Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 11
[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.] [Maximum Marks] : 100
- All Questions are compulsory.
- Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
- Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
Question.1. What was New International Economic Order ?
- The New International Economic Order (NIEO) stands for attaining economic development and political independence for the least developed countries.
- The idea of NIEO originated from the sustainable economic development of the least need for developed countries of NAM.
Question.2. Mention the full form of IMF. How many member States does it have ?
Answer. The full form of IMF is the International Monetary Fund. It is an international organisation which commands or subordinates all those financial institutions and legislation that act at the international level. Presently it has 184 members.
Question.3. Differentiate between ‘regionalism’ and ‘separatism’.
Answer. The term Regionalism implies expression of regional aspirations and regional identity like North Eastern states. On the other hand separatism signifies separatist politics and state autonomy. For example —separatists who want a separate Kashmiri nation.
Question.4. Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Answer. Goa was not merged with Maharashtra as the central government did not want it. Ans. Goa was not merged with Maharashtra because it was under the possession of the Portuguese and was treated as the acquired territory of India.
Question.5. What is meant by Chipko Movement ?
Answer. The Chipko movement was a protest against the commercial logging that the government had permitted. In this movement villagers, both men and women, used a novel tactic for their protest by hugging tjie trees to prevent them from being cut down.
Question.6. Why is there need for an International Organisation ?
Answer. The need for an International Organisation is very much justified with the quotation of the former UN secretary general, Dag tfammarskjold that “the international Organisation (UN) was not created to take humanity to heaven but to save it from hell.”
International Organisation, thus plays a very significant role in the world full of antagonism, differences and conflicts.
(a) International Organisation provides a “common platform” where the countries can discuss contentious issues and find peaceful solutions.
(b) In the era of Globalisation and mutual cooperation the “International Organisation” provides mechanisms, rules and a bureaucracy to help the nations about howto cooperate and have more confidence on global issues like global warming, eradication of some diseases, etc.
(c) “International Organisations” are not an answer to everything but they are important. “International Organisation” helps in matters of war and peace.
Question.7. What is meant by geo-politics ?
Answer. Resource Geopolitics is the geographical political affairs concerned with the allocation and distribution of natural resources among the nation-states of Global arena.
- In another way resource geopolitics is all about who gets what, when, where and how.
- Here, they have also been the focus of inter-state rivalry and western geopolitical thinking about resources which has been dominated by the relationship of trade, war and power, at the core of which were overseas resources and maritime navigation.
- For instance critical importance of ensuring uninterrupted supply of strategic resources, in particular oil was well established both during the First World War and the Second World War.
Question.8. How has globalisation involved greater trade in commodities across the globe ?
Answer. Globlalisation has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe in the following ways:
(i) The restrictions imposed by different countries on allowing the imports of other countries have been reduced.
(ii) Secondly, the restrictions on movement of capital across countries have also been
Question.9. Mention any two examples of international issues where India took an independent stand.
Answer. India took an independent stand on :
- The issue of joining power blocs: After independence, India wanted to formulate an independent foreign policy and keep aloof from power politics of super powers. Thus, India adopted Non-alignment policy to protect national identity and sovereignty as India did not want to enter into military alliances in the cold war politics.
- International treaties like NPT : India is opposed to the international treaties aimed at Non-proliferation since they are discriminatory in nature and selectively applicable to the non-nuclear powers, they legitimise the monopoly of the five nuclear weapon powers.
Question.10. Why did India decide to go Nuclear ?
Answer. India is opposed to the international treaties aimed at non-proliferation since they are selectively applicable to the non-nuclear powers. India conducted a series of nuclear tests demonstrating its capacity to use nuclear energy for military purposes.
India’s nuclear doctrine of credible minimum nuclear deterrence professes “no first use” and reiterates its commitment to global, verifiable and non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament leading to a weapons-free world.
Question.11. Describe any four consequences of the disintegration of Soviet Union.
