Natural vegetation refers to the plant life that grows in a specific region without any human interference. From the dense rainforests of the tropics to the sparse vegetation of arid deserts, each region boasts a unique array of plant species that adapt to their surroundings. In this article, we present you with a Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Extra Questions with Answers. Read this also Extra Questions for Class 9 Social Science with Answers.
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Extra Questions with Answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What position does India occupy in the world with regards to plant diversity?
What position in Asia, does India hold in plant diversity?
What is the number of flowering plants in India?
15,000 flowering plants.
What percentage of flowering plants does India contribute to the world’s total?
What is Natural Vegetation?
Natural vegetation refers to the plants which have grown naturally without human aid and have been left undisturbed by humans for a long time.
Give another name for natural vegetation.
Why are cultivated crops, fruits and vegetables not considered as natural vegetation?
They are grown with the help of man.
What is the difference between flora and fauna?
Flora refers to the plants of a particular region or period. The species of animals are referred to as fauna.
Why is there a great diversity in flora and fauna?
Differences in land, soil and climate cause a great diversity in the flora and fauna of a region.
What is the main occupation of people where land is fertile and level?
Which occupation can be carried on in grasslands and woodlands?
Why do trees grow faster in summer?
Due to longer duration of sunlight.
Why are the southern slopes of the Himalayas covered with thicker vegetation as compared to northern slopes?
The southern slopes of the Himalayas get direct sunlight while the northern slopes receive indirect rays or oblique rays.
Name the two winds which cause rainfall in the major part of the Indian subcontinent.
South West Monsoons in Summer.
North East Monsoons in Winter.
Why do the windward or western slopes of the Western Ghats have a denser vegetation than the eastern or leeward slopes?
Rainfall is heavier on the windward or western slopes than the eastern or leeward slope.
Which areas in India have been untouched by man or have not been modified?
Inaccessible regions of the Himalayas and the hilly region of Central India and the marusthali.
According to the Indian State of Forest Report 2011, what is the percentage of forest cover in India.
‘When the vegetation is altered, the animal life also changes’. How?
This happens because plants occur in distinct groups of communities in areas having similar climatic conditions. The nature of the plants in an area, to a large extent, determines the animal life in that area. All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent and inter-related to each other in their physical environment. Therefore when the vegetation changes, the animal life is affected.
How do the human beings influence the ecology of a region?
Human beings utilise the vegetation and wildlife. They cut the trees for their own benefit and kill the animals for various purposes. The ecological balance is disturbed.
What is a biome?
A very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life is called a-biome.
How are the biomes identified?
Biomes are identified on the basis of plants.
What is the other name of Tropical Rain Forests? [CBSE 2016]
These forests are also known as the Tropical Evergreen Forests.
Name two regions, one in the north of the Tropic of Cancer and one in the south of the TTopic of Cancer, where TTopical Evergreen Forests are found.
North – Northern parts of Assam
South – Windward slopes of the Western Ghats.
Name any four commercially important trees of the Evergreen Forests.
Ebony, mahogany, rosewood and rubber.
For what purpose did the people in the forests use bamboo?
The people in the forests used bamboo for commercial purposes especially for the construction of houses and for carrying the water from the higher regions of heavy rainfall to the lower areas.
Name any four common animals found in the Tropical Evergreen Forests?
Elephants, monkeys, rhinoceros and snakes.
Name the most widespread forests of India. By what other name are they also known as?
Tropical Deciduous Forests. These forests are also known as Monsoon Forests.
What are the sub-divisions of the Tropical Deciduous Forests?
Dry Deciduous – (70-100 cm of rain)
Wet Deciduous – (100-200 cm of rain)
Why are thorny trees and shrubs found in Gujarat and Rajasthan?
Rainfall is less than 70 cm
When was the Wildlife Protection Act implemented in India? [HOTS]
Name the natural habitat of the Indian lion.
Gir forest in Gujarat.
Name any two bird sanctuaries in India.
Name any three common animals each of thorn forests and the mangrove forests found in India.
The wild ass, camels and horses are the common animals of the thorn forest.
Tigers, crocodiles and gharials are found in coastal areas where mangrove forests exist.
How many species of animals and birds does India have?
India has approximately 90,000 of animal species and 2,000 species of birds.
Name any three animals found in rivers, lakes and the coastal areas of India.
Turtles, crocodiles and gharials.
Name any three animals which live in the Himalayas due to its cold climate.
The yak lives in Ladakh’s freezing high altitudes. The shaggy horned wild ox and the Tibetan antelope also live in the cold regions of Elimalayas.
