advertisement to be published under the ‘Obituary’ column of the newspaper.

3. Your five-year-old nephew was abducted while playing in the society compound. His abduction resulted in his untimely death. Write out an advertisement expressing your profound grief and sorrow.

4. Draft a classified advertisement remembering your late grandfather on his 90th birthday. You are Shanul/ Shanakshi.

5. Someone in your neighbourhood has passed away. The family needs a classified advertisement to announce the death and to inform friends and relatives about the last rites/prayers. Draft the advertisement on behalf of the chief mourner.

TYPE 9
Appeal

Details Required

  • Give heading ‘Appeal’ or ‘Help Required’ (optional)
  • Reason for appeal
  • Specify the help required
  • Contact address and phone number
  • Specify the nature of the appeal
  • Give a brief description of the problem/ issue
  • Donations to be sent where I to whom if required
  • Inserted by (name / designation)

Format Of Appeal
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 12

Question 1.
The Delhi Police have recovered the body of a young boy from an old, dilapidated office building near Nehru Place, New Delhi. They have no proof of the victim’s identity. The police want to issue an advertisement in the local newspaper asking for identification. Draft the advertisement.
Answer:

Appeal For Identification

The general public is hereby informed that an unidentified dead body of a young boy, Age 14 to 16 years, height 5’3″, round face, wheatish complexion, thin built, wearing a navy blue t-shirt and black colour pants has been found from an old, dilapidated office building near Nehru Place, New Delhi. The victim bore injury marks on the forehead and arms. Any person having any due about the deceased may kindly inform SHO, Nehru Place Police Station Te! 011-210121XX.

Question 2.
Write an appeal to be published in a newspaper, inviting suitable donors to offer a kidney to save the life of a young man whose kidneys are damaged beyond repair.
Answer:

Appeal

Help required for a handsome, promising young man, blood group B, lying on a death bed in AIIMS, New Delhi. Both his kidneys are damaged beyond repair. You can save his life and earn the gratitude of his family by donating one of your kidneys. Donors, please contact the Director of the Institute or on Phone 98110-373XX.

Question 3.
The father of a 3-year-old child suffering from chronic liver disease does not have the money for treatment. Draft an appeal to be published in the newspaper on his behalf.
Answer:

Appeal For Donations

My 3-year old daughter Aastha is admitted in Sarvodaya Hospital with chronic liver disease. I am unable to meet her treatment expenses as I am a daily wage worker. The public is requested to help by donating funds for her treatment. Please contact Pravin Salwan on Phone 094567XXXXX.

1. SKY is the main activity centre of a charitable trust ‘Foundation for Spastic and Mentally Handicapped Persons’. It helps and guides parents/ guardians of children with special needs. It tries to improve the quality of life of disabled children wherever possible. Draft an appeal to be published in a newspaper on their behalf asking for donations to their cause.

2. Recent floods in Bihar left millions affected badly and many marooned for weeks. Draft an appeal to be published in a newspaper on behalf of the CM’s Relief Fund asking for donations. All contributions may be sent to the fund at Patna.

3. Thalassemia is a disorder caused by the weakening and destruction of red blood cells. The body requires monthly trAnswer:fusion of blood in people having this disorder. Draft an advertisement appealing to the general public to come forward and donate blood to help such people.

4. A poor accident victim needs financial help for surgery. As the President of a charity organisation that arranges financial help for such people, draft a classified advertisement to raise funds for them.

5. Deepika Nayyar, a 10-year-old girl, is suffering from blood cancer. Does she urgently need 10 lakhs for a bone marrow trAnswer:plant. Prepare an appeal on behalf of ‘Child Relief and You’, a charitable society.

TYPE 10
Educational

Details Required

  • Give heading
  • Name of the institution
  • Courses offered, duration
  • Eligibility criteria
  • Facilities Fee structure (optional)
  • Job prospects after completion/ placement facilities/ features of the training
  • Incentive and discount offered
  • Last date for registration
  • Contact address/ e-mail/ website/ phone number

Format Of Educational
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 13

Question 1.
Draft a classified advertisement announcing crash courses for the preparation of IELTS and TOEFL.
Answer:

Educational

Era Institute offers crash courses for the preparation of IELTS and TOEFL. High scores guaranteed. Highly trained and experienced faculty. Small batches of 10 students. Scholarships are available. Completely air-conditioned and wi-fi enabled campus. Fees – INR 7999. Last date -16th June 20XX. Contact: Era Institute, Phone 011-727472XX

Question 2.
An IIT graduate friend of yours wants to launch an IIT-JEE Competition Tutorial Centre. Draft a classified advertisement for him.
Answer:

IIT – Jee Coaching

Sargodha Competition Tutorial Centre, Kalu Sarai, offers 1-year and 2-year coaching courses for IIT-JEE. Headed by IIT graduate Sunil Manchanda with 10 years’ experience in coaching. Success guaranteed. Fees are payable in installments. For details contact Reception Phone 011 2651XXXX or after office hours 93540XXXXX.

Question 3.
Draft a classified advertisement for your institution which is accredited for running ‘O’ Level Courses. Give details of minimum qualification, fees, etc.
Answer:

Doeacc ‘O’ Level Computer Course Available

Sarvodaya Computer Institute runs 1-year Foundation Level Course in Computer Applications equivalent to DOEACC ‘O’ Level. Our Accreditation No is 014XX. Minimum eligibility as per DOEACC norms. Fees reasonable & payable in installments. For other details contact Reception Phone 011- 2829XXXX or Malay Saran on Phone 92106XXXXX.

1. You have recently started a coaching centre for yoga at Rajaji Nagar, Bengaluru. Draft an advertisement to be published under the classified columns of ‘The Deccan Herald’.

2. You are the Director of Career Time, Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi. Write out an advertisement for admission to prepare for various competitive exams like CAT, MAT, GMAT etc.

3. You have been asked to draft a classified advertisement offering cookery classes for various age groups. Also provide details regarding cuisine, total cost, duration etc.

4. As Vivan/ Vishakha, you feel perturbed looking at the plight of children with special needs. You decide to start an educational institute by the name of ‘Fly High’ for such children. Draft a suitable classified advertisement for publication in the newspaper.

5. Animation courses are popular as a career option. Draft a suitable advertisement offering animation courses to be published in the ‘Educational’ column of a popular newspaper.

TYPE 11
Change of Information

Details Required

  • Heading
  • Father’s name/ Husband’s name (if applicable)
  • Reason for change
  • Present name/ address/ other information
  • Changed Name/ address/ other information
  • Calling the attention of the public, relatives, and friends

Format Of Change Of Information
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 14

Question 1.
You as a Vasu Sharma, need to change your name and address due to your marriage. Draft an advertisement to declare the change.
Answer:

Change Of Name

Vasu Sharma, daughter of Ramkishan Sharma resident of 31, Park Avenue, 63 Street, Kolkata, hereby declare that I have changed my name to Vasu Arora after my marriage to Vineet Arora, son of Pankaj Arora of House no 211, Karol Bagh, New Delhi. All concerned are requested to note and to address me by my new name.

Question 2.
You have changed your name from ‘Kulwant Singh Talwandi’ to ‘Kulwant Talwandi’ through an affidavit. Inform the general public about the changed name by drafting a classified advertisement to be inserted in a local newspaper.
Answer:

Change Of Name

I, Kulwant Singh Talwandi s/o Jagir Singh Talwandi, have changed my name to Kulwant Talwandi by an affidavit sworn before the Notary Public, Janakpuri, New Delhi on 24th May, 20XX. Henceforth, I shall be known as Kulwant Talwandi for all purposes.

Question 3.
Draft a classified advertisement for your company, Shraddha Distributors, which has shifted their administrative office. You are Jagdish Sareen, MD of the company.
Answer:

Change Of Office Address

Shraddha Distributors, a distributor for Kolkata biscuits Ltd, has shifted its administrative office from the First floor, 43, Park Road to Ground Floor, 75A, Park Road wef 23rd June, 20XX. Our Telephone no remains the same 033 – 2624XXXX. All dealers are requested to note.

Jagdish Sareen, Managing Director, Shraddha Distributors.

1. You wish to get your family name added to your particulars on your passport after getting married for which you need to get a public notice published in a newspaper. Draft a suitable advertisement declaring the change of your name.

2. Due to renovation work in your present house, you need to change your residence. Draft a suitable advertisement declaring the change in address.

3. You are the Company Secretary of Liladhar & Sons Pvt Ltd. Your company telephone numbers have changed because of the expAnswer:ion of the local telephone exchange. Write a classified advertisement to be put in the local newspaper informing all about the new numbers.

4. You are the President of the builder Maryada Housing Group. The company has changed its bank account to Kotak Mahindra Bank from its earlier bank, State Bank of India. Write a classified advertisement to be put in the local newspaper informing all persons who have booked flats in your various buildings, informing them about the changed bank and the new account number, branch name etc, and asking them to deposit all their dues in the new bank account.

5. You are Sarvar Hasan, formerly the Marketing Head of Sahil Foods Ltd. You have joined a new company. Draft a classified advertisement about the change to be inserted in a local newspaper, giving details of who your former customers should contact to deal with your former company.

Commercial Or Display Advertisements

These advertisements are designed for commercial purposes. They are used by leading manufacturers, establishments, organisations etc for publicity and promotion of their products, services or events.

Essential Details

  • Name/ logo of the company/ institute/ organisers etc.
  • Details regarding the product/ event/ educational courses etc.
  • Special offers or discount, if any.
  • Address and contact details of the company/ institute/ organisers etc.

The main characteristics of a Commercial I Display advertisement are

  • Designed for commercial purposes.
  • Requires more space and thus more expensive in terms of the advertising costs.
  • Has to be visually attractive with catchy slogAnswer:, punch lines, witty expressions, pictures etc..
  • Font size, type and proportionate spacing varies with each advertisement.
  • Colourful and lucid languages used.

Making Scheme of Commercial/Display Advertisement

  • In the paper, a question on a classified advertisement will test the following value points.
  • Content Subject matter including a contact address, phone number
  • Expression Grammatical accuracy, spelling, suitable style.

Format Of Commercial / Display Advertisement

Your school is staging Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s ‘The Red-Headed League’ starring Sherlock Holmes. Draft a commercial advertisement for the newspaper giving all the details.
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 15

Commercial Advertisement Writing Questions and Answers for Class 11 CBSE Pdf

Question 1.
You are working for an advertising agency. Draft an attractive advertisement for a company which is launching a new toothpaste.
Answer:
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 16

Question 2.
The IDP’s ‘Australian Education Fair’ is being organised on 1st February at Hotel Shangri-La’s Eros, 19, Ashoka Road, New Delhi. Design a commercial advertisement for the same.
Answer:
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 17

Question 3.
A well-known brand of kitchen chimneys wants to sell its stock by giving a special festival discount. Frame a suitable commercial advertisement for inserting in a newspaper.
Answer:
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 18

Question 4.
SOTC Tours and Travels needs a display advertisement for newspapers and magazines to attract more tourists to it. On behalf of SOTC, create the advertisement.
Answer:
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 19

Question 5.
L’oream has come up with an all-new shampoo. Create a display advertisement describing the salient features of the product, inviting people to try it.
Answer:
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 20

Question 6.
The ITA School of Performing Arts, Goregaon (W), Mumbai is inviting students to join. Draft a suitable commercial advertisement.
Answer:
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 21

Question 7.
The popular online website ‘maaptol.com’ is offering a complete car maintenance combo at an unbelievably low price. Frame a suitable display advertisement drawing the attention of the readers.
Answer:
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 22

Question 8.
A Design Fair is being organised by Nature Bazaar showcasing 50 innovative designers’ contemporary designs using traditional craft skills. Draft a suitable commercial advertisement for a local newspaper.
Answer:
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 23

Question 9.
You have been asked to draft an advertisement for Asia-Pacific Institute of Management, a B-School in North India providing two year full-time management course.
Answer:
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 24

Question 10.
You are the Director of ITM Education Centre announcing new programs in Business Administration. Write an advertisement in about 50 words for publication in a newspaper.
Answer:
Advertisement Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 25

Commercial Advertisement Writing Examples for Class 11 CBSE Pdf

1. You are working for an advertising agency. Draft an attractive advertisement for a company which is launching a new hair oil. Invent the details.

2. Your friend has come up with a new designer wear boutique for both men and women. Help her draft an attractive display advertisement to draw customers.

3. Draft an attractive commercial advertisement for a newly opened beauty salon and spa by the name of ‘Exotica’. Your advertisement must promote its services in an appealing way.

4. For a solid grounding and a wide perspective in the art of theatre, Shri Ram Arts Institute, a theatre training institution, provides training in traditional Indian theatre forms, Asian drama, and Western dramatic protocols. On behalf of the Director of the Institute, frame a commercial advertisement to be published in a local daily.

5. Frame a suitable display advertisement for a ‘Tours and Travels’ company organising domestic as well as international tours. Invent the details.

6. A chemical company by the name of ‘Pure White’ is launching a new detergent. Prepare an attractive advertisement announcing its launch and highlighting the qualities of the product.

7. Jet Airlines have come up with a new airline ‘Super Jet’. Draft an advertisement launching this new airline. Invent the necessary details for promoting it. You can also offer attractive discounts on bookings.

8. Solar cars are now a reality. They come with low maintenance costs and good speed. Draft an attractive display advertisement for the prospective buyers stating their advantages.

9. Mineral Group has launched their new water purifier. It comes with the RO system and provides clean and healthy drinking water with zero impurities. Design a suitable commercial advertisement.

10. The music sensation, Fady Gaga, is coming to India and will perform at Red Fort in Delhi. Draft an attractive commercial advertisement announcing the concert and giving details regarding the event.

Advertisement Writing Assessment Class 11 CBSE Pdf

(Here we have covered Classified or Commercial/Display advertisements.)

1. You are the HR Manager of Elephanta Software Services. You require software engineers familiar with ERP Software Oracle with a minimum of 5 years’ experience. Draft a suitable classified newspaper advertisement for the same.

2. You want to purchase a 400 sq m or larger plot in Gomti Nagar, Lucknow, for building a bungalow. Write a classified advertisement for a local daily giving your requirements.

3. You are interested in selling your Maruti Eeco Van which has run 10000 km and is 3 years old. Draft a suitable classified advertisement for the ‘Vehicle for Sale’ column of a local newspaper giving all details.

4. You have changed your job and are leaving the city. You want to sell all your furniture, refrigerator, car, air conditioner etc before moving. Insert a suitable classified advertisement in a local newspaper for the same.

5. Your company, Sarvan Constructions Ltd, requires large flats on rent in Metro cities to serve as guest houses for your touring staff. The flats should preferably be furnished. As Administrative Manager of your company, draft a suitable classified advertisement to be inserted in newspapers in Metro cities.

6. Your pet dog, a black Pomeranian Answer:wering to the name ‘Pommy’, has been lost outside the compound of your housing society and is not traceable for the last 3 days. Insert a suitable classified advertisement to be inserted in a local newspaper, offering a reward.

7. You have changed your surname due to getting remarried after being widowed. Inform all concerned by drafting a suitable classified advertisement for the ‘Change of Name’ column of a local newspaper. You are Parul Shreshtha (new name).

8. You have lost your wallet containing a large amount of cash and some identification documents while travelling in a bus from Lucknow to Etawah. Write a classified advertisement to be inserted in the ‘Lost & Found’ columns of The ‘Times of India’, Lucknow edition, offering a reward for its recovery.

9. You are the proprietor of Anil Tours, a travel agency specialising in pilgrimages. Design a suitable classified advertisement to be inserted in the ‘Tours & Travel’ columns of a local newspaper. Give some details of the packages offered.

10. Compose a matrimonial advertisement for the classified advertisement section of newspapers for the marriage of your sister. State her age, height, weight, qualifications and any other features you feel should be mentioned. Specify what you are looking for as the ideal husband for her.

11. Write an Obituary notice for the classified columns of a local newspaper for your father who died yesterday. Give details of the last rites ceremonies proposed.

12. Issue an appeal for organ donation to be inserted in the classified columns of a local newspaper on behalf of the NGO ‘Society for Helping the Poor’. Specify that all orgAnswer: donated will be used for helping only the weaker sections of society.

13. Your institution is running coaching classes for candidates attempting the NEET examination. Draft an advertisement for the classified advertisement section of the newspaper giving the various courses offered.

14. You are the Creative Director of an advertising agency. Draft an attractive commercial advertisement on behalf of Safal Vajradanti Toothpaste giving a visual and stating the advantages that this brand has over others.

15. Prepare a commercial advertisement for advertising the feature film ‘Antony ki Arpita’ featuring famous stars. Give a visual and at least 3 attractive features of the film.

Speech Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Speech Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

Speech Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises PDF

A speech is an effective way of communicating a message to a large audience. It is one of the ways of spreading awareness regarding social issues or giving information regarding other important issues. As a form of writing, a speech is similar to an article except that it begins with a formal address to the audience, is more conversational in tone and concludes with a ‘Thank you’. A speech is written for a specific purpose like informing, persuading, convincing or entertaining an audience.

Components of a Speech Introduction

Introduction It begins with greeting the Chief Guest / Principal / teachers and other listeners. It may include a striking statement, short anecdote, a saying or anything else which will immediately make the audience interested. Then the topic of the speech will be announced along with the occasion, if required.

Elaboration of the topic It will include a sequence of ideas to build up to the summing up and conclusion. You may include examples, evidence or data to support the ideas. You can paint verbal pictures and dramatise or personalise the information.

Summing up Summarise the most important points in your speech but do not repeat them.

Conclusion. Depending on the purpose of your speech, conclude with a call for an action, an appeal, a warning, a request and an expression of thanks.

Points to be Kept in Mind

  • A speech should begin with a catchy introduction in the form of an anecdote, quotation, statistical data or a thought provoking question.
  • A speech must reflect the speaker’s clarity of thought, accuracy of facts and a balanced view through a comparison and contrast with other viewpoints.
  • A speech may also give reference to newspaper reports, posters, advertisements or other stimuli.
  • Restrict the main part of the speech to the word limit of 150-200 words.

Speech Writing Format for Class 11 CBSE

To enforce strict discipline in schools and colleges is a great problem nowadays. Write a speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in the school morning assembly on the problem of discipline. You are Mohini/Mohit.
Speech Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises 1

Speech Writing Class 11 Examples with Answers CBSE Pdf

Question 1.
In order to promote reading habits in the students, your school has organised a Library Week. You are Ranjan/Reena. You have to speak in the morning assembly and inform the students about the week-long programme. You have noted the following points:

  • days and dates
  • new arrivals displayed
  • exhibition of books by some publishers
  • famous authors, I poets to visit and interact with students
  • quizzes and competitions
  • more facilities in the library
  • new teenage magazines

Write your speech in 150-200 words.
Answer:

LIBRARY WEEK

Respected Principal,-Vice-Principal, teachers, and friends!
It gives me great pleasure to speak to you about the Library Week that our school has organised from 2nd to 9th September this year. This week is slightly different from the others. Here we have to shift the focus to mental attainment. The aim of celebrating this week is to inculcate reading habits among students. Reading, you know makes a man perfect. So new arrivals in the reference section such as the encyclopedia and dictionaries as well as general books will be displayed. National Book Trust and Oxford University Press are putting up an exhibition. We have invited Dr. Kailash Vajpayee to inaugurate the exhibition. He will autograph the books and interact with students. Other authors like Khushwant Singh and Ruskin Bond will also pay us a visit. During the week, a quiz competition will be organised. The Reading section will have more new magazines for teenagers’ interest.
I appeal to all of you to spend as much free time in the library as you can.
Thank you.

Question 2.
Media has a stronghold on society. Write a speech in 150-200 words, on how media influences public opinion, to be delivered in the school assembly.
Answer:
Respected Principal Sir,
honourable teachers and my dear friends, I, Mehak Prasad of class Xl-C, will enlighten you today on the fact that the media has a stronghold on society.

It influences public opinion significantly because people consider true whatever the media depicts, whether it is the electronic media like TV and Radio, social media like Facebook and Twitter, cyber media like the Internet and e-mail, or the print media like newspapers and magazines. However, in some cases, the actual situation is totally different from what is depicted in the media. Media dramatises the information to serve its own ends, and usually to gain popularity.

Everybody, yes everybody, are exposed to different forms of media. People are not always able to separate fact from opinion and believe or disbelieve what they see, hear, or read. This moulds their opinions and actions, thus enabling the media to have a stronghold on society.

Over reporting as well as under-reporting can lead to misinformed opinions. It is for the journalistic community to take initiative and seek to address the various concerns regarding the profession. The public also should be discerning enough to separate facts from opinions and form one’s viewpoint accordingly.

Thank you.

Speech Writing Exercises with Answers for Class 11 CBSE

Question 1.
Peer pressure is useful for the development of an individual. If there is no peer pressure at all then there would be no goal or aim to succeed. Write a speech on the topic -‘Is Peer Pressure Beneficial or Not?’to be delivered on account of the Children’s Day celebration in your school. (150-200 words)
Answer:
Respected Principal Sir, honourable teachers, and my dear friends, on the occasion of Children’s Day, I am going to present my views on the topic ‘Is peer pressure beneficial or not?’

Peer pressure is beneficial as long as we know our limits. It is all upto us to be so strong, so firm, so unshakable, and filled with conviction of not going on the wrong track.

Peer pressure is not always bad. Peers may teach you good habits and encourage you to follow them. Looking at what others do can help you bring a positive change in your way of thinking. Your peers, their choices, and ways of life give you a glimpse of the world outside the four walls of your house. What they think about things in life, how they perceive situations, how they react in different circumstances can actually expose you to the world around them. Being part of a larger group of peers exposes you to the diversity in human behaviour. This makes you reflect on your behaviour and know where you stand. Peer pressure can lead you to make the right choices in life.

Your peers can, thus, influence the shaping of your personality in a positive way. Moreover, it’s not pressuring every time, sometimes it’s an inspiration, which makes you change for good.

Thank you.

Question 2.
Racism is bad. Anyone and everyone can be exposed to racism. Write a speech in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Racism’ to be delivered in the morning assembly of your school.
Answer:
Respected Principal Sir, honourable teachers and my dear friends, good morning!

Why must I choose whom to befriend according to the colour of their skin? Is there anything written anywhere that makes one race above another? I am going to present my views on the topic ‘Racism’ today.

I am nobody to judge other people. In fact, we all are unique in our own way and we all should be judged on our individual and personal qualities.

We have lots of people who are filled with hatred-hatred pointed especially at the colour of the skin. But where does all this hatred come from? God has never conceived hate. Did he make us different just to see hatred and war? I don’t think so. Why can’t we carry out Martin Luther King’s dream about a world in peace and without any kind of racism?

Racism works against the principle of being equal and the right of all people to be treated fairly. Hating people because of their colour or other factors is wrong. We all have to stay together and thus, we need to make the effort to embrace and accept other cultures. This can start with the simple act of friendship. Let us start today.

Thank you.

