Embark on an enlightening journey through the functioning of institutions that underpin the governance and functioning of a nation. Have you ever wondered about the roles and responsibilities of key institutions in a democracy, how they interact, and their collective impact on the political system? In this article, we present you with a Working of Institutions Class 9 Extra Questions with Answers. Read this also Extra Questions for Class 9 Social Science with Answers.
Working of Institutions Class 9 Extra Questions with Answers
What percentage of civil posts and services under the Government of India have been reserved for the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC)?
27% the vacancies.
With what name was the Second Backward Classes Commission known as?
Which Office Order was supposed to affect thousands of jobs every year?
OM No. 36012/31/90-Est (SCT) dated 13.8.1990.
When was the Mandal Commission constituted?
Write the sentence each about the role played by the following people with reference to Office Memorandum No 36012/31/90.
1. Joint Secretary
2. B. P. Mandal
3. V.P. Singh
4. Indira Sawhney.
1. Joint Secretary: The officer who signed OM No. 36012/31/90.
2. BP Mandal: The person who had headed the Second Backward Classes Commission.
3. V. P. Singh: The Prime Minister when OM 36012/31/90 was issued.
4. Indira Sawhney: One who filed a case against the Union of India in the Supreme Court relating to the Mandal Commission recommendations.
How does a democracy work?
A democracy works through certain political institutions.
What is the function of the Department of Personnel and Training?
The Department of Personnel and Training decides about how and on what terms should the government employees be recruited.
What does the Cabinet do?
The Cabinet meeting decides the major decisions about the country.
What does the Supreme Court do?
The Supreme Court is an institution where disputes about any policy or its implementation are resolved.
What is the job of the Parliament in India?
The Parliament makes laws for the country.
Which body does the Prime Minister head?
Prime Minister heads the Council of Ministers.
What is the name of the national legislature in the USA?
Congress: It has two houses :
the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Extra Questions On Working Of Institutions Class 9 Question 13.
With what name is the British legislature known as?
- The House of Common,
- The House of Lords.
How many members and on what basis does the President of India nominate on tire Rajya Sabha?
The President of India nominates 12 members in the Rajya Sabha on the basis of art, sciences, literature and social service.
What is tenure of the Rajya Sabha member?
A Rajya Sabha member is elected for a period of six years, 1/3 of the total members retire every two years.
By whom is it decided whether a bill is a money bill or not?
By the Speaker.
Where is the money bill sent after being passed by the Lok Sabha?
Who presides over the joint sittings of the Parliament?
When does a bill become an Act of Parliament?
On receipt of the assent of the President, the bill becomes an Act of Parliament.
Which kind of bill must have the consent of the President before being introduced?
Within how many days the Rajya Sabha has to return money bill?
What is the maximum number of the members in the Lok Sabha?
550 At present, the number is 543.
Which of the Constitutional Amendment had frozen the ‘number of representatives in the Lok Sabha?
42nd Constitutional Amendment.
Up to when the freeze has been extended by the National Population Policy 2000?
Up to 2026.
Which court is at the top of the judicial system in India?
The Supreme Court.
What are the powers and functions of the Prime, Minister of India?
The Prime Minister is the head of the central government. All the powers vested in the President are actually exercised by the Council of Ministers under the leadership of the Prime Minister.
As a matter of fact the most powerful office in. the central government is that of the Prime Minister.
Powers and Functions of the Prime Minister-
- He selects the members of the Council of Ministers.
- He allocates portfolios among the ministers.
- He can drop any minister.
- He presides over the meetings of the Council of Ministers.
- He decides about the policies of the government.
- He coordinates the v/ork of different ministers.
- He is also the chairman of the planning commission.
- The entire government is associated with the name of the Prime Minister.
Write a note on the Vice-President of India.
The VicerPresident performs the duties and the. functions of a President in his absence or illness. If the President resigns or dies in office, the Vice-President officiates till a new President is elected.
The Vice-President is also the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The Vice-President in our country is elected for 5 years by an electoral college.
A candidate for the office of the Vice-President must be a citizen of India and must be of 35 years of age or above as well as he must be eligible to be a member of the Rajya Sabha.
Write a short note on the Council of Ministers.
The Council of Ministers in our country is headed by the Prime Minister. In the council, there are three categories of ministers:
- The cabinet ministers,
- The ministers of state,
- deputy ministers. It is essential for the members of the Council of Ministers to be members of either house of The parliaments.
If a minister is not a member of the Parliament, he has to acquire its membership within six months of his appointment. The ministers are individually responsible for their ministries and departments. This responsibility is enforced through the Prime Minister. The Council of Ministers remains in power as long as it enjoys the support of the majority in the Lok Sabha.
How is the Speaker of the Lok Sabha elected? Mention some of his functions.
The Speaker is elected by the members of Lok‘Sabha among themselves. The Speaker presides over the sessions and conducts its business. The Speaker may be a member of any political party. However once elected, he has to conduct, the business of the house impartially. It is the Speaker who keeps the house in order. Though he does not vote during the voting in the house, yet he can use his casting vote in case of a tie.
What do you know about the state legislature?