Differentiate between endemic and exotic plants.
The Virgin vegetation which is purely Indian is known as endemic, while those plants which have come from outside India are known as exotic plants.
How does the vegetation change with the change in the soil?
Different types of soils have different characteristics and minerals, therefore it is suited to those plants which can grow well under those conditions.
What type of vegetation is supported by the following soils?
Sandy soils of the desert – cactus and thorny bushes
Marshy or deltaic soils – mangroves
Hill soils – conical trees or coniferous trees
What are the causes for the variation of sunlight at different places?
Differences in latitude
Differences in altitude
Season and duration of the day
Which forest is the most widespread forest of India? What is its other name? Give an example of any two species of trees of these forests.
The Tropical Deciduous Forest is the most widespread forest of India. These forests are also called the Monsoon Forests. Shisham and sal are two important species of these forests.
In which regions are the following animals found?
Lion: Gir forest in Gujarat Tigers: Forests of Madhya Pradesh Leopards: Himalayas.
Name four bioreserves in India which have been included in the world network of biosphere reserves.
(b) Nanda Devi
(c) Gulf of Mannar
(d) Nilgiris .
(f) Great Nicobar
(j) Achanakmar-Amarkantak (Any four)
What are migratory birds?
Migratory birds visit a warmer country during the winters as in their native country the temperature falls below freezing point. These birds return to their native area in summer.
Short Answer Type Questions
Give reasons why India’s natural vegetation has undergone many changes?
India’s natural vegetation has undergone many changes due to the:
growing demand for cultivated land
development of industries and mining
urbanisation and overgrazing of pastures
Where are mangrove forests found? How are they formed? Which is the most important tree of the Ganga Delta?
Mangrove forests are found in the coastal areas mainly in the deltas of the rivers. These forests are also known as the tidal forests as they are formed by the tides which bring in mud and silt and accumulate it on the coasts. The most important tree of the Ganga Delta is the Sundari tree which is hard and durable.
Name any three medicinal plants of India and mention for what they are used.
Jamun: The juice has digestive properties. The powder of the seed is used for curing diabetes.
Arjun: The fresh juice of leaves is a cure for earache and regulate blood pressure.
Tulsi Plant: It is used to cure cough and cold.
‘Bird life in India is colourful’. Explain.
(a) The country has about 2,000 species of birds. Some of the wetlands of India are popular with migratory birds.
(b) Peacocks, pheasants, ducks, parakeets, cranes and pigeons are some of the birds inhabiting the forests and the wetlands of the country.
(c) In places where the desert merges with the sea, like the Rann of Kachchh, flamingoes with their pink plumage, come in large numbers.
How many National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries have been set up by the government to take care of the natural heritage of India? Why have these been established by the government?[CBSE 2016]
103 National Parks and 535 Wildlife Sanctuaries have been set up to take care of the natural heritage of India. These have been established to protect and save the flora and fauna, and maintain the balance of the ecosystem.
A great variety of flora is found in India. Give three geographical factors responsible for this diversification of flora. [CBSE 2011]
India has a great variety in flora because of:
(a) Varied relief of mountains, plains, plateaus and desert. They have their own different types of flora. In the mountainous regions, wet temperate forests are found between the height of 1000-2000 m, coniferous forests are found between 1500 and 3000 m. Trees like the pine, deodar, spruce and cedar are found. In regions of less rainfall (less than 70 cm) and in semi-arid regions the vegetation consists of acacias, palms and cacti.
(b) In areas of heavy rainfall like the Western Ghats, which receive more than 200 cm of rainfall, tropical evergreen forests are found.
(c) Different types of terrain and soil – like alluvial, black, red, laterite support different types of vegetation e.g., black soil is good for growing cotton.
Distinguish between Thorn Forests and Mangrove Forests. [CBSE 2010]
|Thorn Forests||Mangrove Forests|
|(a) Located in regions having 70 cm of rainfall. The natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes.||(a)The Mangrove tidal forests are found in coastal regions influenced by tides.|
|(b) Found in semi-arid regions, e.g., Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh.||(b)Mangrove tidal forests are found in the deltas of Ganga, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari and Kaveri.|
|(c)Babool, kikar, palms, cacti and acacia are the main plant species.||(c) The Sundari is an important tree found here. These have hard durable wood. Other examples are agar, keora.|
Write three measures to conserve Ecosystem. [HOTS] [CBSE 2010]
Ecosystem can be conserved by:
(a) avoiding cutting of trees indiscriminately.
