CBSE previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Physical Education Outside Delhi 2015
Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks: 70
- The question paper consists of 26 questions.
- All question are compulsory.
- Answer to questions carrying 1 mark should be in approximately 10-20 words.
- Answer to questions carrying 3 marks should be in approximately 30-50 words ,
- Answer to questions carrying 5 marks should be in approximately 75-100 words.
Question.1. Playgrounds are essential for creating sports environment. Justify your answer. **
Answer. Playgrounds are essential to create the right environment for the development of physical activities. Physical activities and sports promote good health and well being. Playgrounds are considered as labs for nurturing the talents of young individuals. (Any other relevant answer may also be considered.)
Question.2. What do you mean by “surfing” in adventure sports?
Answer . Surfing involves riding ocean waves with a surfboard. The surfer swims a ways out into the ocean lying on their stomach on the surfboard, to catch a ocean wave.
Question.3. Enlist two non-nutritive components of diet.
Answer . Non-nutritive components of diet are :
- Colour compounds
- Flavour compounds
Question.4. What does the school intend by stating that, “only such
students shall participate in the Basketball Intramurals who have not represented the school in Basketball in the past and minimum 10 substitutions shall be compulsory.”
Answer . For promoting mass participation. To explore the hidden talent of the student.
Question.5. What is “an abnormal curvature of spine at front” termed as?
Answer . Lordosis is an abnormal curvature of spine at front.
Question.6. What type of resistances can be used for developing strength among children?
- Own body weight
- Gravitational force Static and dynamic resistance own body weight, gravitational force can be used for developing strength among children.
Question.7.Which test would you suggest for your grandmother to test lower body flexibility?
Answer: Chair sit and reach test.
Question.8.Why does involvement in regular exercise delay the onset of fatigue?
Answer . If we do regular exercise, our fitness level will be increased and it also develops endurance because of the fatigue level delays.
Question.9.What is energy?
Answer . Energy is defined as an ability or capacity of a body to perform work. Energy is denoted by the letter “E” and the “SI” unit of energy is joule (J).
Question.10. Explain intrinsic motivation.
Answer . Intrinsic motivation is internal. It occurs when people are compelled to do something out of interest, pleasure, importance and desire.
Question.11. “Pace races means, running the whole distance of a race at a constant speed”. Which are the races included in pace races?
Answer . 800 mts and above or 800 and 1500 mts
Question.12. Mention any three objectives of adventure sports.
- Builds concentration : By participating in adventure sports on a regular basis, an individual gets many fascinating experiences. This activity usually helps to develop alertness and focus on attention-grabbing tips. This increases the capability to concentrate.
- Develops bonding with nature : The majority of the adventure sports are open-air activities giving the individuals various opportunities to increase familiarity with nature.
Thus, they develop bonding with nature, which gives a chance to get in touch with natural environment.
- Builds-up courage : These sports give plentiful
opportunities to prepare the participants for building up qualities for facing challenges in all tough situations courageously and with determination.
Question.13. Recently Sarita Devi refused to accept the bronze medal during the ceremony. The international body (AIBA) which regulates boxing has taken a stringent action against Sarita Devi and the coaches.
- Do you agree with the decision of Sarita Devi? Justify your answer.
- What values do you think Sarita Devi has not shown by her behavior during the medal distribution ceremony?
- I do not agree with the decision of Sarita Devi because she did not show sportsmanship/ she did not obey the AIBA rules.
I do agree with the decision of Sarita Devi because she raised the voice against the decision of the umpire/ injustice.
- Sportsmanship, conventionality.
Question.14. What do you mean by “round shoulders”? Suggest any four physical activities for correcting round shoulders.
Answer . Round shoulder is a postural deformity in which the shoulders become round and sometimes they seem to be bent forward.
Physical activities for round shoulder :
- Sit on a chair, rest the back against it pull the shoulders backward and see upwards.
- Hold the horizontal bar for some time
- Perform dhanurasana (arch formation) regularly.
- Perform Chakraasana (arch formation) regularly.
Question.15. Critically explain the use of dietary supplements in heavy dose for longer duration. Justify your answer with two suitable examples.
- Excess calcium in diet for longer time can cause heart diseases/formation of stones in kidney.
- Excess iron causes siderosis (vomiting and headache)
- Vitamin E can cause prostates cancer
Question.16. Explain in brief “The Harvard Step Test”.
Answer . The Harvard step test is a cardiovascular fitness test. It is also called aerobic fitness test. It is used to measure the cardiovascular fitness or aerobic fitness by checking the recovery rate.
Equipment required : A gym bench or box of 20 inches high for man and 16 inches for woman, stopwatch and cadence tape.
Procedure : The athlete stand in the front of the bench or box. On the command “GO” the athlete steps up and down on the bench or box at a rate of 30 steps per minute. Stopwatch is also started’at the start of the stepping. Calculation of the scores : Calculate with the help of following formula.
“fitness index score = (100 x test duration in seconds)/ (2 x sum of heartbeat in recovery period)”.
