CBSE Previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 English Delhi 2015

Time allowed : 3 hours                                                                                           Maximum Marks: 100
General Instructions :

  1. This paper is divided into three sections : A, B and C. All the sections are compulsory.
  2. Separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary. Read these instructions very carefully and follow them faithfully.
  3. Do not exceed the prescribed word limit while answering the questions.



Question.1. Read the passage given below carefully:

  1. For four days, I walked through the narrow lanes of the old city, enjoying the romance of being in a city where history still lives – in its cobblestone streets and in its people riding asses, carrying v-ine leaves and palm as they once did during . the time of Christ.
  2. This is Jerusalem, home to the sacred sites of Christianity, Islam and Judaism. This is the place that houses the church of the Holy Sepulchre, the place where Jesus was finally laid to rest. This is also the site of Christ’s crucifixion, burial and resurrection.
  3. Built by the Roman Emperor Constantine at the site of an earlier temple to Aphrodite, it is the most venerated Christian shrine in the world.. And justifiably so. Here, within the church, are the last five stations of the cross, the 10th station where Jesus was stripped of his clothes, the 11th where he was nailed to the cross, the 12th where he died on the cross, the 13th where the body was removed from the cross, and the 14th, his tomb.
  4. For all this weighty tradition, the approach and entrance to the church is nondescript. You have to ask for directions.
    Even to the devout Christian pilgrims walking along the Via Dolorosa – The Way of Sorrow first nine stations look clueless. Then a courtyard appears, hemmed in by other buildings and a doorway to one side. This leads to a vast area of huge stone architecture.
  5. Immediately inside the entrance is your first stop. It’s the stone of anointing: this is the place, according to Greek tradition, where Christ was removed from the cross. The Roman Catholics, however, believe it to be the spot where Jesus body was prepared for burial by Joseph.
  6. What happened next ? Jesus was buried. He was taken to a place outside the city of Jerusalem where other graves existed and there, he was buried in a cave. However, all that is long gone, destroyed by continued attacks and rebuilding; what remains is the massive – and impressive – Rotunda (a round building with a dome) that Emperor Constantine built. Under this, and right in the centre of the Rotunda, is the structure that contains the Holy Sepulchre.
  7.  “How do you know that this is Jesus tomb ?” I asked one of the pilgrims standing next to me. He was clueless, more interested, like the rest of them, in the novelty of it all and in photographing it, than in its history or tradition.
  8. At the start of the first century, the place was a disused quarry outside the city walls. According to the gospels, Jesus crucifixion occurred at a place, outside the city walls with graves nearby…….’. Archaeologists have discovered tombs from that era, so the site is compatible with the Biblical period.
  9. The structure at the site is a marble tomb built over the original burial chamber. It has two rooms, and you enter four at a time into the first of these, the Chapel of the Angel. Here the angle is supposed to have sat on a stone to recount Christ’s resurrection. A low door made of white marble, party worn away by pilgrims hands, leads to a smaller chamber inside. This is the ‘room of the tomb’, the place where Jesus was buried.
  10. We entered in single file. On my right was a large marble slab that covered the original rock bench on which the body of Jesus was laid. A woman knelt and prayed. Her eyes were wet with tears. She pressed her face against the slab to hide them, but it only made it worse.

I. On the basis of your understanding of this passage answer the following questions with the help of given options :
(a) How does Jerusalem still retain the charm of ancient era ?
(i) There are narrow lanes.
(ii) Roads are paved with cobblestones.
(iii) People can be seen riding assess.
(iv) All of the above.
(b) Holy Sepulchre is sacred to ————.
(i) Christianity.
(ii) Islam.
(iii) Judaism.
(iv) Both (i) and (iii).
(c) Why does one have to constantly ask for directions to the church ?
(i) Its lanes are narrow.
(ii) Entrance to the church is nondescript.
(iii) People are not tourist-friendly.
(iv) Everyone is lost in enjoying the romance of the place.
(d) Where was Jesus buried ?
(i) In a cave.
(ii) At a place outside the city.
(iii) In the Holy Sepulchre
(iv) Both (i) and (ii)
(a) (iv) All of the above.
(b) (iv) Both (i) and (ii)
(c) (ii) Entrance to the church is nondescript.
(d) (iv) Both (i) and (ii).