Answer. The disintegration of the Soviet Union as the second world power and the collapse of socialist systems in Eastern Europe had profound consequences for world politics in general and Asian countries, like India, in particular. The consequences of the disintegration can be analysed as follows:
- The disintegration of Soviet Union meant the end of the cold war confrontation. The end of cold war signifies collapse of the ideological conflict between the socialists and the capitalists. Now there is no alliance system based on ideology. As the alliance system led to the formation of military blocs, so the end of confrontation demanded the end of the arms race and restoration of peace.
- With the disintegration of USSR, the end of the cold war left open only two possibilities like either the remaining superpower would dominate and create a “unipolar system” or different countries or groups of countries could become important players in the international system, thereby bringing in a ‘multipolar system’, where no one power could dominate.
- As it turned out, the US became the sole super power. Backed by the power and prestige of the US, the ‘capitalist economy’ was now the dominant economic system internationally.
- Institutions like the World Bank and International Monetary Fund became powerful advisors to all these countries since they gave them loans for their transition to capitalism. Politically, the notion of liberal democracy emerged as the best way to organise political life.
Question.12. Do you justify the attack on Iraq in the name of ‘attack on terrorism’ ? Support your answer with any two arguments.
Answer. The US attack on Iraq was not at all justified in the wake of terrorist attack on the WTC on September 11, 2001 because the main objective of the attack was to control Iraqi oil fields and to install a regime friendly to the US.
Operation Iraqi Freedom was the code name given by US when it launched the invasion of Iraq on 19th March, 2003. More than forty countries joined in the US-led Coalition after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion.
Aims and Objectives
- The purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass . destruction [WMD].
- But this was an eyewash, because no evidence of WMD has been unearthed in Iraq, so it is being speculated all over the world that the invasion was motivated by other objectives such as controlling Iraqi oil fields and installing a regime friendly to the US.
The outcome of Iraqi invasion was very complex and contradictory.
- Although the government of Saddam Hussien fell swiffly, the US has not been able to
- A full-fledged insurgency against US occupation was ignited in Iraq.
- Iraqi casualties are very much higher than US. The US has lost over 3,000 military personnel in the war.
- It is conservatively estimated that 50,000 Iraqi civilians have been killed since the US led invasion.
On the whole it is now widely recognised that the US invasion of Iraq was, in some crucial respects, both a military and political failure. (Any two)
Question.13. How can the Euro pose a danger to the US Dollar ?
Answer. European Union was established in 1992 for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and the creation of a single currency, i.e., Euro.
But European Union’s currency Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar because of following reasons :
- Euro is the standard currency of European Union and its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the United States.
- European Union’s economic power influences its closest neighbours as well as Asia and Africa. Euro is also getting importance over dollar.
- As the European Union functions as an important bloc in economic organisation, such as
World Trade Organisation (WTO), so the Euro also has an important place in WTO.
(iv) Euro poses a threat to US doflar because EU is the world’s biggest economy with a GDP of more than $12 billion in 2005, slightly larger than that of the United States
Question.14. Explain any two political and economic consequences each of globalization.
Answer. Economic Consequences of Globalisation :
- Globalisation has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe.
- The restrictions imposed by other countries on allowing the imports have been reduced.
- In place of welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
- The entry and increased role of MNCs all over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of governments to take decisions on their own. (one point each)
Question.15. What is meant by SAARC ? How can peace and co-operation be enhanced through it ?
Answer. SAARC stands for South-Asian Association for Regional Co-operation. It is a major regional initiative by the South Asian states to evolve co-operation through multilateral means.
Its main aim is to have a common programme for regional development.
SAARC members signed an agreement in 2001 called SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade) to promote trade. According to this agreement a free Trade Zone is to formed for the whole South Asia.
It also aims to reduce or lower the Trade Tariffs by 20 per cent in 2007.
India believes that there are real economic benefits for all members from SAFTA because free trade will help members to cooperate better on political issues.
Question.16. Describe how the princely states of Manipur and Junagadh acceded to India.
