MCQ Questions with Answers for Class 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 all Subjects

If you are searching for MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers of all the subjects for Classes 1 to 12 then you have come the right way. You can ace up your preparation for the board exams and crack the MCQ Questions easily. Take the help of Objective Questions of 1st to 12th Standard PDF over here through the quick links available and score max. marks in the exam.

Multiple Choice Questions of Classes 1 to 12 provided for all the subjects here enhances your respective subject knowledge. Boost your problem-solving skills and gain more knowledge by practicing the Multiple Choice Type Questions over here.

Practice: MCQ Questions Quiz

Students can also read NCERT Solutions to get Good marks in CBSE Board Exams.

FAQs on Multiple Choice Questions for 1st to 12th Class

1. Where do I get the Class Wise MCQ Questions for all the subjects?

You can get the Class Wise MCQ Questions for all the subjects on our page.

2. What is the best strategy to score max. Marks in MCQs?

Consistent Practice is the only key to score max. Marks in MCQ Questions. Practice the whole concepts and stand out from the rest of the crowd.

3. Which Website Offers Best Multiple Choice Type Questions for Class 1 to 12? is a genuine and trusted website that offers best objective questions for 1st to 12th standard and you can use them without any worries.

4. How to download the Multiple Choice Questions of 1st to 12th Standard?

All you need to do is click on the quick links out there to download the Objective Questions of 1st to 12th Standard.

Final Words

We wish the knowledge shared regarding MCQ Questions for Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 has helped you to an extent. Aid your preparation with the Multiple Choice Objective Questions listed and score more marks. For any other queries feel free to reach us and we will get back to you with the earliest solution. Bookmark our site for more information on MCQ

Editing Exercises for Class 8 CBSE With Answers

The following passage has not been edited. There is an erpr in each line against which a blank is given. Write the incorrect word and the corrected word in your answer sheet against the blank as given in the example. Underline the corrected word that has been supplied.

Are you looking for the best NCERT Solutions for Class 8 English? Then, grab them from our page and ace up your preparation for CBSE Class 10 Exams.

Editing Exercises for Class 8 CBSE With Answers PDF

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 8 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.

Editing is a stage of the writing process in which a writer improves a draft by correcting errors and by making words and sentences clearer, more precise and more effective.

  • Always follow PPACTS RULE while editing a passage.
  • PPACTS stands for P – Preposition, P – Pronoun, A – Article/determiner, C – Conjunction, T – Tense/Verb Forms (singular/plural), S – Spelling
  • After reading the passage, identify the tense and see whether it is appropriate to the context.
  • Check the subject-verb agreement

Editing Exercises Solved Example With Answers for Class 8 CBSE

In the passage given below, there is an error in each line the space provided and then write the correct word.

     Incorrect correct
Nobody deny the fact that recreation is a.  __________ __________
as important in life as work. All work or no b.  __________ __________
play, makes life dull and boring. Life could lose c.  __________ __________
its charm, any amusement in it. That is d.  __________ __________
why recreation have always been an important e.  __________ __________
part of human activity. Cinema are the most modern f.  __________ __________
and the most popular form in entertainment. g.  __________ __________

Editing Exercises Practice Example for Class 8 CBSE

In the passages given below, there is an error in each line. Write the incorrect word in the space provided and then write the correct word.

Editing Exercises Practice Example 1.

Incorrect  Correct
Everything about an office room (a) ______________ ______________
At sanskriti college, Calcutta, were simple. (b) ______________ ______________
That is how Ishwar Chandra vidyasagar, (c) ______________ ______________
Who worked there, wants it. He did (d) ______________ ______________
Not liked any pomp and show. he (e) ______________ ______________
Did not need them, either. his learning but (f) ______________ ______________
Wisdom were the envy to many. he (g) ______________ ______________
Was not after riches. Whatever, he has, he shared with others. (h) ______________ ______________

Editing Exercises Practice Example 2.

     Incorrect correct
Patriotism mean love of one’s native land. a.  __________ __________
Just if we love our father and mother, so we b.  __________ __________
love land of our birth. This feeling are called c.  __________ __________
patriotism. Patriotism is a natural feeling at the d.  __________ __________
heart. No one needs to teach us to love my e.  __________ __________
parents. Love for parents is an inborn feeling. f.  __________ __________
There is no need for teach patriotism. g.  __________ __________

Editing Exercises Practice Example 3.

     Incorrect correct
We are living in an age for science. Man has reached a.  __________ __________
the moon. The unconquerable have been conquered. b.  __________ __________
The dreams of yesterday was the realities of today. c.  __________ __________
Atomic energy is the great power in the hands d.  __________ __________
of man today. But the help of atomic energy, man e.  __________ __________
should change this world into a heaven of prosperity f.  __________ __________
or joy. g.  __________ __________

Editing Exercises Practice Example 4.

The following passage has not been edited. There is one error in each line. Write the incorrect word and the correction in your answer sheet as given below against the correct blank number.

Incorrect  Correct
India is very fortunate that it have many (a)  _____________ _____________
rivers. Their famous rivers are Sutlej, (b) _____________ _____________
Ganga, Yamuna or Narmada. Some of (c) _____________ _____________
the river like Ganga, which (d) _____________ _____________
originated from the Himalayas, flow (e) _____________ _____________
throughout a year. They provide water (f) _____________ _____________
for both drinking and irrigational purpose. (g) _____________ _____________
Some rivers in India are consider very sacred and are worshipped. (h) _____________ _____________

Poster Making for Class 7 Format, Examples, Samples, Topics

Poster Making for Class 7 Format, Examples, Samples, Topics

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 7 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other

Poster Writing for Class 7 Format, Examples, Samples, Topics Pdf


What is Poster Making?
A poster is a large printed picture, notice or advertisement, designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface for public display.

Usually, posters include both textual and graphical elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text.
There are varieties of posters such as propaganda and political posters, movie posters, event posters, pin-up posters, affirmation posters, educational posters, classroom posters, etc.

A poster should have the following features:

  • A brief communication, a compelling visual and a powerful message.
  • It should be very attractive and easily readable from a certain distance.
  • A poster should clearly mention the theme or the topic, the schedule of the event, the venue of the event and it should focus on help or action, warning or caution, appeal for awareness, invitation, etc.
  • In a nutshell a poster should include theme/topic/event, purpose and occasion, date, time and place, message of appeal, awareness, caution, warning, invitation, catchy slogans and captions, name of the organisation or individual issuing the poster and other necessary details.

Steps in making a good poster

  • Collect the necessary materials (white paper, colour pencils etc.).
  • Mark the places for heading, body and footer.
  • Make a heading with light lines.
  • Make footer with light strokes.
  • Fill in the middle with light strokes.
  • Rework the light strokes using color pencils – etc.
  • Catchy slogans must be added to appeal the masses.
  • To make it attractive in case you are not drawing pictures.

Poster Making Exercises With Answers for Class 7 CBSE

Poster Making Sample Question – 1

1. Your school is organising a Blood Donation Camp. Prepare a poster for your school notice board with a catchy heading.

Tips on making good posters

  • Use big letters so that people can read it easily.
  • Don’t challenge people’s eyes by clustering information.
  • Balance the placement of text and graphics, making it visually attractive.
  • Spell check and proofread thoroughly.

Donate Blood, Save Lives!
Donate your precious blood at:
The New Era School Donation Camp
on: 25th. September, 2017
from: 10:00 a.m f© 4:00 p.m.
Venue: New Era public school, B – Block, janakpuri. New Delhi.
Important Features include:
Trained Medical Staff
Free Checkup of B.P.
Issue of Donor Cards
Donate your precious blood today, you might need it one day!

Blood donation camp organized by. The New Era School in association with the Indian Red Cross association

Poster Making Sample Question – 2

2. Prepare a poster on Global Warming.
Poster Making for Class 7 Format, Examples, Samples, Topics

Poster Making Exercise for Class 7

1. Prepare a poster on ‘Save Girl Child’.

2. Prepare a poster on ‘Smoking is Injurious to Health’.

Noun Clause Exercise for Class 6 CBSE With Answers And Examples

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 6 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.

Noun Clause Exercise for Class 6 CBSE With Answers And Examples Pdf


  • The clause that tells you what someone says or thinks is the object of saying or thinking verb.
  • A noun clause is a dependent clause that acts as a noun.
  • To identify the noun clause in a sentence, we can ask the question ‘What’ after the verb.
  • Noun clauses begin with words such as how, that, what, whatever, when, where, whether, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom and why.
  • Noun clauses can act as subjects, direct objects or indirect objects.
  • Noun clauses as a direct object:


  • They know what my name is.
  • I noticed where they were going.

