Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 9
[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.] [Maximum Marks] : 100
- All Questions are compulsory.
- Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
- Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
Question.1. Define ‘Shock-Therapy’.
Answer. The Shock-Therapy was the state of affairs which signifies the collapse of communism followed by a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system.
Question.2. Why is human security more important in the contemporary world than territorial security ?
Answer. Human Security is more important in the contemporary world than territorial security because this concept of security goes beyond military threats to include a wide range of threats and dangers affecting human existence.
Question.3. Why were the States reorganised on linguistic basis in India in 1956 ?
- The states were reorganised on linguistic basis to accommodate plurality and adopt a flexible approach in dealing with the demands of the regions.
- It also reduced the threat of division and separatist attitude among states.
Question.4. When and where was the 1st non-Congress state government formed after India’s independence ?
- In March 1957 in Kerala the 1st non-Congress state government was formed after Independence.
- After the defeat of Congress, CPI formed the coalition government.
Question.5. In which year did the Congress Party win 415 Lok Sabha seats ? Who became the Prime Minister at that time ?
Answer. The Congress party won 415 seats in the Lok Sabha election in 1984. Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime minister.
Question.6. Why is it said that the collapse of Berlin Wall signified the collapse of the bi-polar world ?
Answer. The Berlin Wall which symbolised the division between capitalist and the communist world was demolished by the people on 9th November, 1989.
This marked the unification of Germany and the beginning of the end of the communist bloc and led to the end of the bi-polar politics.
Question.7. State any one measure to deal with terrorism as a new source of threat to security.
Answer. In the case of terrorism military should be engaged for human security mission because terrorism, which is political violence, targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. For example, terrorist attack on US World Trade Center in New York on 11th September 2001.
Question.8. Why do indigenous people need special protection to protect their rights ?
Answer. Indigenous people are the people who help to bring the issues of environment resources and politics together. The UN defines Indigenous populations as comprising the descendants
of peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from the other parts of the world and overcame them. . ..
- These people need protection because issues related to the rights of the indigenous communities have been neglected in domestic and international politics for very long.
- During the 1970s growing international contacts among indigenous leaders from around the world led to a sense of common concern and shared experiences. The World Council of Indigenous Peoples was formed in 1975.
Question.9. Enumerate any two principles of Nehru’s Foreign Policy.
- The first Prime Minister of India Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was the “chief architect” of India’s foreign policy.
- The three major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were to :
(a) preserve the hard earned sovereignty
(b) protect territorial integrity, and
(c) promote rapid economic development.
Question.10. Why did the Communist Party of India split in 1964 ?
Answer. The Communist Party went through a major split in 1964 following an ideological rift between th6 Soviet Union and China.
The pro-Soviet factors remained as the CPI, while the opponents formed the CPI (M) i.e. Marxist. Both these parties continue to exist to this day significantly in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Question.11. What is the rationale of the Non-Aligned Movement after the end of Cold War?
Answer. Non-alignment as a strategy evolved in the Cold War context, but the end of Cold War and emergence of a unipolar world did not see the end of the non-alignment.
Non-alignment still contains some core values and end-using ideas. These are :
- Its emphasis has shifted from “political issues to economic issues”.
- Liberalisation of third world economies for rapid development of the countries of south now remains the main concern of NAM.
- Issues like democracy, disarmament, human rights and neo-colonialism are as relevant
today as earlier.
- With the disintegration of the erstwhile USSR, there is only one super power, therefore,
it is very essential for NAM to make sincere efforts to check USA from taking unilateral decisions.
- Now its emphasis has also shifted towards poverty alleviation, New International Economic Order based on equality, equity and justice and promotion of industrialisation. NAM must make efforts to reshape and democratise the United Nations so that the domination of powerful countries is checked.
Besides, NAM must ensure that in the era of globalisation, liberalism and explosion of Information Technology (IT), the developed and developing nations derive the maximum benefit and are not allowed to be exploited.
Therefore, the concept of non-alignment is applicable even in normal situation. Its essence is that every international issue is discussed on merit. This is an attitude which must be reflected in international affairs.
Question.12. Why was the US attacked by the terrorists on 11th September, 2001 ? How did the US react to it?