Answer. As part of integration of Princely States, a few days before independence the Maharaja of Manipur Bodhachandra Singh signed the Instrument of Accession with the Indian Government on the assurance that internal autonomy of Manipur would be maintained.
- As a follow up the Maharaja held elections in Manipur in June 1948 and the state became a ‘Constitutional Monarchy’. Thus Manipur became the first state to hold an election based on Universal Adult Franchise.
- But in the Legislative Assembly there were sharp differences over the question of merger of Manipur with India. While the state Congress wanted the merger, other political parties were opposed to this.
Question.17. Read the following passage and answer the question below.
“In the history of nation-building only the soviet experiment bears comparison with the Indian. There too, a sense of unity had to be forged between diverse ethnic groups religious, linguistic communities and social classes. The scale— geographic as well as demographic— was comparably massive. The raw material the state had to work with was equally unpropitious : a people divided by faith and driven by debt and disease.”
— Rama Chandra Guha
(a) List the commonalities that the author mentions between India and Soviet Union and give one example for each of these from India.
(b) The author does not talk about dissimilarities between the two experiments. Can you mention two dissimilarities ?
(c) In retrospect which of these two experiments worked better and why?
(a) The above two statements of M.K. Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru reveal or suggest the agenda such as:
- “Enlightened and secular democracy” to accommodate social diversity and to promote free and fair electoral politics.
- Economic and technological development of India to promote welfare motive.
- Both nations shaped their nations on the linguistic basis.
- Both India and Soviet Union shared same geographical and demographical reasons for the division of states.
(b) The two dissimilarities which the authors do not mention are Soviet Union divided into 15 independent countries by compromising its unity and integrity which is not in India’s case.
(c) The “Indian experiment worked better because it promoted “linguistic and cultural plurality” of the country without affecting the “unity of the nation”.
Question.18. “Indian policy makers made a mistake by emphasising the role of state in the economy. India could have developed much better if private sector was allowed a free play right from the beginning”. Give arguments for or against this proposition.
Answer. No, the above mentioned statement is not fully true because the role of state in the Indian economy was very much required to regulate our economy immediately after independence. Later on, when our economy got stabilised and regulated the Indian policy makers introduced New Economic Policy in 1991 to liberalise our economy.
In the beginning India did not follow any of the two known paths. It did not accept the capitalist model of development in which development was left entirely to the private sector, nor did it follow the socialist model in which private property was abolished and all the production was controlled by the state.
But the elements from both these models were taken together in India /.e. “Mixed Economy”. This concept of Mixed Economy was open to criticism both from the left and the right.
- Critics argued that planners refused to provide the private sector with enough space and stimulus to grow
- According to them them the enlarged public sector created enough hurdles for private capital, in the way of installing systems of licenses and permits for investment.
- The state controlled more things than were necessary and this led to inefficiency and corruption.
Arguments in favour of state control
- On the other hand, there were Critics. who thought that the state did not do enough. It intervened only in those areas where the private sector was not prepared to go. Thus the state helped the private sector to make profit.
- Also, instead of helping the poor, the state intervention ended up creating a new middle class that enjoyed the privileges of high salaries without much accountablity.
Thus, we can safely say the role of state in Indian Economy was beneficial in the early years both for the public as well as the private sector. And this led India towards development.
Question.19. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow :
…nearly all ‘new social movements’ have emerged as corrective to new maladies
— environmental degradation, violation of the status of women, destruction of
tribal cultures and the undermining of human rights — none of which are in and by themselves transformative of the social order. They are that way quite different from revolutionary ideologies of thfc past. But their weakness lies in their being so heavily
fragmented — a large part of the space occupied by the new social movement
seem to be suffering from …… various characteristics which have prevented them from being relevant to the truly oppressed and the poor in the form of a solid unified movement of the people. They are too fragmented, reactive, ad hocish, providing no comprehensive framework of basic social change. Their being anti-this or that (anti-West, anti-capitalist, anti-development, etc.) does not make them any more coherent, any more relevant to oppressed and peripheralized communities. — Rajni Kothari
(a) What is the difference between new social movements and revolutionary ideologies ?
