Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 7

[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.]                                                                                              [Maximum Marks] : 100

General Instruction:

  1. All Questions are compulsory.
  2. Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
  3. Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
  4. Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  5. Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
  6. Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.

Question.1. Write the full form of the following:
(a) UNCTAD (b) WMD
Answer. (a) UNCTAD stands for United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(b) WMD stands for Weapons of Mass Destruction

Question.2. How many judges are there in the International Court of Justice and what is their tenure ?
Answer. 15 Judges. Tenure: 9 years.

Question.3. Name any two significant agreements signed by the two superpowers in 1960s.
Answer. The US and the Soviet Union signed the following two agreements:
(i) Limited Test Ban Treaty
(ii) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

Question.4. On which two main ideas did Bharatiya Jana Sangh lay emphasis ?
Answer. (i) Bharatiya Jana Sangh emphasised the idea of one country, one culture and one nation,
(ii) It called for a reunion of India and Pakistan as Akhand Bharat

Question.5. What is meant by’Punjab Accord’of 1985 ?
Answer. Punjab Accord of 1985 was signed between the then President of Akali Dal (Harchand Longowal) and the Late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. It was a step towards bringing normalcy in Punjab.

Question.6. In 2003, the United States along with about 40 countries, launched its invasion of Iraq in the name of preventing the development of weapons of mass destruction. Since no evidence of it was unearthed, what could be another reason for this invasion ?
Answer. The other reason for US irfVasion could be controlling Iraqi oilfields and installing a regime (power) which was friendly to the US.

Question.7. Mention any two advantages of having international organisations in the world.
Answer. (i) International organisations help deal with matters of war and peace.
(ii) They also help countries cooperate to make better living conditions for the humanity.

Question.8. Why did India not join either of the two superpower camps during the Cold War era ?
Answer. As a leader of Non-Aligned Movement, India’s response to the ongoing Cold War was two fold:
(i) At one level, it took particular care in staying away from the two alliances.
(ii) Second, it raised its voice against the newly decolonised countries becoming part of these alliances.

Question.9. What is meant by ‘Grand Alliance’ ?
Answer. It was an Electoral Alliance of all the major Non-communist and Non-Congress opposition parties. The SSP, PSP, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Swatantra Party and the Bharatiya Kranti Dal came together under this umbrella.

Question.10. Describe the outcome of the ‘Assam Accord’ of 1985.
Answer. ‘Assam Accord’ was signed between Rajiv Gandhi-led government and AASU leaders over the issue of ‘outsiders’ in 1985.

  1.  According to this agreement those foreigners who migrated to Assam during and after Bangladesh war and since, were to be identified and deported.
  2. The Assam Gana Parisad came to power in 1985 with the promise of resolving the foreign
    nationals problem as well as to build a “Golden Assam”.

Question.11. What is meant by US hegemony ? Describe any two constraints on the US hegemony.
Answer. The US domination in military, economic and cultural aspects over other nations to show her supremacy is known as US hegemony.
Constraints on American Power:

  1.  The institutional architecture of the American state itself, i.e., they follow a system of division of powers between the three organs of the government.
  2.  The open nature of American society and political culture, i.e., the American mass media may promote or impose a particular issue on domestic public opinion but never opposed the purposes of methods of government in American political culture.
  3.  The most important constraint is that there is only one organisation, i.e. NATO, in the international system that can moderate the exercise of American power today.

Question.12. Highlight any two issues of cooperation as well as confrontation each between India and Bangladesh.
Answer. India-Bangladesh Co-operation:
(i) Economic relations have improved considerably over the past ten years.
(ii) Bangladesh is part of India’s “Look East Policy”. On disaster Management and environmental issues both the countries co-operate regularly.
India-Bangladesh confrontation:
(a) The countries have had differences over several issues including the sharing of Ganga and Brahmaputra waters.,
(b) The Indian government has been unhappy with Bangladesh regarding the denial of illegal
immigration to India and refusal to allow Indian troops to move through its territory to North Eastern India. –

Question.13. Explain the importance and role of the concept ‘common but differentiated’ pertaining to the environment.
Answer. It is very significant that compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies” required by states to save planet Earth. But there is a difference in the approach to environment between the countries of the North and the South. We can throw light on the ongoing negotiations between the North and South on environmental issues as follows:

  1.  The developed countries of the north want to discuss the environment issue as it stands now and want everyone to be equally responsible for ecological conservation.
  2.  At the same time the developing countries of the South feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world is the product of industrial development undertaken by the developed countries.
  3.  And to the most if developed countries have caused more degradation they must also take more responsibility for ongoing damage now.
    On the other side the developing countries are in the process of industrialization and they must not be subjected to the same restrictions which apply to the developed countries.
    The special needs of the developing countries must be taken into account in the development, application and interpretation of rules of International Environmental Law. And this argument was accepted in the Rio Declaration at the “Earth Summit” in 1992 under the principle of common but differentiated responsibility.

Question.14. How was the Planning Commission of India set up ? Mention its scope of work.
Answer. The Planning Commission of India was set up in 1950 by a cabinet resolution and not by a law of parliament; thus, it is an “Extra-Constitutional body”.
Planning Commission does not have a statutory or constitutional status. It is supposed to be ‘advisory’ in nature but in reality it is very powerful and is called the “Economic Cabinet of the Country”.
In India, planning was taken up as to give economic content to political freedom.

  1.  Planning was to be an instrument of socio-economic change.
  2.  It was to provide a controlled and faster rate of growth.
  3.  It was intended to convert political democracy into socio-economic democracy.
  4. It was taken up with the objective to resolve the contradictions of an unequal society.

Question.15. Explain any four Directive Principles of State Policy related to the promotion of international peace and security.
Answer. In the Indian Constitution Article 51 deals with the Directive Principles of State Policy on “Promotion of international peace and security”.
The Article states that the state shall endeavour to:

  1.  promote international peace and security.
  2.  maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
  3. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.
  4.  encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
    Thus, Indian Constitution envisages directions to the state administration for the promotion of international peace.

Question.16. Why was the year 1967 considered a landmark year in India’s political and electoral history ? Explain.
Answer. The fourth general election was held in 1967 in the context of heightened popular discontent and the polarization of political forces. The Congress was facing the electorate for the first time without Nehru.

  1.  The election verdict was not in fovour of the Congress. The results jolted the Congress both at the national and state levels.
  2. Half the ministers in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet were defeated. The political leaders who lost in their constituencies included Kamraj in Tamil Nadu, S.K. Patil in Maharashtra, Atulya Ghosh in West Bengal and K.B. Sahay in Bihar.
  3. Not only this, the Congress party lost majority in as many as seven states and in two other states, defections prevented it from forming a government.
  4.  However, this was the first time any non-Congress party had secured a majority of its own in any state. In the othy eight states coalition governments, consisting of different non-Congress parties, were formed.
    Thus, many contemporary political observers described the election results as a “Political Earthquake”.

Question.17. Read the paragraph given below carefully and answer the following questions:
We have a Muslim minority who are so large in numbers that they cannot, even if they want, go anywhere else. That is a basic fact about which there can be no argument. Whatever the provocation from Pakistan and whatever the indignities and horrors inflicted on non-Muslims there, we have got to deal with this minority in a civilised manner. We must give them security and the rights of citizens in a democratic State. If we fail to do so, we shall have a festering sore which will eventually poison the whole body politic and probably destroy it.
Jawaharlal Nehru, Letter to Chief Ministers, 15 October 1947.
(i) In spite of indignities and horrors inflicted on non-Muslims by Pakistan, why Jawaharlal Nehru.wanted to deal with the Muslim minority in a civilised way ?
(ii) Why this minority should be given the security and rights on the same footing as all others in a democratic system.
(iii) If this minority was not provided security and rights what kind of scenario is envisaged ?
Answer. (i) Because Muslim minority in India were large in numbers. It is their right to go anywhere and settle but in a democratic set up everyone must be given an equal opportunity.
(ii) J.L. Nehru argued that we must give the Muslim minority security and the rights of citizens in a democratic state. Apart from ethical and sentimental reasons, there are some prudential reasons which helped India to realise its long charised goals and principles such as socialism, equality, liberty and fraternity.
(iii) If we fail to provide security and rights to minorities, it will affect the basic nature of the democratic system and is also against the secular principles of India. It may eventually affect not only India’s foreign policy and also pose a threat to other minorities in India. It may lead to disintegration of Indian states.