A noun clause can be a complement after a be verb.

  • Why she was working so late is something we need to find out.

Noun clause may sometimes be placed first in a sentence for emphasis.

  • How we’re going to deal with the issue is the question.

Noun clauses as a subject:

  • What she is doing is not known.
  • What you said is not clear.
  • Where she lives is not considered.

Noun clauses as an indirect object:

  • I will give whoever gets the best mark a new calculator.
  • Maya will give whoever she sees there her old bag.

Read the picture story.
Noun Clause Exercises for Class 6 CBSE

Noun Clause Practice Exercises for Class 6 CBSE

A. Answer the following questions.
1. What did Amit think?
2. What did Amit’s mother decide later on?
3. Why did the narrator feel wonder at the end of the story?

A. Complete the following sentences by adding suitable noun clauses.
1. I cannot understand ____________
2. They said ____________
3. I think ____________
4. He told me ____________
5. ____________ hurts me.
6. You can eat ____________
7. Can you guess ____________?
8. I feel certain ____________
9. I do not know ____________
10. No one knows ____________

B. Identify the noun clauses in the following sentences.
1. I wondered what he was doing there.
2. He replied that he would come.
3. She asked if I could help her.
4. That honesty is the best policy is a well-known fact
5. I expected that I would get the first prize.
6. Do you know why he is late?
7. I don’t know what he wants.
8. Pay careful attention to what I am going to say.
9. That she should forget me so quickly hurts me.
10. That you should behave like this is strange.

C. Underline noun clause in each sentence.
1. Whichever you choose, will look great.
2. What I wonder is why he did that.
3. I don’t know who left the gift here.
4. Ask the tutor if this is the correct answer.
5. He worried about what he had not completed.
6. What he said made a lot of sense.
7. I don’t know whether I won the event.
8. I don’t understand why you did that.
9. When he returns is still a mystery.
10. Whoever plays basketball must be able to run fast.
11. She tells whoever will listen.
12. The arena is where the team plays.

D. Combine the following sentences using noun clauses.
1. I don’t know. What kind of a battery is this?
2. My brother doesn’t know. How tall is he?
3. I am not sure. Which chapter are we on?
4. Scientists claim. They will cure cancer.
5. Who is she? No one knows.
6. Could you tell me? Where is the bookstore?
7. Do you remember? How long did we stay in Qatar?
8. Please tell us. What did you hear?

Article Writing Topics for Class 7 CBSE Format, Examples

Article Writing Topics for Class 7 CBSE Format, ExamplesArticles are written to give information in a wide range of contexts for magazines or newspapers. They are a relatively long and sustained piece of writing. They give information on a variety of themes such as describing an event, person, someone’s life and actions, places, and experiences. They can also be an expression of the writer’s opinions on topics of social interest or arguments for or against a topic and they often offer suggestions.

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 7 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.

Article Writing Topics for Class 7 CBSE Format, Examples Pdf

Articles express the personal opinions of the writer. Input for an article/speech may be in the form of verbal/visual input. The output may be descriptive or argumentative.

Articles express the personal opinion of the writer and present information on a variety of themes.

Article Writing Format Pdf

  1. Write the HEADING/TITLE at the top.
  2. Write the name of the writer below it.
  3. Split your subject matter into 3 – 4 paragraphs.
    • a. Paragraph – 1: Introduction – briefly tell what the Article is about, giving some startling fact or quotation to arouse interest.
    • b. Paragraph – 2 and 3: Highlight the cause and effect of the problem. Give Examples: to support your views. Compare and contrast.
    • c. Paragraph – 4: Conclusion. Briefly offer suggestions and solutions to improve the situation. Predictions and personal observation may be included.
  4. Systematic presentation of ideas is a must.
  5. Pay attention to grammatical accuracy and use good vocabulary.
  6. Use sentence linkers to ensure continuity – e.g. firstly, finally, moreover, etc.
  7. Remove irrelevant information and repetition.
  8. Follow word limit. (150 – 200 words)

Write a good ending:
In an article, it’s better to give the readers something to think about, perhaps by asking them another question or giving them a call to action. Often, the best endings link back to the starting point in some way. Use of quotes, slogans, couplets may be incorporated as per the requirement and relevance.

Article Writing Exercises for Class 7 With Answers

Sample: Cruelty to animals is growing day by day due to human greed. This is not good for the ecosystem. Animals too are a part of our life. You have been asked to write an article ‘Live and Let Live’ in order to create awareness. You are Rohit.

Live and Let Live                                                    —Rohit

God created their world, not for the benefit of mankind alone. No doubt man today is the master of the earth. He has tamed even tigers and elephants and King Cobras. But his brain-superiority does not give him the right to hunt down all kinds and species of animals.
Animals normally live in forests. They don’t attack us unless we provoke them or encroach in their territory. They are as rule afraid of us. They serve some useful purposes. So killing them for pleasure or for their skin and bones is a sin and a crime.
We need to learn to live together not only with our fellow beings but also with all the creatures created by God.’ In other words, we should live ourselves as well as let others also live in peace. War, hunting, and violence are against the will of God and the law of the land. Coexistence should be our motto.

Article Writing Exercises for Class 7 CBSE

1. Living a healthy lifestyle is the top priority for many people. In light of the above statement, write an article on ‘Keeping a healthy lifestyle’ in not more than 100¬150 words.

2. Women walk long distances to fetch water in certain parts of the country. There is not only a scarcity of water but water in most places is also contaminated. Using the hints given below together with your own ideas, write an article in about 125 words on the scarcity of clean drinking water, suggesting ways to improve the situation.

Scarcity of clean drinking water

  • Women travel long distances in certain areas like Rajasthan and Gujarat to fetch water
  • Contamination of water
  • Linking rivers
  • Awareness of clean drinking water habits
  • Rainwater harvesting/water conservation

Article Writing Topics for Class 12 CBSE Format, Examples

Article Writing Topics for Class 12 CBSE Format, ExamplesArticles are written to give information in a wide range of contexts for magazines or newspapers. They are a relatively long and sustained piece of writing. They give information on a variety of themes such as describing an event, person, someone’s life and actions, places, and experiences. They can also be an expression of the writer’s opinions on topics of social interest or arguments for or against a topic and they often offer suggestions.

Looking for an easy way to learn English Grammar? then you are in right place. Here we providing basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this page, we are providing Article Writing Class 12.

Article Writing Topics for Class 12 CBSE Format, Examples Pdf

An article is a piece of writing about a particular subject for a newspaper or magazine. In fact, it is like a direct conversation with the reader. The first thing required in an article is an interesting title to catch the attention of the reader. It should be engaging enough to make the reader go from beginning to end. Make sure that the ideas are well organized. Spend some time in collecting the ideas and organizing them in a proper sequence. An article should end with the summing – up of the points made and drawing a conclusion from that.
Article Writing Topics for Class 12 CBSE Format, Examples

Article Writing Topics for Class 12 With Answers CBSE

Question 1.
Hard work and punctuality are essential for a happy and successful life. They help in meeting the desired targets of our life. You are Kavya/Kanha. Write an article in 150 – 200 words highlighting the importance of hard work and punctuality in a student’s life.

Hard work and punctuality in a student’s life
by Kavya

Hard work and punctuality are indispensable in a student’s life to reach the top. Students should develop this habit from the beginning of their life. If they becorrie punctual and hard-working, they can achieve success and happiness in life. So, punctuality and hard work are the requesites in a students life to meet his desired target in life.

Let us take a few examples. If a student comes late to his class, he misses the lesson, and the teacher becomes annoyed with him. Unpunctuality is considered a symbol of rudeness or uncivilized manner. Napoleon lost the battle of Waterloo because his marshal was too late to come to his chiefs side. Nelson once said that he owed his success in life due to punctuality.

Hence, hard work and punctuality lead a student to the path of success. So, every student is expected to work hard and do their assigned home work punctuality. Teachers will love him and success will come to him. Indeed, he will be blessed with punctuality.

Question 2.
The youth of today are the leaders of tomorrow. As a teenager you want India to achieve certain goals in the next ten years. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on ‘India After Ten Years’. You are Prabhu/Prabha. Use the following clues:

  • Education
  • Health
  • Communication
  • Infrastructure
  • Inflation
  • Employment


Indian After Ten Years
by Prabhu

What is India today and what will it be after ten years is a question that is constantly engaging the youth of today who are the leaders of tomorrow.