- The 9/11 attacks were one of the major human disasters. On 11 September 2001, nineteen hijackers hailing from a number of Arab countries took control of four American commercial aircraft shortly after takeoff and flew them into important buildings in the US.
Two airliners crashed into the North and South Towers of the World Trade Center in New York.
The third Aircraft crashed into the Pentagon building in Arlington where the US Defence Department is headquartered.
The fourth aircraft, presumably bound for the capital building of the US Congress came down in a field in Pennsylvania.
The 9/11 attacks killed nearly three thousand people. The shocking part for the Americans was that they have been compared to the British burning of Washington DC in 1814 and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. However in terms of loss of life, 9/11 was the most severe attack on US soil since the founding of the country in 1776.
- The US response to 9/11 was swift and ferocious. The then President Bush had a much harder view of US interests and of the means by which to advance them.
(a) As part of its global war on terror, the US launched Operation Enduring Freedom against all those suspected to be behind this attack, mainly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
(b) The US forces made arrests all over the world, often without the knowledge of the government of the persons being arrested, transported these persons across countries and detained them in secret prisons.
(c) Some of the prisoners were kept at Guantanamo Bay, a US naval base in Cuba where prisoners did not enjoy the protection of International law.
Question.13. “Global commons have not only common, but differentiated responsibilities.” Do you agree with this view ? Why ?
Answer. Common but differentiated responsibility signifies that states have common but differentiated responsibilities to check Global environmental degradation. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of pressures their societies place on the global environment and the technological and financial resources they command.
Conventions and Declarations on Differentiated Responsibilities.
We can implement the ideas with the help of Conventions and Declarations like :
- The Rio Declaration of 1992 convened on Environmental issues says that “states shall ‘ cooperate in the spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem.
- The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change (UNFCCC) also provides that the parties should act to protect the Climate system on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.
- The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. The protocol was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto in Japan, based on principles set out in UNFCCC.
Question.14. What is meant by globalisation ? Explain any three cultural consequences of globalisation.
Answer. Globalisation means integrating the economy of a country with the economies of other countries in the process of free flow of trade and capital.
In another way Globalisation means integrating our economy with the World Economy.
As far as cultural consequences are concerned, it would be a mistake to assume that cultural consequences of globalisation are only negative. Culture is not a static thing. All cultures accept outside influences all the time. Some external influences are negative because they reduce dur choices.
But some times external influences simply enlarge our choices and modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional norms. For example burger is no substitute for a masala dosa and therefore does not pose any real challenge.
In the same way blue jeans can go well with a homespun khadi kurta. Here the outcome of outside influences is a new combination, that is unique. This clashing combination has been exported back to the country.
So we can safely say that globalisation broadens our cultural outlook and promotes cultural homogenisation.
The cultural globalisation leads to a fear that this process poses a threat to cultures in the world. The rise of a uniform culture is not the emergence of globalisation or a global culture. What we have in the name of a global culture is the imposition of western culture on the rest of the world.
- The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves its imprint on a less powerful society, and the world begins to look more like a dominant power wishes it to be.
- This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the humanity on the whole for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.
Question.15. Highlight the developments in India’s nuclear programme.
Answer. India’s Nuclear policy advocates ‘no first use’ and reiterates India’s commitment to global verification on non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament leading to a nuclear weapons free world.
(a) The nuclear programme in India was initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of H J. Bhabha.
(b) When China conducted a nuclear test in 1964, India realised its strategic importance.
(c) India’s first nuclear experiment was conducted in 1974 and India declared that it was only for peaceful purposes.
(d) At the same time India refused to sign the CTBT in 1995 because of its discriminatory nature.
(e) India also conducted a series of nuclear tests in May 1998, demonstrating its capacity to use nuclear energy for military purposes.
Our former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam had written about our nuclear strategy in his book India’s Vision-2020. .
Question.16. Explain the impact of coalition governments on Indian politics.
Answer. With the election of 1989, a long phase of coalition governments began in India. Since then there have been nine governments at the centre, all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties which did not join the government.
In this new phase any government could be formed only with the participation or support of many regional parties.
The above statement is justified because in the new era of coalition politics, the emphasis of political parties is on pragmatic considerations rather than an ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement. For instance :
- Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.