II. Answer the following questions briefly:
(e) What is the Greek belief about the ‘stone of anointing’ ?
(f) Why did Emperor Constantine build the Rotunda ?
(g) What is the general attitude of the pilgrims ?
(h) How is the site compatible with the Biblical period ?
(i) Why did the pilgrims enter the room of the tomb in a single file ?
(j) Why did a woman try to hide her tears ?
(k) Find words from the passage which mean the same as:
(i) A large grave (para 3)
(ii) Having no interesting features/dull (para 4)
(e) According to the Greek belief, the stone of anointing is a place where Christ was removed from the cross.
(f) Emperor Constantine built Rotunda to safeguard the Holy Sepulchre and the remaining structure around it.
(g) Pilgrims have a very casual attitude and they are completely unaware about the history and tradition. They are more into capturing pictures and appreciating the novelty of the church. .
(h) According to the gospels, Jesus Crucifixion occurred at a place outside the city walls with graves nearby…’ and as the archaeologists have discovered tombs from the Biblical era, the site is compatible.
(i) ‘Room of the tomb is a very small place, hence the pilgrims entered in a single file.
(j) The woman knelt down to pray looking at the large marble slab and wanted to hide her tears as she became very sentimental.
(k) (i) Tomb.
(ii) Nondescript.

Question.2. Read the passage given below:

  1. We often make all things around us the way we want them. Even during our pilgrimages we have begun to look for whatever makes our heart happy, gives comfort to our body and peace to the mind. It is as if external solutions will fulfil our needs, and we do not want to make any special efforts even in our spiritual search. Our mind is resourceful — it works to find short cuts in simple and easy ways.
  2. Even pilgrimages have been converted into tourism opportunities. Instead, we must awaken our conscience and souls and understand the truth. Let us not tamper with our own nature of that of the Supreme.
  3. All our cleverness is rendered ineffective when nature does a dance of destruction. Its fury can and will wash away all imperfections. Indian culture, based on Vedic treatises, assists in human evolution, but we are using our entire energy in distorting these traditions according to our convenience instead of making efforts to make ourselves worthy of them.
  4. The irony is that humans are not even aware of the complacent attitude they have allowed themselves to sink to. Nature is everyone’s Amma and her fierce blows will sooner or later corner us and force us to understand this truth. Earlier, pilgrimages to places of spiritual significance were rituals that were undertaken when people became free from their worldly duties. Even now some seekers take up this pious religious journey as a path to peace and knowledge. Anyone travelling with this attitude feels and travels with only a few essential items that his body can carry. ‘Pilgrims traditionally travelled light, on foot, eating light, dried chickpeas and fruits or whatever was available. Pilgrims of olden days did not feel the need to stay in special AC bedrooms, or travel by luxury cars or indulge themselves with delicious food and savouries.
  5. Pilgrims traditionally moved ahead, creating a feeling of belonging towards all, conveying a message of brotherhood among all they came across whether in small caves, ashrams or local settlements. They received the blessings and congregations of yogis and mahatmas in return while conducting the dharma of their pilgrimage. A pilgrimage is like penance of sadhana to stay near nature and to experience a feeling of oneness with it, to keep the body healthy and fulfilled with the amount of food, while seeking freedom from attachments and yet remaining happy while staying away from relatives and associates.
  6. This is how a pilgrimage should be, rather than making it like a picnic by taking a large group along and living in comfort, packing in entertainment, and tampering with environment. What is worse is giving a boost to the ego of having had a special darshan. Now alms are distributed, charity done while they brag about their spiritual experiences !
  7. We must embark on our spiritual journey by first understanding the grace and significance of a pilgrimage and following it up with the prescribed rules and rituals – this is what translates into the ultimate and beautiful medium of spiritual evolution. There is no justification for tampering with nature.
  8. A pilgrimage is symbolic of contemplation, meditation and acceptance, and is a metaphor for the constant growth or movement and love for nature that we should hold in our hearts.
  9. This is the truth !

I. On the basis of your understanding of the above passage answer the questions that- follow with the help of given options:
(a) How can a pilgrim keep his body healthy ?
(i) By travelling light
(ii) By eating small amount of food
(iii) By keeping free from attachments
(iv) Both (i) and (ii)
Answer. (iii) By keeping free from attachment.

(b) How do we satisfy our ego ?
(i) By having a special darshan
(ii) By distributing alms
(iii) By treating it like a picnic
(iv) Both (i) and (ii)
Answer. (iv) Both (i) and (ii)

II. Answer the following as briefly as possible :
(c) What change has taken place in our attitude towards pilgrimages ?
Answer. Earlier pilgrimages were a penance to stay near nature and did not require luxury rooms and big cars to travel, now they have become more of a tourism opportunity where people go for a picnic.

