Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 10
[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.] [Maximum Marks] : 100
- All Questions are compulsory.
- Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
- Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
Question.1. “Non-alignment does not imply neutrality or equidistance.” What does this statement mean ?
Answer. Non-alignment does not imply neutrality or equidistance because neutrality refers principally to a policy of staying out of war. Non-alignment is a concept opposed to belligerency and Nam countries should keep away from both two United States and the Soviet Union.
Question.2. What is the new name of former USSR ?
Answer. The new name of former USSR is Russia.
Question.3. What is the main function of Amnesty International ?
Answer. Amnesty International is a non-governmental organisation whose main function is to promote respect for all the human beings and to protect human rights all over the world.
Question.4. When were the New economic reforms announced ?
Answer. The new economic reforms were announced in 1991 as the structural adjustment programme. It was started by Rajiv Gandhi. These changes first became visible in 1991 and radically changed the direction that the Indian economy had pursued since independence.
Question.5. How far is it correct to call India a world power ?
Answer. To a great extent it is correct to call India a world power on the basis of its
- fastest economic growth and
- being promoter of International peace as an active member of NAM.
Question.6. What do we refer to as arenas of cold war ? Give any one example.
Answer. The arenas of the cold war refers to the areas where crises and war occurred or threatened to occur between the alliance system but did not cross certain limits.
We can take the exampfe of the Cuban missile crisis, which was only one of the several crises which occurred during the cold war but fortunately both sides, US and USSR, decided to avoid war. .
Question.7. How many member-countries have got Veto power in the UN Security Council and why ?
Answer. A special Veto power with negative nature is enjoyed by five permanent members of .the Security Council like USA, Russia, France, China and The United Kingdom.
These countries are the founder members of the UN. So, they have been given a greater say in the decision making of the UN.
Question.8. What was meant by Princely States ? How many Princely States were there in India at the time of independence ?
Answer. Indian states ruled by princes before independence were called princely states. These states enjoyed some form of control over their internal affairs as long as they accepted British supremacy.
Princely states covered one – third of the land area of the British Indian Empire. There were as many as 565 princely states in all.
Question.9. Why has India refused to sign the CTBT ?
Answer. India has refused to sign the CTBT because it is selectively applicable to the non-nuclear powers and legitimised the monopoly of the five permanent members.
Besides, India considers the CTBT and NPT as discriminatory.
Question.10. What was ‘Shah Commission of Inquiry’ ? How did the government react to it ?
Answer. The Shah Commission was appointed in May 1977 by the Janata Party Government. It was a Commission of Inquiry headed by Justice J.C. Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India. It was set up to investigate
- several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices committed and action taken in the wake of emergency, proclaimed on 25th June 1975.
- The Commission examined various kinds of evidences and called scores of witnesses to give testimonies. This included Indira Gandhi who appeared before the Commission but refused to answer any question.
Question.11. How far is it correct to say that the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Center was the attack on the US hegemony ? Explain.
Answer. The 9/11 attacks were one of the major human disasters. On 11 September 2001, nineteen hijackers, hailing from a number of Arab countries, took control of four American commercial aircraft shortly after takeoff and flew them into important buildings in the US.
- Two airliners crashed into the North and South Towers of the World Trade Center in New York.
- The third Aircraft crashed into the Pentagon building in Arlington where the US Defence Department is headquartered.
The fourth aircraft, presumably bound for the capital building of the US Congress came down in a field in Pennsylvania.
The 9/11 attacks killed nearly three thousand people. The shocking part for the Americans was that they have been compared to the British burning of Washington DC in 1814 and the Japanese attack On Pearl Harbor in 1941. However in terms of loss of life, 9/11 was the most severe attack on US soil since the founding of the country in 1776.
The US response to 9/11 was swift and ferocious. The then President Bush had a much harder view of US interests and of the means by which to advance them.
Question.12. Describe the outcome of the Anandpur Sahib Resolution of 1973.
Answer. Anandpur Sahib Resolution was passed at the conference of Akali Dal at Anandpur Sahib in 1973.
(a) The Anandpur Sahib Resolution asserted regional autonomy and wanted to redefine centre -state relationship in the country.
(b) The resolution also spoke of the aspirations of the Sikh qaum and declared its goal as attaining the bolbala (dominance or hegemony) of the sikhs.
(c) Hence the resolution was a plea for strengthening the federation, but it could also be interpreted as a plea for a separate sikh nation.