Question.18. Answer the following questions based upon the following Press Report:
‘Bharatiya Kisan Union wants agriculture out of WTO purview’
By our Staff Correspondent Mysore, Feb. 15
The Bharatiya Kisan Union has warned of socio-economic upheavals in the country if India does not bargain to keep agriculture out of the purview of the World Trade Organisation.
Addressing a press conference here today, the Chief of the Uriion, Mahender Singh Tikait and its National Coordinating Committee Convener, M. Yudhveer Singh warned of impending dangers if India goes ahead and agrees to the stipulations of the WTO in the next round of meetings scheduled to be held in Hong Kong in November. Courtesy: The Hindu, February 16, 2005
(a) What is B.K.U. ?
(b) Why is it against the W.T.O. ?
(c) What dangers are anticipated for Indian agriculture from the W.T.O. ?
Answer. (a) B.K.U. signifies the ‘Bhartiya Kisan Union’. It was the organization of farmers which protested against the policies of the.state especially the process of liberalisation of Indian Economy. It was the agrarian struggle of farmers.
(b) B.K.U. is against WTO because it wants agriculture out of the WTO perview. It is also against the restrictions on the Inter-state movement of farm produce.
(c) Impending dangerous are anticipated for Indian Agriculture from the WTO purview. There is the danger of market crisis for the cash crops.

Question.19. Read the extract on globalisation and answer the following:
“Globalisation, however, does not emerge merely because of the availability of improved communications. What is important is for people in different parts of the world to recognise these interconnections with the rest of the world. Currently we are aware of the fact that events taking place in one part of the world could have an impact on another part of the world.”
(a) What is globalisation ?
(b) Write .economic, cultural and political consequences of globalisation, (one point each.)
(c) What steps were taken by India in resisting globalisation ?
Answer. (a) Globalisation simply means integration of our economy with world economy.
(b) Economic consequences:

  1.  Globalisation has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe.
  2.  The restrictions imposed by other countries on allowing the imports have been reduced.

Cultural consequences:

  1.  The rise of uniform culture, called as cultural homogenisation.
  2.  Global culture is the imposition of Western culture on the rest of the world.

Political consequences:

  1.  In place of welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
  2. The entry and increased role of MNCs all over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of governments to take decisions on their own. (one point each)

(c) The Steps are:

  1.  The ‘Left’ wing protests against economic liberalisation.
  2.  Indian Social Forum also raised voices against globalisation.
  3.  The entry of MNCs is opposed by the trade unions of industrial workforce and farmers.
  4. The patenting of certain plants like Neem by American and European firms has also generated considerable opposition .

Study the cartoon given above and answer the following questions:
(i) Why is the girl shown in the cartoon not worried about whether it is a single party or a coalition government’?
(ii) Does a coalition government involve more compromises ? If yes, then why ?
(iii) Do you think we can have bold and imaginative policies in a coalition government why?
Answer. (i) The nature of government may be single or coalition, what matters is what they do actually when they come to power, how are their policies and programmes in fulfilling the needs of the people and improvements in the society
(ii) In general, a coalition government involves more compromises because it is the combination of many political parties (National as well as regional parties) and they agree upon making policies together and also to share power according to their needs and demands.
(iii) Bold and imaginative policies are possible in a coalition government because the regional parties play an important role in the decision making process. Moreover, coalition of political parties announces common programmes or manifestos during the election process and try to achieve the same when they come to power.

Question.21. In the given map of the European Union, identify and write the names of four old members marked as A, B, C and D and four new members marked as P, Q, R and S in your Answer-Book
Answer. A Finland B Denmark C Austria D Ireland
P Estonia Q Poland R Hungary S Lithuania

Question.22. Analyse any six factors which helped the Soviet Union in becoming a superpower after the Second World War.
What is Non-Aligned Movement ? Examine any two of its points of criticism. Also
explain any two of its value points and enduring ideas.
Answer. Factors that helped the Soviet Union become a super power after the Second World War were:

  1.  The Soviet economy was the second largest next to the US. It is the largest economy in Europe.
  2. Soviets have abundant natural resources like oil, iron and steel and other minerals. It ensures ready raw material and industrial production at the faster rate.
  3.  Transport and communications are well developed and connected to remote areas with efficiency.
  4. The domestic industry produces all the basic needs with quality and also in a cheaper rate. This helps the people to live comfortable life.
  5.  The Soviet government provided basic necessities like education and health through subsidy. It also introduced many welfare schemes to women and children.
  6.  As the land and land productive assets are owned by the Government, unemployment problem is minimised.