(d) What happens when pilgrimages are turned into picnics
Answer. When pilgrimages turn into picnics, the entire significance of pilgrimage as a sadhana is lost. It becomes more of a social gathering, a life of comfort and a boost to ego, where pilgrims brag about charity and their special darshan.

(e) Why ate we complacent in our spiritual efforts ?
Answer. Pilgrimages are no more of travelling on foot and living in the ashrams with basic necessities, it has become a picnic with all the comfort, AC rooms, travelling by car with a large group to have all the fun and entertainment. Hence, we are complacent in our spiritual efforts.

(f) How does nature respond when we try to be clever with it ?
Answer . We are ruining our bodies because of the extra comfort that we are adapting our bodies into. We are not making any efforts to -make our body work and adjust in adverse conditions rather making it all the more tender. Nature is just like everyone’s Amma and would act destructive by affecting our health etc. sooner or later and force us to’ understand this truth.

(g) In olden days with what attitude did people go on a pilgrimage ?
Answer . In olden days, pilgrimages were more of a sadhna to love people, stay close to the nature, understand it, stay healthy and eat healthy. It was also for seeking freedom from attachment. It was not to adhere to materialistic pleasure and live a luxurious life.

(h) What message does the passage convey to the prilgrims ?
Answer. It conveys that pilgrimages are a religious connotation and undertaken for ritualistic purposes, to understand .the realities of life, to stay close to nature and should not be taken as a tourism opportunity where you gather a large group, enjoy almost all the luxuries and make a life rest upon only comfort. You should learn to live in hardships and only basic things needed for survival.

(i) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following:
(i) made/turned (para 3)
(ii) very satisfied (para 4).
Answer . (i) Rendered (ii) Complacent.

Question.3. Read the passage given below:
It is surprising that sometimes we don’t listen to what people say to us. We hear them, but we don’t listen to them. I was curious to know how hearing is different from listening. I had thought both were synonyms, but gradually, I realized there is a big difference between the two words.
Hearing is a physical phenomenon. Whenever somebody speaks, the sound waves generated reach you, and you definitely hear whatever is said to you. However, even if you hear something, it doesn’t always mean that you actually understand whatever is being said. Paying attention to whatever you hear means you are really listening. Consciously using your mind to understand whatever is being said is listening.
Diving deeper, I found that listening is not only hearing with attention, but is much more than that. Listening is hearing with full attention, and applying our mind. Most of the time, we listen to someone, but our minds are full of needless chatter and there doesn’t seem to be enough space to accommodate what is being spoken.
We come with a lot of prejudices and preconceived notions about the speaker or the subject on which he/she is talking. We pretend to listen to the speaker, but deep inside, we sit in judgement and are dying to pronounce right or wrong, true or false, yes or no. Sometimes, we even come prepared with a negative mindset of proving the speaker wrong. Even if the speaker says nothing harmful, we are ready to pounce on him with our own version of things.
What we should ideally do is listen first with full awareness. Once, we do that, we can decide whether we want to make a judgement or not. Once, we do that, communication will be perfect and our interpersonal relationship will become so much better. Listening well doesn’t mean one has to say the right thing at the right moment. In fact, sometimes if words are left unspoken, there is a feeling of tension and negativity. Therefore, it is better to speak out your mind, but do so with awareness after listening to the speaker with full concentration.
Let’s look at this in another way. When you really listen, you imbibe not only what is being spoken, but you also understand what is not spoken as well. Most of the time we don’t really listen even to people who really matter to us. That’s how misunderstandings grow among families, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters.

On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary – minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.
1. Listening Vs. Hearing
1.1 Difference between the two synonyms
1.2 Hearing but not listening
1.3 Paying attention
1.4 Hearing as a physical phenomenon
1.5 Consciously using your mind
1.6 Mind full of needless chatter
1.7 Accommodating what is said
2. Judgement about the speaker
2.1 Prejudiced and preconceived notions
2.2 Neg. mindset
2.3 Proving our ver. of things right
3. Ideal way of listening
3.1 Listen first
3.2 Listen with awareness ,
3.3 Think before you judge .
3.4 Words unspoken leave a feeling of’ tension and negativity
3.5 Speak your mind out
4. Listening to understand people
4.1 Imbibe what is not spoken
4.2 Times when we don’t listen to people who matter
4.3 Triggers misunderstanding
List of abbreviations used
1. Vs. — Versus
2. Neg. – Negative
3. Ver. – Version
4. Don’t — Do not
Title- Listening Versus Hearing
Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.
Answer . Sometimes, we hear people but do not listen to them attentively. The difference between the two synonyms is that one is a physical phenomenon while the other is a conscious use of mind.
We, as listeners, often have preconceived notions about the speaker. We come prepared with a negative mindset, tend to prove them wrong and pounce our own version of things Ideally, we should listen to them, understand their perception and stop judging them in order to avoid misunderstandings.

