CBSE previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Physical Education Outside Delhi 2014
Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks: 70
- The question paper consists of 26 questions.
- All question are compulsory.
- Answer to questions carrying 1 mark should be in approximately 10-20 words.
- Answer to questions carrying 3 marks should be in approximately 30-50 words ,
- Answer to questions carrying 5 marks should be in approximately 75-100 words.
Question.1. What do you understand by Recreation?**
Answer. Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The “need to do something for recreation” is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be “fun”.
Question.2. Explain the objectives for Intramurals.
Answer . Objectives of Intramurals :
- To provide opportunities to actively engage in programs and activities promoting an enhanced quality of life.
- To provide opportunities for personal development through leadership, diversity, and teamwork.
- To provide a forum for an experiential education for students, faculty, and staff. ‘
Question.3. Explain sport environment.
Answer . Sports environment is the conditions and circumstances which are favourable and beneficial for the sports persons who perform sports activities.
Question.4. Define flat foot.
Answer . A common and usually painless condition, flatfeet may occur when the arches don’t develop during childhood. In other cases, flatfeet may develop after an injury or from the simple wear-and-tear stresses of age.
Question.5. What is Swadhyaya in Yogic Niyajmas? **
Answer. The term svadhyaya literally means ‘one’s own reading’ or ‘self-study’, it is the fourth of the Niyamas of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, and has the potential to deepen our Yoga practice way beyond the mat.
Question.6. What are vitamins?
Answer . Vitamins are compounds found in certain food which are vital to our health and longevity. Our body needs them for growth, function, energy, tissue repair and waste removal. There are two categories of vitamins: water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins B and C, and fat-soluble vitamins, are vitamins A, D, E and K.
Question.7. Define acceleration runs.
Answer . Acceleration runs is a special kind of training in which running speed is gradually increased from jogging to striding and finally to sprinting at maximum speed. Each component is about 50 meter long. Its progressive nature reduces the risk of muscles injuries.
Question.8. What is goal setting?
Answer . Goal setting involves establishing specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-targeted (S.M.A.R.T) goals. The goal setting theory suggests that an effective tool for making progress is to ensure that participants in a group with a common goal are clearly aware of what is expected from them.
Question.9. Explain any two factors affecting wellness.**
Answer. Factors Affecting Physical Fitness
Beth has heard that kids today are less physically fit than ever, but why is this? Both long term and short term physical fitness are affected by a great number of factors, such as:
- Injury – Any serious injury will have an adverse effect on a student’s physical fitness. When the body takes time to heal, it takes away opportunities to move and build strength, stamina and coordination.
- Lack of physical activity – When Beth’s students show up at the gym, she can tell they’ve been spending more time in front of screens than they do on their feet. Increasing school demands, families with both parents working, neighborhoods with fewer parks, and cuts in school recess all mean that kids spend less time outside and moving, which results in overall lower fitness.
- Poor diet/nutrition – The amount of fast food and quick options kids can grab has increased over the years. They seem to be eating more junk and fewer whole foods, which means they don’t get as much nutrition as they could. This results in an overall lower level of physical fitness. Beth knows its super important to teach her students about making healthy food choices.
- Poor and inconsistent rest/sleep – Although it may seem contrary, rest is just as important to physical fitness as physical activity. The body needs to replenish and rebuild when resting.
- Dehydration – Although there is no expert consensus definition of dehydration, being dehydrated will decrease both physical and mental performance. The body needs water to survive and thrive.
Question.10. ” Explain any two types of causative factors related to accidents in sports. **
Sports injuries are most commonly caused by poor training methods; structural abnormalities; weakness in muscles, tendons, ligaments; and unsafe exercising environments. The most common cause of injury is poor training. For example, muscles need 48 hours to recover after a workout. Increasing exercise intensity too quickly and not stopping when pain develops while exercising also causes injury.
Everyone’s bone architecture is a little different, and almost all of us have one or two weak points where the arrangement of bone and muscle leaves us prone to injury. Common predisposing factor in injuries to the ankles, legs, knees, and hips include:
- uneven leg length
- excessive pronation (flat feet)
- cavus foot (over-high arches)
- bowlegged or knock-knee alignment
Uneven leg length may lead to awkward running and increases the chance of injury, but many people with equal-length legs suffer the same effects by running on tilted running tracks or along the side of a road that is higher in the centre. The hip of the leg that strikes the higher surface will suffer more strain.