But, the resolution had a limited appeal among the Sikh masses because of the lack of popularity of Akali Dal. As a result a few years later Akali government was dismissed in 1980 and the resolution lost its importance.
Afterwards, Akali Dal launched a movement on the question of the distribution of water between Punjab and its neighbouring states. Soon, the leadership of the movement passed from the moderate Akalis to the extremist elements and took the form of armed insurgency.
Thus, in this background the Anandpur Sahib Resolution became controversial as it was held responsible for the insurgency in Punjab.
Question.13. Describe any two important components of India’s security strategy.
Answer. India’s security strategy has four components such as strengthening its military capabilities and international norms and institutions, meeting security challenges within the country and to develop its economy fast.
- The first strategy is to make military capabilities strong because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours;
Pakistan : in 1947-48,1965,1971 and 1999 and China : in 1962.
To show strength India tested her nuclear power in 1974 and 1998.
- To strengthen international norms and international institutions, India argued for an equitable New International Economic Order (NIEO).
- India opted for ‘NAM’ to achieve peace.
- India sent her army to UN peacekeeping force in support of cooperative security initiatives.
Question.14. How did the state of Hyderabad become a part of the Indian Union after partition ?
Answer. Hyderabad was the largest princely state of Indian territory. Its ruler was titled as Nizam and
he was one of the world’s richest men. Regarding joining Indian Union the Nizam wanted an independent state for Hyderabad and entered into a Standstill Agreement with India.
But the people of Hyderabad were not happy with the non-democratic rule of Nizam. So, a movement of the people of Hyderabad state against the Nizam rule gathered force. Various sections of society participated in the movement.
- Thepeasantry—theTelangana region in particular, was the victim of Nizam’s oppressive rule and rose against him.
- Women who had seen the worst of the oppression, joined the movement in large numbers.
- The communists and the Hyderabad Congress were in the forefront of the movement.
- Hyderabad town was the nerve centre of this movement.
- In retaliation the Nizam responded by unleashing a paramilitary force known as the Razakars on the people.
- Ultimately the Central Government had to order the army to tackle the situation.
And in September 1948 Indian arrrjy moved in to control the Nizam’s force. All this led to the accession of Hyderabad to India.
Question.15. “Foreign policy is always dictated by national interests.” Do you agree with this view ?
Support your answer with any two suitable arguments.
Answer. Yes, India’s foreign policy reflects her desire to be an important regional power. This was very much revealed during the Bangladesh War of 1971.
In the beginning of 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest crisis by way of a split verdict i.e. Zulfikar AN Bhutto’s party emerged a winner in West Pakistan, while Awami League led by Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman swept through East Pakistan. The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against the discriminatory attitude of West Pakistan. But the Pakistan rulers were not willing to accept the democratic verdict.
And in early 1971, Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a reign of terror on. the people of East Pakistan. Thus a people’s struggle was started to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan.
- India had to bear the burden of about 80 Lakh refugees who fled East Pakistan and took shelter in neighbouring areas in India. Thus India extended moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh.
- After months of diplomatic tension and military build-up, a full-scale War between India and Pakistan broke out in December 1971. Pakistani aircraft attacked Punjab and Rajasthan. India retaliated with an attack involving the airforce, navy and army.
- Within ten days the Indian army surrounded Dhaka from three sides and the Pakistani army had to surrender. With Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral ceasefire and the Shimla Agreement was signed between Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 3rd July 1972.
So, a decisive victory in the War led to national jubilation. Most people in India saw this as a moment of glory and a clear sign of India’s growing military prowess.
Question.16. Describe any two developments witnessed by India after 1990.
Answer. The two developments witnessed by India after 1990 were the decade of Coalition Era and New Economic Policy.
- New Economic Policy : In 1991, the Congress led by Narasimha Rao, introduced the ‘New Economic Policy’ with liberalisation and globalisation as the main planks. Even though it was criticised by various movements and organisations it was followed by the later governments.
- Changes in the Political System : The era of coalitions in 1989 symbolically indicated the decline of Congress, i.e., the end of Congress dominance over the Indian party system.
The decade of 1990s saw an era of multi-party system. It also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the dalits and backward castes.
The role of left parties changed with time regarding alliances. For example, in 1996 they supported the BJP, then the Congress and now again they oppose Congress.
Since 1990, a long phase of coalition politics began in India. There have been nine governments at the centre, all of which have either been coalition governments (or) minority government supported by other parties. This could be seen as National Front (1989), the United Front (1996) and (1997), the NDA (1999) and the UPA(2004 and 2009).