(Writing Skills)

Question.4. Every year in the central park of the city a flower show is held in the month of February. Your school has received a circular from the District Collector inviting your students to visit it. Write a notice in about 50 words informing the students about the show and advising them to go and enjoy it. You are Navtej/Navita, Head Boy/Head Girl, Sunrise Public School, Surat.
Sarvo days Education Society, a charitable organization is coming to your school to- distribute books among the needy students. As Head Boy/Head Girl, Sunrise Public School, Surat, write a notice in about 50 words asking such students to drop the lists of books they need in the box kept outside the Principal’s office. You are Navtej/ Navita.

Question.5. Recently you went to your native village to visit your grandparents. You saw that some of the children in the age group 5-14 (the age at which they should have been at school) remained at home, were working in the fields or simply loitering in the streets.
Write a letter in 120-150 words to the editor of a national daily analysing the problem and offering solutions to it. You are Navtej/Navita, M-114 Mount Kailash, Kanpur.
When cricket teams go abroad the members are allowed to take their wives, even friends along with them. Does this fact distract them or help them to focus on their game in a better way ? If it is good, why don’t we allow our athletes to enjoy the same privilege ?
Write a letter to editor of a national daily in 120-150 words giving your views on the issue. You are Navtej/Navita, M-l 14 Mount Kailash, Kanpur.
M-l 14, Mount Kailash
3 March, 2015
The Editor,
The Times of India,
Subject: Pathetic condition of children
Dear Sir,
Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I would like to draw the attention of the government and NGOs towards the large population of children not attending school. Children are the future of any country and a country that does not take care of this valuable resource suffers later. A successful nation is that which makes its youth strong enough to lift this mighty responsibility on their shoulders. Unfortunately, this is not the case in our country. Education, which is a necessity, is still a luxury here. Poor people hesitate to send their children to school. On a recent visit to a village,
I could not help but notice the sheer amount of children who should have been in the school, but were not. Children in the age group of. 5-14 are supposed to attend school to make a bright future. But in the villages, they are either seen loitering around or helping their parents in the fields, which is a very painful and depressing situation.
It is high time that the government and the NGOs take up the issue seriously and implement measures to solve it. Besides, literate villagers can also help by starting makeshift schools to educate the children till reforms are made by the government.
Yours sincerely,
M-114, Mount Kailash
3 March, 2015
The Editor,
The Times of India,
Subject: Pathetic condition of children Dear Sir,
Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I ‘ would like to express my views on the difference in the status of Cricketers and Athletes.
Cricket is a very popular game in India and Cricketers are idolised. The public as well as the officials are willing to give special privileges to them. The extent of their love is such that rules are easily bent for them. Cricketers are allowed to take their families with them when they go on tours, irrespective of the fact that this may distract them while playing. But when it comes to other games, Indian Government becomes rather stingy and the players do not get the same treatment. Why do we have two policies ? I believe, this is because Cricket and Cricketers are worshipped, while the other games and their players are ignored. Even the finances that are allotted to these games are either too less or are utilised by the officers themselves.
The perspective of India needs a revolution and all the games need equal treatment, after all they all bring glory to the country. Government needs to implement measures to ‘ keep all the games at par.
Yours sincerely,