Pronation is the inward rolling of the foot after the heel strikes the ground, before the weight is shifted forward to the ball of the foot. By rolling inwards, the foot spreads the shock of impact with the ground. If it rolls too easily, however, it can place uneven stress on muscles and ligaments higher in the leg.
While an overly flexible ankle and foot can cause excessive pronation, a too-rigid ankle will cause the effects of caves foot. Although the arch of the foot itself may be normal, it appears very high because the foot doesn’t flatten inwards when weight is placed on it. Such feet are poor shock absorbers and increase the risk of fractures higher in the legs.
Bowlegs or knock knees add extra stress through knees and ankles over time, and may make ankle sprains more likely.
Other structural conditions that make sports injuries more common include:
- lumbar lordosis: forward curve in the lower spine
- patella alta: a kneecap that’s higher than usual
- high Q angle: kneecap displaced to one side, as with knock knees
Having some muscles that are very strong and others that are weak can lead to injury. If your quadriceps (front thigh muscles) are very strong, it can increase the risk of a stretched or torn hamstring (rear thigh muscle). Tight iliotibial bands may be the cause of knee pain for many athletes in running sports.
Overuse injuries are caused by repeated, microscopic injuries to a part of the body. Many long distance runners experience overuse injuries even after years of running. For road runners, the surface is hard and sometimes uneven, and the running movements are repetitive. In addition, there are usually both up- and downhill elements, and these increase the stress on tendons and muscles in the lower leg. You will more likely develop running injuries if you wear the wrong shoes or sneakers. You should use footwear that doesn’t allow side-to-side movement of the heel, and that adequately cushions the foot.
People who play request sports tend to injure their upper body. The need to firmly grasp the request and the shock of impact with the ball can cause various injuries to the tendons of the wrist and elbow, such as “tennis elbow,” which may extend into the muscles of the forearm. In addition, the human arm really isn’t designed to handle strenuous activity above the head. Tennis is a leading cause of rotator cuff (shoulder joint) tendinitis. This is potentially one of the most difficult sports injuries. If you continue to play tennis when you have a sore shoulder, the rotator cuff tendons can fray or tear and may require surgery.
Question.11. Mention any four points to show the importance of yoga. **
A foundation for healthy living. By closely observing the lifestyles and needs of people in the west Swami Vishnudevananda synthesized the ancient wisdom of yoga into five basic principles that can easily be incorporated into one’s lifestyle and provide a solid foundation for healthy living. It is around these four principles that the teachings are based.
- Proper Exercise (Asana)
- Proper Breathing (Pranayama)
- Proper Relaxation (Savasana)
- Proper Diet (Vegetarian)
Proper Exercise (Asana)
Acts as a lubricating routine for the joints and muscles and other parts of the body by increasing circulation and flexibility. The asanas not only produce physical benefits, but are also mental exercises in concentration and meditation, promoting optimum health. Our physical body is meant to move and exercise. If our lifestyle does not provide natural motion of muscles and joints, then disease and great discomfort will ensue with time. Proper exercise should be pleasant to the practitioner while beneficial to the body, mind and spiritual life.
There are numerous modern physical culture systems designed to develop the muscles through mechanical movements and exercises. As Yoga regards the body as a vehicle for the soul on its journey towards perfection, Yogic physical exercises are designed to develop not only the body. They also broaden the mental faculties and the spiritual capacities.
The Yogic physical exercises are called Asanas, a term which means steady pose. This is because the Yoga Asana (or posture) is meant to be held for some time. However this is quite an advanced practice. Initially, our concern is simply to increase body flexibility.
The body is as young as it is flexible. Yoga exercises focus on the health of the spine, its strength and flexibility. The spinal column houses the all-important nervous system, the telegraphic system of the body. By maintaining the spine’s flexibility and strength through exercise, circulation is increased and the nerves are ensured their supply of nutrients and oxygen.The Asanas also affect the internal organs and the endocrine system (glands and hormones)
Proper Breathing (Pranayama)
Connects the body to the solar plexus, where tremendous potential energy is stored. Through specific breathing techniques this energy is released for physical and mental rejuvenation. By far the most important thing about good breathing is the Prana, or subtle energy of the vital breath. Control of the Prana leads to control of the mind. Breathing exercises are called Pranayamas, which means to control the Prana.The two main Pranayamas practiced are Kapalabhati and Anuloma Viloma
Proper Relaxation (Savasana)
Yoga teaches three levels of relaxation – physical, mental and spiritual.