India today is faced with manifold problems such as spread of education, health hazards, communication problems, infrastructure, inflation and unemployment. Though in the next ten years, the situation will not change much, the youth today have better education, better connection with home and abroad, better internet connectivity and wider social networking. It is hoped that in the next ten years, India will add about three times to its present GDP. Life expectancy will cross 70 for both the genders. There will be more traffic and more problems, more pollution. It is also hoped that people living below poverty line will be near zero before the year 2025. Human Development Index will be less than 50 against 127 today. Every youth will have a quality training with globally competitive employable vocation skill.

Question 3.
Our performance in Rio Olympics has told us that we do not pay enough attention to athletics and outdoor games. It is time we revised our attitude. Sports should be an important part of school’s daily routine. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on ‘Importance of Outdoor Games’. You are Sreeja/Thomas.

Importance of Outdoor Gaines
by SreSja

Outdoor games play an important role in the life of children and adults. These are the sporting . events which involve a lot of physical activity and, since they are played outside, it makes one physically fit too as the whole body gets exercised.

Unfortunately, not much attention is paid to sports either by parents or school authorities. It’s high time we changed our outlook in this regard. It is the need of the hour and should become an integral part of a school’s daily routine. Outdoor sports event help us, especially students in many ways. Students learn the sportsmanship, develop a co – operative attitude and at the same time pick up the competitive spirit. Since it involves obeying rules and following the captain, children learn to form heterogeneous groups and get disciplined.

As the outdoor games are played in groups, there is no room for one’s personal gains or passion. It is the team that comes first and the team spirit that takes the topmost priority. Children, who develop a passion for outdoor sports, then go on to make a mark not only at school level but at regional, national and international level too provided they are given right coaching, guidance and facilities.

Question 4.
Every teenager has a dream to achieve something in life. What they are going to become tomorrow depends on what our youth dream today. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on AVhat I want to be in life’. You are Simranjit/Smita.

What I Want to Be in Life
by Simranjit

Every youth has a dream to achieve something in life and I am no different! The idea of dreaming is to do something that has a purpose and adds value to one’s life. I have dreamt of a life where I am happy doing what I am doing as I firmly believe that happiness is the root of all desires. But one can’t be happy doing anything, one has to strive for a goal in life. Happiness requires struggle. One has to take risks and face challenges. Therein lies the effort which people don’t want to do.

My dream has been to go to the US for further studies and take up a job. After being financially sound, I would like to come back to my motherland and give back to the society which has made me what I am today. I could be asked why go to the US if I am so passionate about my country but going to the foreign shores too is part of my dream. I would like to be in a profession where I can serve people of my country.

Question 5.
To have a fair complexion is an obsession in our society. Demand for fair brides in matrimonial columns and sale of fairness creams are evidence enough. Write an article in 150 – 200 words giving your views on ‘Beautiful mind, better than a fair complexion.’ You are Natwar/Nimmi.

  • Use the following clues:
  • the West, people like to be tanned
  • fair complexion, only skin deep
  • beautiful mind
  • attitude to life
  • behaviour in society, etc.


Beautiful mind, better than a fair complexion
by Natwar

If we look at the tantalizing matrimonial columns in the leading dailies, we observe great demand for fair brides and ads for sale of fairness creams. It implies, to have a fair complexion is an obsession in our society.

However, our major premise is beautiful mind is better than a fair complexion. First, we will see how our people, especially women folks, are influenced by the west. They tend to follow western culture and enrich facial beauty. But, virtually, this facial make – up is only skin – deep and represents only external beauty of a person. It is absolutely temporary. It only gives us sensual pleasure. A fair complexioned person may or may not possess a beautiful mind.

It all depends on his/her thoughts, deeds and behaviour that reveal what his/her persona is. Beauty of mind is internal and eternal and leads to a pretty mind, a pretty heart and a beautiful soul. These qualities change one’s attitude to life and add to make for a social behaviour. Those who possess these qualities and do beautiful deeds, such as Helen Keller, Vivekananda, B.T. Washington. Beauty lies not in the face, but in the heart. A beautiful mind is better than a fair complexion.

Question 6.
Teenagers are full of energy as well as ideas. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on “How to Channelise the Energy of the Teenagers”. You are Tejinder/Simran. You may use the following clues:

Teenagers curious – full of questions – question elders – sometimes even wrongly – generation gap – may go astray – effect on society – how to channelise – productive hobbies – social work – sports – part-time jobs, etc.


How to Channelise the Energy of the Teenagers
by Simran

Teenagers are always curious to know the unknown and to see the unseen. So, engaging children in positive activities like sports, theatre and art is the hour of need. Channelising children’s energy to a positive goal is the primary motive of such initiatives. The teenagers pose a lot of r questions to the elders, sometimes even wrongly. Truly, they possess inquisitive minds.

However, these are different ways to channelise the energy of the teenagers. They can take up productive hobbies like social work take up part – time jobs or engage in sports activities, cleaning local parks, teaching underprivileged children. Sports camp can teach them team building and ‘ develop their organisational and leadership skills. Reading books can also inspire the teenagers in positive ways and make them understand human values.

Generation gap many a time, leads the youth to go astray. It is a must to channelise the energy of the teenagers in the right direction, so that they can utilise their energy in good and productive works in life.

Question 7.
Recent floods in many metropolitan cities of the country during the monsoon season laid bare the hollowness of the claims of the civic authorities of their preparedness. The poor had to bear the brunt of the problem while no one was ever held accountable. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on the common man’s woes during the monsoons and the need for accountability of the officials concerned. You are Sumit/Smita Verma.

Common Man’s Woes during Monsoons
by Smita Verma

There have been floods in many metropolitan cities during the monsoon season this year. There was chaos everywhere; roads were heavily damaged as they had been badly made. There were many potholes at almost all the roads in the cities. Fallen trees further added to the mess on the roads. Several hundred people were afflicted with malaria, dengue, chikungunya, typhoid and viral fever. The poor people were the worst affected as they had become homeless due to j washing away of their kutcha houses.

These floods had laid bare the hollowness of the claims of the civic authorities of their preparedness to face disasters. The poor had to bear the brunt ; of the problem while none of the civic authorities were held accountable. It is high time the civic authorities took some concrete measures to’fight the menace caused by floods. Hospitals should be geared up to meet all challenges and should be adequately stocked with medicines. Civic authorities should ensure timely collection of garbage and clear all blocked drains on a i war – footing. Only then can there be some semblance of normalcy.

Question 8.
Sindhu, Sakshi, Saina and Deepa, all daughters of India have put those to shame who do not love a girl child. If they are given education, encouragement and proper training, the daughters can bring name, fame and support to the family. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on ‘Save and ‘ Love a Girl Child’. You are Raman/Geeta.

Save and Love a Girl Child
by Geeta

It is well said that if they are given good education, encouragement and proper training, the daughters can bring name, fame and support to the family. But the irony of it all is that the girl child is fighting a great battle for survival. The very existence of the girl child is under threat.

Without recognising the feminine aspect of divinity, one cannot claim to know Ggd. To recognise the feminine, it is necessary to restore wholeness, completeness and universality, ‘Save and Love a Girl Chid’. But, alas!

Girl child, the God’s most divine creation, is a victim of gender discrimination in our country. Such is the irony of fate that ‘the hand that rocks the cradle, the procreator and mother of tomorrow, is today the one of the gravest concerns facing humanity.

Today, the girl child is facing several challenges such as child marriage, child labour, slavery, right to education, molestation, etc. These problems can lesson if the daughter is given equal opportunity, proper education and encouragement to improve her quality of life. It is necessary to create general awareness and change the mindset of the people towards the girl child. The hour of need is to let daughters of India unite and put those to shame to those who do not love a girl child.

Question 9.
India is a land of diversity. One way in which it makes us feel proud of it is the number of festivals we enjoy. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on ‘Festivals of India’. You are Karuna/Karan.

Festivals of India
by Karuna

India is a country of cultural and traditional festivals. It has many festivals and religions. These are celebrated all across the country with a lot of fervour, great passion and joy and have become important part of our lives. There are mainly three types of festivals celebrated in India – national, religious apd seasonal. Each has its own significance and meaning and gives immense happiness to different sections of people at different times of the year.

The patriotic fervour abounds around the time of the three national festivals. The Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti are celebrated as our three national festivals. During the religious and seasonal festivals, apart from the fact that all are celebrated with great aplomb, a lot of brotherhood is generated among all, family and friends get together, people from different religions wish and participate thereby ushering a feeling of camaraderie and togetherness.

The other important festivals are Diwali, Holi, Christmas, Eid, Durga Puja, Mahavir Jayanti, Janmashtami, Buddhpurnima, etc. to just name a few. All festivals celebrated in India promote national integration and bring harmony and peace in our society.