(b) What according to the author are the limitations of social movements ?
(a) The main difference between new social movements and revolutionary ideologies is that like revolutionary ideologies, none of new social movements are in and by themselves “transformative of the social order” but they emerged as corrective of new maladies.
(b) According to the author the social movements are fragmented, reactive, ad hocish and not relevant to oppressed communities
- They never provide a comprehensive framework of basic social change.
Question.20. Identify five states which became separate states by 1986.
(i) Arunachal Pradesh (ii) Mizoram (iii) Manipur
(iv) Tripura (v) Nagaland
Question.21. Look at the picture given below and answer the following questions.
- The above picture is related to which country ?
- What does the picture indicate ? Support your answer with two examples.
- The Great Wall and Dragon are two symbol most commonly associated with China.
- This cartoon depicts China’s economic rise. China followed its own path in introducing a market economy. The Chinese economy did not go for ‘Shock Therapy’ but opened their economy step by step as under:
- The privatisation of agriculture in 1982 was followed by the privatisation of industry in 1998.
- Trade barriers were eliminated only in Special Economic Zone where foreign investors could set up enterprises.
- China’s accession to WTO in 2001 has been further step in its opening to the outside world.
Question.22. Analyse the different ways in which American hegemony could be overcome.
How far was the US attack on Iraq justified in the wake of terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 ?
Answer. As we are living in a global village so we all are the neighbours of the village headman. If the behaviour of the headman becomes intolerable and we do not have the option of leaving the global village, resistance will then be the only option available. The same is applicable to US Hegemony.
Now, the question arises who and how. There is no world government. There are some rules and norms called the laws of war that restrict but do not prohibit war.
- We must recognise that no single power, anywhere in the world is near balancing the US militarily.
Therefore, we can discuss some strategies developed by the political analysts.
- ‘Bandwagon’ strategy : some analysts argue that it is strategically more prudent to take advantage of the opportunities that hegemony creates like :
(a) raising economic growth rate requires increased trade,
(b) Transfer of technology and investment. Thus, it is suggested by the analysts that
instead of engaging in activities opposed to the hegemon power, it may be advisable to extract benefits by operating within the hegemonic system.
- Hide strategy: This strategy implies staying as far removed from the dominant power as possible. For example China, Russia, the European Union-all of them in different ways – are seeking to stay below the radar, as it were, and not overly and unduly antagonise the US.
But it is also not a feasible strategy. While it may be an attractive, viable policy for small states, it is hard to imagine mega-states like China, India and Russia or a huge European Union being able to hide for any substantial length of time.
- Non-state and Third estate strategy : The given proposition is to a large extent unrealistic from the theoretical point of view but very realistic from the practical point of view because non-state actors would challenge the US hegemony in a very active way.
These challenges to American hegemony will emerge in the economic and cultural realms and will come from a combination of Non-governmental organisations [NGOs], social movements, and public opinion.
The challenge may arise from sections of the media and intellectuals, artists and writers. These various actors may well form links across national boundaries, including Americans, to criticise and resist US policies.
The US attack on Iraq was not at all justified in the wake of terrorist attack on the WTC on September 11, 2001 because the main objective of the attack was to control Iraqi oil fields and to install a regime friendly to the US.
Operation Iraqi Freedom was the code name given by US when it launched invasion of Iraq on 19th March, 2003. More than forty countries joined in the US-led Coalition after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion.
One of the reasons for the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of Mass Destruction [WMD]. But this was an eyewash, because no evidence of WMD has been unearthed in Iraq, so it is being speculated all over the world that the invasion was motivated by other objectives such as, controlling Iraqi oil fields and installing a regime friendly to the US.
The outcomes of Iraqi invasion also reflected that US attack was just to show its hegemonic aspirations nothing else.
Although the government of Saddam Hussien fell swiftly, the US has not been able to pacify Iraq.
A full-fledged insurgency against US occupation was ignited in Iraq.