- Thus most parties of the NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutava’ ideology of the BJP, yet they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.
Question.17. In India hero worship plays a part in its politics unequalled in magnitude by the part it plays in the politics of any other country…. but in politics,…… hero worship is a sure road to degradation and eventual dictatorship. Analyse the statement.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar.
Answer. The above statement of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar states that the leaders of Independent India took up the more difficult path to accommodate social diversities. In this way they were deeply committed to the idea of democracy. Leaders did not see politics as a problem; they saw it as a way of solving the problems.
But in society there are always different policy alternatives to choose from. There are different groups with different and conflicting aspirations.
All these differences led to the degradation of the society.
Question.18. “Tomorrow we shall be free from~the slavery of the British domination, but at midnight India will be partitioned. Tomorrow will thus be a day of rejoicing as well as mourning.” Analyse.
[Mahatma Gandhi 14th August 1947, Kolkata]
Answer.Through the above statement Mahatma Gandhi wanted to express that the partition of the country appeared to prove everyone’s worst fears and there were serious questions about the future of India, i.e., would India survive as a unified country.
Hence, it is well said that 15th August was a day of rejoicing as well as mourning.
Question.19. Read this extract from the Rio Declaration and answer the following questions: “States shall cooperate in the spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the earth’s ecosystem. In view of the different contributions of the global environmental degradation, states have common but differentiated responsibilities.”
(a) Give two examples of the ecosystem being talked about here.
(b) Which part of the world has greater responsibility for environmental protection ? And why ?
(c) To what extent was this spirit followed by the states in their action since the Rio Summit ?
(a) Climatic change (global warming), Bio-diversity, Global commons, relationship between economic development and environmental management.
(b) The developed countries have greater responsibility for environmental protection because ecological degradation of today in the world is the outcome of their industrial production and their scientific experiments.
(c) Since the Rio summit, most of the states are making efforts to protect the environment.
Forest policy and other environmental programmes have been started. International organisations undertook many projects to encourage such activities and created awareness in cooperation with the concerned states.
Use of non-conventional resources, protection of flora and fauna which are specific to the regions are given importance.
Question.20. Study the political outline map of the world given below in which six countries have been marked as (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5). Identify these countries and name them. Also classify them as First World, Second World and Third World countries. Write your answer in the Answer-Book as per the following format:
No. of the Country
Name of the Country
First World/Second World/Third World
Question.21.What does the cartoon indicates
- What led to the revival of the Congress and its eventual transformation into a mass political party ?
- Describe any two reasons for Congress’ clear majority in 1980.
- The given cartoon indicates the sweeping majority of the Congress party in general and victory of India Gandhi in particular.
- • The political crises i.e. inability of the party in power to incorporate the aspirations
of the people.
•The party in power after 1977 election had absolute majority and yet its leadership decided to suspend the democratic process.
- • The Congress party now (after 1977 political crisis) identified itself with the popular
ideology-claiming to be the only socialist and pro-poor party.
• The charismatic personality of Indira Gandhi as people appealed for one leader who could provide safeguard to the nation.
Question.22. “Examine any six factors which led to the disintegration of the former Soviet Union.
‘It is not enough to have representative form of democracy. It is necessary to participate in popular movements to make democracy a success.’ Do you agree with this view ? Why ?
Answer. The sudden disintegration of Soviet Union, the second world power was the matter of shock or surprise to the world. The causes and reasons for the collapse were very much inherent in the Soviet system and the Soviet Socialist Bloc. Undoubtedly it is said that the internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions, which failed to meet the aspirations of the people, were responsible for the collapse of the system.
Economic stagnation for many years led to serve consumer shortages and a large section of Soviet society began to doubt and question the system openly.
The causes of the disintegration of Soviet Union can be analysed as under:
During the cold war era the Soviet Union gradually became stagnant in an administrative and political sense due to various factors like
- the communist party that had ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people.
- ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administrati 1, rampant corruption, the inability of the system to correct mistakes it had made, the unwillingness to allow more openness in government and the centralisation of authority in a vast land.
- worse still, the party bureaucrats gained more privileges than ordinary citizens.
- people did not identify with the system and with rulers and the government increasingly lost popular backing.