Question.6. Mobile phone of today is no longer a mere means of communication. Music lovers are so glued to it that they don’t pay attention even to the traffic while crossing the roads. This leads to accidents sometimes even fatal ones. Write a speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in the morning assembly advising the students to be careful in the use of mobile phone otherwise it is a very useful gadget. Imagine you are the Principal of your school.
Power shortage has become a norm even in the Metropolitan Cities. One way to face this situation is by Preventing the wastage of power.
Write a speech in 150-200 words on the importance of power in our daily life and how to save power at school and at home. Imagine that you are the Principal of your school.
Answer. Mobile and Its Ill-Effects “I fear the day when technology surpasses human interaction, we will have a generation of idiots”.
My deaf students’, a very good morning to one and all. You might have already guessed why I quoted Albert Einstein. Yes, I am talking about the mania that has gripped i this generation. I couldn’t help but notice youngsters swimming so deep in the waves of the gimmicks that these gadgets offer, that they are unconcerned about the surroundings. Just the other day, I read in a newspaper that a girl in New York fell off the harbour because she was too involved in her phone to notice where she was going. Even while crossing roads, children don’t seem to notice the oncoming cars. And music lovers always have earphones plugged in and they don’t seem to hear the blaring horns of the traffic. A lot of youngsters are dying even before they see the dawn of adulthood. And if they are lucky enough to survive, they have to live-with a disability for the rest of their lives due to the accident.
Children, you should understand that you have a bright life ahead if you adhere to safety. Gadgets are for our help and convenience, not to lead us to death trap. Stay safe children, and make your parents proud, not sorry.
Thank You.
Saving Power
Good morning to one and all!
The dwindling resources of today are giving all of us nightmares , and the scariest one is loss of electricity. It won’t be long before we are plunged into darkness and that too because of .our own foolishness. Though electricity can be generated, it is not easy to do so and this fact needs to be recognized and realized at the earliest. We dread power failure but do nothing to save power so that we may not face such a situation. It is high time we started saving power, not only at school but at home too. Saving electricity will save fossil fuel too. We should switch off the lights and fans when not in use. We all should make use of the daylight to do most of our chores and not forget to check the switches before we leave the room.
Remember, power needs to be saved and used efficiently for future use. Wasting power is going to leave us powerless in the future and I am sure no one would like that. So, children please heed my advice and save electricity. Set an example for others in doing so and lead the country to a brighter future.
Thank you and wish you a power full day.

Question.7.In the year to come (if you have not already done this year) you are going to celebrate your 18th birthday. Write an article in 150-200 words on the joys and responsibilities of being eighteen. You are Navtej/Navita.
Write an article in 150-200 words on how we can make India a carefree and enjoyable place for women when they can go wherever they like to without any fear of being stared at, molested or discriminated against. You are Navtej/ Navita.
Answer. Responsibility and J6y of Being 18
By — Navita/Navtej
Turning 18 is a big deal, not just from a parent’s emotional perspective, but legally too. Eighteen is a magic birthday, a milestone into adulthood accompanied by great privileges as well as serious legal implications. At 18, a teen can vote, buy a house or marry his high school sweetheart. He can also go
to jail, get sued, gamble away his/her tuition via online poker, and make terrible stock market investments — just like you. That’s because an 18-year-old is considered an adult in nearly every state in our union.
Some teens think it’s acceptable to get out of control just because they’re of the legal age. It’s not OK. I think being 18 years old should make teens become more responsible and mature instead of careless and stupid. At 18, you have to be more accountable for your actions, so doing crazy things should not be an option. At that age, people expect more from you because you’re not a child any more. You’re considered an adult. You’re at the age when you can start working, get your own apartment or go off to college and live alone. The age of 18 is a transition from your young adult years to adulthood. You have to be conscientious; it’s not the start of your wild years where you get crazy just because you’re legal. You can still have fun, but remember that people are watching. You’ll still make mistakes as you try to find your way, but don’t forget everything you were taught.
The law is harsher on legal teens than minors, so you should keep that in mind. Being legal and grown up are two different things. Have fun while you’re young and live life to the fullest, but make wise decisions and choices because it will affect your future.
Why shouldn’t you be able to do crazy things when you’re 18 ? As long as you’re not doing anything illegal, no one can really bother you. I’m not saying you should go out and crash a car or get arrested, but you should take advantages of being an adult and really celebrate the moment. ,
Also, if doing crazy things at the age of 18 is legal, then- I don’t think it’s that “crazy”. For example, you can buy cigarettes when you’re 18 what’s so crazy about that ?
May be in your parents point of view things like smoking, getting a tattoo or gambling all your money away is crazy and irresponsible, but they aren’t necessarily against the law. At the age of 18, you can do whatever you want. However, if you make the wrong move, you should also be adult enough to face the consequences. One thing to remember is that if you still live,with your parents, you have to abide by their rules. So if they say no, you might want to listen to them, so you don’t end up on the streets.
As long as you’re safe and smart about what you decide to do when you reach the legal age, then go ahead and go crazy. Be adventurous ! You only live once.
How Safe are Women ?
By Navtej/Navita
One woman killed for dowry, minor raped by an acquaintance, eve-teasing in broad day light, road r,age leads to death of a woman driver – these are the headlines of everyday newspaper and horrendous reality of living in the capital city of India. On one hand we talk of women liberation and on the other, we are so cruel to them. Is this humanity,What Indianness is ail about ? The land where women are considered to be the manifestation of goddess Durga and Shakti, there they are worshipped in so many forms, should witness such ghastly crimes against women—folk is shocking.
What is surprising is that these incidents occur in big cities, where most of the people are educated and broad-minded, having an understanding and being aware as compared to rural India where houring an women in any case are not liberated.
It’s high time that awareness is created amongst people; organization of the Police Force is done on such humanitarian issues. We should stop treating these women as an object but rather look at them as home makers, mothers, sisters, colleagues and friends. With increasing pressures on family life, with increasing education and awareness, it is evident that women need to work. We all like money and comfort, then isn’t it our duty to make their safety our prime concern? We must consider safety options for them, increase police patrolling in lonely places and sensitive areas like colleges,hostels and universities. Women police and personnel should be mobilized and women should be given training in Self-Defence and Martial Arts. Police should adopt sensitive approach in handling cases of atrocities against women, so that women can come out to lodge complaints more openly. Punishments should be given for heinous crimes like rape and dowry deaths. All these measures, if heeded can go a long way in making life of women safer and better.