(b) checking rapid growth of population. Otherwise overcrowding will result in imbalances and the pollution of the environment.
(c) checking the smoke from the chimneys and vehicles. Waste from farms, factories and cities should be scientifically treated so that we can save our ecosystem and preserve it for the benefit of mankind.
Write the main characteristics of tropical deciduous forests. [CBSE 2010]
Main characteristics of tropical deciduous forests are:
(a) They form the natural cover almost all over India, hence they are also called ‘monsoon forests’.
(b) Rainfall needed is between 75-200 cm. They are sub-divided into (/) moist deciduous (ii) dry deciduous. Examples are sal, teak, shisham, sandalwood, bamboo, etc.
(c) Trees shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in summer.
(d) Located on the eastern slopes of Western Ghats, Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh, northeastern states
Bihar, West Odisha, along the Shiwaliks and rainier pans of peninsular plateau.
(e) These forests are economically most important. They have been commercially exploited, providing the most valuable timber and other forest products.
Explain ‘natural ecosystem’. Why is any attempt to tamper with the ecosystem fraught with grave risks? [CBSE 2010]
(a) An ecosystem consists of all species of plants and animals in a given area which are interdependent.
(b) It is the ecosystem which helps the man to survive and lead a comfortable life. It provides man with food, raw material for industries and clothing. The natural resources should be used carefully so that they are not exhausted in a short time.
(c) Ecosystem can be conserved by avoiding cutting of trees indiscriminately. Checking on rapid growth of population, otherwise overcrowding will result in the imbalances and pollution of environment.
Describe the major vegetation zones of the Himalayan region. [CBSE 2010]
In mountainous areas (Himalayas), the decrease in temperature and increase in altitude leads to
the corresponding changes in natural vegetation. The major vegetation zones are:
(a) Wet temperate type of forests are located between a height of 1000-2000 metres. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as chir, chill, ash, oak, chestnuts are found in this region.
(b) Between 1500-3000 metres above sea-level, coniferous forests such as pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are found.
(c) At high altitude, Alpine vegetation comprising Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches is found.
(d) Tundra vegetation of moss and lichen prevails at higher altitude. (any three)
Write three measures to protect wildlife. [CBSE 2010]
The measures taken by the Government for the protection and conservation of our biological diversity are:
(a) Periodic census are conducted to find out the latest position and trends in this regard.
(b) Tiger reserves have been set up. Project Tiger is a great success.
(c) Rhinos in Assam and elephants in Periyar are being conserved.
(d) Several national parks and bird sanctuaries have been set up.
Describe the vegetation and the wildlife found in the Ganga and Brahmaputra delta. [CBSE 2010
Mangrove tidal forests are found in coastal regions, influenced by the tides. The roots of the plants
are submerged under water. They are found in the deltas of Ganga and Brahmaputra. The Sundari trees are found here. They have hard durable wood. Other examples are agar, keora. The Tigers are found in the Sundarbans of West Bengal. Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests.
Name two states where thorn forests and scrubs vegetation are found. Which are the common animals found in these forests? Why is there absence of trees in these forests?
Thorn forests and scrubs vegetation are found in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Camels, rats, wild ass are the common animals found in these forests. There is absence of trees because rainfall is less than 70 cm in these regions.
Mention the ways in which the desert plants adapt themselves to their surroundings.
(a) Trees are scattered.
(b) Have long roots which go deep into the soil to get moisture.
(c) The stems are succulent to conserve water.
(d) Leaves are thick and small to prevent excessive evaporation of moisture. (any three)
Which migratory bird visits the Rann of Kachchh in winter? Why? How do we benefit from these birds?
Siberian Crane is the migratory bird which visits the Rann of Kachchh in winter. It becomes extremely cold in Siberia so they come here and build nest mounds from the salty mud and raise their young ones.
The visit of the Siberian Crane is one among many extraordinary sights in the country. Many tourists and visitors come here to see them.
Compare the wildlife of the Himalayas and the wetlands of our country. [CBSE 2015]
The animals of the Himalayas can survive in the extreme cold where the temperatures are very low.
These include shaggy horned wild ox, the Tibetan antelope, the bharal, wild sheep and the Tibetan wild ass. Rare animals like the snow leopard and the red panda are found in certain areas.
In the wetlands, animals like the crocodiles, gharial and turtles are commonly found. A number of reptiles and birds inhabit the wetlands of the country.