Non-Aligned Movement means not to join any of the military blocs. It was founded in 1961 at Belgrade Conference by decolonised countries.
Non-alignment is a policy which means abstention from power politics, keeping away from military alliances and Cold War. It stands for peaceful coexistence and active cooperation among all states for world peace and does not shirk from international responsibilities. Non-alignment advocates an impartial approach towards world issues without being influenced by either bloc.

  1.  NAM was based on a recognition that decolonised states share a historical affiliation.
  2.  It also means that tfie poor and often very small countries of the world need not join any of the military blocs and they could pursue an independent foreign policy.

Criticism of NAM : .

  1.  India’s non-alignment was said to be “unprincipled”, in the name of pursuing its national interest. India, it was said, often refused to take a firm stand on crucial international issues.
  2.  Secondly, it is suggested that India was inconsistent and took contradictory postures. Having criticised others for joining alliances, India signed the 20-Year Treaty of Friendship in August 1971 with the USSR. This was regarded, particularly by outside observers, as virtually joining the “Soviet alliance system”.

NAM stresses for the maintaing of sovereignty and interparty of the nation with being subdued by any external power.
It stands for mutual cooperation, in constructive approach and equal status.
It is based on the idea of morality, liberty and peaceful consistence. It does not mean isolation or neutrality but active players in the process of peace

Question.23. How far did the UN perform its role successfully in maintaining peace in the world ? Explain.
Explain the factors responsible for Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy. Describe any two pro-democracy factors present in Pakistan which can pave the way for establishing a lasting democratic set-up over there.
Answer. In spite of UN’s failure in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its continuation because without it the world would be worse off.

  1.  In the growing need of interdependence and globalisation, it is hard to imagine how more than seven billion people would live together without an organisation such as the UN.
  2.  Technological promises to increase planetary interdependence have also increased the importance of the UN.
  3. Many global problems like poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, international crime, AIDS, international migration can be tackled only through international cooperation. The UN provides the best mechanism available to mobilise and sustain such cooperation.
  4. Not only this, the UN and its agencies provide financial assistance to developing countries in the form of grants and loans of over dollar 25 billion a year. They also help build economics and help stabilize financial markets.
  5.  Furthermore, in a world threatened by conflict, the UN provides the means for instant consultations among governments, as well as the forum for dealing with long-term problems.
    In this way, in spite of being an imperfect body, there is no doubt that the UN has been playing an important role not only in promoting peace and international understanding but also in changing the entire structure of mankind for a happier world. Hence, it is an indispensable organisation.

Several factors have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy.
Social Dominance: The social dominance of the military, clergy and land owning aristocracy has led to the frequent overthrow of elected governments and the establishing of military governments.
Conflict with India : Pakistan’s conflict with India has made the paramilitary groups more powerful. These groups have often said that political parties and democracy in Pakistan are flawed, that Pakistan’s security would be harmed by selfish-minded parties and chaotic democracy, hence, the army staying in power is justified.
Lack of International Support: The lack of genuine international support for a democratic rule in Pakistan has further encouraged the military to continue its dominance. The United States and other western countries have encouraged the military’s authoritarian rule in the past in their own interests.
Global Islamic Terrorism : As the western powers assumed the threat of “Global Islamic Terrorism” and their apprehension that Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal might fall into the hands of these terrorist groups, the military regime in Pakistan was seen as the protector of western interests in West Asia and South Asia.
All this shows that Pakistan prefers military rule to the democratic set-up, both, because of internal and external factors…..

  1. Pakistan has a courageous and relatively free press.
  2.  It also has a strong human rights movement.

Question.24. What was the States Reorganisation Commission ? When was it constituted ? What was the most important recommendation of this Commission ?
Assess any two causes of the partition of India in 1947. Explain any four of its consequences.
Answer. State Reorganisation Commission was a body appointed by Government to organise the states and to rearrange the boundaries.
It was constituted in 1953.