(Literature : Text Books and Long Reading Texts)

Question.8. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow
I saw my mother,
beside me,
doze, open mouthed, her face
ashen like that
of a corpse and realized with
that she was as old as she
looked but soon
put that thought away,……
(a) What worried the poet when she looked at her mother ?
(b) Why was there pain in her realization ?
(c) Why did she put that thought away ?
(d) Identify the figure of speech used in these lines.
Far far from gusty waves these children’s faces.
Like rootless weeds, the hair torn round their pallor:
The tall girl with her weighed-down head.
(a)Who are these children ?
(b) What does the poet mean by ‘gusty waves’ ?
(c) What has possibly weighed-down the tall girl’s head ?
(d) Identify the figure of speech used in these lines.
Answer .
(a) The poet was worried about her mother’s advancing age.
(b) There was pain in the poet’s realization because her mother now looked as old as she was, her bodily infirmities that come with old age were visible on her face and she was fast approaching her death. –
(c) The poet put that thought away because she would not be
able to go through with her plan of travelling away from home if she continued to dwell on her mother’s old age. (as old as she looked)
(d) The figure of speech used is a simile.
(a) The children referred to in the poem are slum children who attend an elementary school in that slum.
(b) “Gusty waves refers” to the sea and its waves. It is to
denote that the children were far away from the presence of nature and sinking further and further into a hopeless mire in spite of receiving education. ;
(c) The tall girl’s head is possibly weighed-down by the troubles and tribulations of living out her life in abject poverty and thinking of a future within the hopeless confines of a slum.
(d) The figure of speech is a simile. (Like rootless weeds)

Question.9. Answer any four of the following in 30-40 words each:
(a) Who occupied the back benches in the class room on the day of the last lesson ? Why ?
Answer . The villagers occupied the back benches in the classroom because they had come to know about the new order that has come from Berlin. They sat down on the back benches as it was their way of thanking their teacher who had devoted his life for the welfare of the society. They also felt sorry as they had ignored the school and the lessons.

(b) Why did Douglas mother recommend that he should learn swimming at the YMCA swimming pool ?
Answer . When Douglas was ten or eleven years old, he decided to learn swimming. He chose YMCA pool because it was safe and his mother had also warned him to learn swimming in this pool. Yakima River was full of danger and she warned Douglas against it by reminding him of every drowning incident in this river.

(c) What will counting up to twelve and keeping still help us achieve ?
Answer . Counting up to twelve and keeping still helps us to introspect. We will be able to find our inner-self, think and redetermine our future for the betterment of ourselves as well as environment in which we live. It is necessary for creating a feeling of mutual understanding among men. This way people will be together in sudden strangeness and it would be an exotic moment.

(d) What does a thing of beauty do for us ?
Answer . Beautiful things are good for mind as well as soul. They give us aesthetic pleasure and permanent joy. Its beauty increases forever. They divert our mind from all the ugly things of the world. They allow us to find a ray of hope even in despair, sorrow and sufferings.