Question.17. Answer the following questions based upon the Presidential address of Mohammad Ali Jinnah at Karachi on August, 11,1947 :
“We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities, the Hindu community and the Muslim community – because even as regards Muslims you have Pathans, Punjabis, Shias, Sunnis and so on and among the Hindus you have Brahmins, Vaishnavas, Khatris, also Bengalees, Madrasis and so on – will vanish…. You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State.”
(a) Do you think that Jinnah’s statement contradicts the theory which was the basis of the creation of Pakistan ? Justify your answer.
(b) What is the essence of Jinnah’s statement in this passage ?
(c) To what extent did Pakistan live up to Jinnah’s expectations in this passage ?
(a) Jinnah’s statement does not contradict the theory of ‘two nations state’. His two nation state theory does not mean the interference between other communities like Pathans, Punjabis, Shias and Sunnis.
His aim was the creation of a separate state for Muslims but not to interfere in other communities.
(b) The essence of Jinnah’s statement in this passage is his secular outlook regarding the protection and promotion of every community’s identity. For example, what he said was that, “You are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any place of worship in this state of Pakistan”.
(c) Pakistan did not live up to Jinnah’s expectations because after independence Pakistan became a ‘Theocratic State’ and did not respect the interest of other communities.
Question.18. Read this passage and answer the following questions:
“Even as political parties act within the sphere of a given consensus, political movements and organisations are simultaneously identifying new forms, visions and pathways of development. Issues like poverty, displacement, minimum wages, livelihood and social security are being put on the political agenda by peoples’ movements, reminding the state of its responsibility.”
(a) What is the ‘consensus’ mentioned in this passage ?
(b) What is the relationship between political parties and movements in contemporary India?
(c) Substantiate the point made in this passage with the example of any popular movement.
(a) Consensus on 4 elements among political parties :
- Agreement on economic policies: The new economic policy introduced in 1991 received both kinds of reactions (positive and negative).
- Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward classes.
- Acceptance of the role of state level parties (regional parties) in the governance of the country.
- Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement.
(b) A weak relationship exists between the political parties and popular movements in contemporary India. Popular movements are usually non-party movements. They are generally led by voluntary organisations. They do not contest the elections. They believe that direct participation by people would be more effective solving local issues rather than depending on the political parties. They put pressure on the government and do not want to be used by political parties as their vote banks. .
(c) Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA)
- This movement was against the Sardar Sarovar Project in the Narmada valley. The project consisted of 30 big dams, 135 medium-sized and around 3000 small dams to be constructed on Narmada and its tributaries.
- The NBA opposed the project keeping in view larger issues concerning the nature of ongoing development projects. It demanded that there should be a cross-benefit analysis of the major developmental projects completed in the country so far.
- Initially the movement demanded proper and just rehabilitation of all those directly or indirectly affected by the project. Later they insisted that local communities should be associated with the decision-making processes.
Gujarat, the state which get benefited opposed NBA. In 2003, a comprehensive National Rehabilitation Policy formed by the government can be seen as an achievement of NBA. The Supreme Court verdict was*to go ahead with the construction of the dam and to ensure proper rehabilitation.
Question.19. “The collapse of Communism and transition from authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system served as a ‘shock therapy’ to the Soviet Union’. Justify the statement by referring its nature and features.
- What was Shock Therapy ?
- State two of Shock Therapy ?
- How did it ruin the economy of Soviet Union.
Answer. The ‘Shock Therapy” was the “State of affairs” which signifies the collapse of communism followed by a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. The model of transition in Russia, Central Asia and East Europe was influenced by the World Bank and the IMF.
‘Shock Therapy’ varied in intensity and speed amongst the former second world countries but its direction and features were quite similar.
- Capitalist Economy: The shock therapy advocated that every country was required to make a total shift to capitalist economy i.e. the private ownership became a dominant pattern of ownership of property.
- Private farming : Shock therapy involved the replacement of collective farming to private farming and capitalism in agriculture.
- Free Trade : Shock Therapy stressed on the external orientation of the economics. With the free trade as the essential condition. The free trade regime and foreign direct investment [FDI] became the main engines of change.
- Trade alliances with west : In shock therapy transition also involved a break up of the existing trade alliances among the countries of the Soviet Bloc. Each state from the bloc was supposed to be directly linked to the west instead of inter trade alliance among the regions.