India is a federal country. Each of its states has a legislature. Some of the state legislatures have two houses while the maximum number of the states have only one house, the lower one. The upper house in a state legislature is known as Vidhan Parishad while the lower house is known as the Vidhan Sabha. According to the provisions of our constitution, no legislative assembly is allowed to have more than 500 or less than 60 members.
The members of the Vidhan Sabha are elected by the people. A citizen of India of 25 years or more is able to be elected as its member.’ The Legislative Assembly is generally elected for 5 years. However, it may be dissolved before its term. Just like the Parliament, in a state .legislature, the lower house that is the Legislative Assembly is more powerful than the Legislative Council.
What is meant by Financial Emergency?
Financial Emergency is a situation in which the President of India feels that the financial Stability or the credit of India is threatened. And to cope with this situation he declares financial emergency. In financial emergency, the President can reduce the salaries of all government officials including the Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
Write a few lines on the emergency arising out of the failure of constitutional machinery in States.
When the President of our country is satisfied on the basis of the report of the governor of a state or even from other sources that the government in the state cannot be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. In such a situation, he can declare emergency in that state. In this situation, the President can take over the entire work of the executive and dissolve or suspend the State Assembly. The governor rules in the name of the President. The budget is passed by the Parliament.
How many houses does the Parliament of India has? How is the Lok Sabha constituted?
The Parliament consists of two Houses. The first House is the Lok Sabha or the House of the People (in Hindi Lok means people and Sabha means assembly or council). The people directly elect Members of the Lok Sabha for a period of five years. We have already studied the method of election for the 543 members of Lok Sabha.
Give briefly the composition of the Rajya Sabha.
The second House of India’s Parliament is called the Rajya Sabha or the Council of States. The Rajya Sabha represents the states Its total strength is 250; 12 out of them are nominated by the President on the basis of art, literature, science, social service. A member of the Rajya Sabha is elected for six years, with one-third retiring every second year. If is never without numbers.
Can we say that the political executive is more powerful in the presidential system than in parliamentary system?
Not really. Sometimes, strength becomes weakness. In a presidential system, two different parties can run two different centres of power. Often the president cannot get the parliament to support. her or his policies. In a parliamentary system, the same party controls political executive and the parliament. So the political executive can work without obstacles.
How’ are the ministers appointed in India?
After the appointment of the Prime Minister, the President appoints other ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. The ministers are usually from the party or the coalition that has the majority in Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister is free to choose ministers, as long as they are members of the Parliament. Sometimes, a person who is not a Member of Parliament can also become a minister. But such a person has to get elected to one of the Houses of the Parliament within six months of appointment as minister.
Do you agree that the President remains a nominal executive? How is he elected?
The President is not elected directly by the people. The Constitution has set up a very elaborate and complex system for the election of the President, The President is elected by all the elected MPs and MLAs in the country. Their votes have different values, depending on how many people they represent.
Their votes are counted through a complicated system called ‘single transferable vote system. This complicated system of election meets two aims. The President can be seen to represent the entire nation. At the same time, the President can never claim the kind of direct popular mandate that the Prime Minister can. This ensures that the president remains a nominal executive.
Explain the term Public Interest Litigation (PIL).
When anyone approaches the courts in case public interest is adversely affected by the actions of the government, it is called public interest litigation. The courts intervene to prevent the misuse of government power in making decisions. They check malpractices on the part of public officials. That is the reason why of all the political institutions in the country the judiciary enjoys high confidence of the people.
Answer following for the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha :
Describe the functions of the government briefly.
Administration involves a lot of governmental activities. For example, the government is responsible for ensuring the security of the citizens and providing facilities for education and health to all. It collects taxes and spends money thus raised on army, police and development programmes. It formulates several welfare schemes and elements, them.
Some persons have to take decisions on how to go about these activities. Some have to implement these decisions. If disputes arise on these decisions or in their implementation, there should be someone to determine what is right and what is wrong.
It is important that everyone should know who is responsible for doing what. It is also important that these activities are not influenced too much by the personal likes and dislikes of someone who happens Lobe doing that. So, to attend all these tasks several arrangements are made in aHrnbdem democracies. Such arrangements are called institutions. A democracy works throùgh political institutions. It works well when these institutions do what, people expect of them, do it efficiently and are answerable to the people.
Discuss some of the major functions of the Parliament in a democracy.
Legislature existš in every democracy. It exercises political authority on behalf of the people in many ways :
(a) The parliament is the final authority for making the laws in any country. This task of lawmaking or legislation is so crucial that these assemblies are called legislatures. Parliaments all over the world can make new laws, change the existing laws, or abolish the existing laws and make new ones in their place, In most countries, the parliaments can also amend the Constitution in some situations.
(b) The parliaments all over the world can criticise and exercise some control over those who run the government. In some countries like India, this control is direct and full. Those who run the government can do so only as long as the parliament wants them to.
(c) Parliaments control public finances. In most countries, any money raised from the people can be spent only when the parliament sanctions it.
(d) The parliaments are the highest forum of discussion and debate about public issues and national policy in any country. Parliament can. seek information about any matter related to government.