(e) Which do you think is a better ending of Roger Skunk’s story, Jo’s or her father’s ? Why ?
Answer. Jo wanted the story to have another end in which wizard should hit the mommy by his magic wand because for her the smell of roses was awful. Jo thought that Roger was the hero of the story so he must not look ugly or stinky. Jo’s perspective on life was different from her father’s.
Whereas her father thought the different way. He wanted 1 to convey that for a mother, her son never smells bad. The adults’ world is full of hardships and they had to face the reality of life.
His ending may not be very pleasing but is realistic and he wanted to highlight the fact that for a mother, her child is always an object of love. His smell makes no difference. Thus, the original ending is acceptable.

(f) What could the Governor have done to securely bring Evans back to the prison from the ‘Golden Lion’ ?
Answer. The governor was extra careful at every place \ except in the end. He took all the steps and precautions for not letting Evan escape anyway. He got success also to bring Evan back to the prison from Golden Lion but in the end acted foolishly. He could not judge Evan’s cleverness. He should understand that Evans could not go out of the cell in Mcleery’s disguise. McLeery was found injured and covered with blood in the cell. No one took the pain to check the identity of the injured. It was Evans himself. Further, when Evans was arrested and handcuffed, he was made to sit in the police van. But the van and – driver’s identification was not done and Evans was able to escape.

Question.10. Answer the following in 120-150 words :
Giving a bribe is evil practice. How did the Tiger King ‘ bribe the British officer to save his kingdom ? How do you view this act of his ?
Dr. Sadao was a patriotic Japanese as well as a dedicated surgeon. How could he honour both the values ?
The Tiger King dispatched a telegram to a famous British Company of jewellers in Calcutta to send samples of expensive diamond rings of different designs. Some fifty rings arrived and the king sent the entire lot to the British officer’s wife. The king and his minister had expected that the D.uraisani would choose one or two rings and send the rest back. However, it turned out that the Duraisani had kept the entire lot and t replied with a thank you note for the gifts. In two days, a bill for three lakh rupees came from the British jewellers, which the Maharaja was happy to pay because he had managed to retain his kingdom. This act of the king sheds light on the deplorable practice of bribery that perpetuates the vicious cycle of corruption, especially considering the fact that the king had personal interests to protect rather than the welfare of his kingdom.
Dr. Sadao Hoki was not only a trained Surgeon but also a fervent patriot who dedicated himself to the cause of serving his country in wartime through Scientific Research. However, the dilemma that Sadao faced in lieu of the arrival of the wounded enemy soldier on his doorstep was a clash between his duties as a doctor and that of a citizen of a particular nation. Sadao remarked that if the. man had been whole and uninjured, then he would not have faced any difficulty in turning him over to the police. However, the fact that he was wounded, complicated this issue because as a doctor, Sadao had taken the oath to put his professional duties first and serve mankind as a whole, without any discrimination on the basis of nationality. But he was able to protect his patriotism by informing the General about the matter. In this way, he balanced both of his values by tending the soldier and helping him escape at the end, while having informed the General about his presence.

Question.11. Answer the following in 120-150 words :
Describe the difficulties the bangle makers of Firozabad have to face in their lives.
The peddler declined the invitation of the” ironmaster but accepted the one from Edla. Why ?
Answer. Every family in Firozabad was engaged in the task of making bangles. It was the centre of India’s glass-blowing industry, where families had spent generations working around furnaces, welding glass and making bangles for apparently all the women in the country. The circumstances that kept them in this trade were the vicious circle of middlemen who wpuld interfere if the young men tried to form a cooperative. Moreover, these youngsters would be hauled up by the police, beaten and dragged to jail for doing something illegal, while it was the middlemen who performed such practices. There was no leader among them who could help them see things differently. Their fathers were as tired as they and continued to sink in the mire of an endless spiral of poverty, apathy, greed and injustice. The bangle seller’s families were caught in a web of poverty, burdened by the stigma of the caste into which they were born and simultaneously suffered under the oppressive regime of a vicious circle of sahukars, middlemen, policemen, bureaucrats and politicians. Together they ‘ imposed a baggage on the children born into such families, from which’they could not free themselves. ‘
Edla proved to be much more persuasive than her father in dealing with the peddler. His gentle behavior and kind treatment managed to, effect a monumental change in the latter. Although Edla had misgivings, she convinced her father to let the peddler stay and revelled in the opportunity to actually help a poor, hungry, homeless man, who was always chased away by everyone. She wanted him to enjoy a day of peace and partake in the Christmas festivities. She was kind, sympathetic and friendly with the stranger, taking hold of his hand and leading him to the dinner table, thus, making him a part of her family, at least for a day. It was this act of kindness that helped the peddler change himself. Besides, before leaving, he left a Christmas present for her and signed it as Captain Von Stahle.