Long before the invention of cars, planes, telephones, computers, freeways and other modern triggers of stress, the Rishis (sages or seers) and Yogis of yore devised very powerful techniques of deep relaxation. As a matter of fact, many modern stress-management and relaxation methods borrow heavily from this tradition. By relaxing deeply all the muscles the Yogi can thoroughly rejuvenate his nervous system and attain a deep sense of inner peace.When the body and the mind are constantly overworked, their natural efficiency to perform work diminishes. Modern social life, food, work and even the so-called entertainment, such as disco dancing, make it difficult for modern people to relax. Many have even forgotten that rest and relaxation are nature’s way of recharging. Even while trying to rest, the average person expends a lot of physical and mental energy through tension. Much of the body’s energy is wasted uselessly.More of our energy is spent in keeping the muscles in continual readiness for work than in the actual useful work done. In order to regulate and balance the work of the body and mind, it is best to learn to economize the energy produced by our body. This may be done by learning to relax.It may be remembered that in the course of one day, our body usually produce all the substances and energy necessary for the next day. But it often happens that all these substances and energy may be consumed within a few minutes by bad moods, anger, injury or intense irritation. The process of eruption and repression of violent emotions often grows into a regular habit. The result is disastrous, not only for the body, but also for the mind.During complete relaxation, there is practically no energy or “Prana” being consumed, althouth a little is keeping the body in normal condition while the remaining portion is being stored and conserved.In order to achieve perfect relaxation, three methods are used by yogis: “Physical”, “Mental”, and “Spiritual” relaxation. Relaxation is not complete until the person reaches that stage of spiritual relaxation, which only advanced spiritual aspirants know.
Proper Diet (Vegetarian) is eating with conscious awareness. A yogi takes food which has the most positive effect on the body and mind and the least negative effect on the environment. Besides being responsible for building our physical body, the foods we eat profoundly affect our mind. For maximum body-mind efficiency and complete spiritual awareness, Yoga advocates a lacto-vegetarian diet. This is an integral part of the Yogic lifestyle.
The yogic diet is a vegetarian one, consisting of pure, simple, natural foods which are easily digested and promote health. Simple meals aid the digestion and assimilation of foods. Nutritional requirements fall under five categories: protein, carbohydrates, minerals, fats and vitamins. One should have a certain knowledge of dietetics in order to balance the diet. Eating foods first-hand from nature, grown in fertile soil (preferably organic, free from chemicals and pesticides) will help ensure a better supply of these nutritional needs. Processing, refining and overcooking destroy much food value.
There is a cycle in nature known as the “food cycle” or “food chain”. The Sun is the source of energy for all life on our planet; it nourishes the plants (the top of the food chain) which are then eaten by animals (vegetarian), which are then eaten by other animals (carnivores). The food at the top of the food chain, being directly nourished by the Sun, has the greatest life promoting properties. The food value of animal flesh is termed as “second-hand” source of nutrition, and is inferior in nature. All natural foods (fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts and grains) have, in varying quantities, different proportions of these essential nutrients. As source of protein, these are easily assimilated by the body. However, second-hand sources are often more difficult to digest and are of less value to the body’s metabolism. Many people worry about whether they are getting enough protein, but neglect other factors. The quality of the protein is more important than the quantity alone. Dairy products, legumes, nuts and seeds provide the vegetarian with an adequate supply of protein. The high protein requirement still being used by many Health Departments is based on antiquated data and has been scientifically disproved many times in the laboratory. A healthy motto is: “Eat to live, not live to eat”. It is best if we understand that the purpose of eating is to supply our being with the lifeforce,or Prana, the vital life energy. So the greatest nutritional plan for the Yoga student is the simple diet of natural fresh foods.
However, the true Yogic diet is actually even more selective than this. The Yogi is concerned with the subtle effect that food has on his mind and astral body. He therefore avoids foods which are overly stimulating, preferring those which render the mind calm and the intellect sharp. One who seriously takes to the path of Yoga would avoid ingesting meats, fish, eggs, onions, garlic, coffee, tea (except herbal), alcohol and drugs.
Any change in diet should be made gradually. Start by substituting larger portions of vegetables, grains, seeds and nuts until finally all flesh products have been completely eliminated from the diet.The Yogic diet will help you attain a high standard of health, keen intellect and serenity of mind.
Question.12. Explain any two methods for flexibility development.
- Warm-up before stretching: The very first thing you must do before stretching is a warm up jog, run, or bike to get loose. You don’t have to run or bike that hard Or far, but it is good to do at least 20 minutes of warm up before stretching.