Question 3.
The actions and behaviour of senior college and university students are a far cry from the normal, decent and civilised. It’s all the more reprehensible because even girls are subjected to indecency and vulgarity. Write a speech on the topic ‘Ragging’ in 150-200 words for your school’s morning assembly.
Answer:
Respected Principal Sir,
honourable teachers and my dear friends, good morning!

Ragging deserves severe condemnation and needs to be consigned to the dustbin of discarded ideas. Today I am going to present my views on the serious issue of ‘Ragging’.

The practice has now become a source of uncivilised behaviour, which brings to the fore animal instincts of the practising youth. It deserves to be curtailed, curbed and ultimately abolished. It calls for strict action and punishment. Any mildness in this regard amounts to giving it a further fillip.

The raggers may put forth unsustainable arguments that it is meant to bring the freshers into the mainstream of campus life, that it helps in rounding up the angularities of the freshers who are awkward and uninitiated in the ways of college and university life. The supporters of ragging also hold forth that this results in understanding and mutual liking, which blooms into friendship.

On the contrary, many ragging incidents result into attempted suicides. Youngsters are subjected to unwholesome and unhealthy practir 3. Such actions breed hostility and a strong desire to seek revenge. The ragged youngster nurses th„* numiiiation in mind and next year, will take it out on a newcomer. The practice, thus, continues.

Hence, it calls for condemnation and a total ban of this practise of ragging.

Thank you.

Question 4.
You have to speak in your school’s morning assembly on ‘The Ideal Indian’. Draft your speech based on the visual given below and your own ideas in 150-200 words. You are Shrishti/Sunil of class XI.
Speech Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises
Answer:
Good morning, respected Principal Sir,

teachers and my dear friends. Today, I, Shrishti of class XI wili give my vision of The Ideal Indian’.

I have always dreamed of India to be a great country which will be a role model for other countries of the world. It will be a place where everybody is honest, trustworthy, caring and respectful so that the common man lives his life without any fear and has access to all the basic amenities required to lead a happy and * comfortable life.

Principles of basic education and employment will be followed here so that every citizen is both educated and employed. The Indian of my dreams will execute his responsibilities first and then only assert his rights. This will lead to a society where law and order will be maintained and people with good deeds will be appreciated, whereas the wrongdoers will be punished. This will inturn lead to an inspiring and empowering feeling in the minds of the citizens. Moral values, culture and heritage will be preserved here and passed on to future generations. That is the India I dream of. The ideal Indian will try to shun all malpractices and help the government in furthering the causes of national integration and maintenance of law and order.

Thank you.

Question 2.
You are Ashok, studying in class XI-B. You have been asked by your Principal to speak in the morning assembly on ‘The Importance of English’. Draft the speech in 150-200 words.
Answer:
Good morning, respected Principal Sir, teachers and my friends. Today, I, Ashok of class Xi-B, will highlight the importance of English in today’s scenario.

English is a universal language which is now needed to be known by everyone. Without English, one feels handicapped. If you travel to any part of the world, and even to some parts of India, knowledge of English sees you through. That is why most public schools in cities are teaching in the English medium. The primary reason is that parents want their children to be fluent in English.

To get a reasonable job, it is a must to be able to write, understand and speak English, as it is the language of communication. Due to this, most of the interviews for good jobs and even admission interviews for colleges are conducted in English.

Many people wish to study or work abroad. To know the local language may be difficult and learning it would take time, but if one knows English, it comes to one’s rescue. Even the best study materials for research work are available only in English, Computers which are widely used can usually be used only with knowledge of English.

Thus, English is a must in today’s scenario.

Question 6.
Advertisements exercise a lot of influence on the common man. They have invaded man’s life through media. You have to speak on ‘The Effects of Advertisements on Consumers’ in the morning assembly. Write your speech in 150-200 words. You are Sana/Suresh of class XI-B.
Answer:
Good morning, respected Principal Sir, teachers and my friends. Today, I, Suresh of class XI-B, will speak on The effects of advertisements on consumers’.

These days media is everywhere, be it TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, the internet and other media. These media channels solicit advertisements to pay for their costs. The media is so full of advertisements that after every few minutes or pages, what you find is another round of advertisements. These repeated advertisements create a psychological effect on the viewers or listeners so that the product gets imbibed into their subconscious mind.

It is this excessive advertising that the consumers should be careful of, otherwise they will land up buying a heavily advertised product which may not be good. Young consumers specially children and teenagers are carried away by varied choices and end up spending a lot of money on buying products which they may not use at all.

Consumers need to be careful and must enquire before buying any product by researching and taking other people’s opinions who have already used a particular product. They should also utilise the available resources on social media through friends and other means before committing to any buying decisions.

The better informed consumer will not be carried away by advertisement alone and will judge a product in a balanced manner before buying it.

Question 7.
You are the first speaker in the Inter-House Declamation contest being held in your school. The topic chosen for the contest is ‘Ban Child Labour’. Write your speech in 150-200 words. You are Ashwini/Anuradha.
Answer:
Good morning, respected Principal Sir, teachers and my friends. Today, I, Anuradha of Patel House, will speak on the given topic ‘Ban Child Labour’.

Child labour typically refers to employment of children below a certain age in organisations and industries with or without their legal permission. This problem is more acute in developing countries rather than developed countries primarily because of three reasons, namely low cost associated with child labour, the need of poor families to make their children work to get money and lack of will power for implementation of labour laws. Even within developing countries, it is the unorganised sector like shoe-making, safety matches, handmade clothes, bangles, carpet weaving etc that has a higher percentage of child labour.

The more disturbing part is the way children are treated during their employment. They are made to work long hours, not given proper food, deprived of basic sanitation and often exposed to hazardous chemicals during the course of their work. This results in lack of growth, injuries or at times, even death of children. It also deprives the children of tender care, right to basic education, love and time to play.

To stop child labour, the government must strictly implement labour laws and severely punish employers found guilty of illegal child labour. Then only we can promise a better future for the children of this country. The government must find ways to end poverty which is one of the root causes of child labour.

Thank you.

Question 8.
You are participating in an Inter-School Declamation contest and the topic chosen is ‘Keep Your Town Clean’. Basing your ideas on the picture given below, write a speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in this contest. You are Prateek/Pragati.
Speech Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises
Answer:
Good morning judges, honourable teachers and my friends. Today, I, Pragati of Sunshine Public School, will speak on the topic ‘Keep Your Town Glean’.

We all know that ‘a healthy mind lives in a healthy body’. To maintain this good health, we should live in a healthy environment and surroundings. The most important of these are the sanitary conditions. We should not throw our litter or waste material anywhere, but use the dustbins provided by the Municipal Corporation outside the home and waste bins inside our homes. Garbage should be properly disposed off otherwise it will spread all kinds of diseases.

We should also try to ensure that all drains are covered. Stray animals should not be allowed in the colonies so that they do not dirty the drains and other areas with their excreta. Slum dwellers should be made aware of the necessity of healthy surroundings. Also, the Municipal Corporation sanitation staff should be taken to task if they neglect their work.

Friends, it is our responsibility to keep our town clean. Each one should do his/her bit; then only will it pay off.

Thank you.

Question 9.
Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise’ is a well-known saying. You are Kavi/Kavita of class XI. Write a speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in the school morning assembly on the benefits of rising early.
Answer:
Good Morning respected Principal Sir, teachers and my dear friends.

‘Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise’ is a famous quote attributed to Benjamin Franklin, the famous American scientist. How right he was! So today, I, Kavita of class XI, will speak about the benefits of rising early.

According to research conducted recently, students who consistently wake up early each day actually scored better in tests and overall grade points than those who woke later on. Of course, this is not simply a result of waking up early, but when you wake up early, you’re more likely to take part in a fixed routine, and most importantly, you will eat a good breakfast. Late risers tend to skip breakfast to make up for the lost time, but this is a bad idea because your body needs those nutrients in the morning for energy and focusing on your tasks. Some of the most successful people in the world are early risers. It’s simple: if you wake up early, you get more time to get things done. There are less distractions in the early hours of the day and your brain is charged and ready to work hard. You are at your efficient best and will get things done quickly and efficiently. When a man is healthy and wealthy, he automatically grows wise. Early morning is the best time for the students and other intellectual workers to go about their work. They are fresh after the night’s rest and there is not much noise at this time to disturb them.

Thank you.

Question 10.
Shweta has to deliver a speech in the morning assembly on the topic: ‘The Generation Gap is destroying family life’. Write her speech in about 150-200 words.
Answer:

THE GENERATION GAP IS DESTROYING FAMILY LIFE

Respected Chairman, honourable judges, members of the staff, and my dear Mends!
I stand before you to speak my mind on “The Generation Gap is destroying family life’. There are many points to support this contention.
The generation gap has caused à chasm between the old and the young. There is a clash of ideas and ideals, tastes, ways of thinking, and lifestyle. The young hanker after luxury, comfort, and material happiness. They believe in full enjoyment and complete freedom. The elders insist on moral and spiritual values. They advocate renunciation and control of desires. The children think that their parents are slaves to customs.

The generation gap is evident in behaviour and manners of the two classes. The elders believe in strict obedience to a superior authority. They want that children must respect their elders and learn to be polite. The children pine for freedom. They resent all sorts of curbs. They demand freedom of expression. They want to have a say in family affairs. They insist that their views must be given proper consideration. This leads to bickerings, heart-burning, and tension in the family.

The elders insist on discipline and strict compliance of their orders. They advocate smiling acceptance of punishment meted out for breach of discipline. The young insist on unrestrained freedom and frankness. They advocate freedom of self-expression and are unwilling to tolerate any interference in their personal affairs—career, love-affair, or marriage. Thus there is a wide gap between the two generations. This difference in their way of thinking and behaviour is destroying family life.
Hence, I conclude that ‘The generation gap is destroying family life’.
Thank you.

Speech Writing Self Assessment Class 11 CBSE Pdf

1 Eating disorders are not a fad diet or an experiment to lose weight, but they are serious complex disorders that may take years to recover from. Write a speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in a seminar on } ‘Health and Fitness’ on the topic ‘Eating disorders’.

2 You have to speak on ‘How to Avoid Being Cyber Bullied?’ Prepare your speech to he delivered at the Inter-School Declamation contest being organised as a part of the annual cultural festival of your school. You are Darpan/Deepika. (150-200 words).

3 Write a speech to be given in the morning assembly of your school on the topic ‘Evil of Casteism in our country’ in 150-200 words.

4 You have been chosen for representing your school at the regional level Inter-School Debate Contest. Prepare a speech in 150-200 words for the same on the topic ‘Newspapers Ought to Contain More News and Fewer Advertisements’.

5 Parents play an important role in children’s education. Strangely enough, the same parents who complain of drawbacks in the education system during the early years of their children’s education, suddenly realise the importance of exams, results, percentage, coaching and competitions when their children come to class XI-XII. Write a speech on the topic ‘Role of Parents in Children’s Education’ in 150-200 words.

6 Despite rising taxes and increasing restrictions against tobacco use, there are still approximately 250
million smokers in India and the number is going up. Prepare a speech in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Quit Smoking not Life’ for a group of young smokers urging them to quit smoking. ”

7 The success of any business or consumer product in today’s world depends in part on the target market’s ability to distinguish one product from another. Branding helps consumers to ultimately identify a product from those of the competition. Write a speech for the morning assembly on the topic ‘Brand Names Cost More-But is the Quality Better?’ You are Suresh/Smita. (150-200 words)

8 Road accidents are a common sight. Further, people are often seen shouting at and threatening the people who have annoyed them in other ways. Even overtaking them quite legally can enrage them. Write a speech on the topic ‘Road Rage’ in 150-200 words.

9 Narcotics Control Bureau is organising a declamation contest in your school as part of its observance of International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. Write a speech in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Youth and Drug Abuse’.

10 On the occasion of National Consumer’s Day, you have to speak on the topic ‘Consumer Rights and their Protection’. Draft the speech in 150-200 words.

11 The Delhi Government has banned the use of polythene and plastic bags as they are non-biodegradable and harmful to every living being and the environment. But still people are using them for carrying things. Write a speech, to be delivered in the morning assembly, on the topic ‘Say No to Polythene Bags’ in 150 – 200 words.

12 India is a country of festivals. There is a series of festivals which are celebrated throughout the year. They reflect our culture and bring us closer. Based on the visuals given below, write a speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in your school’s morning assembly on this topic. You are Kiran, class XI-A.

13 Games play an important role in our lives. They are not only a means of entertainment but also keep us physically fit. Some like indoor games and other outdoor. Write a speech in 150-200 words for your school’s morning assembly on the topic ‘The Importance of games in our Life’.

14 The Internet has become essential in our lives today. Some browse for many hours at a stretch every day. However, we know that excess of anything is bad. So by doing this, they not only waste their time but spoil their health also. Write a speech to be delivered in an Inter-Class Declamation Contest in 150-200 words on the topic ‘The Harms of Excessive Internet Browsing’.

15 High buildings, the Metro train, shopping malls, big parks, wide roads, etc attract people to live in metro cities. However, traffic jams, pollution, crime, and insecurity disappoint them. Basing your ideas on the picture given below, write a speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in the morning assembly on the topic ‘Disadvantages of Living in a Big City’.

Future Tense Exercise for Class 6 CBSE With Answers

Future Tense Exercise for Class 6 CBSE With Answers

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 6 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.

Future Tense Exercise for Class 6 CBSE With Answers Pdf

The Future Tense

Use the future tense for things that have not happened yet, but are going to happen. Use the verbs shall and will as helping verbs or auxiliary verbs to form the future tense.

Future Tense Exercise for Class 6 CBSE With Answers
We shall play a game of chess after lunch.
You will be sick if you eat too much.
I hope it won’t rain tomorrow. Sharon is ill. She will not be at the party.

Remember:
Future Tense Exercise for Class 6 CBSE With Answers 1

Presentation:
Read the picture story.
Future Tense Exercise for Class 6 CBSE With Answers 2

Future Tense Exercises With Answers Pdf

A. Answer the following questions as per the story.

1. This December, for or how many years will Bunny have been doing magic professionally?
2. How will the magician be entertaining Las Vegas audiences?
3. For how long, will Bunny have been entertaining, audience with his card tricks in Las Vegas?

Future Tense Practice Exercises With Answers Pdf

A. Complete the following sentences using the simple future tense forms of the verbs given in the brackets.

celebrate wrap wait learn build bring calculate catch

1. I __________ a hospital to help the poor when I grow up.
2. They __________ for us near the railway crossing.
3. The bank __________ how much the company owes them.
4. She __________ all the sandwiches in foil.
5. The police __________ the thief sooner or later.
6. I __________ my tenth birthday with my friends.
7. Priyam __________ my sister along for a visit.
8. She __________ how to play the piano.

B. Fill in the blanks with the verbs in brackets such that the sentences are in Future Progressive tense.

1. Paya __________ to the party on Saturday. (to come)
2. We __________ him tomorrow. (to meet)
3. This time next week he __________ to South Africa. (to fly)
4. At 6 o’clock on Friday they __________ the new song. (to sing)
5. It __________ when I reach Bangkok. (to rain/probably)
6. Tomorrow at nine I __________ a test. (to write)
7. Arun __________ a video when I arrive tonight. (to watch)
8. You __________ pizza soon. (to eat)
9. She __________ when you telephone her. (to sleep)
10. They __________ in Budapest just about now. (to arrive)

C. Put the verbs into the correct form (future perfect simple).

1. By 9 o’clock, we (finish) our homework.
________________________________________

2. They (leave) the classroom by the end of the hour.
________________________________________

3. We (go) home by next week.
________________________________________

4. She (return) from the excursion by 6 o’clock.
________________________________________

5. Most people want peace. (Simple past)
________________________________________

6. He has just returned. (Future perfect tense)
________________________________________

7. I ran as fast as I could. (Future continuous)
________________________________________

8. Will you be visiting this place? (Present continuous)
________________________________________

9. He had never lived alone. (Present perfect)
________________________________________

11. She did not know anything. (Simple present)
________________________________________

12. He earns a six figure salary. (Present perfect continuous)
________________________________________

Note Making Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is an advanced writing skill which is gaining importance due to knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills.

Looking for an easy way to learn English Grammar? then you are in right place. Here we providing basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc…

Note Making Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is an advanced writing skill which is acquiring increasing importance due to the knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills. Note-making is useful as it saves time, energy and the space at the working place, while attending a lecture at school or in college, in a meeting etc. It enhances the confidence to revise the topic whenever we want.

Note-making basically involves noting the main points of whate

ver is read or heard, as one cannot be expected to remember all that one has read.

Types of Passages
The Note-making passage could be anyone of the following types
(i) Factual (550-600 words) A factual passage includes some facts about the physical aspects of a subject. It includes instructions, descriptions and reports. It helps the students to get a detailed view of the subject and develop a complete mental picture of a specific person, place, object or being.

(ii) Discursive (550-600 words) A discursive passage includes argumentative, interpretative and persuasive text. Such passages may include opinions or feedback. It allows students to arrive at a conclusion through reasoning and understanding rather than intuition. It presents a balanced and objective approach towards the subject being discussed.

Types of Questions
The Note-Making passage in the examination carries and is 550-600 words in length. It consists of two types of Questions
(i) Making Notes of the Given Passage This carries 5 marks split up into 3 marks for the actual notes, 1 mark for the title and 1 mark for the abbreviations listed (minimum 4 abbreviations). We can use title, heading, sub-headings and abbreviations while answer this question.

(ii) Write a Summary of the Given Passage The summary carries 3 marks. It should be grammatically correct and cover all the important points given in the notes. Word limit of the summary should be 80-100 words.

How To Make Good Notes And Summary Of The Given Passage
The following points will help you in making good notes

  • Read the passage quickly but carefully. Try to understand main points and supporting details.
    Underline the keywords as you read.
  • Notes should be in points and in an appropriate format.
  • Organise your ideas into main heading, sub-headings and sub-sub-headings (if possible).
  • Abbreviations and symbols are freely used.
  • Give title to your notes. Avoid a long sentence.
  • While making summary sure that your summary does not exceed 1/3 of the length of the original text.
  • The summary should contain only the main ideas and the supporting details.
  • Refer back to the original to ensure that your summary is a true reflection of the writer’s ideas.

Uses of Abbreviations in Note-Making
Abbreviation helps in writing the information briefly. The following are some of the ways in which you can use abbreviations.

First few letters of the word are enough to remember what the abbreviation stands.
For example:

  • imp for ‘important’
  • info for ‘information’
  • eval for ‘evaluation’

Remove all (or most of) the vowels from the word and use just the key consonants bunched together.
For example

  • mngmt for ‘management’
  • mkt for ‘market’
  • mktng for ‘marketing’
  • dvpt for ‘development’

Some Common Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words Abbreviations Words
+ Positive, Plus e.g. for example
Minus, Negative ie that is
= equals, is the same as, w/o without
* does not equal, is not the same as etc. etcetera
= is approximately equal to ♂♀ male / female
< is less than, is smaller than Viz namely
> is greater than, is larger than Asap as soon as possible
increase, rise, growth Mr. Mister
decrease, fall, shrinkage Mrs. Mistress
& and Dr. Doctor
special, important, notable Govt. Government
/ per, each

Note Making Solved Examples CBSE Class 11 Pdf

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 1

What actually is a robot? When different persons have different concepts of robots, the only way of deciding what really is a robot is to look for a definition of the term robot.

The dictionary meaning of a robot is that it is an automatic apparatus or device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings or operates with what appears to be almost-human intelligence. It is interesting to observe that this meaning does not give a human shape to the robot. In order to dramatise the fact that the robot does the work of a human being, a human shape is given to the robot in science-fiction stories and movies. The human shape is irrelevant as far as the functions of the robot are concerned.

The Robot Institute of America, which is an association of several robot manufacturers gives the following definition of an industrial robot.

“An industrial robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialised devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety oftasks. ”

The key word in this definition is ‘reprogrammable’. This means that a robot is capable of being reprogrammed. This feature is the one that distinguishes it from a fixed automation. A fixed automation is designed to do one, and only one, specific task. If the specifications of the tasks change even slightly, the fixed automation becomes incapable of performing the task it was designed to perform according to one fixed specification. However, a robot can be reprogrammed to perform even when the specifications are changed drastically. The original program is simply erased and the new program takes care of the changed tasks.

The characteristic that a robot can be reprogrammed to handle a variety of tasks makes the robot a flexible device. Because of the flexibility offered by robots, manufacturing systems which use robots are called Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS).

Karel Capek was responsible for introducing the word robot. Sir Isaac Asimov is the one who coined the word robotics. According to Asimov, robotics is the science of dealing with robots. Hence robotics involves a scientific study of robots. The study includes design, selection of materials of proper quality for the components, fabrication, study of various motors required for moving the components, design of electronic circuits, computers and computer programming, and control of robots. Since robots and robotics are still in the developing stages, a considerable amount of research is required and is being pursued. Robotics involves various disciplines-mechanical engineering, material science, electronics, computer science, computer engineering, and control systems, to name just a few. Depending on the area in which robots are to be used, robotics includes disciplines such as biology, medical science, psychology, agriculture, mining, outer space engineering etc.

Basically, there are two types of robots: fixed and mobile. A fixed robot is attached to a stationary platform. A fixed robot is analogous to a human standing or sitting in one fixed location while doing his work with his hands. A mobile robot moves from place to place. Mobility is given to robots by providing wheels or legs or other crawling mechanisms. A mobile robot can be given a human shape, but the actual shape has nothing to do with the functions of the robot. Wheeled locomotion is good for smooth terrains. For rugged terrain, legged locomotion is preferable. A mobile robot should have at least three wheels or legs for stability.

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Robots and Robotics-Introduction Notes
I. Robot Definition
(i) Diet meaning
(a) auto apparatus
(b) performs funcs ascribed to humans
(c) human shape irrelevant for functioning
(ii) RIA defines robot
(a) reprogrammable – different from fixed automation
(b) Flexible – used in FMS

II. Robotics
(i) Karel Capek introduced word robot
(ii) Isaac Asimov defined Robotics – science dealing with robots
(iii) Study includes steps:
Design → Selection of mtrl → fabrication → motor selection → EC design → Computers and comp progmg Robot Ctrl

III. Disciplines involved in Robotics
(a) Electronics
(b) Material Science
(c) Computer Engineering
(d) Control Systems
(e) Mechanical Engineering
(f) Computer Science

IV. Robot Types
(i) Fixed
(a) stationary
(b) analogous to standing human
(ii) Mobile – mobility due to
(a) wheels – good for smooth terrain
(b) legs – good for rugged terrain
(c) another crawling mech

Key to Abbreviations

Abbrevations Words
diet dictionary
auto automatic
funcs functions
RIA Robot Institute of America
FMS Flexible Manufacturing Systems
mtrl material
EC electronic circuits
comp progmg computer programming
Ctrl control
mech mechanism

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
A robot is a flexible reprogrammable automatic device that works just like human beings and operates with almost man-like intelligence. Robotics is the scientific study of robots. It includes design, selection of proper materials, design of electronic circuits, computers and computer programming and controls.