  1.  The formation of Andhra Pradesh accelerated/initiated the struggle for making other states on linguistic lines in other parts of the country.
  2. Thus, the most important recommendation of this commission in 1955 was that states could be organised and formed based on the languages. The boundaries of the states could reflect the linguistic aspects.
  3.  For example, the Madras Province under British India was later bifurcated into the following states based on the language spoken by the people of that area:
    Andhra Pradesh (Telugu)
    Tamil Nadu (Tamil)
    Kerala (Malayalam)
    Karnataka (Kannada)
  4.  Based on the Commission Report, the State Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956 and 14 states and 6 union territories were created.

Causes of the Partition of India :

  1. In the Indian context the word partition signifies the division of British India into India and Pakistan. The process of partition started in 1940 when the Muslim League propounded the “Two-Nation Theory”. According to this theory India consisted of not one but two “people”— (Hindus and Muslims.)
  2.  Several political developments in 1940s, the political competition between the Congress and the Muslim League and the British role led to the demand for the creation of Pakistan. Thus it was decided that India will be divided into two countries— India and Pakistan.
    Consequences of Partition:
    (a) Communal Riots : In the name of religion people of one community ruthlessly killed and maimed people of the other. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border. Cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata divided into “communal zones”.
    (b) Social Sufferings: People went through immense sufferings. They were forced to abandon their homes and move across the border. Minorities on both sides of the border fled their homes and often secured temporary shelter in “refugee camps”. Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border.
    (c) In many cases women were killed by their own family members to preserve the “family honour”.
    Many children were separated from their parents. Those who did manage to cross the border found that they had no home. Hence, for lakhs of these “refugees” the country’s freedom meant life in’refugee camps’.
    (d) Administrative Concerns and Financial Strains: The partition saw not merely a division of properties, liabilities and assets or a political division of the country and the administrative apparatus, the employees of government and the railways were also divided.

Question.25. “With two successive election victories at the Centre as well as in the States in 1971, the dominant position of the Congress Party was restored.” Do you agree? State any three arguments in support of your answer.
“Governments that are perceived to be antidemocratic are severely punished by the voters.” Explain the statement with reference to the emergency period of 1975-77.
Answer. The electoral contest of 1971 was a landmark in the Indian politics. It was the restoration of Congress (R). Actually this electoral contest appeared to be loaded against Congress (R). After all the new Congress was just one faction of an already weak party. Everyone believed that the real organisational strength of the Congress party was under the command of Congress (O). ‘

  1. To make matters worse for Indira Gandhi, all the major non-Communist, non-Congress opposition parties formed an electoral alliance known as the “Grand Alliance”.
  2.  The new Congress under Indira Gandhi had something that its big opponents lacked—it had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan.
  3. The Grand Alliance did not have a coherent political programme rather it had only one common programme, i.e., “Indira Hatao” (Remove Indira).
    In contrast to this she put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan: Garibi Hatao, i.e., Remove poverty.
    Thus, the slogan of Garibi Hatao and the programmes that followed it were part of Indira Gandhi’s political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base during the electoral contest of 1971.

The given statement is justified because emergency of 1975 at once brought out both weaknesses and the strength of India’s democracy. Many observers think that India ceased to be democratic during the emergency.

  1.  It was a period of political crisis with changes in the party system. The party in power had absolute majority and yet its leadership decided to suspend the democratic process.
  2.  The result of the 1977 election took everyone by surprise. For the first time, since. independence, the Congress Party was defeated and brought to an end the one party dominance. It opened the way for the opposition and the coalition type of government.
  3.  Basically, the most valid reason for the defeat of the Congress Party was the people’s verdict. The opposition fought the election on the slogan of ‘Save Democracy’.
  4.  The Janata Party made this election a referendum on-emergency: Its campaign was focussed on the Vion-democratic character of the rule and the various excesses that took place during this period.
  5.  The 1977 elections turned into a referendum on the experience of the emergency and proved that ‘Governments that are perceived to be anti-democratic are severely punished by the voters.’
  6.  The opposition parties led by Jayaprakash Narayan could be an alternative and misuse , of power during emergency proved to be the total collapse of the Congress.