Question.17. “Regular physical activity can delay your ageing process”
Justify your answer in light of the effect of activities on physiological changes.
- Change in the nervous system : After age 25, everyone loses nerve cells. Gradually over time, this /esults in a reduced ability of nerve transmission, changing response time and coordination. The brain also shrinks in size, which does not significantly effect functioning except in the most extreme cases. These changes may also affect sleeping patterns somewhat by decreasing the length of total sleep time and REM sleep.
- Maintains bone density : With advancement of age, bone density decreases as well generally leading to the rupture or osteoporosis. Physical exercises assist in maintaining bone mass and prevent osteoporosis. Bone growth gets stimulated with resistance exercises. With the help of regular exercise, the aged persons can increase their bone density as depicted by several research studies.
- Changes in the endocrine system : The endocrine or metabolic system is responsible for changing food into energy. After age 25, everyone experiences approximately a 1% decrease per year in their metabolic rate. This overall slowing results in food being less well absorbed and utilized as well as a decrease in the overall metabolism of drugs. Consequences can include reduced stamina and reserves as well as greater susceptibility to drug toxicity.
Question.18. How does angle of projection help as a factor for athletes in games and sports?
- When the height of the release is equal to the height of landing the optimum angle of release is 45 degree.
- When the height of release if greater than the height of landing as in a hammer throw, the optimum angle of release is less than 45 degree.
- When the height of release is less than the height of landing as in a bunker shot in golf, the optimum angle of release is more than 45 degree.
Question.19. Dynamic strength is divided into’ three parts. Write in brief about each.
- Maximum Strength : In a single muscular contraction it is the ability of muscle to contract over resistance of utmost intensity of stimulus. The most excellent examples are weight lifting and throwing events in track and field.
- Explosive strength s It can be stated as the ability to prevail over resistance by means of high speed. It combines strength and speed abilities and based on the nature of the blend of strength and speed, the explosive strength can be sub¬divided further into start strength, power and speed strength.
- Strength Endurance : Similar to explosive strength, it is a result of two motor abilities as well. Under conditions of fatigue, it is the ability to work against resistance. Depending on the actuality whether the movement is static or dynamic, strength endurance can be there in form of static or dynamic strength. The strength endurance can be divided further into proper strength endurance and strength endurance depending on the kind of the blend of strength and endurance.
20. What are the five essential elements of positive sports
Question.21. Draw a knock out fixture of 21 teams mentioning all the steps involved.
Question.22. What are the various factors affecting physiological fitness? Explain.
Answer . The various physiological factors which determine the strength of an individual are stated below :
- Size of the muscle : The strength of the muscle largely depends upon the size of the muscle. It is a well known fact that bigger and larger muscles can produce more force. The force produced by the same size of muscle in males and females is approximately the same but males are found to be stronger because they have larger muscles and bigger muscles in comparison to females. With the help of different methods of strength training such as weight training the size of the muscle can be increased and as a result of that strength is improved. So, the strength is determined by the size of the muscle.
- Body weight : It is also a well known fact that the individuals who are heavier are stronger than the individuals who are lighter. There is a positive correlation between body weight and strength among international weightlifters. The heavier weightlifters lift the heavier weight. So, body weight also determines the strength of an individual.
- Muscle composition : Each muscle consists of basically two types of muscle fibres i. e., fast twitch fibres (white fibres) and slow twitch fibres (red fibres). The fast twitch fibres are capable to contract faster and therefore, they can produce more force. On the contrary, the slow twitch fibres are not capable to contract faster but they are capable to contract for a longer duration. The muscles which have more percentage of fast twitch fibres, ca.n produce more strength. The percentage of fast twitch fibres and slow twitch fibre is genetically determined and can not be changed through training. So it can be said that the percentage of these fibres determines the strength.
4. Intensity of the nerve impulse : A muscle is composed of a number of motor units. The total force of the muscle depends on the number of contracting motor units. Whenever, a stronger nerve impulse from central nervous system excite more number of motor units, the muscle will contract more strongly or it can said that the muscle will produce more force or strength. So, the intensity of the nerve impulse also determines the amount of strength.
Question.23. Explain the cognitive aspect of stress. Suggest any three techniques briefly to overcome stress
(a) Inability to concentrate
(b) poor judgment .
(c) seeing only negative
(d) anxious or racing
thoughts and constant worrying (Explanation of Any Two) Techniques :
- Eat a healthy diet : Well-nourished bodies are better prepared to cope with stress, so, be mindful of what you eat. Start your day right with breakfast, and keep your energy up and your mind clear with balanced, nutritious meals throughout the day.
- Get enough sleep : Adequate sleep fuels your mind, as well as your body. Feeling tired will increase your stress because it may cause you to think irrationally.
- Do something you enjoy everyday : Make time for leisure activities that bring you joy, whether it be stargazing, playing the piano, or working on your bike.
- Keep your sense of humor : This includes the ability to laugh at you. The act of laughing helps your body fight stress in a number of ways.
Question.24. Differentiate between 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 ratio interval training, with suitable examples.