Robotics is a combination of many disciplines – electronics, material science, computer engineering, computer science, mechanical engineering etc. Robots can be fixed or mobile. A mobile robot moves from place to place with the help of wheels or legs or other crawling mechanisms.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 1

Information is power. It is predictable, therefore, that those in authority will seek to manipulate others through the control of data. However, all information in a democratic society should be freely available unless there are specific, well-formulated reasons for withholding it in the interest of security.

The Freedom of Information (FOI) functions at a number of different levels: in itself, for the fulfilment of all other rights and as an underpinning of democracy.

Information held by public bodies is not only for the benefit of officials, politicians or other designated people associated with the organisation, but also for the public as a whole. Unless there are good reasons for withholding such information, all interested parties should be able to access it. More importandy, freedom of information is a key component of transparent and accountable government. It plays a key role in enabling citizens to see what is going on within government, and in exposing corruption and mismanagement. Transparent and open government is also essential if voters are to be able to assess the performance of elected officials and if individuals are to exercise their democratic rights effectively, for example, through timely protests against new policies, or by using their vote against candidates who have indulged in undemocratic activity.

Freedom of expression and access to information is a fundamental right and must be held as a cornerstone of democracy. In its absence, government can, and often does, behave with impunity. It is argued, however, that it is not an absolute right – the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) for instance, specifies certain permissible constraints. One of these is the right of the state to withhold information ‘for the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health and morals’. This is irascibly vague and provides many loopholes for governments to use this wording as a basis for restricting information that is inconsistent with their ambitions.

The public’s right to know is an intrinsic part of informed public debate, which has traditionally been dependent on the freedom to receive and impart information without government interference. However, it may also be argued that this does not mean a right to receive any type of information from the government. It is of paramount importance that any restrictions on information or expression regarding security matters must designate in law only the specific and narrow categories of information absolutely necessary to protect a legitimate national security concern.

A threat to national security can be defined as ‘any expression or information that is intended to incite imminent violence, or is likely to incite violence’. In addition, there must be a direct and immediate connection between the expression and the likelihood or occurrence of such violence. The public interest in having information at all times must remain a priority consideration in any FOI Bill, and that any denial of this right should be subject to independent review.

Along these lines, in a seminal judgment in 1982, the Supreme Court held that, ‘The concept of an open Government is the direct emanation from the right to know, which seems to be implicit in the right of free speech and expression. disclosure of information in regard to the functioning of government must be the rule, and secrecy an exception, justified only where the strictest requirement of public interest so demands’.

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Freedom of Information (FOI)

Notes
I. Information
(i) Pwr
(ii) Access: Officials, politicians, public
(iii) Should be freely avlbl

II. Importance
(i) Fulfil rights
(ii) Supports dmcrcy

III. Functions
(i) Transparent and accessible Govt
(ii) Citizens aware of the workings of Govt
(iii) Expsg crptn and msmng

IV. Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Information
(i) Infmddbt
(ii) Fndmntl but not abslt
(iii) In public interest
(iv) Withhold if
(a) NS affected
(b) Likely to incite violence
(v) SC judgement supports

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
pwr power
avlbl available
dmcrcy democracy
govt government
expsg exposing
crptn corruption
msmng mismanagement
infmd informed
dbt debate
fndmntl fundamental
abslt absolute
NS National Security
SC Supreme Court

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
Freedom of Information (FOI) is essentially important for the fulfilment of public rights and as a support for democracy. Information is power and thus, its access must not be limited to officials or politicians but should include the public. Its function is to assure a transparent and accountable government, inform the public about the workings within the government and expose corruption and mismanagement. Freedom of expression and access to information are imperative for an informed public debate. They are fundamental but not absolute rights, with restrictions for information of national security or with potential to incite violence, as supported by a Supreme Court judgement.

Note Making Practice Factual Passages and Summary Writing Examples Pdf

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 1

The Mayan civilisation of Mexico and Central America is one of the ancient world’s most fascinating, prolific and mysterious civilisations. They left their mark on the region’s culture, architecture, cuisine, and language — and left an indelible impression on the imagination of the modern world. Who were they? How were they able to build such an impressive civilisation of towering temples and sophisticated artwork in the middle of the harsh rainforests of Meso-America? And why did they vanish?

The earliest Mayans lived along the Pacific coast of what is now Guatemala and can be dated to about 1800 BC; by 1000 BC they were also living in Guatemala’s southern lowlands. The period from about 1800 BC to about AD 250 is referred to as the Pre-classic, a time when the early Mayans lived as farmers in small villages along rivers and other bodies of water, hunting game, tending gardens and making use of the abundant natural foods found in the region’s marshes and seasonal swamps.

In time, strong rulers began wielding power over these communities and the Mayan culture grew in complexity. Cities rose from the forest floor, boasting of stone temples with stuccoed and painted facades created at the behest of elite rulers. People in the new power centres communicated over long distances and traders using the same routes carried luxury goods such as cacao beans, jade ornaments, quetzal feathers and jaguar pelts.

The Classic period, AD 250-900, is the time of the civilisation’s greatest glory and of the greatest depths of political intrigue between rival cities. During these centuries, the Mayans erected coundess stelae, stone monuments inscribed with portraits and hieroglyphs that recorded dynastic histories — the births, marriages and conquests of the ruling families. There were dozens of important regional capitals at the time, and among the most important were.

Tikal in Guatemala and its fierce rival Calakmul in Mexico, Palenque in southern Mexico, Caracol in Belize and Copan in Honduras. The Classic period is known for artistic and intellectual splendour. The Mayans developed a complex religious and ritual system that considered rulers divine beings and called for blood sacrifices. They also grasped the numerical notion of zero, created agricultural timetables and sophisticated calendars to track the heavens, and made beautiful polychrome pottery as well as exquisite ornaments, murals, and carved decorations.

But the Classic Mayans were also known for their rancorous political fighting and for being extremely bellicose — warfare was always on the horizon. One by one, the cities in the southern Mayan lowlands fell to each other, their downfall often recorded on stelae in the conquering city. By AD 900 most of the important Classic period cities had collapsed, and their remaining populations had scattered into the surrounding forests. The last date recorded on stelae that archaeologists have found so far is from AD 909 in Tonina, in southern Mexico.

Among the factors that help explain why the civilisation collapsed were the endemic warfare, overpopulation, degradation of the environment, and drastic climate change and drought. While the cities and ceremonial centres to the southern lowlands were being reclaimed by the jungle, the Mayans living to the North were gaining prominence, rising to amazing heights during the post-classic period (AD 900-1502), wonderful and wealthy cities in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula flourished, most famous among them being Chichen ltza. Yet it too fell victim to political infighting and by AD 1200 had collapsed.

The Mayans never truly disappeared. Centuries after the major cities were abandoned, small groups of Mayans continued to live in the area. It was they who met and resisted the Spanish conquistadors after the first contact in 1502. And today, more than six million Mayans live in Mexico, Guatemala and Belize, speaking 28 languages and blending ancient and modern ways.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub- headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:

(a) Title The Mystery Behind Mayan Civilisation

Notes
I. Questions Regarding Mysteries
(i) who were they?
(ii) how did they create impressive civilisation?
(iii) why disappeared?

II. The Pre-Classic Period (1800 BC – AD 250)
(i) 1800 -1000 BC used in Guatemala
(ii) farmers in small villages
(iii) ruled by strong rulers
(iv) complex culture – architecture, comn, trade dvlpd

III. The Classic Period (AD 250 – 900): Glory
(i) pltcl conspiracies
(ii) countless monuments
(a) recorded dynastic histories
(iii) many regional capitals came up
(iv) complex religious & ritual system
(v) excellence in maths
(vi) notion of zero
(vii) made agricultural timetables
(viii) beautiful art & craft

IV. The Post-Classic period (AD 900 -1502): Downfall
(i) most important cities collapsed
(ii) reasons
(a) endemic warfare
(b) overpopulation
(c) degradation of envrmt
(iii) northern Mayans survived
(vi) resisted Spanish conquistadors
(v) now live in Mexico, Guatemala 81 Belize

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
comn communication
dvlpd developed
pltcl political
& and
maths mathematics
envrmt environment

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
The Mayan civilisations of Mexico and central. America is one of the mysteries civilisation. From the monuments discovered there, their history can be traced back to 1800 BC, when they lived in Guatemala. They reached the peak of their glory during the Classic period (AD 250 – 900), which saw magnificence in architecture, intellectual excellence including mathematics, along with a rise in complex religious systems and rituals. Subsequently their downfall occurred due to endemic warfare, overpopulation and environmental degradation. The remnant Mayans still live in Mexico, Guatemala & Belize.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 2

You may never want to fly kites to keep away evil spirits, as the Chinese have done for centuries, or to make rain, as the Tibetans did, but some more modern and western uses may tempt you to try experimenting yourself along similar lines. Ancient and medieval Chinese sources, describe kites being used for measuring distances, testing the wind, lifting men, signalling and communication for military operations.

The earliest known Chinese kites were flat (not bowed) and often rectangular. Later, tailless kites incorporated a stabilising bowline. Kites were decorated with mythological motifs and legendary figures; some were fitted with strings and whistles to make musical sounds while flying. From China, kites were introduced to Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea and the western world.

The most widespread use of kites in modern times has been for meteorological investigations. Everybody knows about how Benjamin Franklin, the great American scholar and statesman, sent a kite up in 1752 during a thunderstorm to prove that lightning was caused by electricity. He produced sparks at ground level from a key hung on the wet line as the current flowed down it.

A second investigator repeated Franklin’s experiment shortly afterwards and was killed. By sending up instruments on kites it has been possible to make readings of air pressure, temperature, speed, direction and humidity. Although thermometers had been sent up long before, it was not until 1894, that a self-reading thermometer, a thermograph, was sent up by a kite. The army, navy and air force have used kites in various ways for decades. Another Korean version of the invention of the kite tells how a general used one to carry a line across a stream. This line then formed the basis of a bridge.

Lines are still occasionally flown from point to point in this way using kites. At sea, kites have often been used to carry a line to distressed ships in rough weather. Kites, especially box and bow kites, have been used as gunnery targets. They are easy to make and cheap to use and will stand quite a lot of punishment before they cease to fly. Apart from their use as targets, kites have been used by the army to fly flags, for aerial photography over enemy trenches, for suspending flares over targets during night fighting, for carrying a man over enemy lines, for dragging torpedoes etc to a target area.

They have been used by both military and civil authorities for raising, transmitting and receiving aerials to obtain improved wireless reception. As a matter of fact, the first long-distance short wave transmission of all made use of an aerial flown on a kite. When Marconi made the famous transatlantic transmission, he raised his receiving aerial some 400 feet on a kite. During World War II the RAF developed ‘a kite flare’ as part of survival equipment for airmen forced down at sea. When airborne, the kite was attached to a special shock absorber which was fixed to the dinghy.

It was stated that provided there was a 6 mph wind, the kite would stay aloft indefinitely. Some of these kites were brought to Australia and sent to the 6th Australian Division in 1944 for trials to determine whether they were of use in jungle warfare, especially in defining locations. After experiments, the authorities decided that they were of no value for this purpose.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Kites and Their History

Notes
I. History of Flying Kites
(i) Chinese in ancient times used them for various purposes
(ii) Tibetans used them for making rain
(iii) Intrdcd to rest of the world from China

II. Modern Uses of Flying Kites
(i) for mtrlgl invstgtns
(ii) started with Benjamin Franklin’s famous expt
(iii) used for
(a) msrg air pressure, temperature, humidity
(b) msrg wind speed and direction

(iv) civil and military purposes of kites
(a) aerial phtgy
(b) improving wireless rcptn
(c) carrying flares
(d) not useful in jungle warfare
(v) other uses
(a) gunnery targets
(b) carrying lines across streams

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
intrdcd introduced
mtrlgl meteorological
invstgtns investigations
expt experiment
msrg measuring
phtgy photography
rcptn reception

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
In ancient times, kites in China and Tibet were thought to bring rain and keep away evil spirits. The Chinese also used them for other purposes and introduced them to the rest of the world. Benjamin Franklin discovered that electricity produced lightning by flying a kite. Kites are presently used for measuring various atmospheric parameters like air pressure, temperature, wind speed, direction etc. Civil and military purposes of kites include aerial photography, improving wireless reception and carrying flares, but they are not useful in jungle warfare. Kites are also used as gunnery targets and for carrying lines.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 3

Cloud computing is a type of Internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is a model for enabling ubiquitous, on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. computer networks, servers, storage, applications and services) which can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort. Cloud computing and storage solutions provide users and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process their data in third-party data centres that may be located far from the user – ranging in distance from across a city to across the world. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economy of scale, similar to a utili ty (like the electricity grid) over an electricity network.

As a metaphor for the Internet, ‘the cloud’ is a familiar cliche, but when combined with ‘computing’, the meaning gets bigger and fuzzier. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription based or pay per use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends IT’s existing capabilities.

In a cloud computing system, there’s a significant workload shift. Local computers no longer have to do all the heavy lifting when it comes to running applications. The network of computers that make up the cloud handles them instead. Hardware and software demands on the user’s side decrease. The only thing the user’s computer needs to be able to run is the cloud computing system’s interface software, which can be as simple as a Web browser, and the cloud’s network takes care of the rest.

Advocates of cloud computing claim that cloud computing allows companies to avoid upfront infrastructure costs (e.g. purchasing servers). It also enables organisations to focus on their core businesses instead of spending time and money on computer infrastructure. Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and enables Information Technology (ii) teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.

The goal of cloud computing is to apply traditional supercomputing or high-performance computing power, normally used by military and research facilities, to perform tens of trillions of computations per second, in consumer-oriented applications such as financial portfolios, to deliver personalised information, to provide data storage or to power large, immersive computer games. As the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. Companies can scale up as computing needs increase and then scale down again as demands decrease. In 2013, it was reported that cloud computing had become a highly demanded service or utility due to the advantages of high computing power, cheap cost of services, high performance, scalability, accessibility as well as availability.

It’s only in recent years that companies have started renting servers and storage instead of purchasing hardware and running it at huge costs. And with more organisations especially those that rely on India’s outsourcing infrastructure – transferring some of their IT work onto the cloud, companies such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro have stepped up to facilitate that shift. They have positioned themselves as enablers between owners and renters.

A report published by IT research and advisory firm Gartner estimates that in India alone the market for cloud-based services will rise by a third to $557 million this year and more than triple by 2018. Cloud computing will become even more prominent in the coming years, with the predicted rapid, continued growth of major global cloud data centres.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Cloud Computing

Notes
I. Definition and Meaning of Cloud Computing
(i) servers ntwkd to centralise data storage, access computer services or rscs
(ii) sharing cmptg rscs
(iii) Internet-base cmptg

II. Goal of Cloud Computing
(i) apply tdnl supercomputing or high pfmc cmptg power to perform trillions of computations p/s
(ii) deliver prsnld info in consumer-oriented apps
(iii) provide data storage
(iv) power large, immersive computer games
(v) converge infra and shared services

III. Recent Developments
(i) cos rent servers and storage
(ii) more org relying on India’s outsourcing infra
(iii) TCS, Infosys, Wipro facilitate services
(iv) market expectations
(a) will rise by a third to $ 557 million this year
(b) more than triple by 2018
(v) cloud cmptg to grow steeply in future

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
ntwkd networked
rscs resources
cmptg computing
tdnl traditional
pfmc performance
p/s per second
prsnld personalised
info information
apps applications
infra infrastructure
COS companies
org organisations
TCS Tata Consultancy Services

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
In cloud computing, large groups of remote servers are networked to allow centralised data storage. It is basically internet-based computing and relies on sharing computing resources. Its goal is to apply traditional supercomputing or high performance computing power to perform trillions of computations per second. It can also power consumer-oriented applications. It is based on the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. In recent years major Indian companies like Wipro, TCS and Infosys have started renting servers and storage. More companies are relying on India’s outsourcing infrastructure. The market for India is expected to grow steeply in future.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 4

The effects of plastic bags on the environment are really quite devastating because there is no disposal method that will really help eliminate the problem. While reusing them is the first step, most people don’t do it, because most of them are not durable enough to survive multiple use.

The biggest problem with them is that once they have been soiled, they end up in the trash, which then ends up in the landfill or is burned. Either solution is very poor for the environment. Burning emits toxic gases that harm the atmosphere while landfills hold them indefinitely as part of the plastic waste problem throughout the globe.

One of the greatest problems is that an estimated 300 million plastic bags end up in the Atlantic Ocean alone. These bags are very dangerous for sea life, especially those of the mammal variety. Any hunting mammal can easily mistake the size, shape and texture of the plastic bag for a meal and find its airway cut off. Needless deaths from plastic bags are increasing every year.

The environmental balance of the waterways is being thrown off by the rate of plastic bags finding their way into the mouths and intestinal tracts of sea mammals. As one species begins to die off at an abnormal rate, every other living organism in the waterways is impacted.

The indefinite period of time that it takes for the average plastic bag to break down can be literally hundreds of years. Every bag that ends up in the woodlands of the country threatens the natural progression of wildlife. Because the breakdown rate is so slow, the chances that the bag will harmlessly go away are extremely slim. Throughout the world plastic bags are responsible for suffocation and deaths of woodland animals as well as inhibiting soil nutrients.

The land litter that is made up of plastic bags has the potential to kill over and over again. It has been estimated that one bag has the potential to unintentionally kill one animal per every three months due to unintentional digestion or inhalation.

While it’s a noble thought to place the plastic bags in the recycling bin every week, studies have proven that there are very few recycling plants that actually recycle them. Most municipalities either burn them or send them off to the landfill after sorting. This is because it can be expensive to recycle this type of plastic. It doesn’t melt down easily and is often not fit to be reused in its original form.

The premise of recycling these bags is nice. Yet funding for the upgrading of the recycling units just has not happened and thus less than one per cent of all bags are sent to recycling plants worldwide. Most are left to become a pollution problem in one way or another.

There are always alternatives to plastic bags and the search for more alternatives continues. Paper bags are a possible option but they also take their toll on the environment. The use of trees to increase the production of paper products will also have a negative environmental effect.

Reusable plastic bags are being introduced into regions that want to outlaw the plastic bags altogether. These are stronger and more durable and can be used for three to five trips to the market. Of course, the reusable cloth bag is fast becoming a favourite among environment supporters. While, thus far, no bag is without its issues, these are the bags that are currently recommended for use to help protect environmental concerns.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Harmful Effects of Plastic Bags

Notes
I. Plastic bags harmful for Environment
(i) No effective disposal method
(a) trashed in Ifls and held indefinitely
(b) burned but emit harmful gases
(ii) Reuse not practical
(iii) Millions of plastic bags end in Atlantic Ocean
(a) harmful for sea life, particularly mammals -cuts off airway, causing death -adversely affects envtl balance
(b) burned but emit harmful gases
(iv) On land, breakdown period is centuries
(a) suffocate forest animals
(b) inhibit soil nutrients

II. Recycling Impractical
(i) Few rclg plants actually work because
(a) operation expensive
(b) products cannot be used as earlier
(ii) Most bags dumped in ifls
(iii) Cause land pltn

III. Options to Plastic Bags
(i) Paper bags
(a) negative envtl effect due to tree cutting
(ii) Reusable cloth bags
(a) preferred by env supporters
(iii) Redusable piste bags
(a) stronger and more durable

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
Ifls landfills
envtl environmental
rclg recycling
pltn pollution
piste plastic

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
Plastic bags are harmful for the environment because there is no effective disposal method for them and their reuse is impractical. A large number of plastic bags which ultimately land in the Atlantic Ocean become harmful for sea life, particularly mammals, causing their death and creating an environmental imbalance in the sea.

If dumped on land, they suffocate forest animals and inhibit soil nutrients. Their recycling is impractical because few recycling plants actually work as they are uneconomic. Dumped in landfills, they cause land pollution. Options available are paper bags or reusable plastic bags, the latter being preferred by environmentalists.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 5

The work of the heart can never be interrupted. The reason is that the heart’s job is to keep oxygen rich blood flowing through the body. All the body’s cells need a constant supply of oxygen, especially those in the brain. The brain cells live only for four to five minutes after their oxygen is cut off, and then brain death occurs, leading to the entire body dying.

The heart is a specialised muscle that serves as a pump. This pump is divided into four chambers, two called atria and two called ventricles, connected by tiny doors called valves. The chambers work to keep the blood flowing round the body in a circle with a detour to the lungs to purify the blood by removing carbon dioxide from it and adding oxygen to it.

At the end of each circuit, veins carry the blood to the right atrium, the first of the four chambers. Two-fifths of the oxygen by then is used up and it is on its way back to the lungs to pick up a fresh supply and to give up the carbon dioxide it has accumulated. From the right atrium the blood flows through the tricuspid valve into the second chamber, the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts when it is filled, pushing the blood through the pulmonary artery, which leads to the lungs. In the lungs the blood gives up its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen. Then it travels to the third chamber, the left atrium. When this chamber is filled, it forces the blood through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. From here it is pushed into a big blood vessel called aorta, the main artery, and sent round the body through the various arteries.

Fleart disease can result from any damage to the heart muscle, the valves or the ‘natural pacemaker’ of the heart. Electrical impulses from the heart muscle cause our heart to beat (contract). This electrical signal begins in the sino-atrial (SA) node, located at the top of the heart’s upper-right chamber (the right atrium). The SA node is sometimes called the heart’s ‘natural pacemaker’.

If the muscle is damaged, the heart is unable to pump properly. If the valves are damaged blood cannot flow normally and easily from one chamber to another, and if the pacemaker is defective, the contractions of the chambers will become un-coordinated.

Until the twentieth century, few doctors dared to touch the heart. In 1953 all this changed. After twenty years of work, Dr John Gibbon in the USA had developed a machine that could take over temporarily from the heart and lungs. Blood could be routed through the machine, bypassing the heart so that surgeons could work inside it and see what they were doing. The era of open heart surgery had begun.

In the operating theatre, it gives surgeons the chance to repair or replace a defective heart. Many parties have had plastic valves inserted in their hearts when their own was faulty. Many people are being kept alive with tiny battery operated pacemakers; none of these repairs could have been made without the heart-lung machine. But valuable as it is to the surgeons, the heart-lung machine has certain limitations. It can be used only for a few hours at a time because its pumping gradually damages the bloods cells.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title How the Heart Works

Notes
I. Functions of Heart
(i) vital for living
(a) never stop wrkg
(ii) supplies oxygen rich blood to diff parts of body

II. Structure of Heart
(i) divided into 4 chambers connected by vlvs
(ii) blood purified in lungs
(iii) arteries carry pure blood to diff parts of body

III. Causes of Heart Disease
(i) weak heart muscles
(ii) defective vlvs
(iii) defective ‘natural pacemaker’

IV. History of Open Heart Surgery
(i) 1953: Dr Gibbon invents Heart lung m/c
(a) blood could pass through m/c bypassing heart . and lungs
(ii) enabled open heart srgy
(iii) m/c limitations
(a) used only for few hrs at a time because it damages blood cells

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
wrkg working
diff different
vlvs valves
Dr Doctor
m/c machine
srgy surgery
hrs hours

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
The heart is a vital organ of the body which never stops working. It supplies oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body. It is divided into four chambers inter-connected by valves. Blood is purified in the lungs and arteries carry it to different parts of the body.