- Do dynamic stretching : Dynamic stretching includes motion and is meant to mimic and exaggerate the movements of actual exercise and daily motions.
Question.13. Explain ethics in sports. **
To understand the role ethics plays in sport and competition, it is important to make a distinction between gamesmanship and sportsmanship.
Gamesmanship is built on the principle that winning is everything. Athletes and coaches are encouraged to bend the rules wherever possible in order to gain a competitive advantage over an opponent, and to pay less attention to the safety and welfare of the competition. Some of the key tenants of gamesmanship are:
Winning is everything
It’s only cheating if you get caught
It is the referee’s job to catch wrongdoing, and the athletes and coaches have no inherent responsibility to follow the rules
The ends always justify the means
Some examples of gamesmanship are:
Faking a foul or injury
Attempting to get a head start in a race
Tampering with equipment, such as corking a baseball bat in order to hit the ball farther
Covert personal fouls, such as grabbing a player underwater during a water polo match
Inflicting pain on an opponent with the intention of knocking him or her out of the game, like the Saint’s bounty scandal
The use of performance-enhancing drugs
Taunting or intimidating an opponent
A coach lying about an athlete’s grades in order to keep him or her eligible to play
All of these examples place greater emphasis on the outcome of the game than on the manner in which it is played.
A more ethical approach to athletics is sportsmanship. Under a sportsmanship model, healthy competition is seen as a means of cultivating personal honor, virtue, and character. It contributes to a community of respect and trust between competitors and in society. The goal in sportsmanship is not simply to win, but to pursue victory with honor by giving one’s best effort.
Ethics in sport requires four key virtues: fairness, integrity, responsibility, and respect.
All athletes and coaches must follow established rules and guidelines of their respective sport.
Teams that seek an unfair competitive advantage over their opponent create an uneven playing field which violates the integrity of the sport.
Athletes and coaches are not discriminated against or excluded from participating in a sport based on their race, gender, or sexual orientation.
Referees must apply the rules equally to both teams and cannot show bias or personal interest in the outcome.
Similar to fairness, in that any athlete who seeks to gain an advantage over his or her opponent by means of a skill that the game itself was not designed to test demonstrates a lack of personal integrity and violates the integrity of the game. For example, when a player fakes being injured or fouled in soccer, he or she is not acting in a sportsmanlike manner because the game of soccer is not designed to measure an athlete’s ability to flop. Faking is a way of intentionally deceiving an official into making a bad call, which only hurts the credibility of the officiating and ultimately undermines the integrity of the game.
To be sportsmanlike requires players and coaches to take responsibility for their performance, as well as their actions on the field. This includes their emotions.
Many times athletes and coaches will make excuses as to why they lost the game. The most popular excuse is to blame the officiating. The honorable thing to do instead is to focus only on the aspects of the game that you can control, i.e. your performance, and to question yourself about where you could have done better.
Responsibility requires that players and coaches be up to date on the rules and regulations governing their sport.
Responsibility demands that players and coaches conduct themselves in an honorable way off the field, as well as on it.
All athletes should show respect for team mates, opponents, coaches, and officials.
All coaches should show respect for their players, opponents, and officials.
All fans, especially parents, should show respect for other fans, as well as both teams and officials.
The sportsmanship model is built on the idea that sport both demonstrates and encourages character development, which then influences the moral character of the broader community. How we each compete in sports can have an effect on our personal moral and ethical behaviour outside of the competition.
Some argue for a “bracketed morality” within sports. This approach holds that sport and competition are set apart from real life, and occupy a realm where ethics and moral codes do not apply. Instead, some argue, sports serves as an outlet for our primal aggression and a selfish need for recognition and respect gained through the conquering of an opponent. In this view, aggression and victory are the only virtues. For example, a football player may be described as mean and nasty on the field, but kind and gentle in everyday life. His violent disposition on the field is not wrong because when he is playing the game he is part of an amoral reality that is dictated only by the principle of winning.
An ethical approach to sport rejects this bracketed morality and honors the game and one’s opponent through tough but fair play. This means understanding the rules and their importance in encouraging respect for your opponent, which pushes you to be your best.
Question.14. “Games and sports are the best means for attaining fitness.” Justify. **
Answer. It is known that fitness and wellness makes an individual physically fit,mentally stable and helps becoming a good citizen. Fitness helps individual achieve satisfactory level of strength, endurance and flexibility. It further improves the confidence and energy level. One feels more energetic and fresh for the whole day. It also leads to sound sleep followed by more relaxed body which leading to mental satisfaction and social stability. Body becomes more resistant to general ailments. Fitness improves efficiency of heart and lungs by improving cardio-respiratory fitness. It helps in maintaining normal blood pressure of the body. In nutshell, we can say – fitness and wellness helps to achieve the aim of physical education i.e. – “All round development of personality of the individual”.