The western capitalist states now got the dominant position and thus guided and controlled the economic development of the regions.
Above features of the shock therapy show the transition from authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system.
- Two states which were not part of the state of Assam at the time of India’s independence.
- The state whose leader signed an agreement with Rajiv Gandhi in 1986.
- The state which declared independence from India in 1951.
- The state which was carved out of Assam in 1972.
- The 22nd state of India due to its merger.
- Manipur and Tripura
Question.21. Look atthepicturegiven below and answer the following questions.
- What information do you get from the picture ? Support your answer.
- Even after attaining the post of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was not happy. Give two reasons.
- From the above cartoon we get the information that the senior Congress leaders supported Indira Gandhi in the belief that her administrative and political inexperience
would compel her to become a puppet leader i.e, dependent on them for support and guidance.
- After attainting the post of Prime-Minister Indira Gandhi was not happy because :
(a) At that time India was suffering from Economic crisis which was a great challenge before her.
(b) There was intense competition for leadership where she had to show her political maturity.
Question.22. Evaluate the role of European Union as a supra-national organization.
Analyse the common problems of South Asian countries.
Answer. As a supra-national organisation, the European Union intervenes in economic, political and social areas. It has thus, economic, political, diplomatic and military influence.
Economic Areas : As far as the economic nature/aspect of European Union is concerned, it is considered as the World’s biggest economy with a GDP of more than $12 trillion in 2005, slightly larger than that of the United States.
(a) European Union’s economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa.
(b) Its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the United States.
(c) Its uniform currency, the euro, can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
(d) Moreover, European Upion also functions as an important bloc in international organisations such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
In this way, as a supra-national organisation, the European Union is able to intervene in Economic Areas.
Political and Diplomatic Areas : Besides being the world’s biggest economy, European Union also has political and diplomatic influence in the world arena.
Political and Diplomatic Aspects.
The European Union has a great influence on some of the UN policies because its two members, Britain and France, hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council. It also includes several non-permanent members has the UNSC.
Not only this, the European Union has an effective influence in the arenas of diplomacy, economic investments and negotiations except coercion and military force. For example European Union’s dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation was very effective.
Military Influence : The European Union was established in 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It was started as an Economic Union but over time it has evolved from an Economic Union into an increasingly political one.
The EU now has started to act more as a nation-state.
(a) It has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc.
(b) Besides, European Union has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency.
(c) It has also some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations.
It is an established fact that the South Asian region can develop and prosper if the states of the region cooperate with each other.
(a) But when India and Pakistan joined the club of nuclear powers, this region suddenly became the focus of global attention.
(b) There are various kinds of conflicts in this region.
(c) Border and watersharing disputes remain unsolved.
(d) Apart from these, South Asian region still suffers from insurgency, ethnic strife and conflict on resource sharing.
All this puts a question mark on the prosperity of the South Asian region and makes it very turbulent. ~
A common feature of all the South Asian countries is that they stand for diversity in every sense and yet constitute one geo-political space.
- Another aspect in which it is different from countries in West Asia or South East Asia is that ours is a region where rivalry and cooperation, hope and despair, mutual suspicion and trust co-exist.
- Besides, the people of South Asian countries share the aspiration for democracy which is not common in West Asia or South East Asia.
Question.23. Like India, why could democracy not take roots in Pakistan despite the fact that both the countries share a common past ?
What are the major differences between the SAARC and the European Union as alternative centres of power ?
Answer. Actually in Pakistan, the military rule and democracy play hide and seek. This can be very much proved with following examples :
- Immediately after the implementation of Pakistan’s first constitution, Gen.
Ayub Khan took over the administration of the country and soon got himself elected. But there was popular dissatisfaction against his rule which in turn gave way to a military dictatorship under Gen. Yahya Khan.
- Again after 1971 Indo-Pak war an elected government was formed under the leadership of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto but after six years the Bhutto government was removed by Gen. Zia-ul-Haq in 1977.
- But very soon Gen. Zia faced a pro-democracy movement from 1982 onwards and an elected democratic government was established once again in 1988 under the leadership of Benazir Bhutto.
- This phase of democracy again halted and Benazir Bhutto was replaced by Nawaz Sharif.
- Very soon army again stepped in Pakistan’s democracy in which Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was removed by Gen. Pervez Musharaf in 1999.