Question 10.
Rising pollution, fast and competitive lifestyle, lack of nutritious food, etc. have caused health woes for a large section of our population. Providing health care used to be a charitable and ethical activity. Today it has become commercialized, a money spinning business. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on ‘How to provide proper health care to the common man’. You are Karan/ Karuna.

How to Provide Proper Health Care to the Common Man
by Karan

It is true that health care which used to be an ethical and charitable activity earlier has now become commercialized. It is a boon for the rich but a curse for the poor. India is a developing country where most people are below the poverty line and depend on government hospitals for treatment. Private hospitals are costly as they are equipped with the latest machines and technology, whereas the government hospitals having the best doctors lack basic facilities such as sanitation, drinking water and beds.

What ails the health care system is the large population, overcrowding in hospitals and lack of facilities, whereas for the private sector it’s a money – spinning business. But how will the common man get the benefits of good health care system? This is an uphill task, but not impossible. Every problem comes with a solution provided there is a will to find thp solution.

To start with, the government can tie up with private hospitals on conditions suitable tq both. Stricter laws to be enforced for the private medical sector and stringent punishment for the offenders, So, to create health awareness among the common people is very important. In fact, the need of the hour is also to open more government hospitals and provide health care in schools too. The focus should be the welfare of common people as all have a right to good and healthy living.

Question 11.
Education has always been a noble profession. Our ancestors received their learning at gurukuls and ashrams. Even in the near past pathshalas (schools) were associated with places of worship, Today, education is fast becoming commercialised. Parents have to shell out a lot of money on coaching classes, tuition fees etc. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on ‘The State of Education, Today’. You are Karan/Karuna.

The State of Education, Today
by Karan

Education that was driven by devotion and thought is no more a noble profession today. It has become commercialized which should be a matter of concern for one and all. Gone are the days when the educational institutes were like places of worship; there were gurukuls and ashrams where our ancestors received their learning. Look at our education system today where things are not going as they should have been. Today private schools and coaching centres are prospering, have become a great source of generating profits, money spinning businesses and the sad part is that parents too feel compelled owing to today’s highly competitive world to spend any amount of money on their children to get to these institutes.

Private schools which are mushrooming in every part of the country are charging exorbitant fee; parents, who can afford, are sending their children as they want to live their dreams through them unmindful of the pressures they are creating. There is the ‘capitation fee’ being charged by higher educational institutes which is nothing but a price for selling education. There is a strong need to change the basics of education system in order to revive the real importance of it.

Question 12.
According to 2011 census, literacy rate of hundred per cent or around has been achieved by only a couple of states in India. Illiteracy is found mostly among the old and the deprived sections of society. What can the youth do to spread literacy in society? Write an article in 150 – 200 words on ‘Role of students in eradicating illiteracy’. You are Karuna/Karan.

Role of Students in Eradicating Illiteracy
by Karuna

Students can play a crucial role in removing illiteracy which continues to exist at an appalling scale in our country. India has 29 states, and only a couple of them have achieved hundred per cent literacy. India has been a free nation for nearly seventy years now. Illiteracy gives birth to many issues such as poverty, unemployment, child labour, female foeticide, and population boom. It is mostly found in old people and the deprived sections of society who have little access to this basic right.

Although several concerted efforts have also been made on the part of the government to deal with illiteracy, a lot still remains to be done. And that is where the role of our educated youth comes in. They can share their experiences with illiterate people, give interesting talks on the importance of literacy, stage street plays to remove their superstitions and hollow beliefs, organize short baithaks to teach how to read and write. They can also join hands with educational institutions, National Literacy Mission, NGOs and others to help the country achieve hundred per cent literacy rate which is not an insurmountable task given the fact that our youth form a sizable chunk of the country’s population and is its backbone.

Question 13.
In spite of 24 – hour news on TV, the morning newspaper has not lost its relevancejn the daily life of the common man. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on ‘Print media and TV news’. You are Karuna/Karan.

Print Media and TV News
by Karuna

The familiar sound of a newspaper dropped on one’s doormat every morning is linked in thousands of minds with the inviting feeling of crackling open the fresh pages of newsprint while taking the first few sips of one’s favourite morning brew. But with the television just a click away and lives getting busy, particularly with the morning rush hour hurdle, this familiar scene is receding like a fading rainbow, according to popular accounts. Yet the facts are different. According to the 59th Annual Media.

Report by the government there was an increase of 5.8% in print media belying the diminishing appeal of newspapers, emphasizing the leap ahead taken by the regional language readership. Even in metro cities, the general consensus of opinion states that television is for viewing serials in one’s leisure but the nose for news can only be satisfied after one has glanced at a newspaper.

A television news flash is like immediate gratification for the here and now moment. When one wants to go into the depth of a subject or even refers to something which has been reported earlier, the newspaper continues to be the ideal choice for readers.

Question 14.
Charity begins at home. If we want a clean India (Swachch Bharat) we have to begin with ourselves, make individual efforts not to make our surroundings dirty. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on ‘Role of individuals in society to keep our environment clean’. You are Karan/Karuna.

Role of Individuals in Keeping Our Environment Clean
by Karan

The desire to have a clean India throb in every heart but not everyone knows the golden key to unlock this burning desire within us. Perhaps the best option is to not to look over one’s shoulder for change but to be the change oneself. In other words, by adopting certain measures of cleanliness one can set an example and see the result of our initiative gathering moss along the way. As disposal of household litter is a daily problem, determining not to litter the streets and putting our garbage where it can be collected easily, will ensure that litter does not get scattered around.

Instead of dumping all our throwaways into one package, it is best to organize garbage at home for recycling, before disposal. To keep trees healthy and tended in the neighbourhood, encourage your neighbours to plant trees. Alternately they can adopt a tree and keep it well maintained and clean off wild growth around itg roots. Conserving water and not keeping taps on unnecessarily are norms to follow. Also, keeping the car in the garage and cycling to fetch the day’s necessities from the market will keep the neighbourhood environment clean.

Question 15.
India is a large country having a very rich cultural tradition. It has the potential to provide great geographical and cultural diversity. Even then we have not been able to attract tourists to the extent that even the small countries have been able to do. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on how to promote tourism in the country. You are Mohan/Mohini.

Growth Of Tourism Industry In India
by Mohan

The name of our country is known to the world. From the heights of the Himalayas in the north to the vastness of Indian Ocean in the south, from the desert of the west to the hills of the east, India has the potential to be a tourist’s attraction. India has its own unique culture, be it the dances of Rajasthan or the coast of the south, be it the beauty of Kashmir valley or the sunbath beaches of Goa.

The tourist industry today is seeing a new thrust in its promotion. However, internal factors like lack of security, patriarchal mindset and violence in the society are some problems which hinder the growth of tourism industry. The international view of Delhi is the ‘rape capital of India’ and I the instances of ‘terror acts’ and ‘instability in Kashmir Valley’ are reasons for lack of tourists in our country. But the failure of the system is also one of the factors impeding the promotion of the rich cultural and geographical diversity of India. The government, first of all, needs to provide internal security to the tourists and improve the international image of India. It should ‘ also allow new reforms to take care of natural and monumental heritage of our country.

The tourism ministry needs to create projects which provide rich experiences to the tourists and not just the sightseeing spots. More investment is needed for building the infrastructure such as roads and access points.

The most important factor that the government needs to work on is an aggressive tourism marketing strategy. There is no doubt that a promising tourism industry also helps in improving the economy of the country. We need to capitalize on India as a destination where the Royal Bengal Tiger, common labourer, a few millionaires, religious dichotomies, exotic culinary treasures and some of the most expensive spas of the world co – exist.

Question 16.
Write an article in 150 – 200 words on how we can make India a carefree and enjoyable place for women when they can go wherever they like to without any fear of being stared at, molested or discriminated against. You are Navtej/Navita.

India – A Safe Place For Women
by Navtej

Each time our eyes hit the newspaper, the headlines provoke outrage with the narrative of gang [ rapes, violence, molestations and harassment of women. The women who comprise nearly half of our population, are still subject to violence and discrimination. Women continue to live in fear and under domination of men in India.

When we talk of freedom and independence of the country from the outside forces we are proud of what we have achieved today but women who were equal contributors to the freedom struggle continue to remain shackled by chains of patriasphal mindset. Women are often denied their freedom of choice. Nobody asks a girl what her dreams are or what role she aspires to play in . life. Rather her status is confined to the conventional roles that the society has assigned her.