All these factors are responsible for the stagnant administrative and political structure. Mikhail Gorbachev was the last leader of the Soviet Union. He introduced economic and political reform policies of Perestroika. The main features of his reforms are as follows:
(a) Reform polices were based on restricting of administrators system and openness of economic affairs.
(b) Reform policy also aimed at keeping information and technological development in the USSR abreast of the information and technological revolutions taking place in the west.
(c) Gorbachev introduced the democratisation of Soviet Union policy with the aim to normalise relations with the west and democratise the Soviet Union to tow free economic affairs in world arena.
In this way, Gorbachev’s reforms promised to deal with the existing problems of economic stagnation and administrative system.
The rise of nationalism and desire for sovereignty in various republics, like Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Ukraine, Georgia and others proved to be the final and most immediate cause for the disintegration of the USSR. Nationalist urges and feelings were very much at work throughout the history of the Soviet Union.
However nationalist dissatisfaction with the Soviet Union was strongest in the more “European” and prosperous Russian and the Baltic areas as well as Ukraine and Georgia. Ordinary people IK re felt alienated from central Asians and from each other and also concluded that they were paying too high an economic price to keep the more backward areas within the Soviet Union.
Yes, to some extent movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy. We have mixed reactions, both for and against.
Arguments in favour : The history of movements and protests help us to “understand better the nature of democratic politics”.
- We have observed that these non-party movements like Anti-Arrack Movement, Chipko Movement, NBA are neither sporadic in nature nor are these a problem.
- These movements came to rectify some problems in the functioning of party politics and should be seen as integral part of our democratic politics.
- Popular movements ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands. This reduced the possibility of deep social conflicts and disaffection of these groups from democracy.
- Besides, popular movements suggested new forms of active participation and broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy, e.g., Anti-Arrack movement and “Dalit Panthers Movement”.
- Critics of these movements often argue that collective actions like strikes, sit-ins and rallies disrupt the functioning of the government, delay decision making and destabilise democracy.
- The frequency and the methods u_,ed by the movements suggest that the routine functioning of democracy did not have enough space for the voices of these social groups.
That is perhaps why these groups turned to mass actions and mobilisations outside the election arena. This can be seen in the recent case of the new economic policies.
- Yet the real impact of these movements on the nature of public policies seems to be very limited. This is partly because most of the contemporary movements focus on a single issue and represent the interest of one section of society, thus it is possible to ignore their reasonable demands.
- Democratic politics requires a broad alliance of various disadvantaged social groups. Such an alliance does not seem to be shaping under the leadership of these movements.
- Political parties are required to bring together different sectional interests, but they also seem to be unable to do so. Parties do not seem to be taking up issues of marginal social groups.
- Thus, the relationship between popular movements and political parties has grown weaker over the years, creating a vacuum in politics. And in recent years, this has become a major problem in Indian politics.
Keeping in view both negative and positive arguments, while concluding we can sum up that movements are not only about collective assertions or only about rallies or protests.
They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations.
Movements are also about making people aware of their rights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions. Social movements in India have been involved in these educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions. The struggle for the right to information is a case in point.
Question.23. Explain the three types of U.S. hegemony and give suitable examples for each.
‘India and China are emerging as great economic powers.’ Do you agree ? Justify your answer with any three arguments.
Answer. The word Hegemony implies the leadership or predominance of one state. The roots of the word hegemony lie in classical Greece. At that time it was used to denote the preponderant position of Athens vis-a-vis the other city of Ancient Greece.
Presently, hegemony means, world power in the form of military domination, economic power, political clout and cultural superiority.
I. Hegemony as Hard Power : The very (first) nature of American hegemony advocates relations, patterns and balance of military capability between states. It is this notion of Hegemony which signifies military status that is especially applicable to the current position and role of the US in world politics.
- The very essence of contemporary US power lies in the overwhelming superiority of its military power. American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US today has military capabilities that can reach any point on the planet accurately and no other power today can remotely match it.
- The US military dominance is based on both the higher military spend and on a qualitative gap i.e.a technological know-how.
II. Hegemony as structural Power: signifies the Economic Prospects of the hegemon power. This notion emerges from a particular understanding of the world economy.
- The basic idea is that an open world economy requires a hegemon or dominant power to support its creation and existence.
