Ruling the Countryside Class 8 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 3

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Ruling the Countryside Class 8 Extra Questions and Answers Social Science History Chapter 3

Ruling the Countryside Class 8 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
When did the Mughal emperor appoint the East India Company as the Diwan of Bengal?
On 12th August 1765, the Mughal emperor appointed the East India Company as the Diwan of Bengal.

Question 2.
Which settlement was introduced during 1793?
Permanent Settlement was introduced during 1793.

Question 3.
Who were appointed to collect rent and pay revenue to the Company during Permanent Settlement?
Zamindars were appointed to collect rent and pay revenue to the Company during Permanent Settlement.

Question 4.
Who devised the system of Mahalwari?
Holt Mackenzie devised the Mahalwari system.

Question 5.
What was the conclusion of Permanent Settlement at end?
Permanent Settlement got failed.

Question 6.
Who initiated and developed the Ryotwari system?
Captain Alexander Read initiated and Thomas Munro developed the Ryotwari system.

Question 7.
Name the two systems adopted for growing indigo by the cultivators.
Nij and Ryoti were two systems adopted by the cultivators.

Question 8.
What is meant by Mahal?
Mahal means village or groups of villages.

Question 9.
What was the aim of the Company after getting Diwani?
After Diwani the Company aimed at administering the land and organising its revenue resources and this was done in way that could help the Company attaining enough revenue.

Question 10.
What was the difficult task for the Company to be done?
The Company needed to pacify those who ruled the countryside in past. So it was difficult task to eliminate entirely the past rulers of the countryside of the Company.

Question 11.
What led to minimise the bringing of gold and silver by the Company for trade purpose in India?
Revenue which was collected from Bengal was sufficient for the Company to purchase goods for exports so the Company started reducing getting gold and silvers for trade purpose.

Question 12.
What was the biggest drawback for zamindars in Permanent Settlement?
Failure of payment of revenue resulting in loss of the zamindari was the biggest drawback which zamindars faced in Permanent Settlement.

Question 13.
At the time of introduction of permanent settlement who was the governor general of India.
Charles Cornwallis.

Question 14.
Who was William Morris in the 19th century under British rule?
William Morris was a famous poet and artist.

Question 15.
By whom was the Morris cotton print designed?
By William Morris.

Question 16.
By whom was the ‘Kalamkari print’ was created?
By the weavers of Andhra Pradesh Kalamkari print was created.

Question 17.
Define ‘Famine’.
Extreme Scarcity of food is termed as Famine.

Question 18.
What was common in Kalamkari and Morris cotton print?
In both a rich blue colour common by known as ‘Indigo’ was used.

Question 19.
Define the term ‘Indigo’.
Indigo is a plant that produces the blue colour that is rich and is used as dye.

Question 20.
What is meant by ‘Vat’?
A large tank or tube used to hold liquid, especially in industry.

Question 21.
Who were ‘Gomasthas’?
The agents of Planters.

Question 22.
Who were the ‘Lathiyats’?
Lath – weilding strong men maintained by the planters.

Question 23.
What the role played by women in the cultivation of Indigo?
The role was to carry the Indigo plant to vats.

Ruling the Countryside Class 8 Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Define Mahalwari system in short.

  1. Estimated revenue of each plot within village was added up to calculate revenue which each Mahal (village) had to pay.
  2. Revenue demand to be revised periodically.
  3. Headmen of Mahal given charge to collect revenue.
  4. This is what Mahalwari system was.

Question 2.
Where was the Indigo cultivated by the English and the French?
The Indigo was cultivated by the English in Jamaica and French use to cultivate it in St. Dominque in the Caribbean Islands.

Question 3.
Define the following terms
(i) Plantation
(ii) Bigha
Plantation is an Estate on which crops such as coffee, sugar and tobacco were grown.
Bigha: A measuring unit of land area varying locally.

Question 4.
Briefly describe the system of permanent settlement.
Under this system Rajas and Taluqdars were recognized as Zamindars and they were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company. The amount that was to be paid was fixed permanently and was not to be increased or decreased in future.

Question 5.
What were the drawbacks of Nij cultivation?
The drawbacks of Nij cultivation are:

  1. The planters found it difficult to expand the area under Nij cultivation.
  2. Labour force was not easily available.
  3. Nij cultivation on a large scale also required many ploughs and bullocks investing on purchase and maintenance of ploughs was a big problem.

Ruling the Countryside Class 8 Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Briefly explain two following questions.
(i) Explain the two system adopted for the cultivation of Indigo in India.
(ii) What did the British realise about the countryside?
(i) The two systems adopted for the cultivation of indigo by cultivators were:

  1. Nij: In this process cultivators produced indigo on the lands which were under their control.
  2. Ryoti: The planters forced Ryots to sign contract, an agreement (i.e. Satta). They also pressurised village headmen to sign contract on behalf of Ryots. This is how the two processes of cultivation of Indigo took place.

(ii) The British realised that the countryside not only yielded revenue, it could also grow crops that Europe required.

  1. By the late 18th century the Company was trying expanding the cultivation of opium and indigo.
  2. Therefore the British persuaded and forced cultivators in various parts of India to produce other crops.

Question 2.
What was Munro system and what happened in conclusion after Munro system took over a wide area?
In British territories of south, the new system that was devised came to be known as Ryotwar (or Ryotwari).

  1. Tried on small scale by Captain Alexander Read in some areas that were taken over by the Company after the wars with Tipu Sultan.
  2. Subsequently developed by Thomas Munro, this system was gradually extended all over south India.
    There was absence of zamindars in south.
  3. Therefore it was argued that it had to be made directly with the cultivators (Ryots) who had tilled the land for generations.
  4. Munro thought that the British should act as Paternal father figures to protect the ryots under the in charge.
  5. The conclusion was not well as driven by the desire to increase the income from land revenue, officials fixed too high revenue demand.
  6. Peasants failed to pay, ryots fled the countryside, the villages became deserted in many regions.
  7. Therefore, a complete failure of the Munro system also known as Ryotwari system happened during that time.

Picture Based Questions Class 8 History Chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside

Look at the picture given below and answer the following questions:
Ruling the Countryside Class 8 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 3 img-1
1. What is observed in the picture above.
2. Who use to attend the weekly market.
1. The picture describes a weekly market in Murshidabad, Bengal.
2. The weekly market was attended by peasants and artisans.