To make this country a free and enjoyable place for women, we first need to empower the police and government in order to provide a safe environment to women so that they can travel wherever and whenever they want. We also need to improve our law and order situation and get serious about investigation, prosecution and trials. More investment needs to be made in promoting equality and improving ways for the women to take a stand for themselves.

The quality of freedom is not merely the implementation of rules and laws. Freedom emerges from liberty. It is only when the mindset of people changes and women are treated as equal to men that they will get a carefree and enjoyable atmosphere to be in. Men need to change their attitude towards women and only then we can create a truly safe and free country for one and all.

Question 17.
Emotionally as well as intellectually, a woman is as good as a man if not better. Yet we don’t allow her the same status as a man enjoys in society. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on “Status of Women in Society”. You are Navtej/Navita.

Status of Women in Society
by Navtej

Women today are beset by paradoxes. On the one hand, they are portrayed as goddesses and, on the other, they are denied basic rights. For years, women have chosen broken dreams and broken bones over broken marriages. Despite various laws about domestic violence, female foeticide, rape and sexual harassment, girls and women, across the country, still continue to suffer.

The need of the hour is that we draw our attention to the centrality of the role women have played in the development of our civilization. Can we sustain a future without giving them their dues? It is true that in the present times, their social status is that of a marginalized community but this does not take away the fact that there can be no society without women. In fact, demographic, sociological and historical studies clearly indicate that for a just society there needs to be equality in sex – ratio at. birth and at workplace.

The parity in terms of employment, education, political and social status would not just boost economic productivity and guarantee a balanced and morally just society but also salvage the. right to equality. A woman’s responsibility cannot be restricted to her role as a homemaker and mother. The paradigm shift lies in changing our perception and acknowledging and accepting their immense contribution to shaping a society and the world at large.

The winds of change are blowing everywhere. Perhaps we will choose to be guided by the examples of Indira Gandhi, Indira Nooyi, Chanda Kochar, Bachendri Pal, Mary Kom or even the concerted efforts of women organizations like Sri Mahila Grah Udyog Lijjat Papad and Sewa. Women constitute almost half of the electorate and 35% parliamentarians with the increasing demand of reserving 50% of seats in the Parliament for them.

No doubt change can be seen. Be it the struggle of Malala Yousufzai or the verdict of the Nirbhaya case. But the real change will come when young girls of today raise their voice and come forward to make a place for themselves in all walks of life. Only then will we see an equal world where men and women walk shoulder ‘to shoulder with each other.

Question 18.
Children tend to become tense and nervous befor& the board exams. This affects their health and performance in the examination. Good counselling is, therefore, needed to help them overcome exam fear. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on the ‘Need for Counselling Before Board Exams.’ You are Gobind/Gobindi.

Need for Counselling Before Board Exams
by Gobind

Every year with board exams approaching, schools and colleges work hard to prepare their students. While educational institutions compete hard to ensure good results, they also make sure their students don’t face stress. The stress that the Board exams have started creating is a recent phenomenon, which is primarily due to the highly competitive world we are heading into. Students often make securing high marks in boards an issue of life and death. This is also because the cut – off of many colleges is so high that many children miss their chance of studying in it and, therefore, are under pressure from parents, families and friends.

All these pressures affect the mental health of children as they become nervous before the exams, so much so they become even mentally blank and forget as they appear for a paper. Therefore, counselling before the board exams is very essential for better performance and health of the children. These counselling sessions give children some mental support and strength to use their energy in a positive manner. Most schools are now taking to these counselling sessions for better results. These counselling sessions are not only for students but also for parents. A counsellor in these sessions does not only talk and try to de – stress the child but also guides him to adopt a better lifestyle. Only counselling before board exams can help children deal with stress and not lose this important phase of life.

Question 19.
A newspaper report on a recent terrorist attack in your locality shattered you. You decided to write an article in a local daily on terrorist attacks and the need to maintain harmony and peace in society. Write the article in 150 – 200 words. You are Madhav/Meena.

Towards A Harmonious Society
by Madhav Mathur

Acts of terrorism are on the rise across the world. The recent act of terror in my locality shattered me completely and forced me to question humanity in our society. The radical people who conduct these acts have the sole purpose of creating fear among the people.

The tragedy of our times is that we live in a world where every day we hear about terror attacks. From the United States, to France, to Baghdad, to India, every country is facing a threat from terrorism. The act of terror in Peshawar which killed school children, to Mumbai where innocent children were targeted are all a reflection of growing violence and hatred. Our society seems to have forgotten that the basis of human civilization is peace and brotherhood.

These terror acts become a success not only when they take innocent lives but also when we lose hope in harmony and become violent like them to take revenge. The only manner in which we can show terrorists that their attempts have failed is by showing them that our society is still defined by peace and harmony.

We need to rise beyond categorizing terrorism on the basis of religious groups because it is an act against the entire humanity. Therefore, the only way to defeat it is to strengthen the values of humanity.

If this is a war that humanity is fighting against terrorism, then we need to inculcate values of togetherness and unity. We need to create a society which is defined not by our differences but by our common hope.

Question 20.
Mahatma Gandhi once said, “I regard the English language as an open window for peeping into Western thought and science.” Write an article in 150 – 200 words on: ‘The Usefulness of English Language in India.’ You are Navin/Naina. [Foreign 2014

Usefulness of English Language in India
by Navin Upadyaya

As the world today has become a global village and people are interacting with each other across national/regional boundaries, the one language which connects the world is English.

The use of English language in India is not new. Even during the freedom struggle, when India was divided into various regions, the one language which helped bind the people of India was English. Gandhi regarded Hindi as the language of India and also accepted that English is an open window to peep up in the western thoughts and sciences.

Gandhi’s word appears true today. As English is a medium of education in schools and colleges across India, it has given people an opportunity to look at the Western world. Many scientific developments happened due to knowledge of English in India. India has the largest English speaking population in the world. The youth of today, as part of the globalised world, are making the best use of it in their career choices. English indeed is a language which borrows from all languages without losing its own identity, a principle that can be aptly applied to life as well.

Debate Writing for Class 7 CBSE Format, Examples, Topics, Samples

Debate Writing for Class 7 CBSE Format, Examples, Topics, SamplesA debate is a formal discussion on a particular theme or topic. It is mostly conducted in a public setting in which people present their opposing arguments for or against a particular theme or topic.

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 7 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.

Debate Writing for Class 7 CBSE Format, Examples, Topics, Samples


  • A debate is a contest between two speakers or two groups of speaker to show skill and ability in arguing.
  • Speakers are required to speak for or against a proposition, a question or a problem.
  • It is a battle with words, facts and a little imagination.
  • To participate in a debate, one must prepare an outline of the main points in order in which one is going to argue.
  • Every topic/subject has its own vocabulary. These must be learnt.

The speaker addresses the chair (Mr. President/Madam), ‘submits’ an argument, ‘appeals’ for sympathetic understanding and support, ‘questions’ the opponent’s views and ‘concludes’ an argument. He also ‘Answer:s’ questions in the rebuttal session.

Following expressions can be useful in preparing your own arguments.
Use powerful expressions like:

  • I’d like to argue
  • In my opinion
  • May I ask? etc.
  • Refer to your opponent’s view/views.
  • Stick to your view point either in favour or against.

The layout of the Debate

  • Greeting the audience, introducing yourself, taking a clear position.
  • Introduce the topic with a quotation.
  • Make a dramatic opening statement.
  • Address the audience. Introduce yourself. Take your position for or against the motion.
  • Present your arguments in a sequence.
  • Support your claims and counter claims with facts, statistics, quotations and news – items, etc.
  • Refer to the speech (es) of your opponent(s) and tear apart their forceful rebuttal, denials and counter arguments.
  • Give your opinion in the concluding paragraph.
  • Sound a warning, make an appeal or express a fear or hope.
  • The conclusion should be as dramatic and effective as the beginning.
  • Don’t forget to thank the audience.

Points To Remember

  1. Begin with – “Honourable Judges and my dear friends, I stand before you to express my views for/against the motion ‘Topic’.
  2. Total agreement or disagreement with the topic should be expressed forcefully and clearly.
  3. Use argumentative style and logical reasoning.
  4. Bank up arguments with relevant information.
  5. At the end write Thank you’ at extreme end on the left.
  6. Always make a rough draft, edit and give time to yourself.

Debate Writing Exercises With Answers for Class 7 CBSE

Write a debate in favour of the motion “Online smart classes are the future education style”.

Honourable judges and worthy listeners

If you think computers will be distracting children from studies, with a sincere sorry for you, let me tell you that the young generation has gone a long way with computers!