Heart disease has various causes such as weak heart muscles, defective valves or a defective natural pacemaker. The era of open-heart surgery began in 1953 when Dr Gibbon developed the heart-lung machine. Replacement of valves and other areas of a damaged heart is now possible.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 6

The Maasai tribe live on the wide plains in southern and northern Kenya and northern Tanzania. They are among the best known local populations due to their residence near the many game parks of the African Great Lakes, as well as their distinctive customs and dress. The Maasai were famous fighters. They used to raid the neighbouring tribes and carry away their cattle. All the other tribes were afraid of them because of their skills in war.

The Maasai are handsome people, tall and slim with light brown skins, straight noses and long hair. They do not belong completely to the Negro race. They belong mosdy to the same race as the people of ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians probably looked like the Maasais of today.

The Maasais live in a very beautiful part of Africa. It consists of miles of rolling grassland, on which you can find thorny bushes and here and there a rocky hill. The people move from one place to another according to the seasons, looking for the grasses and other plants on which their cattle can graze. They have no permanent home. When they want to setde in a place for some time, they build a kind of camp called a ‘Manyatta’, where a few families live for a few weeks or months. Then they move on again, taking their few belongings with them, and burning the old ‘Manyatta’ to the ground.

To make a hut, they take a number of long thin wooden poles and plant them in a circle. Then each pole is bent into a shape of a ‘U* and its other end is also planted in the earth. Now the framework for the hut is ready.

Next, the space between the poles is filled with leaves, and small branches of tree and mud. Then the outside of earth hut is covered or plastered with cow-dung, which quickly becomes hard in the sun. An opening is left for the door but there are no windows. The hut is about 5 feet high, so that grown-up men cannot stand up straight inside his hut. There is no furniture, except perhaps a small wooden stool for the head of the family.

The huts are arranged in a big circle. Around the outside of the circle the Maasais build a thorn fence, about 7 feet high, with several openings so that the people can go in and out with their cattle. After dark, all the openings are closed. Then all the people and cattle in the ‘Manyatta’ are safe from wild animals.

Nowadays there are no wars between the tribes. So a Maasai warrior has very little to do now. But they sometimes go hunting. The Maasais like to kill lions with spears, and a lion-hunt is a great test of courage. The warrior who first kills a lion is given great honour, and he wears the lion’s mane round his neck to show that he is a lion-killer.

The Maasais are fairly well-to-do and intelligent and live comfortable lives. However, most of them are happy to live as their ancestors lived hundreds of years ago. The Tanzanian and Kenyan governments have instituted programmes to encourage the Maasai to abandon their traditional semi-nomadic lifestyle, but the people have continued their age-old customs. Many Maasai tribes throughout Tanzania and Kenya welcome visits to their village to experience their culture, traditions, and lifestyle.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title The Maasai Tribe – Life and History

Notes
I. Maasai Tribe-Famous Fighters
(i) live in Kenya & northern Tanzania
(ii) carried away cattle of nbrg tribes

II. Maasais Handsome People
(i) tall & slim with light brown skins
(ii) straight noses & long hair
(iii) don’t big to Negro groups
(iv) big to people of ancient Egypt

III. Maasais are Nomadic Cattle Herders
(i) move from place to place looking for grass for cattle
(ii) build ‘Manyatta’ – a camp
(iii) use wdn poles to build huts
(a) plant U shaped wdn poles in circle on earth
(b) fill frmwk with leaves, branches & mud
(c) plaster outside with cow-dung
(d) opening kept for door – no windows
(iv) no furniture- wdn stool for family head
(v) put thorn fence around ‘Manyatta’
(a) keeps them safe from wild animals

IV. Nowadays- No War Between Tribes
(i) Maasai warriors go hunting for lions
(a) Lion hunt- test of courage
(ii) lion killer wears lion’s mane as sign
(iii) Maasais live comfortable life
(iv) invite people to experience their lives

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
& and
nbrg neighbouring
big belong
wdn wooden
frmwk framework

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
The Maasai tribe live in Kenya and northern Tanzania. They were famous fighters and attacked other tribes for cattle. They were handsome people and belong mostly to the same race as that of ancient Egypt, and not to the Negro race. They move from place to place looking for grass for their cattle. When they settle in a place they build a camp called ’Manyatta’ with dome shaped wood-frame huts in a big circle. They put a thorn fence around the ’Manyatta’ to save themselves from wild animals. Lion hunting is a test of courage for them. They are intelligent and live comfortable lives.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 7

After creating the world’s fastest mode of transport, the French are now returning to something much more simple, the bicycle (veto in French). On July 15, 2007, 10000 public bicycles were made available to the residents of Paris, in a new experiment on urban transport.

The basic principle is that nobody owns the cycle, but everybody can borrow one. For €29 and a deposit of €150, one can subscribe to a year’s access to the cycles. Cycle-stands have been created outside every metro station in the city. With a magnetic card in hand, one can simply help oneself to a cycle, use it to ride up to one’s destination and park it at the nearest cycle-stand.

It took three years of negotiations before the experiment was put into place, but one week before the launch, nearly 8000 Parisians had signed up for a subscription. The city expects to have nearly 200000 by the end of the year. In the last seven years, Paris has doubled its cycle tracks to 371 km at present.

This emerging new trend has quite a serious impact on urban planning, as rules are changed to suit a growing population of cyclists. Instead of the motor-car, in some places the cyclists have priority, allowing them to use one-way streets and even ignore traffic lights.

Finally, it comes down to a personal choice that the French are making. Cycling is good for one’s health; according to some studies, half an hour of cycling per day can significandy elongate one’s lifespan, reducing stress and hypertension. It is also an efficient tool of weight control. On the other hand, a cycle is a non-polluting form of transport, using no fuel and creating no emissions. Until a few years ago, only 1-5% of Parisians used cycles on a regular basis. Now more of the urban French population is turning to a mode of transport very common in rural France.

The region of Arcachon, on the South-West coast of France, offers several landmarks for tourists but, most of all, it offers an excellent network of cycle routes. These routes, which run along the sea for almost the entire circumference of the basin, originally formed a railroad track used by Germans during World War to transport soldiers and men. However, after the war, the railroad served litde purpose and the path was converted into cycle tracks.

The cycle track that circles the basin is inaccessible to a motor vehicle, however small it may be. It covers a length of nearly 75 to 80 km and, on a sunny day, one can see people of all ages cycling.

Cycles are available in most towns on rent for as litde as €2 an hour. A variety of cycles, tandem bicycles, three-wheelers and cycles with baby carriages, makes it possible for older citizens, mothers with babies and even the physically challenged, to cycle. To make it easier for tourists, cycles rented in one town can be returned in another to the same chain of stores.

The enthusiasm to return to the cycle as a form of transport as well as a hobby is not limited to Arcachon. Gironde also boasts of a network of nearly 600 km of cycle tracks. Bordeaux, the capital of Gironde, is a university town that gives all students free use of bicycles that belong to the town. Further North, Nantes offers free raincoats and backpacks to state employees who cycle to work.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviation wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Revival of Cycling in France

Notes
I. French Experiment in Urban Transport
(i) Public bicycles hired to Parisians
(ii) can xchg bicycles at cycle stands at metro stations
(iii) popular
(a) 8000 signed up before launch
(b) 2 lakh expected by year end
(c) cycle tracks doubled

II. Impact of Experiment
(i) road rules changed
(ii) cycles given priority in some places
(iii) will improve health
(a) t lifespan
(b) + stress
(c) control weight
(d) non-pltg
(iv) reduces pltn

III. Popularity of Cycling in Rural Arcachon Region of France
(i) trsm popular here
(ii) old railway track converted for cycles
(iii) no motor vhcls allowed
(iv) cycles available at many places in rgn
(v) low rent
(vi) dfrt types of cycles available

IV. Similar Schemes in Other Areas of France
(i) Gironde-province has 600 km of cycle tracks
(a) uvrsty in Bordeaux, the capital, allows students fee use of cycles
(ii) Nantes offers govt employees incentives to cycle to work

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
xchg exchange
t increase
1 reduce
pitg polluting
pltn pollution
trsm tourism
vhcls vehicles
rgn region
dfrt different
uvrsty university
govt government

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
Cycling has been revived as a mode of transport in France, Public bicycles are hired to Parisians, which can be exchanged at various cycle stands, making the experiment popular. Its impact is that road rules have been changed to give cycles priority in some places.

It will improve health, increase lifespan, reduce stress and control weight of people, besides reducing pollution. Cycling is also popular elsewhere in France like the Arcachon region, a popular tourism area, Gironde province and Nantes. All of these have exclusive cycle tracks with cycles of all types hired on low rent or for free.

Note Making Practice Discursive Passages and Summary Writing Examples Pdf

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 1

Fasting, in some form or the other, is part of every religion. In Islam, it is called ‘roza’. The Arabic equivalent of ‘roza’ is sawm. Sawm literally means abstinence, i.e. to refrain from doing something. The ninth month of the Hijri calendar, i.e. Ramzan, has been especially chosen for fasting. Fasting during the month of Ramzan is obligatory for every Muslim, except when he has a genuine reason not to do so.

In every human being there are two faculties to take into consideration: one is desire and the other is reason. In all matters, the individual has to decide whether to follow his desire or his reason. The great merit in fasting is that it trains us to refrain from following our desires and instead always to bow to reason. That is the spirit of sawm.

According to the Prophet of Islam, one who fasts should never stoop to using abusive language; if someone abuses him, he should simply say ‘I am fasting’. Islamic fasting, as far as formal practice is concerned, is to abstain from food and drink. But the actual spirit of fasting is to refrain from indulging in negative thinking and the use of negative language.

Self-control, far from being a negative or passive action, has great value in human behaviour. In life, there are more than 50 per cent of occasions when one should refrain from action and less than 50 per cent of occasions when one should take action. This is the formula for success for both individuals and society.

Self-control is integral to social ethics. If you live alone on an island, there is no need for any control, as the absence of others leaves you free to do whatever you want to do. However, when you are living in a society, you have to give leeway to others. This is what every person on the road does when he drives a car: he either keeps to the left (or to the right depending upon which country he is in) so that he gives way to other cars and can carry on his journey without accidents. This principle is applicable to the entire life of an individual. It entails giving others the chance to live their lives while living one’s own life.

Self-control is a kind of mutual adjustment. When a person adopts the way of self-control, it is far-reaching in effect.

In this way he promotes the culture of self-control in society and indicates to others through his actions that they should follow the path that he is following.

Thus, the way of self-control leads to a better society, while lack of self-control in individuals leads to the destruction of peace. As far as the individual is concerned, self-control serves as a means of personality development. This way of life, in turn, saves others from unnecessary problems.

There is a ‘pre-control’ for exercising self-control and it is thinking. When a person adopts a life of self-control, at all times he first thinks about what path he should tread. Only after considerable thought does he plan out his course of action. A life lived in this way will necessarily be marked by creative thinking. In addition, self-control contributes to one’s intellectual development and turns one into a man of wisdom.

In Islam, fasting is worship – for God. Fasting is the kind of worship which is simultaneously for the sake of God and man. Thus, if fasting is observed in the right spirit, in all sincerity, it will make an individual pious and responsible.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Tjte Traditional Culture of Self-restraint Notes

I. Fasting
(i) roza in Islam
(ii) refrain from doing smth
(iii) Ramzan, ninth month of Hijri clnd
(iv) oblgtry for every Muslim
(v) train to refrain from folwg our desires, howto reason
(vi) worship – for God
(vii) observed in right spirit – make individual pious and responsible

II. Teachings of Islam
(i) during fasting
(a) should not use abusive lang
(b) abstain from food and drink
(c) refrain from-ve thkg

III. Self-control: Need and Importance
(i) great value in human behaviour
(ii) formula for success for indvls and society
(iii) integral to social ethics
(iv) a kind of mutual adjsmt
(v) lack of it leads to destruction of peace
(vi) means of personality devpt

IV. Exercising Self-Control
(i) ‘pre-control’ i.e. thkg
(ii) thoughtful course of action
(iii) marked by creative thkg
(iv) cntrbs to intellectual devpt
(v) makes man wiser

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
smth something
clnd calendar
oblgtry obligatory
folwg following
lang language
-ve negative
thkg thinking
indvls individuals
adjsmt adjustment
devpt development
cntrbs contributes

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
Fasting is known as ‘roza’ in Islam, which means to refrain from doing something. It is obligatory for every Muslim, wherein one should refrain from using abusive language, negative thinking, food and drink. It is worship for God. Fasting basically teaches self-control, which is observed as a formula for success for individuals and society. Self-control is a kind of mutual adjustment and leads to personality development. Exercising self-control requires ‘pre-control’, that is thinking. It contributes to intellectual development and a thoughtful course of action to lead a wiser life.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 2

Just a few years ago, we witnessed how a national project, the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO), which is to study fundamental particles called neutrinos, was subject to a barrage of Questions from environmentalists, politicians and others ever since it was cleared. The project, which involves the construction of an underground laboratory, was initially to be located in the Nilgiris but later, on grounds that it was too close to tiger habitat, was moved to a cavern under a rocky mountain in the Bodi West Hills region of Theni district, about 110 Kilometres West of Madurai in Tamil Nadu. The already much-delayed and important physics project needs to be explained.

India has been among the pioneers in neutrino research, the first of such laboratories having been established in the 1960s. We led neutrino research when our physicists used a gold mine at Kolar in Karnataka to set-up what was then the world’s deepest underground laboratory. This was called the Kolar Gold Field Lab. In 1965, it enabled researchers to detect atmospheric neutrinos. In 1992, when the mine became uneconomical, the laboratory was shut down. With that, we lost our advantage in understanding the most mysterious particle in the universe. INO may now reclaim this advantage and our global leadership.

Most of the advanced countries are already working vigorously in neutrino science with dedicated labs. These include the United States, Russia, France, Italy, China, Japan and South Korea. India is set to not only join this league, but also become a key player in global efforts in neutrino science. The Magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) being set-up at INO will be among the largest ever in the world, weighing over 50000 tonnes.

Neutrinos, first proposed by Swiss Scientist Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, are the second most widely occurring particle in the universe, only second to photons, the particles which make up light. In fact, neutrinos are so abundant among us that every second, there are more than 100 trillion of them passing right through each of us – we never even notice them.

This is the reason why INO needs to be built deep into the earth – 1300 metres into the earth. At this depth, it would be able to keep itself away from all the trillions of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere and which would otherwise choke an over-the-ground neutrino detector. Neutrinos have been in the universe literally since forever, being almost 14 billion years old – as much as the universe itself.

From experiments so far, we know that neutrinos have a tiny mass, but the ordering of the neutrino mass states is not known and is one of the key Questions that remain unanswered till today. This is a major challenge INO will set to resolve, thus completing our picture of the neutrino.

Neutrinos are very important for our scientific progress and technological growth for three reasons. First, they are abundant. Second, they have very feeble mass and no charge and hence can travel through planets, stars, rocks and human bodies without any interaction.

In fact, a beam of trillions of neutrinos can travel thousands of kilometres through a rock before an interaction with a single atom of the rock and the neutrino occurs. Third, they hide within them a vast pool of knowledge and could open up new vistas in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics, communication and even in medical imaging, through the detector spin-offs.

While this should be a moment of joy, there is also some scepticism, partly arising due to the fact that the neutrino, though so abundant, is a silent stranger to most people.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Race for the Neutrino

Notes
I. India-based Neutrino Observatory
(i) subject of Questions from envlsts & others
(ii) involves cnstrn of underground lab
(iii) initially to be located in Nilgiris
(iv) later moved to Bodi West Hills in Tamil Nadu

II. India’s Position in Research
(i) pioneer
(ii) 1st lab estd in 1960s
(iii) Kolar in Karnataka: world’s deepest underground lab
(a) anabled detection of atmospheric neutrinos
(b) lab shut down in 1992
(iv) magnetized Iron Calorimeter
(a) set up at INO
(b) among largest ever in world

III. Understanding Neutrinos
(i) 1 st proposed by Swiss Scientist Wolfgang Pauli
(ii) 2nd most widely occurring particle
(iii) labs to be built deep into earth
(iv) in atmosphere, detector would Choke
(v) have tiny mass & no charge
(vi) mass states ordering unknown

IV. Importance of Neutrinos
(i) scientific progress & tchgl growth
(a) abundant
(b) can travel w/o interaction

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
envlsts environmentalists
& and
cnstrn construction
lab laboratory
1st first
estd established
INO India-Based Neutrino Observatory
2nd second
tchgl technological
w/o without

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) was subject to Questions from many groups. It involved construction of an underground laboratory, which was supposed to be located in the Nilgiris, but was later moved to Bodi West Hills in Tamil Nadu.

India had been among the pioneers in neutrino research and the first lab was set up in 1960, but was shut down in 1992. Understanding neutrinos has become essential due to their wide occurrence.

They have been found to have tiny mass with unknown order and no charge. They are important for scientific progress and technological growth.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 3

Fashion is a force – a powerful force of constantly altering patterns of change and growth. Its constant movement affects the fate of the designers and manufacturers who distribute it, and of course, the lives of the consumers, who follow what it dictates. All of its facts taken together add up to a multimillion dollar industry. Fashion today means mega bucks.

Fashion is also a science. Surprising, isn’t it? However, it is well known that it involves known facts and basic principles, and its actions and reactions can be predicted, as these are based on those facts and principles. Fashion is one of those distinct and unique trades that is highly dependent on the environment and the changes that are continuously taking place in it. These have to be understood by the designers if they want to become successful.

For one to make it to the top in the fashion business and stay there, one has to continue to discover and innovate to fulfil the needs and wants of the customers. For this, most of the top designers such as Yves Saint Laurent, Karl Lagerfeld, Liz Claiborne, etc all rely upon their creativity backed by years of invaluable experience. In this line of work, instinct and intuition play a very major role besides the knowledge of past successes and failures.

As the power of fashion to influence our lives grows, a number of misconceptions about it continue to abound. The most common of these is that the designers and retailers dictate what the fashion will be, by accepting or rejecting the styles and trends that are offered. They are truly, as one ‘fashion guru’ once said, “Variety vultures”. However, it is not so – actually customers dictate the trends.

The second misconception is that fashion acts as an influence on women only. However, actually, men today are as much influenced by, and responsive to, fashion, as women. In point of fact, the male fashion industry has been growing at a dizzying rate. Yes, there was a time when menswear was not exacdy worth talking about. It was staid and unimaginative. But that does not mean that men did not dress up according to the latest trends of the day.

There were changes in Western dressing that followed the dictates of the designers and the fashionable elite trend-setters. These were the fashion world’s drainpipes in the 60s, the popular safaris in the 70s, the denims in the 80s and the ethnic wear that has caught on these days.

Fashion today is more lifestyle oriented and quite practical. The modern male and female want to dress differently for office and leisure. Designers are becoming more daring so that the women as well as the men have a wide choice. There are different designs for every moment of a busy social schedule – from work, lunch to afternoon tea, cocktails, dinner and gala banquets.

Lastly, fashion is the force that causes women to raise and lower their skirt length, straighten or fizz their hair and change from sportswear to dressy clothes. Fashion is also that force which influences men to grow or shave off their moustaches and beards, choose wide or narrow ties and lapels, and change from casual jeans into three piece suits and tuxedos. It is indeed this dynamic and varied force that adds spice and colour to our lives.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Fashion – A Life Force

Notes
I. Constantly Altering Patterns Affect
(i) dsnrs
(ii) mfrs
(iii) lives of consumers

II. Fashion means Multimillion Dollar Industry
III. Fashion-A Science
(i) Facts & basic principles
(ii) Action & reaction predicted
(iii) Dependent on envt

IV. Fashion – Discover and Innovate
(i) Continue to fulfil needs and wants
(ii) Instinct & intuition play major role

V. Misconception that Designers and Retailers Dictate Fashion
(i) it is consumers who dictate
(ii) influences both women & men equally

VI. Fashion-Western Dressing
(i) Trend setters
(a) Drainpipes in 60s
(b) Safaris in 70s
(c) Denims in 80s
(d) Ethnic wears today

VII. Fashion-Changes
(i) Life-style oriented and practical
(ii) Every ocsn diff dress
(iii) Adds spice and clr to our lives

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
dsnrs designers
mfrs manufacturers
envt environment
ocsn occasion
diff different
clr colour
& and

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
Fashion is a force which keeps changing and affecting all related people. It is a science as it is based on facts and principles. To remain on top in this business, designers have to continually innovate and discover to fulfil people’s needs. Fashion is not dictated by designers and retailers but by consumers. Both women and men are equally influenced by it. Western dressing gave us drainpipes, safaris and denims but now ethnic wears are fashionable. Fashion has become more practical, as people want to change dresses for every occasion. Fashion adds spice, flavour and colour to our lives.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 4

The problem of unemployment is a serious problem in our country. If millions of people are without any jobs, its effect is very bad. A man without any employment is a burden on others. If he has got to maintain a family, the situation is worse. Such unemployed persons are reduced to poverty. It demoralises them and they are forced to do undesirable things. They may commit crimes. They may create trouble and spread discontent. In fact, they are a source of danger to society and the state.

The causes of unemployment are mainly the rapid growth of population, the prevailing system and under¬development of industry and trade. The population of India is growing very rapidly. It is very difficult to get jobs for all who are in need of it. The British Government had introduced a system of education in this country for carrying on administration only. It is being continued in free India also with very slight changes. The system of education prepares most young men to be clerks. But neither the Government nor private firms can absorb all the educated unemployed persons in their offices for clerical work. Industry and trade have not yet properly developed.

Cottage industries in the villages have been ruined owing to the establishment of large mills and factories in towns. Consequently, many artisans have been thrown out of employment. There has been great pressure on agricultural land because of the growth of population; consequently, many cultivators have got no land for cultivation. All these are mainly responsible for this acute problem of unemployment.

The acute problem of unemployment is a cause of unrest in the country. So the Government is seriously thinking over the matter and trying to find out a remedy. The remedy is to find work for the people. The Government had earlier undertaken five-year plans for the material prosperity of the country. For carrying out these plans many mills and factories had been set up both by the Government and by industrialists. Many new offices had been started. Many educated young men were absorbed in offices as clerks and in mills and factories as skilled workers. Uneducated and unskilled men were being absorbed in mills and factories as labourers. But these measures have been proved inadequate.

Our government is now encouraging the revival of cottage industries in the villages. This will help many villagers to earn a living. Our Government is also trying to develop agriculture. But as yet, it has not been able to cope with the situation fully. The number of unemployed persons is increasing. So our Government should allow establishment of a large number of large and small technical and vocational institutions in the country. Only a limited number of bright young men should try to get higher education in the universities. Most young men try to enter technical or vocational institutions.