(e) Parliament chooses the real chief executive called also the Prime Minister, and it can also force him to resign if he loses its confidence.
It is because of these functions and powers that the Parliament is described as supreme.
In what respects does the Lok Sabha appear more powerful than the Rajya Sabha?
Our Constitution clearly gives more powers to the directly elected house, the Lok Sabha as compared to the Rajya Sabha. This is clear from the following. Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both the houses. But if there is a difference between the two Houses, the final decision is taken by a joint session in which members of both the houses meet together. Because of the larger number of members, the view of the Lok Sabha is likely to prevail in such a meeting.
(i) Lok Sabha exercises more powers in financial matters. Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget of the government or any other finance-related law, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it. The Rajya Sabha can only delay it by 14 days or suggest changes in it. The Lok Sabha may or may not accept these changes.
(ii) Most importantly, the Lok Sabha controls the government. The government continues in power only as long as it enjoys the support of the majority of the members in the Lok Sabha. If the majority of the Lok Sabha members say they have ‘no confi¬dence’ in the Council of Ministers, all of them including the Prime Minister have to quit. This the Rajya Sabha cannot do.
What do you mean by ‘Political Executive”? Briefly state functions/powers.
At different levels of any government, we find functionaries who take day-to-day decisions but do not exercise supreme power on behalf of the people. All those functionaries are collectively known as the executive. They are called executives because they are in charge of the ‘execution’ of the policies of the government. Thus, when we refer to ‘the government’ we usually mean the executive. The executive in a democratic country consists of two parts.
Those who are elected by the people for a specific period are called the political executives. These are political leaders who take the big decisions. Those who are appointed on a long-term basis are called the permanent executive or civil services. Those working in evil services are called civil servants. These are officers who work under political executives and assist them in carrying out the day-to-day administration.
In both the parliamentary and presidential systems, tire political executive does a lot more than we think it does; The role of the executive is not limited to implementing laws made by the parliament, it also includes: The political executive actively participates in lawmaking. It is the cabinet that proposes a draft legislation that is passed by the parliament as the National Commission on Backward Glasses Act 1993.
In fact, it is mandatory that all legislation; that has to do with financial; matters should be proposed by the government, The executive frames policies and rules that are as important as the law itself. Let us recall that O.M. No. 36012/30/90 was an executive order, net a law. Subsequent decisions about who could benefit from these reservations were e also made by the executive.
Why is the Prime Minister the most important political office in the country?
In a parliamentary system like ours, the head of the government is different from the head of the state. Both of them are part of the executive. But the head of the government exercises most of the real powers. This position is called the Prime Minister in most countries with parliamentary system. In our country too the Prime Minister is the head to the government. That is why the Prime Minister is the most important political office in the country.
In a parliamentary system, the head of the state appoints the head of the government. In our country7 the President appoints the Prime Minister. But this is only a formal description. What it means in real life is that the President appoints leader of the majority party or the coalition of parties that command majority in the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister.
As the head of the government, the Prime Minister has wide-ranging powers. He chairs cabinet meetings. He coordinates the work of different departments. His decisions are final in case disagreements arise between departments; He exercises general supervision of different ministries. All ministers work under his leadership. The Prime Minister distributes and redistributes work to the ministers. Tie also has the power to dismiss ministers. When he quits, the entire ministry quits.
The extent of power that Prime Minister really wields varies a lot. It depends upon, the personality of the holder of the office, his or her authority in the ruling party and the image and following among the people. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, exercised enormous authority because he was the supreme leader to the ruling Congress party at that time. He also had great influence on the public. But this was not true of all other Prime Ministers.
Objective Type Questions
(i) The proposal for a law is called a …………………. .
(ii) On the receipt of the assent of the …………………. the bill becomes an Act of Parliament.
(iii) In the Rajya Sabha, every member is elected for …………………. years.
(iv) The Rajya Sabha must return the money bill with its recommendations within …………………. days.
(v) The …………………. of the Assembly elect one of its members as speaker.
(vi) …………………. presides over the joint sittings of the Parliament.
2. Put (✓) before correct sentences and (✗) before incorrect sentences.
(i) When Rajya Sabha does not return the money bill within 14 days it is deemed to have been passed.
(ii) The strength of Legislative Assemblies in different states, varies.
(iii) If there is disagreement between the two houses on the bill the President may convene a joint sitting.
(iv) The questions without stars are meant for legislators.
(v) The answers to all the questions and the supplementary questions given by ministers make the government responsive to Parliament.
3. Choose the correct alternative from the following ones:
(i) Mandal Commission was constituted in:
(ii) The following appoints the Prime Minister of India :
(b) Supreme Court of India
(d) Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
(iii) The following is called the apex court:
(a) District court
(b) High Court
(c) Supreme court
(d) None of these
(c) Supreme court
(iv) Parliament, in India, consists of the following:
(a) Lok Sabha only
(b) Rajya Sabha only
(c) Both Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad
(d) Both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
(d) Both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
(v) The Prime Minister heads the following :
(a) Rajya Sabha
(b) Council of Ministers
(c) Supreme Court
(d) Vidhan Sabha.
(b) Council of Ministers.