Later on in 2005 he got himself elected as the president. Now Pakistan has a civil government again with Asif AN Zardari as president. Thus we can conclude that military rule and democracy are the two sides of the same coin. (Any three)
Question.24. What were the major challenges of building democracy in India ?
What were the early initiatives taken by the Planning Commission for building a new India ?
Answer. Immediately after independence there were many challenges or problems in India that needed a solution. These challenges can be categorised as :
- A challenge to shape a nation,
- A challenge to establish democracy and,
- A challenge to ensure the development and well-being of the entire society.
- To Shape a Nation : The first and foremost challenge was the political unification and integration of the territory. India is a land of continental size and diversity. There were around 600 states of varying size and population. The partition of the country appeared to prove every one’s worst fears. Hence there was a serious question about the future of India, i.e., would India survive as a unified country. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel took upon himself the task of integrating these princely states, which was completed in stages.
- To Establish Democracy : Another challenge was to develop democratic practices in accordance with the Constitution, i.e., India opted for a representative democracy, based on the parliamentary form of government.
- To Ensure the Development and Well being of the Society: The third challenge was to evolve effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty and unemployment. The Indian constitution set out in the directive principles of state policy the welfare goals that democratic polities must achieve.
All these challenges required a deliberate effort which India put for accommodating social differences, establishing a welfare state and by democratising political institutions.
Before independence the need for planning was felt and the Indian National Congress, under the leadership of Nehru, set up the “National Planning Committee” in the 1930s.
- It did considerable work collecting data and setting aims for future development.
- In 1946, the Advisory Planning Board was set up.
- As a follow up the Planning Commission opted for five year plans and annual budget with non-plan budget and plan budget.
The Cabinet Resolution of 1950 regarding the purpose of mixed economy stated the following under the scope of Planning Commission.
- That the citizens, men, women, have equal right to an adequate means of livelihood.
- That the ownership and control of the material resources of the country are so distributed as best to serve the common good.
- That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment.
Question.25. Explain the major issues which were responsible for the formal split in the Congress Party in 1969.
What were the major conflicts between the Parliament and the Judiciary during the leadership of Indira Gandhi ?
Answer. The formal split in the Congress took place in 1969 on the issue of Presidential Election. The factional rivalry between the Syndicate and Indira Gandhi came in the open in 1969 on the issue of the nomination of a candidate for the president’s post.
- Despite Mrs GandhiVeservations, the syndicate managed to nominate her long time opponent and then Speaker of the Lok Sabha, N. Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for the presidential contest.
- Indira Gandhi retaliated by encouraging the then vice-president V.V. Giri to file his nomination as an independent candidate.
- During the election, the then Congress President S. Nijalingappa issued a “whip” asking all the Congress MPs and MLAs to vote in favour of Sanjeeva Reddy.
- On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime Minister openly called for a conscience vote-to vote the way they wanted.
And, the election ultimately resulted in the victory of V.V. Giri and the defeat of Sanjeeva Reddy.
The defeat of the official Congress candidate formalised a split in the party into two like:
Before the declaration of emergency it was a period when the government and the ruling party had many differences with the Judiciary. Three constitutional issues emerged which led to a conflict between judiciary, legislature (Parliament) and the executive.
- Firstly, can the Parliament abridge Fundamental Rights ? The Supreme Court said it can not.
- Secondly, can the Parliament curtail the “right to property by making an amendment? Again, the court said that Parliament can not amend the constitution in such a manner that rights are curtailed.
- Thirdly, the Parliament amended the constitution saying that it can abridge Fundamental Rights for giving effect to Directive Principles of State Policy. But the Supreme Court rejected this provision also.
This led to a crisis as far as relations between the government and the judiciary were concerned. This is very much proved in the famous Kesavananda Bharti case. In this case, the court gave a decision that there are some basic features of the constitution and Parliament can not amend these features.
Besides, two more- developments added to the tension between the judiciary and the executive. Immediately after the Supreme Court’s decision in 1973 in the Keshavananda Bharti case, a vacancy arose for the post of the Chief Justice of India and the government set aside the seniority of three judges and appointed justice A.N. Ray as the Chief Justice of India. This appointment became politically controversial because all three judges who were superseded had given a ruling against the stand of the government.
Another jolt came as the ruling of the High Court which declared Indira Gandhi’s Lok Sabha election invalid.
In this way, the constitutional interpretations and political ideologies were getting mixed up rapidly.
Question.26. Explain any three elements of consensus which have emerged among most political parties after the Lok Sabha elections of 2004.