What is the meaning of flora and fauna? How is India rich in its fauna? Explain. [CBSE 2016]
The term ‘flora’ is used to denote plants and the term ‘fauna’ is used to denote animals. India has
approximately 90,000 of animal species. The country has about 2,000 species of birds. There are 2546 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock. It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals. India is the only country in the world that has both tigers and lions. In the rivers, lakes and coastal areas, turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found. Peacocks, Pheasants, ducks and cranes are some of the birds inhabiting the forests and wetlands of the country.
Long Answer Type Questions
Why are the forests important to man? What has been the result of man’s interference with nature?
The importance of forests are as follows:
- Forests increase the quality of environment.
- They modify the climate.
- They control the erosion of the soil.
- Control soil erosion.
- Regulate stream flow.
- They support many industries and thus provide a livelihood for the rural population.
- Forests provide humus to the soil and shelter to the wildlife.
The interference of man with nature has resulted in the extinction of many plants and animals.
Complete the following table: Name any two common animals found in these forests.
|(a) Wet temperate
(b) Temperate forests
|(a) Wet temperate||1,000-2,000 metres||Oaks, Chestnuts|
|(b) Temperate forests||1,500-3,000 metres||Pine, deodar, spruce, cedar|
|(c) Alpine||(High altitude) 3,600 metres above sea-level||Silver fir, junipers, pines|
The common animals found in these forests are the Kashmir stag and the spotted dear.
Mention the steps taken by the government to protect the flora and fauna. [HOTS]
(a) Eighteen biosphere reserves have been set up for the protection of the flora and fauna.
(b) Financial and technical assistance is provided to many Botanical Gardens since 1992.
(c) Many eco-developmental projects have been introduced e.g., Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard etc.
(d) 103 National Parks and 535 Wildlife Sanctuaries set up to take care of the natural heritage.
(e) Setting up of Zoological gardens.
Describe the features of the Mangrove forests? [CBSE 2016]
- Mangrove forests are found in the coastal regions which are affected by tides.
- Dense mangroves are the common varieties of trees.
- The roots of the plants are submerged in water and can be seen only during low tide.
- The Sundari trees found in the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta provide durable hard timber.
- Palm, coconut, keora, agar also grow in some parts of the delta.
- Royal Bengal Tiger is the famous animal in these forests. (any five)
Give a brief account of the wildlife in India in five points.
(a) India is rich in its wildlife. It has about 90,000 animal species, about 2000 species of birds and about 2546 species of fish.
(b) Elephants are found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala. One-horned rhinoceros live in swampy and marshy lands of Assam and North-west Bengal.
(c) Rann of Kutch and Thar desert are habitat of wild asses and camels. Lions are found in Gir hills of Gujarat and Tigers in the Sundarbans of West Bengal.
(id) The Himalayas harbour a wide wild variety of animals, e.g., yaks, snow-leopards, bear, Tibetan antelope [bharal (blue sheep), musk-deer, kiang (Tibetan wild ass)], etc.
(e) In rivers, lakes and coastal areas, turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found.
Distinguish between TVopical Evergreen and Deciduous Forests. [CBSE 2010]
|Tropical Evergreen Forests||Deciduous Forests|
|(a)Located in regions of heavy rainfall more than 200 cm of rainfall.||(a)The Mangrove tidal forests are found in coastal regions influenced by tides.|
|(b) Luxuriant vegetation of all kinds, trees, shrubs and creepers. Trees reach height of 60 metres.||(b)These are most widespread forests of India. They are divided into moist and dry deciduous forest.|
|(c)There is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves. These forests generally appear green all the year round.||(c) Trees of this forest type shed their leaves for about 6-8 weeks in dry summer.|
|(d) These forests are found in Western Ghats, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar.||(d) Wet deciduous are found in regions between 100-200 cm of rainfall, e.g., Jharkhand, Odisha and Chattisgarh. Dry deciduous are found in regions between 70-100 cm of rainfall, e.g., Bihar. Uttar Pradesh.|
|(e) Some important trees of this forest are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, cinchona. Trees, shrubs and creepers give it a multi-layered structure.||(e)There are open stretches in which teak, peepal, neem, sal grows.|
On the outline map of India, identify the type of vegetation.
A. Tropical Evergreen
B. Tropical Deciduous Forest
C. Thorn Forest
D. Montane Forest
E. Mangrove Forest
Locate and label the following national parks on the map of India.
Locate and label the following bird sanctuaries and wildlife sanctuaries on the given map of India.
(a) Bird Sanctuaries: Bharatpur and Ranganthittu
(b) Wildlife Sanctuaries: Sariska, Mudumalai, Rajaji, Dachigam.