After coming out of these, they may find jobs in factories and commercial firms. For this, of course, more factories must be set up throughout the country. Unskilled labourers should be taught various traits in technical institutes. They may find jobs in factories as skilled labourers. They may also set up cottage industries in their villages. Government will have to help them with loans to start their work. It is heartening to find that our Government has already taken some steps in this direction. Nationalised banks are now giving lump sum loans to intending young persons under self employment schemes.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Unemployment: A Serious Problem

Notes
I. Consequence of Unemployment
(i) poverty
(ii) low morale
(iii) high crime rate
(iv) discontent

II. Causes of Unemployment
(i) rapid growth of ppltn
(ii) prevailing system of edu
(a) prepares young people to be clerks
(iii) underdevelopment of indty & trade

III. Remedy: Role of Government
(i) follow up 5-yr plans
(a) set up many factories
(b) create more job optnts
(ii) allow vocational & technical institutions to open
(iii) help unskilled to become skilled
(iv) revive cottage industries
(v) give loans for self-employment

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
ppltn population
edu education
Indty industry
yr year
& and
optnts opportunities

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
The consequences of unemployment, a serious problem in India, are poverty, low morale, high crime rate and discontent in the population. The causes of unemployment are rapid growth of population, the prevailing system of education which prepares young people to be clerks, and underdevelopment of industry and trade. The remedy is that ‘ the role of Government should change: it should follow up the 5-yr plans by setting up many factories to create more job opportunities. It should allow vocational and technical institutions to open to help the unskilled become skilled. Government should revive cottage industries by giving loans for self-employment.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 5

Depression is a common problem of modern times. Both the rich and poor suffer from it. According to the World Health Organisation, by the year 2020, depression will become the second leading cause of disease in the world. Many solutions have been prescribed for the problem of depression but most have proved to be ineffective as a complete cure. They may offer temporary relief but fail to resolve the problem permanently.

Meditation is often advised to treat this problem of depression. But meditation focuses on the heart and modern science has established that the heart is merely an organ that pumps blood, whereas many kinds of depression stem from the mind. It is the mind that controls the heart and not vice-versa. In many cases, depression is non-physical and the heart is physical. How can a physical organ resolve a non-physical problem?

We also often hear about physical techniques to counter depression. But the reach of physical techniques is confined to the body and does not extend to the mind.

Many kinds of depression are the result of non-acceptance of reality. The real solution to this problem is the acceptance of reality. While non-acceptance creates the problem, acceptance of reality will solve it.

Our world is one of freedom, competition, challenge and clash of interests. This nature of human life is bound to create problems. No one is exempt from this process. This being so, to de-stress, learn the art of stress management rather than trying to eliminate the stress.

A person may become sad upon facing a loss in business or feeling discriminated against at work. He may give in to anxiety and frustration if he suffers a loss in an election, his love marriage turns into a problem or if he is offended by criticism. In all such cases, a person becomes negative because of being unaware of the real cause. He attributes the cause to another person and holds this person responsible for his difficulties. He fails to realise that all these are due to the law of nature.

If you attribute the cause of the problem to the divine law of nature, it will arouse no negativity, but when you attribute it to a person, it brings on negative thinking. This is because the law of nature is not your rival, whereas you see a person as your competitor. When you attribute the cause of your problem to a rival, it will invariably arouse negative thoughts and cause anger. But when you attribute the cause to the law of nature, because it is not your rival and is equal in its treatment of all, it will lead to introspection.

When you follow nature-based thinking instead of man-based thinking, you will try to discover its wisdom and will realise that whatever has happened is for your betterment. It was to activate your mind and enhance its creativity. It was a means of developing a realistic approach, fostering incentive, making you realise your mistake and helping you to re-plan practically.

When this thought comes to you, your mind will automatically change from negative to positive. You will be grateful towards the law of nature for bestowing this blessing in disguise. This thought will eliminate your stress and you will be able to live normally. This is a good way to help de-stress the mind.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Depression: Accept It, Tackle It

Notes
I. Depression
(i) common prblm of modern times
(ii) acc to WFIO, will soon become second leading disease,
(iii) prescribed soln
(a) offer temporary relief
(iv) no permanent cure

II. Kinds of Depression and its Cure
(i) non-acceptance of reality
(a) soln – acceptance of reality
(ii) Clash of interests
(a) soln – learn stress mgmt

III. Causes of Stress/Depression
(i) atrbt to another person cause of prblm
(ii) fail to realise law of nature

IV. Ways to De-Stress
(i) atrbt prblm to the divine law of nature
(ii) don’t atrbt cause of problem to a person
(iii) follow nature-based thinking
(iv) this causes realisation that
(a) whatever hpnd is for betterment
(b) means of dvlpg a realistic approach
(c) fostering incentive
(d) helping you to re-plan
(e) understanding mistake
(v) realisation eliminates stress

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
prblm problem
acc according
WHO World Health Organisation
soln solution
mgmt management
atrbt attribute
hpnd happened
dvlpg developing

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
According to the World Health Organisation, depression is expected to become the second leading cause of disease in the world. Prescribed solutions offer temporary relief but offer no permanent solution. The cause is non-acceptance of reality or clash of interests.

Solutions are acceptance of reality and learning to manage stress. Stress is caused by attributing problems to other persons instead of understanding the law of nature. One should realise that whatever has happened is for the betterment. This enables development of a realistic approach to the problem and helps in re-planning. This realisation eliminates stress.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 6

In Indian homes, the floor of the house is always the best maintained element, cleaned twice a day and wiped down to a sparkling state. In front of the threshold of the home the floor often is decorated with Rangoli and other ritual diagrams. This is true in rural as well as in many urban homes in metropolitan cities. When building a new home, people spend as much money per square foot for a beautiful floor as they would spend on the entire structure. Yet, this pride and obsession for a clean floor suddenly vanish as we step out into the street: the floor of the city.

In Delhi, where 80 percent of the people are pedestrians in some stage of their commuting, least attention is paid to pedestrian paths. Delhi’s sidewalks are too narrow, very poorly maintained and full of potholes, poles, junction boxes and dangerous electrical installations, not to speak of the garbage dumps that stink and stare at the pedestrian. Ashram Chowk is a good case in point where thousands of pedestrians change direction from the Mathura Road radial to the Ring Road. A flyover facilitates the automobiles while the pedestrian is orphaned by the investment-hungry authorities.

One corner of Ashram Chowk has a ridiculous imitation wood sculpture with an apology of a fountain, and across the same chowk, you have the open mouthed, massive garbage dump right on the pedestrian path, in full exhibition for the benefit of the public. These symbols of poor taste and abject apathy are then connected by narrow, dangerous and often waterlogged footpaths for the hapless pedestrians to negotiate. In the night, street lighting in the central median lights up the carriageway for cars and leaves the pedestrian areas in darkness.

Delhi’s citizens leave home and want to get to their destination as fast as they can. No one wants to linger on the road; no leisure walks; no one looks a stranger in the eye. It is on the pedestrian path that the citizen encounters head-on the poor public management and the excuse called ‘multiplicity of authorities’. One agency makes the road, another digs it up to lay cables, a third one comes after months to clear up the mess and the cycle of unaccountability goes on.

Meanwhile crores are spent in repairing the carriageway for vehicles and in construction of flyovers without a care for the pedestrians below. The solution offered is to make an expensive underpass or an ugly foot over bridge, ostensibly for facilitating the pedestrian, while in reality it only facilitates the cars to move faster at the expense of the pedestrians. Take Kashmiri Gate, ITO, Ashram Chowk, AIIMS or Dhaula Kuan. At all these important pedestrian cross-over points the story is the same: they have pulled the sidewalk from under the pedestrians’ feet.

In modern cities across the world, the pedestrian is king. The floor of the city is designed and maintained as an inclusive environment, helping the physically challenged, the old and the infirm, children and the ordinary citizen to move joyfully across the city. Delhi aspires to be a ‘world class city’. Hopefully the authorities would look once again at the floor of Delhi. The pleasure of strolling on the sidewalks is deeply connected to our sense of citizenship and sense of belonging. Pride in the city grows only on a well designed floor of the city.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Delhi’s Neglected Pedestrians

Notes
I. Floors in Indian homes
(i) well mntnd
(ii) clnd twice a day
(iii) decorated
(iv) home buyers invest on good floors
(v) streets neglected in cmprsn

II. Delhi’s Pedestrian Sidewalks
(i) most people use them for some time
(ii) sdwks poorly made and cltrd due to
(a) potholes
(b) dangerous electrical installations
(c) garbage dumps
(d) being too narrow
(e) waterlogging
(f) dug up due to ‘multiplicity of authorities’
(iii) crossings facilitate vehicles, not pdstns
(iv) lighting on roads, not on sdwks
(v) spending more on road users than pdstns

III. Roads in Other Modern Cities
(i) roads designed for all categories of pdstns
(ii) give them a sense of belonging
(iii) Delhi authorities should improve the situation

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
mntnd maintained
clnd cleaned
cmprsn comparison
sdwks sidewalks
cltrd cluttered
pdstns pedestrians

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
Floors in Indian homes are well maintained and decorated. Home buyers invest on good floors, but in comparison, the streets are neglected. Delhi’s pedestrian sidewalks, used by most people, are poorly made and cluttered due to various installations or remaining dug up due to a ‘multiplicity of authorities’.

Road crossings facilitate vehicles, not pedestrians, with lighting on roads, not on sidewalks and spending more on road users than on pedestrians. In contrast, modern cities worldwide are better, with roads designed for all categories of pedestrians, . which give them a sense of belonging. Delhi authorities should thus work on improving the situation.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 7

India is surrounded by water bodies on three sides, yet we face water shortage every year! Consider this – the per capita water availability in India was 3450 cu m in 1951. By 2025, the annual per capita availability of water is expected to fall drastically from the current 1800 cu m per person to between 1200 and 1500 cu m.

Mumbai’s demand for water was 7950 MLD (million litres per day) in 2011. The supply was only around 3100 MLD – a substantial shortfall, but the city receives only 2500 MLD, the balance being lost on account of leakages and pilferage. Delhi Jal Board is able to supply only around 650 million gallons of water per day against the demand of 750 million gallons. According to a World Bank study of 27 Asian cities with population of over one million, Kolkata is the fourth worst performing metro in terms of hours of water availability per day.

The quality of available water is also fast deteriorating. In 1982 it was reported that 70 percent of all available water in India was polluted. The situation is much worse today. Over-extraction of ground water has led to salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers. It has also resulted in problems of excessive fluoride, iron, arsenic and salinity in water, which is currently affecting about 44 million people in India. Ground water is facing an equally serious threat from contamination by industrial effluents and faecal matter, as well as pesticides and fertilisers from farm run-offs.

Unless priority is given quickly to creating an infrastructure to assure availability of water, there may soon be no water to meet the agricultural, domestic and industrial needs of a population that will has tripled in 50 years to one and a quarter billion.

Water management is therefore a major challenge for town planners, builders and architects today, not just in terms of availability of water, but most importantly its quality.

As water shortage increases, alternate sources of water supply are gaining importance. These include sewage recycling, rainwater harvesting, generating water from humidity in the atmosphere etc. Water recycling is a simple, effective and economical solution to conserve water so that more fresh water is available for uses such as drinking, bathing, cooking and laundry.

Rajesh Sharma, Managing Director, Ion Exchange (India) Ltd, opines, “Population, industrialisation and pollution are putting pressure on our limited fresh water resources. There is a limit to increasing water supply because we are running out of sources and the cost of additional facilities is prohibitive. Moreover as industry, which pays heavily for the water it uses, recycles more and more of it, it will be increasingly difficult for municipalities to find the money for subsidy.

Sewage recycle would help reduce infrastructural costs on public water supply systems as well as avoid heavy losses of water through leakages during distribution through public supply pipelines. The best way to solve water scarcity, therefore, is by conserving water and recycling it wherever possible. Recycling must be made mandatory for all new projects – industrial or domestic. It should be promoted for existing buildings also. Apart from priority to watershed development, rainwater harvesting and water recycling, another area we need to address is optimising use of water in agriculture (which uses 70% of the fresh water available) through drip irrigation etc.”

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Tackling Water Scarcity

Notes
I. Water Availability Status
(i) per capita in India: 3450 cu m 951) reduced to1800 cum (today) and will reduce to 1200-1500 cu m (2025)
(ii) Mumbai’s dmd more than triple of supply
(iii) Delhi’s dmd is 15% more than supply
(iv) Kolkata 4th worst performing metro in Asia for water supply

II. Quality of Available Water
(i) groundwater constantly dtrtg
(a) salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers
(b) excessive fluoride, arsenic, iron and salinity
(c) polluted by
– industrial effluents
– faecal matter
– pesticides and fertilisers from farm run-offs

III. Howto Handle the Problems
(i) water mgmt major problem
(ii) promote alternate sources
(a) sewage recycling
(b) rainwater harvesting
(c) water gnrtn from atmospheric humidity
(iii) effective and economical solution to conserve water

IV. Opinion of MD, Ion Exchange (India)
(i) prsr on fresh water resources due to
(a) t population
(b) industrialisation
(c) water pollution
(ii) additional facilities cost prohibitive
(iii) cannot subsidise
(iv) solns suggested
(a) conserve & recycle water
(b) watershed development
(c) optimise use in agriculture

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
dmd demand
dtrtg deteriorating
mgmt management
gnrtn generation
MD Managing Director
prsr pressure
T increasing
solns solutions
& and

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
Water availability in India is falling steadily, particularly in the metros. The quality of available water is also deteriorating, with 70 per cent of water being polluted due to salinity and excessive presence of fluorides, iron and arsenic. Groundwater is contaminated by industrial effluents, faecal matter and agricultural run-offs.

According to the Managing Director, Ion Exchange (India), we need to prioritise water availability through sewage recycling, rainwater harvesting, water generation from atmospheric humidity etc. In addition watershed development should be done and water use in agriculture must be optimised.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 8

There is nothing more frustrating than when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand, you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Samuel Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various facts of your physical and internal environment,” she adds.

To begin with, one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focused thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours, identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library. In case you are living in a market area, you may want to study at a time when the market is not open.

She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh. “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books.

Also do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one should try and provide as litde stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh.

The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of time. The human mind recognises fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more th^n random thoughts. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focused system will follow.

She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to.

For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.

Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build ’ your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects.

More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:
(a) Title Concentration Techniques

Notes
I. Enhance your Concentration
(i) avoid wdrg thoughts
(ii) idfy phsl & int env
(iii) create focus
(iv) plan study hrs time and Ictn

II. Avoid
(i) distractive env
(ii) divide schedule
(iii) actvtg two senses

III. Setting Goals
(i) fix goals & targets
(ii) study near window
(iii) attempt dfclt tasks first

IV. Discipline your Mind
(i) avoid working long at a stretch
(ii) take very short breaks
(iii) don’t relax too long
(iv) practice & patience help

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
wdrg wandering
idfy identify
phsl physical
& and
int internal
env environment
hrs hours
Ictn location
actvtg activating
> more than
dfclt difficult

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Answer:
It is very frustrating to lose concentration while working. Certain techniques will definitely help to build up concentration. Firstly, the physical and internal environment should be conducive for focused thinking. Avoid noisy areas and other distractions such that not more than two of your senses are active at any time. Secondly, establish definite goals and accomplish them, thus establishing a focused system. Plan, divide and prioritise your schedule. Avoid working long stretches, taking only short breaks to improve your concentration. With patience and practice, concentration will become a lifelong habit.

Amanda Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English First Flight

In this article, we are providing Amanda Extra Questions and Answers PDF Class 10 English First Flight CBSE, Extra Questions for Class 10 English was designed by subject expert teachers.

Amanda Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English First Flight

Extract Based Questions [3 Marks each]

Read the following extracts carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Question 1.
Don’t bite your nails, Amanda!
Don’t hunch your shoulders, Amanda!
Stop that slouching and sit up straight,
Amanda!
(a) Amanda is getting instructions for what purpose?
(b) Give a synonym of ‘hunch’.
(c) What does the speaker of above lines instruct Amanda in the first stanza?
(d) What is the literary device used in the third line?
Answer:
(a) Amanda is getting instructions as a part of her upbringing. Her conduct and manners are getting refined for future purposes.
(b) Bend.
(c) Amanda is getting instructed for biting her nails and sitting lazily with her shoulders bent.
(d) Literary device used in third line is Alliteration. ‘Stop that slouching and sit up straight’.

Question 2.
(There is a languid, emerald sea, where the sole inhabitant is me – a mermaid, drifting blissfully.)
(a) Why are these lines given within brackets?
(b) Give the word from the passage which means free flowing act of going with the motion and force?
(c) What is the role of mermaid here?
(d) Which word in the extract means opposite of ‘sorrowful’?
Answer:
(a) These lines are given within brackets because they reveal the inner thoughts of Amanda. Brackets are used for visual contrast between what Amanda is saying and what her mother is instructing.
(b) Drifting means free flowing act of going with the motion.
(c) Mermaid is a part of Amanda’s fantasy in her own created world. As mermaid sails in a sea carelessly and effortlessly, similarly Amanda longs to do so in a place where she is all by herself.
(d) Blissfully is opposite of sorrowful.

Question 3.
Don’t eat that chocolate, Amanda!
Remember your acne, Amanda!
Will you please look at me when I’m speaking to you,
Amanda!
(a) Why is Amanda not looking at the speaker?
(b) Find the word in the extract which means same as consume?
(c) The speaker is so worried about acne. What does it show?
(d) Which word in the extract means the same as ‘to gaze’? [CBSE 2016]
Answer:
(a) Amanda is lost in her own thoughts and is paying no attention to instructions being given to her. That is why she is not looking at the speaker.
(b) Eat means same as consume.
(c) Speaker being worried about acne shows how much importance is given to physical beauty in a household. Amanda is prepared for the unforeseen future. Natural experience such as acne is also taken care of at any cost.
(d) To look means the same as ‘to gaze’.

Question 4.
(I am an orphan, roaming the street,
I pattern soft dust with my hushed, bare feet.
The silence is golden, the freedom is sweet.)
(a) How come silence is golden?
(b) Give a synonym of ‘roaming’.
(c) What is Amanda upto in this stanza?
(d) What poetic device is used in this stanza?
Answer:
(a) Silence is shown golden using the poetic device metaphor. By making silence golden the poet is estimating the worth of silence. For Amanda seeks peace and calmness, which is absent in her reality.
(b) Wandering.
(c) Amanda is again taking refuge in her imagination. Here, she wishes to be an orphan, away from her nagging parents. Amanda wants to roam aimlessly in streets and draw patterns using just her bare feet.
(d) The poet uses metaphor such as ‘orphan’, ‘silence is golden’, and ‘freedom is sweet’.

Question 5.
(I am Rapunzel, I have not a care;
life in a tower is tranquil and rare;
I’ll certainly never let down my bright hair)
(a) Does Amanda live on a tower?
(b) Why will Amanda not let down her bright hair?
(c) What is the underlying poetic device used in this stanza?
(d) Find from the passage a word which means the same as ‘serene’.
Answer:
(a) No, Amanda stays at her place. Here, she is imagining herself to be Rapunzel who lived on a tower.
(b) Amanda is aware about the story of Rapunzel. In the story of Rapunzel all the mishappening and misfortunes are brought to her by letting down the hair. Amanda also wishes to live alone apd carefree, without any disturbance.
(c) Poet uses allusion here as the underlying poetic device.
(d) The word is ‘tranquil’.

Question 6.
Stop that sulking at once, Amanda!
You’re always so moody, Amanda!
Anyone would think that I nagged at you,
Amanda!
(a) Is Amanda really sulking?
(b) Why does the speaker care for others?
(c) Give the word from the passage which means same as unstable.
(d) What poetic device has been used in the first line of this stanza?
Answer:
(a) Amanda is not sulking. She just doesn’t care about instructions given to ber as she is lost in a world of her own.
(b) The whole poem revolves around the aspect that how one is presented in a society. Speaker doesn’t wish to be regarded as a nagging parent in the society, so Amanda is expected to put up a happy face all the time.
(c) Moody means same as unstable.
(d) ‘Alliteration’ has been used in the first line; words ‘stap’ and ‘sulking’ start with the same sound.

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Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks each]

Question 1.
Write a short note on the title of the poem?
Answer:
The title of the poem is Amanda as it revolves around the upbringing of little girl named Amanda. Her life is full of struggles where she is denied freedom and expression. Amanda is so much irate that she escapes reality by living in her imaginative world. Through this gateway she experiences calmness, away from her nagging parents.

Question 2.
Why is Amanda getting scolded for having chocolate?
Answer:
Amanda is getting scolded for having chocolates as previously it had caused her acne. Amanda’s mother is very particular about such things.
Amanda is made conscious about her physical appearance. It is very sad that at such a young age Amanda is made to worry about natural experiences.

Question 3.
How life on a tower would be different from life anywhere else for Amanda?
Answer:
Life on tower for Amanda would be very different from her reality. Just like Rapunzel, even she desires to live on top of a tower, away from everyday chaos. Amanda suffers due to the constant nagging from her parents. She seeks a place full of peace and serenity, where there is no one to disturb her. Hence, she wishes to live on a tower.

Question 4.
Why does Amanda seem moody most of the times? [CBSE 2016]
Answer:
Amanda seems moody most of the time because she is trying to make an escape from her sorry reality where she is nagged most of the times. It is indeed a sorry state for a small child like Amanda to bear. Here the only defence against such reality is her imagination where she often escapes to.
Hence, it makes her look moody and uninterested.

Question 5.
Why does Amanda wish to be a mermaid, an orphan, or Rapunzel?
Answer:
Amanda wishes to be a mermaid so she could drift alone by blissfully languid, emerald sea. She yearns to be an orphan so that she is able to roam the sea and make pattern using her bare feet. Being Rapunzel means she could live carefree on a high tower. Amanda wishes to be these so that she could avoid her suffocating reality.

Question 6.
How does it help Amanda to be an orphan?
Answer:
Amanda feels troubled around her parents, so she wishes herself to be an orphan. As then only she could live a life of her own without much hassle.

Question 7.
Do you consider Amanda’s mother to be a nagging mother?
Answer:
Amanda’s mother is indeed a nagging mother. She is all about instructions and finding faults. No doubt it is her responsibility to instil good values into her daughter, but not at the cost of her child’s happiness. One should know how to strike a balance between maintaining responsibilities and taking good care.

Question 8.
Is Amanda at fault at all?
Answer:
Amanda is not at fault at all. It is too harsh for a small child to understand the concept of acne and not eating a chocolate. Love of parents is missing from Amanda’s life. It is with pity that we look towards Amanda. There is nothing worst for a child who wishes to be an orphan. Amanda just seeks freedom from the overpowering environment around her.

Question 9.
What is the central theme of the poem Amanda?
Answer:
The poem Amanda by Robin Klein highlights the importance of upbringing of a child. It points out that upbringing doesn’t involve making a child responsible and fit for the society only. It is important to note that upbringing involves understanding from both the sides. One cannot just force a child to be civilised and good mannered. “Love and proper care is required in nurturing of a child.