Iraqi casualties are very much higher than US. The US has lost over 3,000 military personnel in the war.
It is conservatively estimated that 50,000 Iraqi civilians have been killed since the US led invasion.
On the whole it is now widely recognised that the US invasion of Iraq was, in some crucial respects, both a military and political failure.
Question.23. Examine India’s changing relationship with post-communist Russia.
What led to the emergence of bi-polar world ? What were the arenas of cold war between the two blocs ?
Answer. Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions.
Common view on the multipolar world order: Russia and India share a vision of multipolar world order. For both these countries a multipolar world order is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater regionalism, negotiated
settlement of international conflicts, an independent foreign policy for all countries and decision making through bodies like the UN that should be strengthened, democratised and empowered.
India’s stand towards Russia : India gets meaningful benefits for having healthy relations with Russia on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to central Asia, and balancing its relationship with China.
Russia’s stand towards India : Like India, Russia stands to benefit from this relationship because India is the’second largest arms market for Russia.
Besides, Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. Since India is an oil importing nation, so Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to its assistance during its oil crisis.
In order to meet the demands of energy India is trying to increase it energy imports from Russia and the republics of Kazakihstan and Turkmenistan. This also broadened the scope for partnership and investment in oilfields.
India has also strengthened its relations with Russia for her nuclear energy plans and space industry. India gets the cryogenic rocket from Russia whenever needed.
Thus, we can safely conclude that India has maintained good relations with all the post-communist countries. But the strongest relations are still those between Russia and India.
The emergence of two power blocs can be traced back to some major developments in the Cold War between the two superpowers like
- Expansionist policies of the superpowers: The two superpowers were keen on expanding their sphere of influence in different parts of the world. In a world sharply divided between two alliance systems or blocs, a state was supposed to remain tied to its protective superpower to limit the influence of the other superpower and its allies.
The smaller states in alliances used the link to the superpowers for their own purposes.
- Military Alliances : During the Cold War era Europe, thus, became the main arena of conflict between the superpowers.
- Ideological Conflicts : Power rivalries, military alliances and the balance of power between the superpowers led to the division of Europe into two power blocs i.e., US Power bloc and USSR power bloc.
The Arenas of the Cold War refers to the areas where crises and war occurred or threatened to occur between the alliance systems but did not cross certain limits.
- We begin with the Cuban missile crises which was only one of the several crises that occurred during the Cold War but fortunately both sides, US and USSR, decided to avoid war.
- The Cold War also led to several shooting wars between the two superpowers which were poised for direct confrontation in
- Korea (1950-53)
- Berlin crisis (1958-62)
- The Congo Crisis (1960s)
Crises deepened as neither of the parties involved was willing to back down, but it is important to note that these crises and wars did not lead to another World War.
- A great many lives were lost in some of these arenas like Korea, Vietnam and Afghanistan, but the world was spared a nuclear war and global hostilities.
- In some cases, huge military build-ups were reported. In many cases, diplomatic communication between the superpowers could not be sustained and contibuted to the misunderstandings.
- Sometimes, countries outside the two blocs, for example the non-aligned countries, played a role in reducing Cold War conflicts and averting some grave crises.
In this way, as the Cold War rolled from one arena to another, the logic of restraint was increasingly evident.
Question.24. “Indian policy makers made a mistake by emphasising the role of state in the economy. India could have developed much better if private sector was allowed a free play right from the beginning”. Give arguments for or against this proposition.
Discuss the principles and difficulties involved in the process of partition.
Answer. The above mentioned statement is partly true. The role of state in the Indian economy was very much required to regulate our economy immediately after independence. Later on, when our economy got stabilised and regulated the Indian policy makers introduced New Economic Policy in 1991 to liberalise our economy.
In the beginning India did not follow any of the two known paths. It did not accept the capitalist model of development in which development was left entirely to the private sector, nor did it follow the socialist model in which private property was abolished and all the. production was controlled by the state.
But the elements from both these models were taken together in India i.e. “Mixed Economy”. This concept of Mixed Economy was open to criticism both from the left and the right.