When most parents think of learning from computers, social networking sites like Facebook appear before their eyes. It is the biggest cyber tragedy. There are definitely a large number of sites apart from Facebook. I am not here to debate if these social networking sites are doing good or bad – certainly, they do both but I am here to talk about the endless possibilities of computer and Internet-based teaching method.

Khan’s academy, Baiju teaching app, learn – next, merit nation, good – reads, the list of online teaching platforms is endless and ever-growing. There are millions of students and teachers who use these websites and apps for their exam preparation. They are mostly free this is what makes one turn away from traditional paper guides. With smart phone in every hand, city and village alike these online libraries are within everyone’s reach. Google has already replaced the word Guru because this portal gives you knowledge.

The need of an hour is to minimise the use of paper. In this context, you can find no better solution than e-learning. Rather than living the life of a consumer, let’s be contributors. Instead of buying books, let’s buy e-books and stop collecting a thousand books in our shelves. Let’s convert our phones or computers into a virtual library.

Thank you.

Debate Writing Examples CBSE Class 7

1. Zoos should not be banned because there is a need to protect as well as to conserve global biodiversity and wildlife. Zoos should be banned because all animals should be left to live freely in their own environment. In the light of above statements, discuss both the views whether Zoo should be abolished or not?
Debate Writing for Class 7 CBSE Format, Examples, Topics, Samples


2. Write a debate in favour of the motion “Humans are responsible for the possible end of life on earth.”


Report Writing for Class 12 Format, Examples, Topics, Samples, Types

Report Writing for Class 12 Format, Examples, Topics, Samples, Types

A report is a factual description of an issue or a problem. A report is written for a clear purpose and for a particular audience. Various forms of reports are: newspaper reports, inquiry reports, progress or action taken report, a police report, a report of a meeting, etc., each having a distinct character and format.

Looking for an easy way to learn English Grammar? then you are in right place. Here we providing basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc. In this Section, we are explained Report Writing Class 12

Report Writing for Class 12 Format, Examples, Topics, Samples, Types

A report is a written account of an event. It gives relaying information or recounts certain events in a widely presentable form. The events could be an exhibition, a seminar, a rally, a theatre event, a theft, blood donation campaign, etc. It is often used to display the result of an experiment, investigation or an inquiry. It may use graphics, images or specialized vocabulary to persuade the audience to undertake an action.

Report Writing Format

  • • Title and reporter’s name.
  • • Date and place.
  • • Content – The content covers the ‘wh’ questions – what happened, where, when, how, why, etc.

Points To Remember While Writing Report

  1. Make an attractive heading for the topic of the report. This is where you can clue reader as to what to expect without detailing.
  2. Provide background information in brief, but be insightful on the selection of your report. Perhaps it is related to something mentioned during class or it might be an answer to a burning question posed by yourself or a classmate.
  3. Briefly describe the steps of inquiry or the method used. A good report leaves no questions unanswered. Note that readers always want to know exactly which steps were taken to reach the conclusion.
  4. Explain the reasons why the report is meaningful for the audience or readers. Convince through your writing that it is something for them to remember.

Report Writing Notes Pdf

  1. Read the report aloud to make sure it flows from concept to concept. Make it interesting enough so as to catch the attention of the reader.
  2. Finally, check for spelling and grammar. Remember that a good report is properly edited.

Report Writing Sample Class 12

You are Sandhya/Sameer, the head girl/head boy of R.N. Sisodia School, Roop Nagar, Agra. Your school recently hosted Regional sports meet of eight schools. You have been asked by your principal to write a report in 150 – 200 words of the same for your school magazine. Write the report.

Value Points or Main Clues
(a) Robbery I Accident/Calamity /Disease outbreak/Civic problem

  • Catchy headline – expansion of headline in the first sentence highlighting what/when/where
  • Give reason, if any/motive
  • Details in brief
  • Eyewitness account
  • Casualties, damage, etc. (if any)
  • Action taken
  • Relief measures (if applicable)
  • Conclusion/comments

(b) Cultural/Sports events

  • Occasion/organiser/sponsor, etc.
  • Date, venue (time optional)
  • Chief guest/special invitees
  • Objectives and main highlights Qf the programme
  • Prize distribution/Annual report (if applicable)
  • Message by chief guest/dignitary
  • Vote of thanks
  • Overall response

(c) Competitions

  • Occasion/organiser
  • Date, venue, objective
  • Name of the competition, level, topic, if any, participation
  • Inaugural ceremony/welcome
  • Chief guest, judges, etc.
  • Highlights related to performance, result, etc.
  • Prize distribution (viii) Special remarks/address (if any)
  • Vote of thanks

(d) Workshop!Seminar/Talk

  • What, by whom, for whom
  • Date, venue, duration, etc.
  • Guest speakers, panel of experts, etc.
  • Chief Guest, invitees, etc.
  • Activities undertaken
  • Aids used – MMP, audio – visual charts, documentary films, etc.
  • Literary or field activities (if any)
  • Interactive session, including question – answer round (if any)
  • Expert’s comments
  • Vote of thanks
  • Overall effect

(e) Rally /Drive / Campaign

  • What, by whom
  • Duration, venue or places covered
  • Objective, motto (if any)
  • Activities undertaken
  • Any display/educational material used, for example: placard, banner, pamphlet, etc.
  • Special remarks by a dignitary/chief guest, etc.
  • Overall success

(f) Camp/Visit I Exhibition, etc.

  • Place, destination, etc.
  • Organiser, sponsor (if any)
  • Duration, date, etc.
  • Number of persons/visitors, etc.
  • Description as applicable
  • theme of exhibition, type /range, etc./quality of exhibits
  • places of sightseeing, food, scenic beauty, etc.
  • purpose and nature of camp, activities undertaken
  • Overall response

The following are the news clippings from newspapers. Notice carefully the tense and the form of the verbs used. Also pick out words and expressions which help express the content coherently and specifically. TVy to determine the essential elements of each report according to the following guidelines:

Notice the dateline which contains the place and date of reporting.

Headline and its expansion in the first sentence where and when it happened consequences/effects/results of the happening
What happened. Why/How it happened.

People involved in the event, if any action taken/any conclusion… comments/evidence from people..

Remember, your report should be written within the prescribed word limit.

Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Articles are written to give information in a wide range of contexts for magazines or newspapers. They are a relatively long and sustained piece of writing. They give information on a variety of themes such as describing an event, person, someone’s life and actions, places, and experiences. They can also be an expression of the writer’s opinions on topics of social interest or arguments for or against a topic and they often offer suggestions.

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Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples Pdf

A composition is a written attempt to describe an event, an experience, a thing or a fact. It may contain the views, ideas and opinions of the writer on a topic of general interest. The thought stimuli may be visual or verbal but it must be vividly apprehended.

Students have to observe certain limits of words, time and even space. They are supposed to write their compositions in about 150-200 words expressing their views or the descriptive/ narrative note content of the subject mentioned. Hence, they are advised not to exceed the given word limit. Students have to combine information with their own opinions, suggestions, etc.

Hence you are advised to give your own point of view rather than reproducing hackneyed, expected opinions and ideas.
The composition, whether it be an article, a report, a speech, a description, or a narration, should be meaningful, brief, to the point and couched in a simple and grammatically correct language. For the benefit of the students, examples—exercises have been arranged in the following order:

(A) Article Writing

  1. Verbal Input
  2. Visual Input

(B) Speech Writing

  1. Verbal Input
  2. Visual Input

(C) Report Writing—3rd person point of view or
(D) Recounting experience/incident in the writer’s life

While writing a composition keep the following points in mind:

  1. Study carefully the hints/points given in verbal input.
  2. Arrange the given hints in the order you want to develop them for the article.
  3. Organise the points properly. Add your own ideas.
  4. Arrange the points in a logical order.
  5. Put them under different main headings.
  6. Add sub-points to the main points.
  7. Develop each point in a systematic or logical manner.
  8. Substantiate your arguments if you are writing on a debatable point.
  9. Introduce the topic, main idea/issue in the first few sentences.
  10. End your composition with a proper conclusion on the topic/issue.

Article Writing Format CBSE Class 11

Failure and success are part of life. Failures show us our weaknesses and help us to achieve success by conquering them. Write an article on ‘Failure is a Stepping Stone to Success’in 150 – 200 words. You are Girish/Garima.
Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples 1

Article Writing Examples with Answers Class 11 CBSE

Question 1.
You are Rachana/Rakesh. You have been asked to write an article for your school magazine titled ‘The Sights and Sounds of Our City’. You decide to observe a busy street in the main shopping area to collect material for your article. You note the following: —quiet in the morning—crowded in the afternoon—housewives out shopping—vehicular traffic—noise—vendors occupying pavements—stray cattle on the road—evening—lights transform the scene-people out for strolling—eating.
Write your article in 150-200 words using the above notes and your own ideas.