Question.12. Answer the following in 120-150 words :
Describe the ironical situation in which Silas Mamer had to leave Lantern Yard.
Within a few days of his arrival in Iping, people became suspicious of Griffin. Why ?
Answer . Lantern Yard was a place where Silas Marner had lived a successful life. He worked as a weaver and was betrothed to a young servant-woman, Sarah. He had a social life and also a best friend named William Dane. However, it was in this cheerful place of Lantern Yard that Silas became the victim of an evil plot hatched by his best friend William Dane, whom Silas hardly ever found any reason to suspect. William had gradually developed an intimacy with Sarah. It was William who had secredy used Silas’ pocket-knife to accuse him of stealing the dead senior deacon’s church bag. Honest Silas asked the minister to get his house checked. Cunning William pretended to find the church bag tucked behind a chest of drawers in Silas’ house. Silas was thus, proven guilty. It was ironical that the place where Silas used to be most happy, was also the place which he had to leave in unpleasant circumstances.
The stranger’s arrival in Iping created a curious impression on the residents of the village. Although there had been a number of skirmishes with Mrs. Hall on matters of domestic discipline, Griffin used to override her objections with extra payment. He did not even go to church and there was no difference in his costume to tell a Sunday apart from other days. He worked fitfully and some days he would come down early and be continuously busy. On other days, he would rise late, pace his room, fret audibly for hours, smoke and sleep in the armchair by the fire,Communication with the world beyond, was not in his itinerary. His temper was uncertain, he had the manner of a man suffering under almost unendurable provocation and once or twice things were snapped, torn, crushed or broken in spasmodic gusts of violence. He rarely went anywhere by daylight but at twilight he would go out muffled up to render himself invisible, whether it was cold or not. He chose the loneliest paths and those mostly overshadowed by trees or banks. His goggling spectacles and ghastly bandaged face under the penthouse of his hat, came with a surprising suddenness out of the dark upon one or two home going labourers. He came across as a bogeyman to children. All this made people’ suspicious of him.

Question.13. Answer the following in 120-150 words :
Describe Dolly Winthrop as the most lovable character in George Eliot’s ‘Silas Mamer’.
Attempt a character sketch of Marvel.
Answer . Winthrop was a woman of scrupulous conscience. She was a dutiful woman. She used to rise at half-past four and start her day’s work. Yet, she maintained a sweet temper. Though she was good-looking and had a fresh complexion, she liked dwelling upon the saddest and more serious elements of life. It was this reason that Silas’ unfortunate incident of his, gold getting stolen drew her sympathy. She visited Silas on Sunday afternoon carrying some lard-cakes to lift his spirit. She extended her help to the people of Raveloe whenever they needed. Thus, whether it was illness or death in a family, or when leeches were to be applied or when there was disappointment in a monthly nurse, Dolly Winthrop was the person whom the people of Raveloe thought of first.
Thomas Marvel was a large man of flexible appearance. He had a nose of cylindrical protrusion, a fluctuating mouth and a bristly beard. His figure was well-rounded and his short limbs accentuated this propensity towards a rotund figure. He dressed in the attire of a bachelor. Marvel was one day sitting by himself and contemplating upon the poor condition of his shoes, when he encountered the Invisible Man as the voice, who succeeded in bullying him into becoming his reluctant accomplice. Marvel was distraught and harried by this time with the Invisible Man. He wanted to be let out and continually offered his resignation, but to no avail. The Invisible’ Man wanted to use him as a tool. However, Marvel was not willing to be made a tool and he decided to snivel and grovel his way out of his predicament. He became the chink in the armour, for the Invisible. Man as he held the key to the three manuscript books that would help the latter perpetuate his state of invisibility. If Marvel hadn’t turned on the Invisible Man and given himself up to the police, the Invisible Man would not have been apprehended in his demonic task of unleashing a reign of terror. Eventually, Thomas Marvel became the landlord of a little inn near Port Stowe and retained his ill-begotten ownership over the Invisible Man’s prized possessions.

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