The Anti-Arrack movement in Andhra Pradesh drew attention of the country to some serious issues. What were these issues ?
Answer. In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most parties. This consensus consists of four elements.
- Agreement on new economic policies: While many groups are opposed to the new
economic policies, most political parties are in support of the new economic policies. Most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world. .
- Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes: Political parties have recognised that the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result all political parties now support reservation of seats for the backward classes in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
- Acceptance of the role of state level parties in governance of the country : The
distinction between state.level and national level parties is fast becoming less important.
- Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement: Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements. Thus, most parties of the NDA did not agree with the Hindutva ideology of the BJP, yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.
To sum up, all these are momentous changes and are going to shape politics in the near future.
The Anti-Arrack movement was the movement of rural women from the state of Andhra Pradesh. They fought a battle against alcoholism, against mafias and against the government during this period.
It was a spontaneous mobilisation of women demanding a ban on the sale of alcohol in their neighbourhoods.
- The Anti-Arrack movement had its roots in the “adult literacy drive” where women complained of increased consumption of a locally brewed alcohol-arrack-by men in their families. It affected the rural economy as well.
- Thus, women in Nellore came together in spontaneous local initiatives to protest against arrack and forced the closure of the wine shop. This movement in Nellore District slowly spread all over the state.
- The slogan of the Anti-Arrack Movement was simple i.e. prohibition on the sale of arrack.
But this simple demand touched upon larger social, economic and political issues of the region that affected women’s life. A close nexus between crime and politics was established around the business of arrack.
- The groups of local women tried to address these complex issues in their agitation against arrack.
- They also openly discussed the issue of domestic violence like dowry, sexual violence etc.
- Thus, the Anti-Arrack movement provided a platform to discuss private issues of domestic
Question.27. Argue for or against one of the following propositions:
“The Emergency showed that the foundations of constitutional democracy are very weak in our country.”
“Indira Gandhi was left with no option except to impose Emergency.”
Answer. Arguments for:
- Emergency was declared on 25th June 1975 on the ground of ‘internal disturbances’ by using Article 352 of the Constitution. The Prime Minister India Gandhi recommended the imposition of emergency to the then President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed.
- Emergency is one of the most controversial episodes in Indian politics. First reason is that there are different view points regarding the need to declare emergency. Secondly, the government practically suspended the democratic functioning.
- The report of the Shah Commission exposed many “excesses” committed by bureaucracy during emergency.
- The emergency also brought to light some hidden matters such as the constitutional battle over the jurisdiction of the Parliament and the Judiciary.
- Another critical issue that emerged during emergency was the role and extent of mass protests in the parliamentary democracy.
- There was clear tension between institution-based democracy and the popular participation of the people.
- The Indian political system is described as open and democratic where emergency could be declared only during ‘Hard’ conditions such as war, external aggression, etc.
- Emergency, imposed in 1975, lasted for just two years and then the country returned to normal democratic functioning.
- It was also felt that-emergency was declared to protect the position of Indira Gandhi and was not in the interests of India.
- The 1977 election and its verdict was totally against the Congress Party. Even Indira Gandhi and her son Sanjay Gandhi were defeated in their constituencies.
- The role of judiciary and implementation of amendments led to changes in the democratic polities.
Indira Gandhi had no option except to impose/declare emergency in 1975.
- Indira Gandhi argued that in a democracy, the opposition parties should allow the elected ruling party to govern according to its policies.
- She felt that the opposition parties and their frequent agitations, protests and collective action led to political instability.
- She also held that opposition could not continuously engage in extra-parliamentary politics targeting the government.
- She alleged that subversive forces were not allowing her government to implement her progressive programmes (including.20-Point Programme).
- She also felt that Judiciary was acting as a hurdle in the functioning of her government.
- She believed that to control such subversive forces including some newspapers and the role leading businessmen emergency was necessary.
No need to impose emergency:
- Popular struggle occurs when there is a need and the opposition and others consider that it is a legacy of national struggle for freedom.
- The movements that occurred before emergency in Bihar and Gujarat were non-violent.
- Law and order situation was mostly normal and Emergency during such condition ‘reflected the overreaction’, on the part of the government.
- Indira Gandhi did not get the approval of the cabinet while declaring Emergency.
- It was also believed that she misused the extraordinary constitutional provisions to remain in power in the name of saving the nation.
- There was no such threat to the unity and integrity of the nation. The Government should obey the Judiciary’s Verdict.