(by Rachana/Rakesh)

Railway Road of our city is a very busy street. It has shops, eating places and residential accommodation above the shops. The pavements on either side are occupied by the vendors. There are small kiosks of ‘pan-wallahs’ and the ironing man. The cobblers, vegetable sellers and cheap ready-made clothes sellers sit on the ground in front of the shops. Thus the wide road is reduced to a narrow lane.
There is peace and quietness in the morning as there is very little activity in the market. Children and adults are busy at home. The street comes to life as the day advances and the shops start opening. By 11 o’clock the street begins to hum with activities. People from villages start pouring in for shopping. Afternoons are busier as local housewives also go for shopping. As early evening approaches, more vegetable and fruit vendors appear. The scene is transformed with the switching on of lights. The atmosphere becomes bright, gay and festive. Well-dressed people can be seen shopping for children and visiting restaurants. It is indeed a time for family outing. Roads are crowded as people start coming back from offices, factories and outstations. The only blemish in this street is that stray cattle—cows, buffaloes, dogs, pigs and monkeys—wander freely on the road and cause inconvenience to all.

Question 2.
You are Sameer / Sameera, a student of Class XI-A. Clean drinking water is important for health. Write an article in 150-200 words for your school magazine about the importance of clean drinking water for a healthy life.

Clean Drinking Water Important For Health
by Sameera,
Class XI-A

We are well aware how important clean drinking water is for a healthy life. It should be particularly free from any contamination with sewerage water, as this can cause a variety of water-borne diseases. These can be typhoid, cholera or dysentery if contaminated water is consumed. In serious cases, this may result in long-term diseases like jaundice. No wonder that many suppliers of water make a living out of this!

Our water supply organisations like the Jal Boards and Municipalities should ensure that clean drinking water is supplied to all homes through a water pipeline connection. Any leakage in the pipelines must be repaired without delay to prevent contamination.

Under no circumstances should sewer water be allowed to mix wiifi water going to household taps. The filtration plants of the water supply utilities must function properly and their storage tanks must be cleaned periodically to ensure that the consumers of water do not fall ill. Let us all join to help them in this noble endeavour.

Article Writing Examples for Class 11 CBSE Pdf with Answers

Question 1.
We cannot imagine life without our mobile phones, TV sets and other modern gadgets. Write an article on ‘Role of Modern Gadgets’in 150-200 words. You are Rashi/Rishi.

by Rishi

It is difficult to imagine a life without modern gadgets. Gadgets are electronically simplified applications that have been designed to make our life simple and convenient. The gadgets over the years have gained so much popularity and wide use that today they have become an integral part of our lives and it is difficult to go through a day without the help of these gadgets. Every day new gadgets are launched in the market with the sole purpose of serving us and we become proud to own a few of these. Gadgets are very important for a modern family where both husband and wife are working and do not have much time at their disposal. Gadgets come to their rescue and save a lot of time.

On the flip side, gadgets are responsible for making people engrossed in them’and forgetting social etiquette. Today we find that teens go berserk over the gadgets and whenever they find something new, they don’t get peace till they are able to check out the features in it. It is good to use gadgets in our lives, but to a certain limit only, and everyone must spend some quality time with family members instead of being engrossed in mobiles or watching TV.

Question 2.
Every activity that man indulges in creates pollution and waste of some kind. In fact, the need of the hour is to reduce pollution in all possible ways. Write an article on the topic ‘Reducing Pollution-Need of the Hour’in 150-200 words. You are Brinda, an environmentalist.

Reducing Pollution—Need Of The Hour
by Brinda, Environmentalist

Pollution is contamination of land, water and air. It is increasing daily due to human activities performed in day-to-day life in order to live conveniently. But this gradually leads to the dangerous depletion of the environment. Plastic used by man is a big nuisance because it causes pollution. Plastic never decays. If we burn it, it pollutes the air we breathe. If we dump it in rivers or the sea, it pollutes the water and kills marine life. Chemical fertilisers are another source of pollution of land and water.

In order to check pollution, the polluted effluents from factories should be treated suitably before being disposed off in water bodies. Plastic and other materials should be recycled wherever possible. New techniques should be adopted in motor vehicles to reduce pollution from engine exhausts. We should use environmentally safe cleaning liquids for use at home and other public places.

To trap solid particulate matter emitted by chimneys, appropriate filters should be used. Lofty smokestacks should be built. Gases should be discharged through exhaust pipes higher in the air. Chemical industries should not be allowed to be set up on the banks of rivers.

In view of the great danger to mankind, many countries in the world including India have passed laws to prevent pollution. But it has been seen that anti-pollution laws are not being obeyed rigorously, pushing pollution up to new levels.

Question 3.
Write an article for a newspaper in 150-200 words on the topic ‘The Problem of Unemployment in India.’Your are Nayan/Namita.

The Problem Of Unemployment In India
by Namita

The problem of unemployment in India means the problem of providing work to those who are willing to work. A large number of educated and uneducated people, who are capable of working and are also willing to do it, roam here and there without any job. So, the problem has assumed an acute form.

The population is increasing by leaps and bounds, leaving a large section of the people unemployed. Even highly educated persons fail to get employment in India.

The economic and educational policy of the country should thus be reframed. Avenues for employment for the abundant labour should be provided by encouraging entrepreneurship. Besides this, stress must be laid on family planning. Every effort must be made to check the rapid rise in population. More stress should be laid on technical and vocational education.

Our country can advance economically, politically or socially only when the unemployment problem is solved. Frustration, drug addiction, even suicides, are by and large the evil results of unemployment.

Unrest and disorder has increased in society. It is, therefore, the duty of the government to make every possible effort to solve this problem.

Question 4.
Incidents of child abuse are on the rise, resulting in an increasing number of child deaths. You are Deepika/Deepak. Write an article in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Child Abuse’.

Child Abuse
by Deepika

Sexual abuse of children has become rampant. Over a million reports of child abuse are made every year and it is believed that there are still many more cases unreported and undisclosed. The number of child deaths due to child neglect and abuse are also increasing to terrifying numbers. Children who are abused at a tender age undergo a psychological trauma that leads to lifelong depression and indifference to society and family. The worst part is that in most cases the culprits are those who are expected to protect and take care of the child.

Victims of child abuse never fully recover from the scars and, at times, suffer from distrust of others, hostility, depression, anxiety, inability to form close relationships and a host of other psychological and psychiatric problems. The only solution is the enactment of a law that protects the victims. Presently, the laws of the country are so liberal that a person who commits a crime once is inclined to repeat it because the consequences are not severe.

Besides the law, parents have an important role to play in checking child abuse. They should educate their children on social and cultural values as well as making children understand how to distinguish between a ‘good touch’ and ‘bad touch’ and then act accordingly. Working parents should find time to look after their children rather than employ baby sitters.

Question 5.
You are concerned about the ongoing controversy regarding the media’s role in sensationalising news, moulding public opinion and moral policing. Write an article for a newspaper in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Role of Media-What Should it be?’. You are Mallika/Manish.

Role Of Media—What Should It Be?
by Mallika

The role of media is extremely vital in a country like India. But are the different media like press, print and electronic, playing a constructive role in shaping our society and nation? This question needs a positive answer. It is apparent that media has strayed from the required path and absolved its responsibility due to commercial pressures. ‘Profit is all’ is the dictum for them, whether it is the newspapers, magazines, news channels or the mushrooming FM radio stations.

They prefer to sensationalise every bit of information. Be it the marriages or reported affairs of popular movie stars or even the rescue operation of a child from a narrow ditch, they over-dramatise and exaggerate everything. Is this constructive?

The new trend of showing sting operations on the news channels has become an everyday occurrence. It is an easy but cheap way to gain popularity and increase the TRP of their channels. By resorting to such tactics, they are exploiting the freedom granted to them. Is this constructive?

The media should understand its responsibility and get down to the right business, leaving behind the alluring target of being number one. It should only focus at passing on correct and exact information without any comments for or against anyone.

Question 6.
On the occasion of Teachers Day (5th September) and International Literacy Day (8th September), write an article in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Each One Teach One’ for your school magazine. You are Sadhna/Suresh.

Each One Teach One
by Sadhna

The slogan, ‘Each One Teach One’, is a motivation for the educated class to understand their moral and social responsibility of teaching at least one person. This makes a big difference in society.