- The hegemon must possess both the ability and the desire to establish certain norms for order and must sustain the global structure.
- Hegemony in this sense is reflected in the role played by the US in providing global public goods which signifies those goods that can be consumed by one person without reducing the amount of the goods available for someone else.
- A classical example of the structural power of the US is the academic degree called the Master’s in Business Administration (MBA). The idea behind this was that business is a profession that depends upon skills that can be taught in a university which is uniquely American.
III. Hegemony as soft Rower: The US hegemony is not only purely military or economic in nature of status but it has its cultural dimension also which specifies the nature of “Hegemony as soft power.”
- Here, this sense of Hegemony implies class ascendancy in the social, political and particularly ideological spheres.
- In the field of world politics, this notion of hegemony suggests that a dominant power deploys not only military power but also ideological resources to shape the behaviour of competing and lesser powers.
- Here, consent goes hand in hand with and is often more effective than coercion. For example, the predominance of the US in the world today is based not only on its military power and economic powers but also on its cultural presence, like most of the dreams of individuals and societies across the globe, are dreams churned out by practices prevailing in twentieth-century America.
Thus, this third sense of hegemony as soft power is about the capacity to manufacture consent.
China has emerged as the third alternative since its Economic reforms of 1978. China has been the fastest growing economy since the reforms first began there.
(a) Now it is projected to overtake the US as the world’s largest economy by 2040.
(b) Its economic integration into the region makes it the driver of East Asian growth, giving it enormous influence in regional affairs.
(c) Besides, the strength of its economy, together with other factors such as population, land mass, resources, regional location and political influence have added to its power in a significant way and made it the third alternative power in the world sphere.
The same is true regarding India. After the 1991 economic reforms India too has been the fastest growing economy along with China.
- Its increasing Foreign Direct Investment and foreign exchange makes it a leading global trade partner.
- Besides, the economic growth, the other factors like human resource development, Infrastructure, government policy, provision of SEZ have added feathers to its economic power.
Question.24. Assess the outcome of planned development towards the foundation of India’s economic growth and land reforms.
Explain any two causes of the partition of India in 1947. Analyse its any four major consequences.
Answer. The term development refers to the process of improving living standards and attaining an economically viable level of industrial production.
It has to be judged by the improvement it makes in the quality of life of the people, creation of a harmonious equality based society and a self-reliant nation.
During the planning years the foundations of India’s future economic growth were laid down :
- Some of the largest developmental projects in India’s history were undertaken during this period. These included mega dams like Bhakhra-Nangal and Hirakud for irrigation and power generation.
- Some of the heavy industries in the public sector steel plants, oil refineries, manufacturing units, defence production, etc. were started during this period.
- Infrastructure for transport and communication was improved substantially. Agrarian sector witnesed a serious attempt at land reforms. Its main features were as follows:
- The most significant and successful of these was the abolition of the colonial system of zamindari. This has released land from the clutches of a class that had little interest ’ in agriculture and reduced the capacity of the landlords to dominate politics.
- Attempts were made at consolidation of land i.e. bringing small pieces of land together in one place so that the farm size could become viable for agriculture.
Drawbacks of Land Reforms
But the other two components of land reforms were much less successful.
- Though the laws were made to put an upper limit or ‘ceiling’ on how much agricultural land one could own, people with excess land managed to evade or violate the law.
- Similarly, the tenants who worked on some one else’s land were given greater legal security against eviction, but this provision was rarely implemented.
It was not easy to turn these well meaning policies on agriculture into genuine and effective action. This could happen only if the rural, landless poor were mobilised. But the landowners were very powerful and wielded considerable political influence. Therefore, many proposals for land reforms were either not translated into laws, or when made into laws, they remained only on paper. This shows that economic policy is part of the actual political situation in the society.
(a) In the Indian context the word partition signifies the division of British India into India and Pakistan. The process of partition started in 1940 — when the Muslim league propounded the “Two-Nation Theory”.
According to this theory India consisted of not one but two “people”, Hindus and Muslims. Several political developments in 1940s, the political competition between the Congress and the Muslim league and the British role led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan. The partition year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfers of population that human history has known.
(b) Communal Riots: In the name of religion people of one community ruthlessly killed and maimed people of the other community. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border. Cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata became divided into “communal zones”.