Principles of fitness:-
- Before taking any fitness programme one go for medical check-up.
- One can take-up the fitness program at any age.
- Fitness program must be scientifically chalked out depending on age,sex and ability.
- Programme must be simple to complex.
Question.15. Elucidate the role of media for improvement of positive sports environment.
Answer : The media, whether it is print media or electronic media, plays a significant and effective role for creating positive sport environment. Media is providing its valuable contribution for the encouragement and promotion of sports and games. Electronic media is the source by which millions of people watch the various World cups and Olympic games. There are many sports channels are available such as Ten sports, NEO sports, Star sports that provide the facility of watching live and recorded programs of games and sports. Thus media is promoting the games and sports.
The media encourages people to develop reasonable interests in engaging in sports. Either for fun, excitement, recreation, physical fitness or health care. In the homes, countless number of youths involves themselves in sporting activities. This has contributed to the remarkable improvement of fitness among the youths. Another role that the media play in sports is the advocacy of unity among diverse races, religions, ethinic groups, language, colour, peoples, idiosyncrasies and world¬views. Media not only publicise the games and sports but it also gives publicity to sportspersons which is a motivating source for them.
Question.16. Explain any three techniques of meditation. **
Answer. 1. BUDDHIST MEDITATION
Zen Meditation (Zazen)
Zazen means “seated Zen”, or “seated meditation”, in Japanese. It has its roots in the Chinese Zen Buddhism (Ch’an) tradition, tracing back to Indian monk Bodhidharma (6th century CE). In the West, its most popular forms comes from Dogen Zenji (1200~1253), the founder of Soto Zen movement in Japan. Similar modalities are practiced in the Rinzai school of Zen, in Japan and Korea.
2.HINDU MEDITATION (Vedic & Yogic)
Mantra Meditation (OM Meditation)
A mantra is a syllable or word, usually without any particular meaning, that is repeated for the purpose of focusing your mind. It is not an affirmation used to convince yourself of something.
Some meditation teachers insist that both the choice of word, and its correct pronunciation, is very important, due to the “vibration” associated to the sound and meaning, and that for this reason an initiation into it is essential. Others say that the mantra itself is only a tool to focus the mind, and the chosen word is completely irrelevant.
Mantras are used in Hindu traditions, Buddhist traditions (especially Tibetan and “Pure Land” Buddhism), as well as in Jainism, Sikhism and Daoism (Taoism). Some people call mantra meditation “om meditation”, but that is just one of the mantras that can be used. A more devotion oriented practice of mantras is called japa, and consists of repeating sacred sounds (name of God) with love.
Daoism is a Chinese philosophy and religion, dating back to Lao Tzu (or Laozi). It emphasizes living in harmony with Nature, or Tao, and it’s main text is the Tao Te Ching, dating back to 6th century B.C. Later on some lineages of Taoism were also influenced by Buddhist meditation practices brought from India, especially on the 8th century C.E..
The chief characteristic of this type of meditation is the generation, transformation, and circulation of inner energy. The purpose is to quieten the body and mind, unify body and spirit, find inner peace, and harmonize with the Tao. Some styles of Taoist Meditation are specifically focused on improving health and giving longevity.
Question.17. Explain any three principles of training in brief.
Answer: Three principles of training:
- Principle of overload : The overload principle is a basic sports fitness training concept. It means that in order to improve, athletes must continually work harder as they their bodies adjust to existing workouts. Overloading also plays a role in skill learning.
- Principle of Specificity : The principle of specificity states that the more specific a training activity is to a given sport—muscle group, work load, velocity and pattern of movement, body posture, and range of motion—the more it will contribute to increasing performance in that sport. .
- Principle of Individualization : This could also be called the snowflake principle, since it highlights that no two climbers—or their optimal conditioning program-are the same. The best training program for a person will target his/ her specific weaknesses, address past or present injuries, provide sufficient time for recovery, and be structured to provide the greatest output for the available training input.
Question.18. Suggest the formation of various committees for systematic and smooth conduct of sports day in your school.
- Select members who are excited about the project : If you’ve been working with the same committee for years, they may be growing bored or frustrated with the annual undertaking.