Long Answer (Value Based) Type Questions [4 Marks each]

Question 1.
Discuss the importance of proper upbringing with reference to the poem Amanda by Robin Klein.
Answer:
Upbringing plays an essential role in personality development of an adult. Whenever we wish to admire or criticise someone we question the upbringing of that person. Robin Klein’s poem Amanda highlights the tension in the ‘proper’ upbringing of a child. To instil good values and moral principles in a growing child comes as a foremost duty for the parents. However, the poem Amanda shows how a child feels trapped within the cluster of instructions. Amanda is no less than a victim in this travesty. No proper space is given to her creativity. She is instructed for everything. As a result, she feels trapped and seeks an escape. Her imagination proves to be her escape and also her defence against her nagging parents. Situation of Amanda is so worse that she wishes to be an orphan, in order to get rid of her parents. She imagines enacting various roles varying from mermaid to Rapunzel. Amanda wishes to live alone and carefree. It is very important to understand the situation of Amanda where her freedom is cut short by constant instructions and guidelines. Proper balance should be maintained when dealing with such delicate issues. Love and care should always be part of this two way transaction.

Question 2.
How does Amanda tackle the nagging nature of her parents? Explain with examples from the poem. What values does it portray about Amanda?
Answer:
Amanda is a small girl who is termed as moody for her careless behaviour. But it is very surprising to know that this is her
defence mechanism to shield against her nagging parents. Amanda is getting instructions from her parents, which become too much to handle for the small girl. She is told not to eat her nails and sit in a proper position. Amanda’s response to it is her work of imagination where she is a mermaid drifting effortlessly by the languid river. Further, she is asked about cleaning her room and finishing her homework to which she reacts being an orphan roaming in the street and making patterns with her bare feet. Amanda then faces the heat for eating a chocolate, which had once caused her acne. She takes the form of Rapunzel and wishes to live on top of a tower away from everyone in her imagination. Amanda’s parents are upset over her behaviour and casualness, but she stays in her own world. All these portray Amanda in a positive light while her parents in a negative light. We as readers feel very sorry for a child like Amanda.

Question 3.
State the key points in the poem Amanda. What do you learn from it? [CBSE2016]
Answer:
Every child is special in itself, and it requires a great deal of patience and love to make them understand this. Parents should give proper space to children, as they learn through experiences as well. Children do tend to learn certain bad habits, to undo that requires great level of understanding and right approach. One cannot teach their child everything in one day and expect them to behave properly henceforth. It is natural for a child like Amanda to seek freedom at her place, to curb that freedom means to make her angry and moody. Growing up of child should not be about dos and don’ts only. To have nagging parents judging every action of child would do more harm than good. Robin Klein points to the fact that Amanda is forbidden to do anything without seeking permission. Everything she does it is corrected by her mother all the time, she cannot perform a single thing according to her will. She can’t sit lazily around, she can’t eat chocolate for that could cause acne. Life of Amanda is very suffocating and limited in itself. She yearns for freedom and choice. Her mother doesn’t understand the fact that Amanda is innocent and naive, she is too small to understand the benefits of advice. Only thing that matters to Amanda’s mother is what society will make of Amanda. We witness miserable failure of parents when Amanda wishes to be an orphan so that she could be free.

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Footprints without Feet Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet

In this article, we are providing Footprints without Feet Extra Questions and Answers PDF Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet CBSE, Extra Questions for Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet was designed by subject expert teachers.

Footprints without Feet Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet

Extract Based Questions [3 Marks each]

Read the following extracts carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Question 1.
As they gazed, a remarkable sight met their eyes. A fresh footmark appeared from nowhere! Further footprints followed, one after another, descending the steps and progressing down the street.
(a) Who are ‘they’ in the above extract?
(b) Who is making these footprints?
(c) Find the word from the extract that means the same as ‘continuing’.
(d) What is the opposite of ‘remarkable’?
Answer:
(a) ‘They’ in the above extract are two boys on a street in London.
(b) The scientist Griffin, who has become invisible, is making these footprints.
(c) The word is ‘progressing’.
(d) Its opposite is ‘ordinary’.

Question 2.
The air was bitterly cold and he could not do without clothes. Instead of walking about the streets he decided to slip into a big London store for warmth.
(a) Who is ‘he’ in the above extract?
(b) Why was the air bitterly cold?
(c) Find a word from the extract that means the same as ‘quietly enter’
(d) What is the opposite of ‘warmth’?
Answer:
(a) ‘He’ in the above extract is Griffin, the invisible scientist.
(b) The air was bitterly cold because the season was mid-winter.
(c) The word is ‘slip’.
(d) Its opposite is ‘chill’.

Question 3.
They naturally gave chase. In the end he was able to escape only by quickly taking off his newly found clothes. So once more he found himself invisible but naked in the chill January air.
(a) Who are ‘they’ and ‘he’ referred to in the above extract?
(b) Why has the author used the phrase ‘once more’?
(c) Find a word from the extract that means the same as ‘run away’.
(d) What is the opposite of ‘invisible’?
Answer:
(a) ‘They’ are the shop assistants and ‘he’ is the invisible scientist, Griffin.
(b) The author has used the phrase ‘once more’ because Griffin was naked before he had entered the large store, from where he had taken the ‘newly found’ clothes.
(c) The word is ‘escape’.
(d) Its opposite is ‘visible’.

Question 4.
Suspicion grew even stronger when he suddenly produced some ready cash, though he had admitted not long before that he had no money. [CBSE 2014]
(a) Who is ‘he’ in the above extract?
(b) What was ‘he’ suspected for?
(c) Find a word / phrase from the extract that means the same as ‘money’.
(d) Give a synonym of ‘suddenly’.
Answer:
(a) ‘He’ in the above extract is Griffin, the invisible scientist.
(b) ‘He’ was suspected for having a role in the burglary at the clergyman’s home.
(c) The phrase is ‘ready cash’.
(d) Its synonym is ‘immediately’.

Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks each]

Question 1.
Why were the two boys in London surprised and fascinated?
Answer:
The two boys in London were surprised and fascinated when they saw fresh muddy footprints of a human being on the steps of a house, but no man was there making them! As they looked, a fresh footprint appeared from nowhere.

Question 2.
Why did Griffin decide to slip into a big London store? [CBSE 2011]
Answer:
Griffin decided to slip into a big London store, because the season was mid-winter, due to which it became difficult to wander around without clothes in London.

Question 3.
How was Griffin a lawless man?
Answer:
Griffin was lawless because he had committed many anti-social deeds for which he never felt guilty. He set fire to his landlord’s house and ran away, he stole ‘ foodstuffs and clothes from a London store, stole other goods from a theatrical company and also stole money from a clergyman’s house to pay his bills.

Question 4.
What did Griffin do in the shop of a theatrical company? [CBSE 2012]
Answer:
The second time Griffin tried the stock of a theatrical company in the hope of finding not only clothes but also something like side whiskers, glasses, false nose, bandages, hat etc that would hide the empty space above his shoulders.

Question 5.
How did Griffin find himself invisible but naked in the chill January air for the second time?
Answer:
As he had overslept in the big London store, when the store opened in the morning the store assistants came in. Griffin panicked and ran, chased by the assistants. He had to take off his newly found clothes to become invisible and escape, so that he found himself invisible but naked in the chill January air for the second time.

Question 6.
What did the Halls see in the scientist’s room? [CBSE 2013]
Answer:
As the door of the room was open and nobody appeared to be inside, the Halls entered the scientist’s room. They saw that the bedclothes were cold, showing that the scientist must have been up for some time; and stranger still, the clothes and bandages that he always wore were lying about the room.

Question 7.
How did the visible man become invisible? What did he do then? [CBSE 2014]
Answer:
The invisible man got angry with Mrs Hall for asking an explanation for the mysterious happenings and threw off all he was wearing on his head so that he became a man without a head. Soon the constable Jaffers arrived to arrest him, but the invisible man threw off all his clothes to become invisible and, in the ensuing scuffle, knocked Jaffers unconscious and escaped.

Question 8.
What happened to Jaffers when he tried to catch the invisible scientist?
Answer:
When constable Jaffers tried to catch Griffin, he became invisible by removing his clothes. Jaffers found himself struggling with someone who couldn’t be seen. He was hit blows by Griffin and soon was knocked unconscious.

Question 9.
What was the explanation of ‘mystery’? (Footprints Without Feet)
Answer:
The two boys followed muddy footprints being made fresh without seeing anybody making the prints, which was a ‘mystery’ for them. The explanation was that the bewildered boys had been following a scientist who had just discovered how to make the human body transparent, and thus invisible, by swallowing certain drugs.

Long Answer (Value Based) Type Questions [8 Marks each]

Question 1.
Griffin was not a true scientist as he misused his scientific discovery. Illustrate this point by giving two incidents from the story.
Answer:
A true scientist is a law-abiding person. A scientist is also called a ‘natural philosopher’. Griffin was not a true scientist as he did not use his discovery of how to make himself invisible for good uses. He lost control of himself and behaved like a criminal. First, he set fire to his landlord’s house and ran away. Then he stole food without paying for it in a London store. Besides, he robbed the owner of a theatrical company and stole money from a clergyman’s desk.

Question 2.
Describe the landlord’s and his wife’s experience with the strange scientist. [CBSE 2016]
Answer:
Both Mrs Hall and her husband were
surprised to find the scientist’s room door open because normally it was always locked. So they peeped in, but found nobody there. The clothes and bandages that he always wore were lying about the room. Suddenly Mrs Hall heard a sniff close to her ear and the hat on the bedpost
leapt up and dashed itself into her face. Then the bedroom chair sprang into the air and pushed them both out of the room and then appeared to slam and lock the door after them. Mrs Hall became hysterical and almost fell down the stairs. She thought that her furniture was haunted. They decided to confront the scientist next time when they met him.

Question 3.
What impression do you form of Griffin after reading the lesson, “Footprint,without Feet”?
Answer:
Griffin was a brilliant scientist, as he discovered a drug due to which his body became transparent as a sheet of glass after swallowing it. This made him invisible. But he was a lawless person. Because of his misdeeds, he became a homeless wanderer without clothes and money. He was an introvert with a desire for solitude. He was always seeking adventure, being fond of mysterious things. However, he was unscrupulous, as he robbed various people to finance his work, besides he got angry very quickly, which caused him to become a fugitive.

Question 4.
If, somehow you discovered how to become invisible, how would you use that opportunity? [CBSE 2015]
Answer:
If I discovered how to become invisible, I would use this opportunity to punish all those people who cause trouble to others for their own selfish motives. I would catch them and hand them over to the police without letting them know that I was behind them. I will also help the law-enforcing agencies when they conduct raids on criminal hideouts, as I will be able to move in the open without fear of being seen. This will help the people of the country to become more law-abiding citizens.

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Debate Writing for Class 12 CBSE Format, Examples, Topics, Samples

Debate Writing for Class 12 CBSE Format, Examples, Topics, Samples

A debate is a formal discussion on a particular theme or topic. It is mostly conducted in a public setting in which people present their opposing arguments for or against a particular theme or topic.

Looking for an easy way to learn English Grammar? then you are in right place. Here we providing basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc…

Debate Writing for Class 12 Format, Examples, Topics, Samples

A debate is a contest in the form of an argument, in favour of or against a motion. It is usually between two persons or two teams.

Debate Points to Remember

  1. Collect information related to the topic both in favour and against it.
  2. Read reference books.
  3. Discuss the topic with peer group or seniors.
  4. Collect authentic dnta and try to add the points which are beyond rebuttal.
  5. Use simple and short sentences.
  6. Address the audience.
  7. Use. questions, phrases and quotes.

Debate Writing Examples For Class 12 With Answers CBSE

Format Of Debate Writing Examples

Question 1.
Write a debate in 150 – 200 words either for or against the motion: ‘Capital Punishment should be abolished’.
Answer:

FOR THE MOTION

Good morning honourable judges, my fellow competitors and worthy audience.

Today, I, Deepak Raj, am going to express my views in favour of the motion, ‘capital punishment should be abolished’.

Friends, I feel that capital punishment is a brutal, outdated concept that must J?e abolished in the name of civilised society. The death penalty is the harsh form of punishment in the world today.

So, the role of the death penalty as a form of deterrence is absolutely a myth. The ‘rarest of the rare’ phrase is explained by the law commission, as being arbitrary and subject to the judge ascertaining a murder case. More importantly, it has kept the capital punishment in the context of the country’s flamed criminal justice system.

In fact, my objection to death penalty or capital punishment is an objection only to the taking of lives, but not to the idea of punishment as such.

So, friends, capital punishment should be abolished because it has cultural, moral and economic aspects. Taking lives is inhumane and it also affects economically weaker sections of the society.

Hence, I suggest the scrapping of capital punishment of all crimes except terrorism related offences.

Thank you.

Against the Motion Debate

Good morning honourable judges, my fellow competitors and dear friends. I, Anuj Gupta, stand before you to speak against the motion. Friends, my wise opponent has highlighted the some positive aspects of abolition of capital punishment. But, I think that capital punishment should not at all be abolished.

As you see’that after the abolition of capital punishment in some countries, did the crime rate increase or decrease in the country?

Statistics show that murderers after release from the prison commit murders rampantly. So, friends! you realize the gravity of the situation. If capital punishment is made illegal, the criminals will be at liberty to commit crimes in the country. Obviously the terrorists will attack the country. Drug trafficking, treason and murder rate will increase, only capital punishment as imposed by the government can control the situation. So, friends, for the defence of the country, capital punishment must not be abolished. We must respect capital punishment and the idea of retribution, i.e. severe punishment for crime.

Thank you.

Question 2.
“Rising prices can be controlled only by the Government”. Write a debate in 150 – 200 words either for or against the motion.
Answer:

For The Motion

Good morning, honourable judges, ladies and gentlemen. The topic before the house is “Rising prices can be controlled only by the government”.

The Central government under attack from the opposition and the common people at large has failed to bring about acche din as promised by it earlier. While the blame game continues, the fact that ‘rising prices can only be controlled by government’, is well established and thus I speak for the motion.

Money is the lifeblood of commerce. For the market to operate, we need to ensure a stable, non – inflationary currency. Inflation, a monetary phenomenon, is an increase in money and credit. The government creates new money in order to cover what it spends in excess of its income. The existence of an unbalanced budget is a frequent reason for this and the government is solely responsible for this.

The basic cause of rising prices is the government’s unwillingness to cut its spending or to raise the funds it desires by increasing taxation or by borrowing from the public.

The people who suffer the most is the aam admi or the common man. Inflation is a type of tax that falls on citizens in the form of higher prices for what he purchases.

We clearly win the debate here, because we totally reject the theory that growth is required at any cost. The failure of the government pushes the poor into severe poverty. The poorest of the poor do not know the high GDP of 8 – 9% but they do know the prices of onions and potatoes and the government makes deliberate attempts to increase the same.

Thus we have established that it is only in the hands of the government to control the rising prices.

Thank you

Against the Motion Debate

Good morning, honourable judges, ladies and gentlemen. The topic before the house is “Rising prices can be controlled only by the government”. I am going to speak against the motion.

The tragedy of our times is that we have an opposition which seems to be having a myopic view on all issues and wants to blame the government for everything. Even an attempt to say that “Rising prices can only be controlled by the government”, is a reflection of lack of information and understanding of market economics.

It is not solely in the government’s hands to control the prices of goods. One of the major factors for increasing prices is the rapid growth of population coupled with increase in income of a sizeable part of population. It has led to an increase in demand for goods and services. This process, unaccompanied by a corresponding increase in the consumer goods, raises the price level. A major cause of inflation is hoarding and blackmarketeering in essential goods. The prices of onions and pulses are an example. Industrial production has also not been adequate, results in rising prices. The ongoing crises in the Middle East have resulted in the increase in the price of oil in the International market. It is not in the hands of the government to control the situation.

Thank you!

Question 3.
‘Private cars should be banned in the congested commercial areas of the cities.’ Write a debate in 150 – 200 words either for or against the motion.
Answer:
Private Cars Should Be Banned in the Congested Commercial Areas of Cities

For The Motion Debate

Respected jury members, dear teachers, friends ancf worthy opponents.

I stand here to speak for the motion as I believe that it’s time we and the government did something about it. Numerous studies have shown that vehicular pollution is on the rise and so is the traffic. While the use of cars cannot be stopped or reduced drastically as it is a transport of convenience, but can be banned in the congested commercial areas of cities.

The advantages of implementing the ban is that it will lead to less congestion, less traffic snarls, no frayed tempers and no road rage incidents. Secondly, less vehicles would mean less exhaust emission and less time wasted on roads which in turn will increase the efficiency of people. Let my opponents not forget that banning cars in the congested areas will also reduce the noise pollution which has reached alarming levels, the space for movement will be more and the vehicles carrying goods in the commercial hubs will ply with more ease thereby saving time too.

To conclude, this step should be taken at the earliest as it will immensely benefit the people of the commercial areas and become a path – breaking example for others to follow suit.

Against the Motion Debate

Respected jury members, dear teachers, friends and worthy opponents.

At the very outset, I would like to remind my worthy opponent that a total ban on the use of any transport in India has never worked as our country is still a developing nation. How will banning the private cars in a congested commercial area reduce the pollution levels? Is the pollution caused only by private cars? Another question I would like to ask is – what about the freedom of travelling of car owners? What about the shopkeepers’ own vehicles which they require for the purpose of their work?

It seems as if the car owners are being punished for owning a car which is their right. They can use it in any way, there is no restriction of time, no waiting and it is so much more convenient than . depending on any public transport – an area, the condition of which is so dismal that it can itself generate a debate!

Though I also stand for decongestion and clean environment, banning the private cars all of a sudden without providing any alternate measures, will prove disastrous and may invite strong opposition from private car owners in commercial areas.

4. ‘Our large population is not a cause of poverty but an asset, a resource.’
Write a debate in 150 – 200 words either for or against the motion.
Answer:
Our Large Population Is Not a Cause of Poverty But an Asset, a Resource.

For The Motion Debate
Respected members of the jury, teachers, dear friends and my worthy opponents.

I stand here to speak for the motion as I feel that our large population is a boon for our country. Our country’s population is termed the young population as it is estimated that between 2020 to 2050 the average age of Indian population would be around 29 which is the most productive age for the economy to grow. Larger population can always be a big asset for the manufacturing units which thrive on their cheap labour and going by the ‘Make in India’ programme of our PM Narendra Modi, we can be a big exporter of hand – made goods where each hand will become an earning hand for the nation.

I am sure, my worthy opponents are aware of the ‘Skill India Campaign’, another initiative to make our youth skilled, so that the foreign companies invest in oqr country to offer us new projects – this ambitious project will not only provide jobs to our younger generation but also earn revenue for the country. This is possible only because we have a large untapped young population which is a big asset. I would like to end my debate by reiterating that India’s power lies in the hands of its citizens and its growing population will mark its rising power.

Against the Motion Debate

Respected members of the jury, teachers, dear friends and my worthy opponents.

I would like to begin my argument with a quote that explains it all.

Instead of controlling the environment for the benefit of the population, maybe we should control the population to ensure the survival of our environment.

– Sir David Attenborough

Dear friends, large population breeds nothing but poverty and unemployment. It becomes increasingly difficult to provide the basic facilities to a growing population. I fail to understand my opponent’s view that a huge population is an asset, in fact if anything – huge population consumes more resources thereby leading to its shortage, so how can this be an asset?

Question 6.
“A career counsellor (not you, yourself) is the best person to guide you in the choice of a career.” Write a debate in 150 – 200 words either for or against the motion.
Answer:
“A career counsellor is the best person to guide you in the choice of a career.”

For The Motion Debate

Respected Jury members, dear teachers, friends and worthy opponents.

There is no denying the truth that once we finish our school, we are faced with – what next? A student at the threshold of a new start has parents, teachers and friends as guides and each one speaks from his/her own perspective.

It is at this juncture that a career counsellor can help students to sail though the turbulent times. He/ She is the best person to guide you and help you decide your career based on your aptitude, skills, performance and personality.

I would like to bring home the point that human talent and potential is tremendous and can’t be measured as such. Each individual has his/her strengths and weaknesses. It is here that the career counsellor comes into the picture. He/She identifies that unique quality and guides one to know the different career paths, the pros and cons of each. The students can make an informed choice. Thus I would say that with the help of career counsellors, students end up choosing the best profession well suited to their needs. They perform well and ultimately succeed in life.

Against The Motion Debate

Respected Jury members, dear teachers, friends and worthy opponents.

I oppose the motion that a career counsellor is the best person to guide you in the choice of a career. I feel that patents can guide you with so much of experience behind them and the best person to guide you is you yourself. We must listen to our parents but given the generation gap and the advancement in technology, their ideas may not be in tune with present times but their wisdom and experience are priceless and one must pay heed to them.

We should decide our own careers as the passion, aptitude and interest for a particular career is best known to us and it will breed the best in us. We, as students, have a lot of exposure these days and there is knowledge boom hence, we are in a position to identify the pros and cons of choosing a particular career option to suit our potential.

I would like to close my debate by stressing the fact that a student should have the total freedom to decide his career path involving his parents, friends and other trustworthy members but taking the services of an outside (counsellor) to decide his/her future is not acceptable at any cost.

Question 7.
“Social media (Facebook, Tbitter, etc.) is being used to create disaffection in society.” Write a debate in 150 – 200 words either for or against the motion.
Answer:
For The Motion Debate

Good morning, Honourable Judges and my fellow competitors, today I’m going to express my views in – favour of the motion, “Social media is being used to create disaffection in society.”

My first question to the experts is what do they think about the social media like Facebook, Twitter, etc. Is it helpful to the teenagers or addicting them to waste their time? It is definitely an addiction of chatting for a long time and checking news feeds. Facebook, Twitter, etc. should carry a warning because the children who spend more time online social network affect their eyes and their mental health and they neglect their studies. Research findings show that more than 90% of 16 to 24 years olds use social networks. A BBC survey shows that 10 – 12 years olds have social media accounts. It is also found that girls are more affected than the boys. Of late, it is found that excessive net surfing has become a growing problem. It not only wastes study time, but also wastes time at work and at home. Teenagers now spend nearly more than three hours a week online social media than they do watching TV. Social media can cause major problem by giving false and unreliable information and is detrimental. In this way social media is being used to create disaffection in the society.

Against The Motion Debate

Good morning respected judges and my dear friends, Today, I am going to speak against the motion, “Social Media is being used to create disaffection in the society.”

Dear friends, is social networking not a new advancement in technology? Does it not make the world more open and connected? My worthy opponent might have forgotten to see the aspect of e – m,edia growth of the social media. Social media, particularly, Facebook helps direct interaction with the people all over the world. It helps us stay connected to friends and families in today’s fast paced and ever changing world. It has a great commercial viability as it is an invaluable promotional tool.

Besides, companies, artists, writers and musicians can reach diverse amount of people using social media sites. Breaking news and other important information can spread like wildfire on social media sites. The most important advantage of social media is to share our achievements and talents with the world. Maybe, social media like Facebook, Twitter, etc. have some drawbacks, but on the whole in today’s world, it has great impact on the education and the society as well.