Question.26. Regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity. Do you agree ? Give reasons.
What have been the major trends in the electoral performance of the Congress and the BJP since 1989 ?
Answer. We do agree with the statement the at regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity because India adopted a democratic approach to the question of diversity and allows the political expressions of regional aspirations and does not look upon them as anti-national.

  1. Besides, our democratic politics allows parties and groups to address the people on the basis of their regional identify, aspiration and specific regional problems.
  2.  At the same time, Indian democratic politics also means that regional issues and problems will receive adequate attention and accommodation in the policy making process. For instance, easel of regional aspirations of Assam, Punjab, North-East, Kashmir, etc. While concluding we can say that regional aspirations are not encouraged to espouse separation. Political conflicts over issues of power of the regions, their rights and their separate existence are common to Indian nation that want to respect diversity while trying to forge and retain unity.
    Thus, politics in India has succeeded in accepting regionalism as part and parcel of democratic politics by maintaining its diversity.

The major trends in the electoral performance of the Congress and BJP since 1989 can be seen as follows:

  1. In the elections of 1989, Congress secured 197 seats (largest single party) but did not get the majority. Therefore, it decided to sit in the opposition.
  2. The National Front under V.P. Singh came to power supported by Left Front and BJP from outside.
  3.  The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991 led to the emergence of Congress as the largest single party and it formed the Government. It was supported by AIADMK.
  4. In 1996, the BJP minority government was formed for a short period. Later in June 1996
    United Front with the support of Congress formed the Government. H.D. Deve Gowda became the Prime Minister and after 11 months I.K. Gujral came to power who ryled till March 1998.
  5.  From March 1998 to October 1999, BJP and others formed the NDA (National Democratic Alliance) under the leadership of A.B. Vajpayee. The regional parties demanded more share in the government to extend their support.
  6. In the elections of May 2004, the Congress and its alliance partners formed UPA (United Progressive Alliance) and came to power with Dr. Manmohan Singh as the Prime Minister.
    In general, the elections since 1989 reflected the ‘Era of Multi Party system’ and ‘Coalition Era’. It also led to the decline of Congress era and the emergence of minority government and more importantly the role of regional parties in forming and running the central government.

Question.27. Suppose the Cold War had not taken place and there were several major powers at the end of the Second World War. How would that situation have affected India’s foreign policy ? Identify any three aspects or regions and imagine the difference.
Suppose the Soviet Union had not disintegrated and the world was still a bipolar as it was in mid-1980s. How would it have affected the developments in the last two decades? Identify any three regions or domains and the developments that may not have taken place in that kind of a world.
Answer. The cold war, started between the two super powers and the race for the dominant super power, led to many far reaching consequences. Whether cold war had taken place or not, it would affect the India’s foreign policy.
When India got independence in 1947, it faced many challenges which cautioned our leaders to be careful about India’s foreign policy. Due to cold war, NAM was established, and if not, India could have an independent foreign policy. It may have joined many like minded major powers for mutual benefits in various fields.
Due to NAM we did notjoin any military power otherwise India could be compelled to join the arms race considering the rivalry between the major powers.
India might have emerged as a super power in Asia because of its large territory, human resource and strategic location.
India might have increased its nuclear weapons and other weapons and could be one of the leaders to provide arms to other countries.
Had the Soviet Union not disintegrated in 1991, it could have affected the developments in the following ways:

  1.  The cold war came to an end with the disintegration of Soviet Union and the concept of Bipolar World also ended. The cold war might have continued with the association of arms race.
  2.  The dominance of the US as economic and military power could not have taken place.
  3. Many incidents of cold war period would have led’to another world war (Third world war) and it might have caused the disappearance of the major powers.
  4. Accumulation of nuclear weapons would have continued and threat of war situation would have arisen any time.
  5.  Most of the countries which were part of erstwhile USSR would have never got independence. This stands for Soviet Union as the Big power.
  6.  Civil wars in Soviet Republics and Eastern Europe could have been avoided.
  7.  The intervention of US in the internal matters of Afghanistan and Iraq would not have taken place. It is to be noticed that US rejected the UN decision on Iraq matters.
  8.  Many international serious problems like terrorism, neo-colonialism, global warming, etc. would have been tackled by both the super powers.