(c) Social Sufferings : People went through immense sufferings. They were forced to abandon their homes and move across borders. Minorities on both sides of the border fled their homes and often secured temporary shelter in “refugee camps”. Thousands of woman were abducted on both sides of the border. In many cases women were killed by their own family members to preserve the “family honour”.Many children were separated from their parents. Those who did manage to cross the border found that they had no home. Hence, for lakhs of these “refugees” the country’s freedom meant life in ‘refugee camps’.
(d) Administrative concerns and Financial strains: The partition saw not merely a division of properties, liabilities and assets or a political division of the country and the administrative apparatus, what alsd got divided were the financial assets and things like tables, chairs, typewriters, paper-clips, books and also musical instruments of police band.
- The employees of government and the railways were also divided.
- Above all, it was a violent separation of communities who had hitherto lived together as neighbours. It is estimated that the partition forced about 80 lakh people to migrate across the new border. Between five to ten lakh people were killed in partition related violence.
- Besides, the partition had also created severe conflict between the two communities, i’.e., Hindus and Muslims. Keeping in view all this, writers, poets and film makers in India and Pakistan have expressed the ruthlessness of the killings and the sufferings of displacement and violence in their novels, short stories, poems and films. They coined a phrase to describe partition – as a “division of hearts”.
Question.25. Why was the national emergency declared in India on June 25, 1975 ? Analyse any three consequences of this emergency.
Evaluate any three factors which were responsible for Indira Gandhi’s achieving a thumping majority in 1971 Lok Sabha elections.
Answer. The Congress Government declared an emergency in response to Jayaprakash Narayan’s nationwide Satyagraha for the resignation of Indira Gandhi. Observing the situation the government decided that a grave crisis had arisen which made the proclamation of a state of emergency necessary.
Thus, on 25 June 1975, the government declared that there was threat of internal disturbances and therefore, it invoked Article 352 of the constitution. Under the provision of this article the government could declare a state of emergency on grounds of external threat or a threat of internal disturbances.
- Effect on civil liberties of citizens
During Emergency the government made extensive use of preventive detention. Using this provision, the government made large scale arrests.
- Effect on relationship between the executive and judiciary.
As the impact of emergency, the Parliament also brought in many new changes in the constitution. In the background of the ruling of the Allahabad High Court in the Indira Gandhi case, an amendment was made declaring that elections of Prime Minister, President and Vice-president could not be challenged in the court.
- Effect on the function of Mass Media
Deciding to use its special powers under the emergency provisions, the government suspended the freedom of the press. Newspapers were asked to get prior approval for all material to be published, i.e. “Press consorship”. For example, apprehending social and communal disharmony, the government banned Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Jamait-e-Islami. Protests and strikes and public agititations were also disallowed.
In the early of 1970s the government of Indira Gandhi gained popularity due to various factors such as:
- During this period the government made conscious attempts to project its socialist credentials.
- Indira Gandhi vigorously campaigned for implementing the existing land reform laws and undertook further land ceiling legislation.
- Not only this, in order to end her dependence on the other political parties, strengthen her party’s position in the Parliament and seek a popular mandate for her programmes, Indira Gandhi’s government recommended the dissolution of the Lok Sabha in December 1970.
- The crisis in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh added one more feather to the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
- In this way, Indira Gandhi and her government was seen not only as the protector of the poor and the underprivileged but also as a strong government.
- The Congress was now in power in almost all the states and restored its dominance. It was also popular across different social sections.
Question.26. What is meant by Chipko Movement ? When did it start and where ? What is the significance of this movement in the conservation of the environment ?
‘Towards the end of the 1980s, five major changes took place in Indian political system. In the light of this statement, examine any three changes.
Answer. The Chipko Movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural
tools. However, the forest department allotted the same patch of land to a sports goods manufacturer for commercial use.
This enraged the villagers and they protested against the move of the government.
- This was a yery unusual form of collective action in which men and women from a village were engaged in early 1973. These villagers were protesting against the practices of commercial logging that the government had permitted.
- They used a novel tactic for their protest that of hugging the frees to prevent them from being cut down.