Question 8.
“Gyms and fitness centres have reduced the importance of exercise in the park.” Write a debate in 15(1 – 200 words either for or against the motion.
Answer:
For The Motion Debate

Good morning respected judges, teachers and dear friends. Today, I am going to express my views in favour of the motion, “Gyms and fitness centres have reduced the importance of exercise in the park.” Exercise in the park is very important because it helps us mentally, physically, emotionally and spiritually. The green space in the park is associated with longevity. One can feel the sun shining on ones skin, the breeze blowing through our hair, the sights and sounds of nature guiding us in the park. In fact, exercising in the park improves energy level and decreases stress to a greater extent than exercising in a gym and fitness centre.

These days many of us go to gym and fitness centres for exercise daily. Do you think gyms and fitness centres ensure better mental and physical health of the people? Let us think logically. Maybe, gyms and fitness centres have social environment, but they can never improve our health. The decrease in stress is only feasible if we exercise in the park. Nowadays youngsters have a tendency to attend gym and fitness centres under a certified instructor, thereby reducing the importance of exercise in the park.

Against The Motion Debate

Good morning honourable judges and dear friends. I am going to speak against the motion, “Gyms and fitness centres have reduced the importance/)!’ exercise in the park.”

My worthy opponent has highly spoken about how gyms and fitness centres have reduced the importance of exercise in the park. But the story is quite different. We live in a world where we are so busy that we hardly find time to exercise in the park. However, exercising in the park provides us an opportunity to be physically active in a constantly changing environment. Parks create an opportunity for kids to enjoy themselves and interact with others.

It is gyms and fitness centres that help us to keep us fit in a social environment. Experts say that group workouts led by a certified instructor also ensure participants to get a safe and effect workout location. The benefits of many health clubs lie in the abundance of fitness classes and tailored training they offer, from yoga and Pilates, to strengthen classes and myriad cardia dance combo sessions. In fact, most of the gyms offer opportunity to do all the forms of exercise.

Besides, it does offer the ability to exercise when environment is not friendly with us. In sum, fitness centres, in other words gyms provide us safe and comfortable workout environment in order to achieve our best physique.

Question 9.
“Academic excellence is the only requirement for a successful career.” Write a debate either for or against the motion. (120-150 words)
Answer:
Academic Excellence is the only requirement for a successful career

For The Motion Debate
Hon’ble Jury members, respected teachers, dear friends and participants. I am going to speak for the motion.

If one excels academically, one may get a chance to enrol in prestigious institutions for further studies. If the marks are very high, one could get a scholarship too. And if one comes out with flying colours from such institutions, then one may be lured by big corporations who give fabulous salaries and perks as they require talented trainees for their future business plans. The growth prospects for such people in big companies is also assured. All this is possible only if one excels and achieves the highest grades ever achievable. Of course, one ought to possess other attributes like social skills, language skills, communication skills, debating skills and computer skills. But academic excellence is a perquisite first, all these attributes can be diluted.

Against The Motion Debate
Hon’ble Jury piembers, respected teachers dear friends and participants. I am going to speak against the motion.

Nowadays there is too much emphasis on academic excellence. It is said to be the sole criterion for ensuring success in life. In India, for example jobs are obtained by only those who excel in academics. In my opinion, academic excellence may be important but is not the only criterion for ensuring success in life. Ability and willpower are also some of the determiners of success. Skills can be social skills, language skills, communication skills, debating skills, and computer skills.

There is no guarantee that an individual with the most A’s or perfect grades will bag a job as some employers may employ candi¬dates based on their skills. Morever willpower of an individual is another secret to success in life. If an individual has willpower and is determined to achieve a certain goal as vision in life, he will no doubt be victorious in life.

A classic example of determination is Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, who dropped out from Harward University and worked hard with determination to become a successful computer software icon. I believe that skills, ability not willingness to work hard in one’s life are the main determinants of success in one’s life.

As the adage says: “Where there is a will there’s a way”. There is always a chance for everyone to be successful in life as long as they are willing to worlc hard to take up the challenge.

Question 10.
“Brain drain is not a bane for a developing country like India”. Write a debate in 150-200 words either for or against the motion.
Answer:
For The Motion Debate

Good morning, honourable members of the jury, my fellow competitors and worthy audience, today I’m going to express my views in favour of the motion “Brain drain is not a bane for a developing country like India”. First of all, I would like to ask how many intelligent persons go to foreign countries every year on average. Dear friends, the number is just a handful.

India, the largest democracy in the world, with a population of more than 120 billion, is a fast developing country. No doubt many students realise their dream to go abroad to study and earn a lot of money but that is just a myth. The reality is that more than 80% of the people who go abroad to study are those who are not competent enough to get admission in Indian universities. In fact, the brain drain hardly has any effect on developing countries like India because the real geniuses stay back.

A developing country like India works on its resources. The m jor resource that India has is the human resource. India is a land of geniuses and learned people and this is evident from the fact that India has done so much in the field of science and technology from Mars Mission to the latest launch of IRNSS – 1F satellite. Indian educational institutions are supposed to be among the world’s best.

Thus, a culturally diverse, economically strong, socially bonded country like India can never be affected by the trivial issue of brain drain.

Thank you

Against The Motion Debate

Good morning, honourable members of the jury, my fellow competitors and worthy audience, today I’m going to express my views against the topic “Brain drain is not a bane for a developing country like India”. Dear friends, there is absolutely no doubt that development and growth are equally proportionate to the intelligence and resourcefulness of people. In fact, for any developing country, human resources are the most important thing. How can a country progress if most of its intelligent brains have migrated to some other place? That is the crises that we all are facing these days.

We are not able to hold the brainy, intelligent, productive people in our country due to corruption and nepotism. But ‘brain drain’ has proved to be a great hindrance. Development is not possible without intelligent scientists, doctors, lawyers, businessmen, etc. but unfortunately the youth have got so frustrated with the system that they don’t want to stay in India. The work culture in our country, the incomes and lifestyles leaves much to be desired. Therefore, whoever migrates is lost to our country for ever.

This ‘brain drain’ is no doubt a bane for every developing country because it is one of the major factors which impedes the growth of a country and ultimately brings all development to a standstill,

Thank you!

Question 11.
“The Internet cannot replace a classroom teacher”. Write a debate in 150 – 200 words either for or ! against the motion.
Answer:
For The Motion Debate

Good morning, honourable judges, worthy audience and dear friends.

Classrooms are the most powerful spaces that exist in the world today. These leave a long lasting impact on the minds of individuals. As we move in a more globalized and technologically oriented world, the dilemma of morality, ethics and life is fast increasing and no Internet can answer these questions. Thus the topic that “Internet can’t replace a classroom teacher” has come at the most : appropriate time and I stand in favour of it.

The Internet or the virtual media can never answer the vastness and depth of questions that exist in the minds of the students. The Internet may give them information but it can’t teach them morality.

The bond between a teacher and a student is a human bond. It is a human connect which a computer can’t replace. The relationship between a teacher and a student is not just restricted to a classroom. A teacher is a person who is able to have a life long impact on the students. The teacher can scold, guide and understand a child’s emotions as he/she is growing up. This can’t be done by any virtual medium or by the Internet.

The essence of learning is to make individuals capable of coping with anger, anxiety, failure and success. The aim of education is to create responsible citizens which the Internet cannot do. It is only a teacher who takes full responsibility for nurturing the child.

The world today may have found its own “Google God” but the “Guru – Shishya” relationship can’t be replaced as the Internet cannot replace a classroom teacher.

Thank you

Against The Motion Debate

Good morning, honourable judges, worthy audience and dear friends.

In today’s fast moving world, where technology has taken over our lives in all ways possible, the modern-day teacher is the Internet and not the person teaching in the class. The view that ‘Internet can’t replace a classroom teacher’ is a thing of the past and is not valid today. Thus, I speak against the motion.

In today’s classroom, the students are much more aware of the world and life than the teacher is. The students have answers to all questions even before a teacher can answer them because all the answers today can be answered by the modern – day teacher, the Internet. Besides, the Internet can reach retnote areas where teachers have limited exposure to the latest.

The Internet serves not just as a teacher but as an entire library in itself. There is no question in the world which the Internet cannot answer. Internet has already replaced the classroom teacher as learning today is not dependent on the teacher. Thus, Internet has completely revolutionised the education system.

The decline in the number of talented and sincere teachers and the lack of willingness amongst people to become a teacher has paved the way for the Internet to become the new teacher. This is the main cause for the suffering of the education system but with Internet, as the new teacher, there is no problem of quality and consistency.

On the one hand, where students had to wait for the teachers to solve their doubts, now they can get their questions answered just by the click of a mouse. Their teacher is in their hands and always ready to solve their problems. The Internet is not just limited to the classroom like a teacher but it opens the world to students and allows them to learn.

Thank you

Message Writing for Class 6 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Message Writing for Class 6 Format, Examples, Topics, ExercisesA message is a short, informal piece of writing conveying information received over the telephone, public address system or in person, to a person for whom the information was intended but who was not at hand to receive the information.

In other words, it is a piece of information given by a third person to be passed on to a particular person. Messages must be brief, yet have all the information. It is usually a telephonic message that has to be reported/passed on to someone.

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Message Writing for Class 6 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises PDF

Fundamentals:

  • A message is an informal means of communication.
  • The receiver of the message has to sift through the given message and pick out the most vita! bits of information.
  • Then, he/she should be able to reproduce that information in order to convey it to the person for whom it is intended.

Characteristics:

  • Only the most important details should be written.
  • No new information should be added.
  • Grammatically correct sentences should be used.
  • Indirect or reported speech should be used.
  • The message should be presented within a box.
  • The word limit for a message is 50 words.

Format:

  • No need to write sender’s or receiver’s address.
  • Brief Salutation e.g Dear Uncle
  • Time/Date on either side of the box
  • Put the entire content in the Box.
  • Self made information should be avoided.
  • Sender’s name and Signature at the end of the passage.
  • Abbreviations and Symbols can be used.
  • Tense should be correct.

Message Writing for Class 6 CBSE Sample Example With Answer

Message Writing Format

MESSAGE

Date _____
Name (of the person for whom it is meant)
Body of the message with details
who called
why he called
follow-up if required

1. Read the following telephone conversation between Mrs Pandit and Shikha. Shikha is about to leave for school within five minutes and her mother is not at home for the moment. Write this message on behalf of Shikha.

Mrs Pandit: Hello, is that Mrs Kaushik ?
Shikha: No, I am her daughter, Shikha speaking. May I know who is speaking ?
Mrs Pandit: I am Mrs Pandit speaking from Arya Enclave. I wanted to speak to your mother urgently.
Shikha: She is not at home now, Aunt. She has just gone out. If there is some message I shall give her.
Mrs Pandit: OK, then. Please tell your mother about me. Mrs Kaushlaya and Mrs Sampat were to come today to your house at 2.30 pm. But they shall not be coming. Ask your mama to reach Mrs Gupta’s house in Green Park at 3 pm ; she knows the address. This is urgent.
Shikha: You needn’t worry, aunt. I shall leave this message on the messages slip before I go to school.
Mrs Pandit: Thank you, dear.
Shikha: Thank you, aunt.

Answer:
Message
3.3.2007
Mama
There was a telephone from Mrs Pandit. Mrs Kaushlaya, Mrs Sampat and Pandit aunty were to come to our house at 2.30 pm today. They are not coming. Mrs Pandit asked me to tell you to reach Mrs Gupta’s house in Green Park today at 3 pm positively.
Shikha

Message Writing for Class 6 CBSE Practice Examples

A. Read the telephonic conversation between Rohit and Vishal. Vishal is going for his tuition class, so he leaves a message for Manav. Write his message in not more than 50 words.

Rohit: Hello! Could I speak to Manav?
Vishal: He is not at home. May I know who is on the line?
Rohit: I am Rohit, your neighbour.
Vishal: Rohit, I am Manav’s elder brother, Vishal. How are you?
Rohit: I am fine. Could you take my message for him?
Vishal: Yes sure.
Rohit: Tell him that I need my social studies book as soon as possible that he took yesterday. I have to make a school project. Also tell him to give me guidance for the project when he comes back.
Vishal: Ok, I will convey your message.
Rohit: Thank you, Bye.

B. Read the telephonic conversation between Mrs. Sharma and Sham and later Sham leave this message for his sister, Ekta. Write the message for Sham in not more than 50 words.

Mrs. Sharma : Hello sham, Mummy here!
Sham : Yes Mom, tell me fast, I am leaving for my tennis classes.
Mrs. Sharma : Dear I am held up in the office for an urgent meeting. I won’t be home before 8.30 p.m.
Sham : Don’t worry, Ekta and I will manage.
Mrs. Sharma : Don’t fight with her and do watch her homework.
Sham : Okay mom! I will do so.
Mrs. Sharma : On my way back home I’ll carry dinner for all of us. Bye and take care.
Sham : Bye mom. Take care.

Unseen Passage For Class 8 Discursive CBSE With Answers

Discursive writing: expresses opinions. It can be argumentative, i.e. may give reasons, explanations, or explore cause and effect relationship. Passages of this kind are analytical. Sometimes the author presents his views with great depth of reasoning or force of argument with the intention of convincing the reader to his point of view. Such texts have great persuasive power.

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Unseen Passage For Class 8 Discursive CBSE With Answers

A discursive passage consists of articles that present an opinion or a reasoned argument on a topic.

Unseen Passage for Class 8 Discursive CBSE Solved Example With Answers

Economists have long recognized a persistent and unfounded belief among the population which has come to be known as the anti-foreign bias. As a result of this bias, most people systematically underestimate the economic benefits of interactions with foreign nations. Some psychologists believe that this bias is rooted in a natural distrust of the “other,” while others believe that a form of folk wisdom, seemingly in accord with common sense but nonetheless incorrect, explains the bias.

This wisdom asserts that in any transaction there is a winner and a loser and any foreign nation that wants to engage in trade must be doing so because it seeks its own advantage. But nothing could be further from truth. No less an authority than Adam Smith, one of the fathers of the modern free market system, spoke glowingly of foreign trade in his influential treatise Wealth of Nations. “What is prudence in the conduct of every private family, can scarce be folly in a great kingdom,” said Smith.

His point is simple. A baker trades his bread to the cobbler for shoes and both men benefit from the trade because of the value of specialization. The same principle works for nations. Even more startling, a basic economic theorem, the Law of Comparative Advantage, states that mutually beneficial trade is possible even if one nation is less productive than the other.

Suppose a citizen of Country X can produce either 10 computers or five bushels of wheat and a citizen of Country Y can produce either three computers or two bushels of wheat. If one citizen from Country X switches from producing wheat to computers and three citizens from Country Y switch from producing computers to wheat, there is a net gain of one computer and one bushel of wheat.

Questions
1. The passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?
(a) Arguing for an increase in trade with foreign nations.
(b) Providing a historical context for a long-standing belief.
(c) Demonstrating the fallacy of a particular way of thinking.
(d) Illustrating an economic principle through an example.
Answer:
(c) Demonstrating the fallacy of a particular way of thinking.

2. The author most likely mentions the “baker” and the “cobbler” in order to:
(a) provide a concrete illustration of an economic principle
(b) discuss the types of goods available during Adam Smith’s time
(c) evaluate an example used in Smith’s Wealth of Nations
(d) show that all trade is based on specialization
Answer:
(c) evaluate an example used in Smith’s Wealth of Nations

3. The author most probably uses the word “startling” in reference to the Law of Comparative Advantage because:
(a) it is puzzling that no one before Adam Smith thought of the Law
(b) the Law of Comparative Advantage holds even when there is an imbalance in the capabilities of the nations
(c) it is surprising that the general public is unaware of the Law of Comparative Advantage
(d) most countries do not consider the Law of Comparative Advantage when devising their trade policies
Answer:
(b) the Law of Comparative Advantage holds even when there is an imbalance in the capabilities of the nations

4. As it is described in the passage, which of the following most closely resembles “folk wisdom?”
(a) A farmer decides that it is going to rain after scanning the sky for dark clouds.
(b) A child asks his parents why the sky is blue and the parents reply
(c) A person spends 10 dollars on lottery tickets every week because he believes that
(d) A mother tells her child to put on a jacket so he won’t catch cold, even though colds are caused by viruses.
Answer:
(d) A mother tells her child to put on a jacket so he won’t catch cold, even though colds are caused by viruses.

Unseen Passage Practice Example for Class 8 Discursive CBSE

Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

I was the kid who sat on the sidelines and watched others having a good time splashing about in the sea, wishing I could swim. Eventually, I learned how to, the hard way. My brothers threw me into the water. As I floundered and nearly drowned, it didn’t occur to me then that my brothers had taught me two important skills: survival and independence. These skills were gifts that I relied on numerous times over as an adult. As a child, I was game for anything.

Nothing fascinated me more than the chance to try something new. If nothing else, my curiosity was fuelled by the desire to test my limits. I was sixteen when I climbed my first mountain. It was Gunung Ledang in Johor, Malaysia, in 1980. It was a horrible experience. I found the heat and thickness of the jungle overwhelming. The night spent on the summit was cold and lonely. As I lay in my tent, with my knees curled to my chin, I vowed that I would never climb another mountain.

And yet, ironically, I was one of the two climbers from the first Singapore Mount Everest Expedition who summitted Mount Everest in May 1998.

Questions
1. Why did the writer consider his childhood average?
(a) He learnt to swim the same way as everyone else.
(b) He played hide-and-seek near his house for many hours.
(c) He enjoyed watching other kids swim rather than joining them.
(d) He did not do anything that showed he would achieve great success in the future.
Answer:
(d) He did not do anything that showed he would achieve great success in the future.

2. Why did the writer say that ‘the ability to swim comes almost naturally to any kid growing up in Port Dickson (paragraph 2)?
(a) Port Dickson is located near the sea.
(b) The kids are thrown into the sea in order to learn swimming.
(c) Every kid enjoys playing near the boats moored in Port Dickson.
(d) Every kid learns to swim eventually if he wants to join the others in the water.
Answer:
(a) Port Dickson is located near the sea.

3. The writer learnt to appreciate the skills his brothers taught him that day at the sea when he _
(a) spent time watching other kids play in the sea
(b) almost died the day he was thrown into the sea
(c) became an adult and needed to use those skills
(d) climbed his first mountain at the age of sixteen
Answer:
(c) became an adult and needed to use those skills

4. What made the writer vow never to climb again after his Gunung Ledang trip?
(a) He wanted to try something new besides climbing a mountain.
(b) He had spent a miserable time climbing to the top of the mountain.
(c) He disliked trekking through thick jungle and having to sleep in the open.
(d) He had tested his limits and was satisfied that he had climbed Gunung Ledang.
Answer:
(b) He had spent a miserable time climbing to the top of the mountain.

5. The writer made it to the top of Mount Everest when he was
(a) 16
(b) 34
(c) 40
(d) 50
Answer:
(b) 34

Advertisement Writing Class 12 Format, Examples

Advertisement Writing Class 12 Format, Examples 1An advertisement for the classified columns in a newspaper should be brief as the price to be paid for the advertisement very much depends on the space taken.

An advertisement is a kind of public announcement asking for or offering services or buying and selling property, goods etc. or giving information about missing persons, pets etc. It is a potent medium deliberately used to influence the minds, tastes and even motives of the masses. It is an announcement made through a popular medium to target a large number of people.

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Newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, cinema, leaflets, pamphlets etc. are extensively used for such purposes. The content is brief, words limited and sentences not necessarily grammatically correct. Information in digital, abbreviated and short form is acceptable. However, the brief description of the product or services advertised and contact address must be there. There are two basic types of advertisements (ads) in the newspaper.

Types of Advertisements:

Advertisement Writing Class 12 Format, Examples 2

An advertisement is. a powerful tool to promote products and services. It is meant to attract the attention of a target group. An advertisement is sent in public domain by print media or electronic media. Advertisements drafted for print media are published in newspapers, magazines and periodicals.

1. Classified advertisements: These are printed under various categories such as situation vacant, situation wanted property for sale, matrimonial, and lost & found etc. These are very brief, occupy less space and are economical. These are written in a simple and concise language using short phrases and words. Articles and conjunctions are avoided and prepositions are rarely used. Every advertisement must contain contact no. or address or both. Complete sentences are not written in classified advertisements.

2. Display or commercial advertisements: These advertisements are written for promotion/sale of products. They can be of any size or colour and contain a lot of illustrations, sketches, drawings, etc. Different fonts can be used to make them attractive. These occupy more space and so cost more to be printed in the newspaper.

Advertisement Writing Examples with Answers for Class 12 CBSE

Advertisement Format Examples with Answers

Question 1.
You are Principal of National Public School, Jaipur. You require a TGT (Maths) for your school. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words for the ‘Situations Vacant’ column of ‘The National Times’ stating essential and desirable qualifications, experience, etc. of the candidates.
Answer:

Situation Vacant

National Public School, Jaipur, requires a TGT (Maths). Preferably candidates below thirty, with a minimum experience of 5 years as a Senior Teacher in a Senior Secondary School.

Salary as per Government norms. Forms available at the Reception.

Contact School office by 7th July.

Highway Road, Jaipur
The Principal

Question 2.
The Principal, Sunrise Global School, Agra, requires a receptionist for her school. Draft a suitable advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the classified columns of a national newspaper, giving all the necessary details of qualifications and experience required for the receptionist.
Answer:

Situation Vacant

The Sunrise Global School wants a qualified receptionist with good communication skills and a pleasing personality. Should have minimum of two years’ experience with working knowledge of computers. Graduation is a must. Salary negotiable. Apply within a week with complete biodata and requisite certificates to the Principal, Sunrise Global School, Agra.

Question 3.
You are General Manager, Hotel Dosa, Gurgaon. You need a lady Front Office Assistant with sound knowledge of computers. She must be a graduate and good in communication skills with pleasing manners. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in ‘Gurgaon Times’.
Answer:

Situation Vacant

Wanted a lady Front Office Assistant for Hotel Dosa in Gurgaon, South City. The lady should be a graduate with sound knowledge of computers. Excellent communication skills and fluency in English essential. Personality should be pleasing. 23 to 30 years of age. Salary negotiable, send resume and photograph to Mr. Vijay, Hotel Dosa, South City, Gurgaon, 9998XXXXXX or mail at vijaydua@hotl.com.

Question 4.
You are Mohan/Mohini, General Manager of P.K. Industries, Hyderabad. You need an accountant for your company. Draft in not more than 50 words, an advertisement to be published in ‘The Hindu’ in the classified columns.
Answer:

Situation Vacant

Wanted a qualified accountant for a reputable industrial firm. Should be a CA with 2 years’ experience in company accounts and audit. Sound knowledge of computers essential. Age between 25 and 35 years. Salary negotiable, contact : Mohan, General Manager, P.K. Industries, New Nizam Road, Hyderabad. 9835XXXXXX

Question 5.
You are Ratan/Rani, General Manager of Hotel Green Park, Lucknow. You need a receptionist for your hotel. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published fn ‘Hindustan Times’, Lucknow, calling for applications.
Answer:

Situation Vacant

Wanted a female receptionist for the front office of a well renowned hotel. Should be between 20 and 30 years of age with a pleasing personality and excellent communication skills. Fluency in English is essential. At least one year experience needed. Minimum education graduate. Interested candidates can contact Rani, Hotel Green Park, Lucknow 9999XXXXXX

Question 6.
A.K. International School is looking for a receptionist for the school. Write an advertisement in not more than 50 words on behalf of the administrative officer in the classified columns of the local newspaper giving necessary details.
Answer:

Situation Vacant

Wanted a female receptionist for a reputable International School. Graduation is essential. Should possess two years’ of experience. Should have a good personality with excellent soft speaking skills. Salary negotiable. Diploma in office management preferable but not essential.