- Clearly define tasks : Progress on your event will come to a halt if your committee members don’t know what to do next. At the end of each planning session, members should know their next steps and the deadlines for completing each task.
- Plan ahead : Send committee members the meeting schedule several weeks in advance so they can clear the time to attend meetings.
- Establish goals and expectations : When someone joins your committee, communicate clearly how much time they should set aside to complete their tasks.
Question.19. Explain in detail about any five advantages of correct posture.
Answer: Posture is the position you maintain while standing, sitting or lying down. You have good posture when your position creates the least amount of strain on supporting muscles and ligaments when you move or perform weight-bearing activity. It has many advantages. Some of them are :
- Better for Your Body : Good posture and back support are essential for avoiding back and neck pain. Good posture also prevents muscle aches and muscle fatigue. It keeps your bones and joints in proper alignment so you use your muscles more efficiendy, preventing strain and overuse.
- Future Health : Proper posture reduces abnormal wear and tear on joint surfaces, which can lead to arthritis. It also reduces stress on ligaments that connect spinal joints. Good posture helps you avoid developing an abnormal permanent position, which can cause spinal disk problems and constricted blood vessels and nerves. Good posture also protects spinal joints from injury and deformity.
- Breathe Right: Good posture helps to open the airways and ensure proper breathing. Proper breathing allows enhanc-ed oxygen flow in the cardiopulmonary system. The blood then carries sufficient oxygen to the nervous system, organs and other tissues, so they function effectively.
- Looking Good : Maintaining good posture does wonders * for your appearance. Proper posture can help you make a good
first impression, and appear more attractive and-confident.
- Good posture : Good posture prevents fatigue because muscles are being used more efficiently, allowing the body to use less energy.
Question.20. What is the role of various elements of diet on performance
of an athlete?
Answer: Eating a balanced diet means choosing a wide variety of foods and drinks from all the food groups. It also means eating certain things in moderation, namely saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, refined sugar, salt and alcohol. The goal is to take in nutrients you need for health at the recommended levels.
- Most of the energy used by the body is provided by the carbohydrate and the fats.
- Proteins build the body and perform the function of repair of damage tissues.
- Minerals an’d vitamins regulate the functions of the body; they are needed for important chemical reactions taking place in the body.
- Water is present in all tissues of the body and plays an important role in various life processes. For example, digestion, excretion and transport of important materials within the body. It also helps in cellular reactions.
Question.21. What is endurance? Explain the various methods for its development.
Answer : Endurance refers to the body’s ability to continue using muscular strength and endure repeated contractions for an extended period of time. It is essential in exercise and when doing heavy tasks as it allows the muscles to perform for long periods of time without becoming tired. There are various methods of its development. Some are as follows :
- Continuous Training : Continuous training is a type of sports training that involves activity of moderate intensity with a duration of-more 15 minutes with resting intervals. It is the most common type of training and is for maintaining general health and well being. Generally, this type of training is used to prepare the body for sustained workouts such as marathons and triathlons, but can also be effective for more casual athletes. It allows the body to work from its aerobic energy stores to improve overall fitness and endurance. Chief
-benefits of continuous training include fat burning, muscle building, and increasing maximum aerobic potential.
- Interval training: Interval training involves periods of hard work followed by a timed period of rest, repeated several times in one training session. The periods of hard work are called high intensity activity. Rest can be active (walking, jogging etc) An example of interval training is 10 fast runs over 40 metres, with a two minute rest between each run. Variables to consider during interval training are Distance/duration of activity, Intensity of activity, duration of rest, activity during rest, number of sets, and frequency of training. By varying any of the variables athletes can be progressively overloaded. This form of training also increases fitness levels for people involved in exercise.
- Fartlek training : Fartlek, which means “speed play” in Swedish, is a training method that blends continuous’ training with interval training. The variable intensity and continuous nature of the exercise. places stress on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems. It differs from traditional interval training in that it is unstructured; intensity and/or speed vary, as the athlete wishes. Fartlek training can be used to improve both the aerobic and anaerobic systems by mixing moderate activity with bursts of speed.
Question.22. Write about any four tournaments of the game/sport of your choice.
Question.23. Explain any 6 terminologies from the game/sport of your choice. **
Question.24. Explain any five latest rules from the game/sport of your choice. **
Question.25. Explain Arjuna Award. **
Question.26. Write about achievements of any three important sports personalities from the game/sport of your choice. **
Question.27. Explain any five common soft tissue injuries in the game/ sport of your choice. **