Impact of Chipko Movement
The Chipko Movement soon spread across many parts of Uttarakhand region. Larger issues of ecological and economic exploitation of the region were raised.
- The movement achieved a victory when the government imposed a ban on felling of trees in the Himalayan region for fifteen years, until the green cover was fully restored.
- Besides, women’s active participation in the Chipko agitation was a very novel aspect of the movement.
- But more than that the Chipko Movement which started over a single issue, became a symbol of many such popular movements emerging in different parts of the country during the 1970s and later.
The end of 1980s witnessed major developments which made a long lasting impact on Indian politics. Among the five major changes as follws : three changes were remarkable like
- Mandal Issue : The year 1989 marked the end of ‘Congress System’ and the National Front led by V.P. Singh witnessed the rise of ‘Mandal Issue’ in national politics.
The decision of National Front to implement the recommendation of the Mandal Commission led to violent ‘Anti-Mandal’ protests in different parts of the country.
- New Economic Policy : In 1991, the Congress led by Narasimha Rao, introduced the ‘New Economic Policy’ with liberalisation and globalisation as its main planks. Even though it was criticised by various movements and organisations it was followed by the later governments.
- Changes in the Political System : The era of coalitions in 1989 symbolically indicated the decline of Congress, i.e., the end of Congress dominance over the Indian Party system.
The decade of 1990s saw an era of multi-party system. It also saw the emergence of – powerful parties and movements that represented the dalits and backward castes.
The role of left parties changed with time regarding alliances. For example, in 1996 they supported BJP then the Congress government and now again they oppose Congress. Since 1990, a long phase of coalition politics began in India. There have been nine governments at the centre, all of which have either been coalition governments (or) minority government supported by other parties. This could be seen as National Front (1989), the United Front (1996) and (1997), the NDA (1999) and the UPA (2004 and 2009).
Question.27. What are the constraints on American hegemony today ? Which one of these do you expect to get more important in the future ?
Suggest any four reforms required to make the United Nations more effective.
Answer. As history reveals every empire declines because of its weaknesses inherent in itself, so the biggest constraints to American hegemony lie within the heart of hegemony itself. Moreover, we can identify “three constraints on American power”, which were actually not in operation in the years following 9/11. Recently all these constraints are slowly beginning to operate.
Institutional Architecture : The very first constraint lies in the institutional architecture of the American state. A system of division of powers between the three branches of government places significant brakes upon the unrestrained and immoderate exercise of America’s military power by the executive branch.
Open nature of American society possesses constraint : The second constraint on American hegemony is also domestic in nature and stems from the open nature of American society. In spite of mass media’s promotion or imposition of a particular perspective on domestic opinion in the US, there is nevertheless a deep scepticism regarding the purposes and methods of government in American political culture.
And this factor, in the long run is a huge constraint on US military action overseas, i.e. towards the “Invasion Policy of America.”
NATO as a constraint on American hegemony: The most important constraint on American hegemony is possessed by NATO. It is the only organisation in the international system that could possibly moderate the exercise of American Hegemony today.
Actually the US has an enormous interest in keeping the alliance of democracies that follow the market economics alive and therefore it is possible that its allies in the NATO will be able to moderate the exercise of US hegemony through their liberal economic policy.
In the era of decolonisation, end of the cold war and globalisation, the NAM members are making demands for more democratisation of the United Nations. Some of the suggestions leading to reforms in the United Nations can be summed up as under:
- Role of Third world countries : With the process of decolonisation the newly independent third world countries should be given a major role.
- Tenure should be fixed/limited for the permanent members : In the era of globalisation the membership of the Security Council should not be permanent. The maximum tenure should be for a period of ten years.
- Strengthened position of the General Assembly: The position of the General Assembly to be strengthened. To avoid overcrowded agenda in the General Assembly, its agenda needs to be shortened.
- Reform in the Veto Power : The veto of the permanent Security Council members should be remodelled so as to help Security Council work effectively.
- Significant powers to the Secretary General: The Secretary General’s position should be strengthened since he emodies the principles and is the executive arm of the UN. But at the same time the post of the Secretary General of the UN should not be given, twice to the same individual.
- Restructuring the Security Council: The UN Security Council should be restructured and democratised, especially its permanent members, so as to give adequate representation to Afro-Asian countries.