- Critics argued that planners refused to provide the private sector with enough space
and stimulus to grow.
- According to them the enlarged public sector created enough hurdles for private capital, by the way of installing systems of licenses and permits for investment.
- The state controlled more things than were necessary and this led to inefficiency and corruption.
Arguments in favour of state control
- On the other hand, there were critics who thought that the state did not do enough. It intervened only in those areas where the private sector was not prepared to go. Thus the state helped the private sector to make profit.
- Also, instead of helping the poor, the state intervention ended up creating a new middle class that enjoyed the privileges of high salaries without much accountability.
Thus, we can safely say the role of state in Indian Economy was beneficial in the early years both for the public as well as the private sector. And this led India towards development.
In the Indian context the word partition signifies the division of British India into India and Pakistan. The process of partition started in 1940 — when the Muslim League propounded the “Two-Nation Theory”.
According to this theory India consisted of not one but two “people”, Hindus and Muslims. Several political developments in 1940s, the political competition between the Congress and the Muslim League and the British role led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan.
Thus it was decidedthat India would be divided into two countries Inoia and Pakistan. Principle of religious majorities was followed for the division, i.e., the areas where the Muslims were in majority would make up the territory of Pakistan and the rest was to stay with India. But this principle of partition presented all kinds of difficulties such as :
Problems of East and West
- There was no single belt of Muslim majority areas in British India. There were two areas of concentration, one in the west and one in the east.
- Merger of NWFP: On the partition move not all Muslim majority areas wanted to be in Pakistan. Even Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. The undisputed leader of the North Western Frontier Province, was staunchly opposed to the two nation theory. But ultimately the NWFP was made to merge with Pakistan.
- Difficulties related to provinces of Punjab and Bengal:
Punjab and Bengal were the two muslim majority provinces of British India. These provinces had very large areas where the non-muslims were in majority. Thus, it was decided that these two provinces would be bifurcated according to the religious majority. In this way, on 14-15 August 1947, not one but two nation-states came into existence, i.e. India and Pakistan.
Question.25. Describe the emergence of the coalition government in India.
“The opposition to Emergency could keep the Janata Party together only for a while.” Evaluate.
Answer. Elections in 1989 led to the era of coalitions with the defeat of Congress party. What happened after 1989 was the emergence of several parties in such a way that no single party could get absolute majority in the Lok Sabha.
in this era, regional parties played a crucial role in forming the ruling alliance. Thus, with the election of 1989 a long phase of coalition politics began in India. Since then there have been nine governments at the centre all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties which did not join the government. In this new phase any government could be formed only with the participation or support of many regional parties.
Actually the opposition to emergency could keep the ‘Janata Party’ together only for a while. Janata Party lacked direction, leadership and a common programme, which led to mid-term elections in 1980. The 1977 elections turned into a referendum on the experience of the emergency. For the first time since independence the Congress Party was defeated and opposition came into power at the centre.
- The Janata Party made this election a referendum on the emergency. Its campaign was focused on the non-democratic character of the rule and on the various excesses that took place during this period.
- In the backdrop of arrests of thousands of persons and the censorship of the press, the public opinion was against the Congress.
- Besides, the formation of the Janata Party also ensured that non-Congress votes would not be divided.
- But, from the very beginning there was stiff competition among leaders for the post of Prime Minister which ultimately led to the mid-term poll of 1980.
- Janata Party government could .tot bring about a fundamental change in policies from those pursued by the Congress.
- Not only this there was split in the Janata Party and the government which was led by Morarji Desai lost its majority in less than 18 months.
- Hence, fresh Lok Sabha elections were held in January 1980 in which Janata Party suffered
a comprehensive defeat. Congress Party led by Indira Gandhi came back to power by winning 353 seats. (Any six)
Question.26. ‘Coalition government is a bane or a boon for democracy in India.’ Explain any three arguments in support of your answer.
‘All regional movements need not lead to the separatist demands.’ Explain the statement by giving suitable examples.