Answer : 1 : 1 means load and the rest is equal, eg. I minute exercise followed by 1 minute of rest. Similarly 1 : 2 means that the period of rest is double of the load. eg. 1 minute exercise followed by 2 minute of rest.
The slow and extensive interval training methods can be given by using 1: 1 and 1:2 Fast or intensive interval training methods can be given by using 1 : 1 and 1 : 2.
Student is required to explain the relationship between load and rest, with suitable examples from their respective games and sports.
Question.25. Vitamins are very essential for working of the body and are divided into two groups. Explain about them.
- Fat soluble vitamins : The fat-soluble vitamins are those vitamins that are soluble in fat. These include vitamin A, D, E and K stored in the liver and in body fat.
(a) Vitamin ‘A’ ’. Vitamin A (retinol) is a fat-soluble vitamin that acts as an antioxidant. The Vitamin A that we obtain from animal products is called retinoid and can be used by our body without any modification. The form of Vitamin A found in fruits and vegetables is known as carotenoids.
(b) Vitamin ‘D’ : Vitamin D is different from other essential vitamins because our own “body can manufacture it with sunlight exposure. The main function of Vitamin D is to regulate the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in our bones and aid in cell-to-cell communication throughout the body.
(c) Vitamin ‘E’ : Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a powerful, fat- soluble antioxidant that helps to protect cell membranes against the damage caused by free radicals, prevents the oxidation of LDL cholesterol and is also important in the formation of red blood cells (RBC), thus essential for blood coagulation.
(d) Vitamin K : Vitamin K occurs in two forms- Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2. Vitamin K is, known as the clotting vitamin, because without it, blood would not clot. It also helps in, B prevention of haemorrhage.
- Water soluble vitamins : The water-soluble vitamins are those vitamins that are soluble in water. Vitamin C and members of the Vitamin B complex are water-soluble vitamins.
(a) Vitamin ‘B1’ (Thiamin) : Vitamin Bj or Thiamin, helps to release energy from foods, promotes normal appetite, and is important in maintaining proper nervous system function.
(b) Vitamin ‘B2’ (Riboflavin) : Riboflavin or Vitamin B2, helps to release energy from foods, promotes good vision, and healthy skin. It also helps to convert the amino acid tryptophan (which makes up protein) into niacin.
(c) Vitamin ‘B3’ (Niacin) : Vitamin B3, or niacin, works with other b-complex vitamins to metabolize food and provide energy for the body. Vitamin B3 is involved in energy production, normal enzyme function, digestion, promoting normal appetite, healthy skin and nerves.
(d) Vitamin ‘B6’(Pyridoxine) : Vitamin Bg is a keyfactor in protein and glucose metabolism as well as in the formation of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a component of red blood cells-it carries oxygen. Vitamin Bg is also involved in keeping the lymphnodes, thymus and healthy.
(e) Vitamin ‘B12’(Cobalamin) : Vitamin B12 is also known as Cobalamin, aids in the building of genetic material, production of normal red blood cells, and maintenance of the nervous system.
(f) Biotin : Biotin is a coenzyme and a B vitamin and is also known as Vitamin H. As a supplement, biotin is sometimes used for diabetes, brittle nails, and other conditions. Biotin helps to release energy from carbohydrates and aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates from food.
(g) Vitamin ‘C’ : Vitamin C is also called Ascorbic acid,
, which is a water-soluble vitamin and cannot be stored in the body. Most plants and animals can produce their own vitamin C but humans cannot. Vitamin C is needed for proper growth, development, and to heal wounds. It is used to make the collagen tissue for healthy teeth, gums, blood vessels and bones. .
Question.26. Weight training is one of the oldest methods for development of strength. What are its advantages and disadvantages?
Answer : Weight training refers to any activity which, involves the use of weights. Weight training is an exercise in which muscles of the body are forced to contract under tension using weights, body weight or other devices in order to stimulate growth, strength power and endurance.
Advantages of Weight Training :
- Improved muscle tone and strength : Weight training improves muscle strength and tone to protect joints from injury. It also helps children to maintain flexibility and balance weight management and increased muscle to fat ratio. As a child gains muscle, the body burns more kilojoules when at rest.
- Greater Stamina : Stamina helps to work longer without tiring. People with good stamina are less likely to suffer muscle injuries, backaches and soreness. Building stamina also improves overall fitness, general helath and appearance. As a child grows stronger, he won’t get tired easily.
- Pain management : It increases strength and flexibility, reduces joint pain, and helps combat fatigue, Exercise is vital for people with arthritis. Even moderate exercise can ease your pain and help you maintain healthy weight.
Disadvantages of Weight Training :
- Threat of injury : The risk of getting injured is always high while performing weight training particularly when doing weight training with no companion. When repetitions of exercises are performed, one should not be alone at that critical movement as chance of getting injured is more. Thus, to perform weight training with a companion or a supporter is always advisable or to perform under supervision of an expert to avoid the worst to happen.
- Less flexibility : The level of flexibility gets reduced if proper exercises of flexibility are not done alongwith weight training. It will be negligible if flexibility exercises are performed persistently.