Contact: Ram 9999XXXXXX, A.K. International School, New Delhi.

Question 7.
The firm Bhatia and Bhatia, Industrial Area, Bengaluru, wants two engineers for their Chennai Office. Draft an advertisement for the column Situation Vacant of a local newspaper giving all the necessary details. Write the advertisement in not more than 50 words.
Answer:

Situation Vacant

Wanted two experienced mechanical engineers for a reputable firm dealing in machinery imports in industrial area in Bengaluru. Salary up to ? 30,000 per month. Age between 25 and 35 years. BTech required. Send your resume along with passport size photograph and copies of certificates to: Bhatia and Bhatia, Industrial Area, Bengaluru, 011-2588XXXX.

Question 8.
Your school, Akash Public School, Agra, needs a canteen manager. On behalf of the Principal, write an advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the classified columns of a local daily. Mention the educational and professional qualifications and the other qualities necessary for a manager, who to apply to and the last date for the receipt of applications.
Answer:

Situation Vacant

Akash Public School, Agra, wants a canteen manager. Only graduates or with higher degree may apply. At least one year experience essential. Salary negotiable. Age must be above 25 and below 40. Apply by 20th January 20XX with CV. Contact: Mr Akshay Kumar, Principal, Akash Public School, XYZ Road, Agra, Pincode 40XXXX, 9999XXXXXX.

Question 9.
You are Vikram/Sonia, an Hon’s graduate in history with specialization in Medieval India. You are well acquainted with places of historical interest in Delhi, Agra and Jaipur. You are looking for the job of a tourist guide. Write an advertisement in about 50 words for the Situations Wanted column of a local newspaper. Contact no. 9997510234.
Answer:

Situation Wanted

Tourist guide available. Is an Hon’s graduate in history with specialization in Medieval India. Well acquainted with places of historical interests in Delhi, Agra and Jaipur. Can speak English, Hindi, Spanish and French fluently. Excellent communication skills. Possesses a friendly and pleasing personality. Contact: Vikram; Mo. 9997510234.

Question 10.
You are Vikram/Sonia, an electronics engineer who has recently returned from the^U.S. and looking for a suitable job in the IT industry. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words for the Situations Wanted column of a national newspaper. Your contact number is 9193010203.
Answer:

Situation Wanted

Electronics engineer, topper from IIT Delhi, with an experience of 10 years in an MNC recently returned from the US, seeks a suitable job in an IT company in Gurugram. Has administrative and operational expertise. Expected salary ? 2 lac p.m. Contact: Vikram 56, Olive Greens. Gurgaon. Mo-9193010203.

Question 11.
A Computer professional with computer hardware expertise requires a part-time job for maintenance and repairs of computers. Provide relevant details in about 50 words.
Answer:

Situation Wanted

A computer professional with a degree in computer hardware requires a part-time job for repair and maintenance of computers, 5 years of experience in this field. Remuneration negotiable. Comfortable in working anywhere in Delhi-NCR.

Contact: Raman Kapoor, G-l, East of Kailash, New Delhi. Phone: 9811XXXXXX

Question 12.
You are Harish/Harshita of 12, Seva Nagar, Pune. You want to sell your flat as you are shifting to another city for work. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in The Pune Times under the classified columns.
Answer:

For Sale

Available for sale a newly constructed 3 bedroom flat at 12, Seva Nagar, Pune. Extensive woodwork, attached bathrooms, prime location, park facing, comer house, near Metro station. Price ? 88 lakh, negotiable. Brokers excuse. Contact: Harish, 12, Seva Nagar, Pune.

Question 13.
You own an independent house in B Block, South City, Gurgaon. You are interested in disposing it of as you are going to settle abroad. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in ‘Gurgaon Times’, giving necessary details.
Answer:

House For Sale

Ready to move an independent house of 3 floors. Each floor with 3 bedrooms, attached toilets, kitchen + dining and drawing room in Gurgaon. East facing, well ventilated house. Price according to current property rates and negotiable too. Contact Atul, B Block, South City, Gurgaon, 9911XXXXXX.

Question 14.
You want to sell your house 15, Rajendra Nagar, Kancheepuram. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words, giving necessary details, to be published in the classified columns of ‘The New Indian Express’, Chennai. You are Krishnan/Alka.
Answer:

House For Sale

A 100-hectare corner house in a posh locality of Kancheepuram with front lawn and garden available for sale. 5 bedrooms with attached washrooms, spacious living area, modular kitchen. Well ventilated, 24×7 electricity and water supply. Interested buyers contact: Alka 9999XXXXXX, 15, Rajendra Nagar, Kancheepuram.

Question 15.
Ashima is going abroad on a foreign assignment for 5 years. She wants to sell her refrigerator, LCD TV, double bed and branded almirah. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words to be displayed on the housing society notice board.
Answer:

Appliances For Sale

Available for sale 1 refrigerator, i LCD TV 32 inches, 1 double bed and 1 branded almirah. All the items are in good condition. Refrigerator is double door with all features. Bed and almirah of appealing design. Price negotiable. Contact Ashima, 9891XXXXXX, 111/A Lajpat Nagar, Part I, New Delhi.

Question 16.
You want to sell your collection of old books which contain rare reference books. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words for the classified’ columns giving necessary details.
Answer:

Books For Sale

For sale, CBSE class 12th physics, chemistry and biology reference books by renowned authors. Books are in good condition. Price accepted l/3rd of M.R.P. contact Ms. Neha, 26/14 Patel Nagar 9999XXXXXX.

Question 17.
Write an advertisement in about 50 words for a local daily for selling your bungalow at Saket Vihar.
Answer:

Bungalow For Sale

For immediate sale, newly built bungalow, in posh area, in 310 sq. yards, three bedrooms, drawing room, dining cum-lobby, modular kitchen, attached washrooms with bedrooms, spacious, Verandah, well ventilated. Price according to current rates. Contact Mr. Ram D-63, Saket Vihar 9921XXXXXX

Question 18.
You want to sell off your car as you are leaving the country. Draft a suitable advertisement to be inserted in “The Hindu”. Write the advertisement in not more than 50 words.
Answer:

Car For Sale

2009 Honda Accord, white colour, 2.2 litre automatic transmission, equipped with leather upholstery, beige interior, CD changer, alloy wheels, sunroof. Single owner 50,000 km only. Car in good condition. Expected price ^ 2.6 lakh. Please contact Mr. Atul for car inspection on Sundays : 9878XXXXXX

Question 19.
You want to sell off your motor bike which you have been using for five years, since you have decided to buy a car. Write an advertisement, in not more than 50 words, to be published under the classified columns of a national daily. Furnish all necessary details. [Delhi 2014]
Answer:

Bike For Sale

An awesome Hero splendor bike available for sale, equipped with accessories, black colour, 32,000 km done, gives average of 65 km/L, scratch free with original parts, it’s been adult driven. Interested person may Contact Anuj, B 63, Patel Nagar, New Delhi. Mob. 9811XXXXXX.

Question 20.
You are looking for a second-hand car. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words-for a newspaper specifying your requirements.
Answer:

Car Wanted

Wanted a second-hand car, with no scratch and damage, should be at least 2.2 L. with good in-terior, music system, specifically in black colour. Maximum 3 years old model. Price should not ekceed ? 2 lakh. Sellers can contact Amit at 9999XXXXXX.

Question 21.
|You want to offer paying guest accommodation on the first floor of your house. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words giving details of the premises, amenities provided, terms and conditions. You . are Karuna/Karan, M 114, Mall Road, Delhi.
Answer:

Accommodation Available

Fully furnished AC room, attached bath, kitchen, on first floor in Old Delhi high-end residential area. Home-cooked meals. Metro connectivity and markets, close to university, within easy reach of railway station, interstate bus depot. Rent ?15,000 monthly. Suitable for single woman. Contact Karuna: 114-M Mall Rd, Delhi mob: 9988XXXXXX.

Question 22.
You are the General Manager of E.V.L. Company which requires posh bungalows and houses on company lease. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words to be published in ‘The New Indian Express’.
Answer:

Accommodation Wanted

Bungalows and houses wanted on company lease for senior executives. Approx area required 2000-3000 sq. ft. preferably in Delhi. Should have good electricity and water supply; excellently designed posh bungalows preferred. Submit your sealed bid per sq. ft. Lowest rates, terms and conditions, building layout before 30 January 20XX at; E.V.L. 26/26, New Ring Road, New Delhi, Phone-9999XXXXXX

Question 23.
You are interested in buying a flat in A.K. Nagar, Gwalior. Giving all your requirements, draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in the ‘Dainik Bhaskar’, You are Amar / Amba of 15, Nehru Nagar, Gwalior.
Answer:

Accommodation Wanted

Interested in buying a flat in A.K. Nagar, Gwalior. Looking for a 3-bedroom flat with drawing/ •dining, kitchen and washrooms. It should be well ventilated with uninterrupted supply of electricity and water. Ground or first floor preferred. Freehold flat only needed. Sellers can contact: Amar 15, Nehru Nagar, Gwalior – 9000XXXXXX.

Question 24.
You are a businessman who wants to set up a small garment shop in your city. Draft an advertisement seeking a suitable place for rent, to be published in the “Wanted accommodation” column of a local newspaper. Write the advertisement in not more than 50 words.
Answer:

Accommodation Wanted

Local businessman seeks suitable accommodation on rent for setting small garment shop, in the main market. Must have uninterrupted water and electric supply, built-in shelves. Three years agreement preferred. Contact R. Lai, 26/12, Patel Nagar, Delhi. Mob- 981XXXXXXX

Question 25.
You have a three bedroom flat in Dwarka, which you want to let out on rent. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in ‘The Times of India’, under classified columns. Contact: 2758902
Answer:

To Let

To let a three bedroom first floor corner flat at Dwarka, fully marbled, with modular kitchen, drawing/dining, excellent fittings, well-ventilated, 24×7 water supply. Suitable for banks or corporate exectives. Rent t 20,000 per month. Contact: Raj Kumar, 117/A, Dwarka Sector 9 Mo: 2758902.

Question 26.
You would like to let out a portion of your independent house for office use. Write an advertisement for the classified columns of a local newspaper giving all necessary details. Write the advertisement in not more than 50 words.
Answer:

To Let

Two big rooms on ground floor, in a house located in a commercial area, with attached toilet fully marbled and well ventilated, available on rent for office use only. 24×7 electricity and water supply, kitchen, parking space available too. Rent ? 25000 per month. Contact Ram: A 63/14 Patel Nagar, 9711XXXXXX

Question 27.
You want to rent out your newly constructed flat in the heart of the city. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in ‘The Deccan Herald’, Bengaluru under classified columns. Giye all the necessary details. You are Mohan/Mahima of Jayanagar, Bengaluru.
Answer:

To Let

Ready to move in flat on 3rd floor, 3-bedroom + attached washroom, drawing/dining, servant room available in the heart of the city Bengaluru. Lift available, electricity and water supply 24×7. Balconies with each bedroom and sitting room. Contact: Mohan 9999XXXXXX, 15/A7, Jayanagar, Bengaluru.

Question 28.
Write an advertisement in not more than 50 words for the Lost & Found column of the daily ‘National Herald’, Lucknow, stating the loss of your wallet containing a D.D. for ? 32,500 and some cash, while travelling by bus from Hazratganj to Nirala Nagar in Lucknow. You are Raman/ Roopa, 22A, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Answer:

Lost & Found

I, Raman, resident of Lucknow, hereby inform that my wallet containing a D.D. of ? 32,500 and some cash has been lost. It is a brown colour leather wallet. Lost during travelling on bus from Hazratganj to Nirala Nagar around 5 p.m. If anyone finds it, please inform at 9815XXXXXX, 22A Hazratganj, Lucknow.

Suitable reward promised.

Question 29.
You have lost your documents while travelling on a DTC bus from your school to home. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words for the classified columns giving all relevant details.
Answer:

Lost

I, Ajay Sinha, resident of 19/12 Patel Nagar, New Delhi, hereby inform that my documents of class 12 in a blue colour folder have been lost during my travel by a DTC bus from DAV Public School to Patel Nagar around 3 p.m. If anybody finds the folder, please contact at 9815XXXXXX. Suitable reward promised.

Question 30.
Venus Travels, Ansal Chamber, Bhikaji Complex, New Delhi, is offering attractive holiday package for 3 nights and 4 days visit to Kanyakumari. Draft an advertisement (in 50 words).
Answer:

Travels & Tours
3 Nights And 4 Days Stay
Only @ X 225000 Per Person

Accommodation in 4 star Hotel inclusive of travel, breakfast, lunch, dinner, laundry, and sightseeing. Feel the freshness of Kanyakumari, explore its culture at leisure / First Class Service. Contact: Venus Travel, Ansal Chamber, Bhikaji Complex, New Delhi; phone: 9968XXXXXX

Question 31.
Write an advertisement for the ‘Matrimonial’ column of a national newspaper for a highly placed IT professional settled in the USA; exceptionally beautiful, educated, cultured and tall girl of good status Rajput family wanted.
Answer:

Bride Wanted

Alliance invited for a handsome and cutured IT professional 28 years, 6 feet tall, NRI settled in the United States as CEO of a reputed firm. Exceptionally beautiful highly qualified girl between 21 and 25, and at least 5 feet 6 inches tall. Only status Rajput families. Send details and photo @gmail.com

Question 32.
A Senior Secondary School teacher settled in Bengaluru, seeks matrimonial alliance with an educated, cultured and fair-complexioned, tall girl,of good status Muslim Sunni family. Write a suitable advertisement for the Matrimonial column of a national daily.
Answer:

Bride Wanted

Alliance wanted for a handsome, healthy and cultured school teacher, 26 years, 5 feet 6 inches tall, settled in Bengaluru, India. Really beautiful, fair-complexioned, educated Sunni girl between 20 and 22, and at least 5 feet 4 inches tall. Only highly status Muslim Sunni families may respond. Send photo and contact 1001@yahoo.com

Question 33.
Write an advertisement for the Matrimonial column of a newspaper for a Brahmin Shandilya girl, working as a manager in a publishing company.
Answer:

Bridegroom Wanted

Proposal invited for a Brahmin Shandilya girl, 24 years, 157 cm, working as Manager in a leading publishing company, income in seven figures per annum. Parents have business in Mumbai and overseas. Professional boy with business background preferred. Early marriage. Email profile and photo to Sharma_ll@gmail.com

Question 34.
Write an advertisement for the Matrimonial column of a national daily for a Catholic Christian girl, working as an accountant in a leading export house.
Answer:

Bridegroom Wanted

Proposal invited for a beautiful, fair-complexioned Catholic Christian girl, 27 years, 158 cm, working as an accountant in a leading export house, income in six figures. Well-placed professional of the same faith in Educational Institutions preferred. Send details and photo to vascol@rediffmail.com

Question 35.
A well-established marketing group, Business Thinktank, is seeking agencies, franchisees, and distributorship in the Eastern Region—for household items and consumer goods. Write an advertisement in about 50 words in a leading daily for the business proposal of the above- mentioned goods.
Answer:

Distributorship Wanted

Wanted distributorship for a well-established marketing group, Business Thinktank, seeking agencies for Siliguri, Malda Town, Belur, New Town and Haldia, for household items and consumer goods. Manufacturers may please contact on 033-972766XX at the ealiest.

Question 36.
A well-established marketing group, Paper Mart, seeking agencies and distributorship for the Southern region for a high-quality paper like White Maplitho and tissue papers. Write an advertisement for the same in a leading national daily.
Answer:

Agencies Wanted

Wanted potential agencies for a well-established paper marketing group “K.P Paper Mart”, seeking distributorship and agencies for Hyderabad, Kerala, Mysore and Trivandrum for a good-quality paper-like White wove Maplitho Newsprint and tissue paper. Manufacturers may please contact KPM_13@yahoo.com

Question 37.
Write an advertisement in about 50 words to be published in a local daily for dealership of Hero Honda in the northern region of India.
Answer:

Dealers/Stockists Required

Prospective dealers may negotiate for the terms and conditions for dealership in North India. We are the trusted business partners of marketing Hero Honda in India. Please contact ‘Hero World’ for details contact No. 004-200503

Question 38.
Write an advertisement to be published in a national daily for genuine responsible stockists of Medical Books.
Answer:

Dealers/Stockists Required

Genuine, responsible stockists of medical books may contact IMS, the international medical publisher of repute, headquarters at Mount Road?-Chennai. Let us know the space capacity of your warehouse. Interested stockists may contact : IMS_91@gmail.com

Question 39.
Write an advertisement in about 50 words for change of a name in a local daily.
Answer:

Change Of Name

I, Mr. Rahul Solanki, came to be known as Robin Kumar henceforth, vide affidavit dated 05-08-2018. Memo No. 1212/Delhi High Court, issued by first class magistrate, Delhi High Court.

Question 40.
Write an advertisement in about 50 words for change of a name in a local daily.
Answer:

Change Of Name

I, Miss Veena Kumari, got married with Ravindra Sharma. I will be called Mrs. Veena Sharma henceforth, vide affidavit dated 27/02/2018, Memo No. 104/Delhi High Court, issued by first class magistrate, Delhi High Court.

Question 41.
Your sister has been missing for the last two weeks. Write an advertisement in aljout 50 words to be published in a local newspaper.
Answer:

Missing Person

My sister, Rupali, missing since 23rd September 20XX; last seen at Nehru Place while buying computer parts with her friends. 16 years old, 5’6” tall. ‘Fair complexion, speaks English fluently. Wearing blue T-shirt and blue jeAnswer: The finder will be rewarded. Inform at B-305, New Ashok Nagar, Delhi or call Anjali 934141XXXX.

Question 42.
Your nephew, a seven year old boy has been missing for one month. He got lost in a village fair. Write an advertisement in about 50 words to be published in a local daily.
Answer:

Missing Person

My nephew named Rohit, son of Raman Garg, H.No., A-25, Burari, Delhi, got lost in the village on 7th September 20XX. In this regard a General Diary has been registered at Burari Police Station, dated 08-09-20XX, G.D. No. 151/2. Despite random investigation no clue has come to light to date. If found, call 994853XXXX.

Question 43.
Your dog has been missing for a fortnight. Write an advertisement to be published in the missing column of classified, advertisements in ‘The Hindustan Times’ in not more than 50 words.
Answer:

Missing Animal

My precious pet ‘Sherry’ is missing since 5th of August 20XX from Rosary Garden, Delhi. Brown fur, only 6 months old, red collar, if found please contact: P.S. Desonza, Cell 932597XXXX

Question 44.
Your dear horse ‘Glory’ has been missing from the racecourse for about a month. Write an advertisement to be published in the ‘The Statesman’ in the missing column of classified advertisement.
Answer:

Missing Animals

My companion Glory is missing from the racecourse, Kolkata, since 1st May 20XX. Black-coloured with white head, robust, looking daredevil, only two year old, one cutmark on his back. If found. Please contact.

Suren Tiwari
Cell No.: 973944XXXX

Question 45.
Radha Travels, 334, Naraina Vihar, New Delhi, offers a package tour 3 nights/4 days in Port Blair for n0,000 per person. Write an advertisement in about 50 words for publication in a national daily. Give necessary details.
Answer:

Travels And Tours

Attractive package available for Port Blair, 3 nights/4 days, breakfast and dinner, stay at 5 star hotel, sight-seeing all included ? 10,000 per person. Special discount for early booking.

Please contact. Radha Travels, 334 Naraina Vihar, or call 987443XXXX.

Question 46.
Globe Travels, C-7, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, offers its patrons cheapest air tickets for any ‘ destination by an airline besides offering consultancy and exchange service. Write an advertisement in about 50 words for publication in a national daily.
Answer:

Travels And Tours

Cheapest air tickets available for all airlines, all destinations, New York ?35500, Francisco, ?35000, Toronto ^34500, London ?19400 Visa insurance consultancy buy/sell currencies.

Visit: Globe Travels, C-7 Chanakyapuri
New Delhi: Phone: 011-2272XXXX .
Cell: 995762XXXX

Question 47.
FITJEE offers courses in JEE, GATE, and other talent search exams. Write an advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the Classifieds Mart column of The Hindu.
Answer:

Admission Notice

Admissions open in FITJEE. Most trusted name in Joint Entrance, Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering arid other allied disciplines. Its unbeatable strategy: Foundation classes, Revision classes, Conceptual clarity and Quality enrichment programe.
For Admission: Contact: FITJEE Branch at Noida

Question 48.
British Institute at various branches in Delhi offers courses in languages—foreign and Indo-European. Write an advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the Education Times page of The Times of India.
Answer:

Admission Notice

Admissions open in the British Institutes. Courses offered in language—French, German and Spanish. TOEFL and IELTS preparation. Highly experienced faculty. Scholarships offered. Contact any branch of British institute for admission. Free Demo.

Contact—Miss Jolly
Cell—999356XXXX

Question 49.
Write an appeal addressed to the people of your colony requesting for donations for the victims of the flood-affected areas. The appeal is going to’ be published in the classified columns of a national daily. You are Rajeev, head boy, class 12 KPS Public School, Assam.
Answer:

Appeal

All know that Karimganj and Dhubri in Assam are worst-affected in flood every year. It’s our duty to raise funds for the affected families. All are requested to donate generously. Your collection should reach the undersigned by 12 October 20XX.

Rajeev
Head boy …
Class 12
KPS Public School
Assam

Question 50.
Write an appeal addressed to the people of your area, requesting donations for the cancer patients. The appeal is going to be published in the classified columns of a national daily, sign yourself as Rahul/Reena, School Secretary, St. John’s School, Kolkata.
Answer:

Appeal

Cancer patients seek every person’s help—money or in kind. It is our utmost duty to raise funds for-the cancer patients, but practically it is a great cry and little wool. So, your collection to this great cause should reach the undersigned by 2nd of November 20XX.

Reena
School Secretary
St. John’s School
Kolkata

Display Advertisement Writing Examples for Class 12 CBSE

Question 1.
An advertisement announcing the sale of popular books in a combo pack.
Advertisement Writing Class 12 Format, Examples 3

Question 2.
Design an advertisement for an exhibition/inauguration.
Advertisement Writing Class 12 Format, Examples 4

Question 3.
Your company ELITE PENS Pvt. Ltd. is launching a range of pens, gel pens, designer pens, etc. Draft an advertisement for this purpose.
Advertisement Writing Class 12 Format, Examples 5

Question 4.
Fragrance India is launching a new perfume. Design an advertisement for its promotion.
Advertisement Writing Class 12 Format, Examples 6

Question 5.
‘Environment Buzz’ is a monthly magazine being launched by the Times of Ijndia. Draft an advertisement for this purpose.
Advertisement Writing Class 12 Format, Examples 7