Answer. It is correct to say that coalition governments in India have helped in arriving at some consensus, like:
In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged amdng most parties. This consensus consists of four elements.
- Agreement on new economic policies : While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.
- Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes : Political parties have recognised that the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result, all political parties now support reservation of seats for the backward classes in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
- Acceptance of the role of state level parties in the governance of the country: The distinction between state level and national level parties is fast becoming less important.
- Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement: Coalition political shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements thus, most parties of the NDA did not agree with the Hindutva ideology of the BJP, yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.
To sum up, all these are momentous changes and are going to shape politics in the near future.
All regional movements need not lead to separatist demands because regional aspirations are very much a part of democratic politics. Expression of regional issues is not an aberration or an abnormal phenomenon. Even in small countries like the United Kingdom, there are regional aspirations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
For all regional movements the best way to respond is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression.
For instance, look at the situation in the eighties. Militancy had erupted in Punjab. Problems persisted in the North-East; Students in Assam were agitating; Kashmir valley was on the boil. Instead of treating these as simple law and order problems, the Government of India reached negotiated settlements with regional movements. This produced a reconciliation which reduced the tensions-existing in many regions. The example of Mizoram shows how political settlement can resolve the problem of separatism effectively.
All these examples show that the meaningful and justified regional movements need not lead to separatist demands or encouraged to espouse separatism.
Question.27. Explain India’s improving relationship with China.
What were the factors that led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early of 1970 ?
Answer. Our relations with China after independence started off very well due to a number of friendly gestures on the part of India. In 1954, India signed the famous Panchsheel, which started a new era of Sino-Indian friendship.
But after 1957 various “contentious issues” arose in Sino-Indian relations like :
- Tibet Problem
- Sikkim Issue
- Border Issue
- Chinese Attack -1962
- Chinese assistance to Pakistan
- Nuclear Test Issue.
From 1958 to 1975, China saw India as its major geo-strategic rival and wanted to keep India down.
- Attempts at normalisation of relations between the two were taken at the Indian initiative
in 1976. Due to this, Sino-Indian diplomatic relations were restored with the exchange of ambassadors.
- JWG (Joint Working Group) was set up by both countries to find a solution to the border dispute.
- Both countries also decided to reduce forces along the Sino-Indian frontier and both pledged not to use or threaten the use of force against the other.
- The process of mending forces and emphasis on “friendly competition” has started. This could be done through mutual understanding and bilateral agreements. Both countries should come together to fight against the global challenges like terrorism, economic disparity and nuclear arms race.
- In the Unipolar World there have been significant changes in India China relations. Their relations now have a strategic as well as an economic dimension. Both countries view
themselves as rising powers in global politics and both would like to play a major role in the Asian economy and politics.
While concluding we can say that a long term stable relationship and peace between the two is important for the mutual benefit of both the countries. Increasing transportation and communication links, common economic interests and global concerns should help to establish a more positive and sound relationship between the two most populous countries of the world.
More recently in 2006 both countries signed an agreement on cooperation when the Chinese President, Hu Jintao visited India.
Both countries have agreed to cooperate with each other in areas that could otherwise create conflict between the two, such as bidding for energy deals abroad. At the global level, India and China thus, have adopted similar policies in international economic institutions like the World Trade Organisation.
In the early of 1970s, the government of Indira Gandhi gained popularity due to various factors such as:
- During this period the government made conscious attempts to project its socialist credentials.
- Indira Gandhi vigorously campaigned for implementing the existing land reform laws and undertook further land ceiling legislation.
- In order to end her dependence on the other political parties, she strengthened her party’s position in the Parliament and sought a popular mandate for her programmes. Indira Gandhi’s government recommended the dissolution of the Lok Sabha in December 1970.
- The crisis in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak War leading to the establishment of Bangladesh added one more feather to the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
- In this way, Indira Gandhi and her government was seen not only as the protector of the poor and the underprivileged but also as a strong government.
- The Congress was now in power in almost all the states and restored its dominance. It was also popular across different social sections.