We students have to work together for a noble mission to realise the dream of the National Literacy Mission. We envisage and dream of India where each person is literate-. Our learners are not necessarily children; they will include the vast number of adults who are illiterate for no fault of theirs. Even in our towns and cities, there are many such people. Let each one of us take up the challenge of educating at least one adult in our locality so that the person is able to read, write and understand at least in the local language.

The learning strategies that we have to adopt in our programme will be exploratory and interactive. Some of our objectives are to bring about basic learning of reading, writing and counting. We wish to promote better health and awareness. We also want to create awareness about democratic processes, rights, duties and obligations. We have to focus on the status of women and the girl child.

We must enable them to fight against exploitation and injustice and thus build their own self-confidence and .. respect. All this will be possible through spread of education and awareness. Then only will we be living up to the slogan, Each One Teach One.

Question 7.
Coaching centres for school-going children as well as for competitive examinations are proliferating. It is difficult to choose a satisfactory centre for coaching. Write some tips for selecting the right centre for a monthly publication as an article in 150-200 words with the title ‘Selecting the Right Coaching Centre’. You are Salim/Saraswati.

Selecting The Right Coaching Centre
by Salim

One can find coaching centres, both for school-going children and competitive examinations, in every nook and corner of the city. They have proliferated due to the actions of both teachers and parents. Such centres boast of a guaranteed success rate by publishing inflated numbers regularly in leading newspapers and magazines. But, either as a parent or a student, how should you select one that is the best?

Before selecting a coaching centre, certain criteria should be kept in mind. A proper coaching centre must provide a proper competitive environment with a team of professional teachers and necessary study material. Mock tests and exams should be conducted on a regular basis and proper feedback should be provided to the students. Some coaching centres charge high fees, that too in lumpsum, and provide substandard teaching at their centre, so efforts should be made to find the right coaching centre after consulting many students taking coaching at various centres.

Question 8.
You are worried about the rampant deforestation going on and its effects on our lives in future. Based on this fact and the visual given below, write an article in 150 – 200 words with the title ‘Deforestation and its Effects’ for your school magazine. You are Nikhil / Neena.
Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples 2

Deforestation And Its Effects
by Neena

Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses.

An estimated 7.3 million hectares of forest are lost each year, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). The effects are far-reaching and will prove disastrous for humanity in the long run.

Deforestation is considered to be one of the contributing factors to global climate change. Cutting trees impacts the global carbon cycle. This not only lessens the amount of carbon stored, it also releases carbon dioxide into the air. This is because when trees die, they release the stored carbon dioxide. Deforestation is the second largest human-caused source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, the first one being combustion in various forms.

Further, 70 per cent of the world’s plants and animals live in forests and are losing their habitats to deforestation. It also has negative consequences for local populations and medicinal research, which rely on the animals and plants in the forests for hunting and medicine respectively.

There are many other problems like soil erosion, interruption of the water cycle etc which occur due to deforestation. So let us arrest this quickly to save our lives in future.

Question 9.
Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Vocational Training as Part of the School Curriculum’ for your school magazine expressing your views on its need in the present scenario and suggesting steps to make it successful. You are Ashok / Arpita.

Vocational Training As Part Of
The School Curriculum
by Arpita

Our present system of school education has a major flaw that does not make a person ready for employment if that person has to forego further education for any reason. Many problems are faced by people who pass out from school in the competitive world because they cannot be employed. The only solution for this is to introduce vocational training as an essential part of the school curriculum.

The students who intend going for employment after schooling can get knowledge of professional courses through career counselling programmes arranged by the school. Then they should attempt suitable aptitude tests to choose the correct professional course. The practical training for each course must be arranged by the school either in their own premises or in suitable workshops or technical institutions.

After successful completion of the vocational course, employers should select them through campus interviews arranged by the school. In cases of self-employment, the schools can tie up with banks and other financial institutions for arranging loans. All these measures will involve a major change in the system of school education, but this is the need of the hour.

Question 10.
India has always respected women, but recent trends are disturbing, causing us to re-evaluate their status. Write an article on ‘Status of Women in Society’ in 150 – 200 words. You are Ram/Rama.

Status Of Women In Society
by Ram

Women in India enjoyed a high status and position in ancient times. However, later on, during the middle period, their status deteriorated. Evidently, a majority of Indian women do not enjoy equal status to men currently.

It appears that the Indian woman is still not treated at par with the man in social and family life. Women’s position in the family very much depends upon the level of their education. The higher the level of her education, the greater equality she enjoys in the family. But even today, educated women, though they are earning, comply with the doctrine of male domination. Their education may have made them economically independent, but they still lack the needed self-confidence to assert their equality. The reason seems to be that they have been brought up in the prevailing cultural atmosphere of male dominated society. Thus, they have not been able to shake off its influence even after acquiring modern education.

However, society has started recognising their contribution. Women are excelling in almost every field and winning laurels. It is high time they are accorded an equal status in society for their intelligence, courage and compatibility.

Article Writing Examples for Class 11 Pdf

1 India is fast emerging as a major hub of cyber crime. It seems to be the worst affected nation online, with over three-quarters of Indian web surfers having fallen victim to cyber crimes, including computer viruses, online credit card fraud and identity theft. Write an article in 150-200 words on the topic ‘India Emerging as Major Centre for Cyber Crime’. You are Mona/ Rajat.

2. You are Mehak/ Bhavesh. A lot of homework is assigned to the students by their teachers. Most of the students copy the answers from the textbooks or from the guides, rendering the whole exercise useless. Write an article in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Should the Practice of Assigning Homework be Retained?’

3. You are very much worried about children who have become bookworms. They find no time to read anything other than their course books. Their parents also force them to do so. Their only anxiety is marks and more marks in the examination. Write an article for your school magazine in 150-200 words showing your anxiety about the trend titled ‘Marks and More Marks’. You are Mithir/ Ria.

4. You are Rohan/ Diksha of class XI. Write an article in 150-200 words for your school magazine on the topic ‘Aping of Western Culture by the Younger Generation’.

5. You are Mansi/ Shivam. Many of your friends are getting expensive gifts from their parents but not the attention and time of their parents. Write an article for your school magazine urging all the parents to give their time and moral support to their children, especially the adolescents. Also stress on how a secure home atmosphere plays a key role in promoting success in life. (150-200 words)

6. Today the 24 hour television news channel give us instant news from every nook and corner of the world. But the fact is that the importance of the newspaper remains intact. Write an article in 150-200 words expressing your views on ‘The Relevance of Newspapers’. You are Adirath/ Simran.

7. You are Sumit/ Smita. You are concerned about the changing attitude of politicians who are using religion for political gains. Write an article in 150-200 words for publication in a local daily suggesting to these people to separate religion from politics and work for the betterment of society.

8. Write an article in not more than 200 words condemning the use of furs and animal skins for making clothes and accessories. You are Bharti/ Rajesh.

9. You are Rohan/ Chavi. Every activity that man indulges in creates waste of some kind. Some of the waste can be recycled or reused. In fact, the need of the hour is to conserve Earth’s resources in all possible ways. Write an article on the topic ‘Conservation, Need of the Hour’ in 150-200 words.

10. Narendra is allergic to smoking and wants a complete ban on smoking in public places. He writes an article for a prominent daily newspaper titled ‘The Evils of Smoking’. Write the article for him in 150-200 words. You are Mehak/ Mehul.

11. ‘What People Read is What People Believe’. You are concerned about the ongoing controversy regarding the media’s role in sensationalising news, moulding public opinion and moral policing. Write an article emphasising the responsibility of the media. You are Mohan/ Bhavika.

12. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Drug Abuse among Students’ to bring out the idea that drug addiction harms both the addict as well as society, basing it on the picture given below. You ’ Praveen / Pooja.
Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples 3

13. You are worried about the various forms of pollution caused by the explosion of crackers during the Diwali festival, marriages and other celebrations. Based on the visual given below, write an article in 150-200 words for your school magazine on ‘Say No to Crackers’ to bring out your concern and suggest alternatives. You are Saloni / Devendra of class XI-A.
Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples 4

14. You are Rashmi/ Sachin of class XI-B. You are worried that your generation of students is crazy about fast foods without realising the harm they cause. Write an article for your school magazine in 150-200 words on the topic ‘How Fast Foods Harm’ based on what you know about the dangers of consuming such foodstuffs.

15. Your father was killed in the November 2008 terror attack in Mumbai. You were deeply affected by this tragedy. You decide to write an article for a national daily in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Terrorism, a Threat to Global Peace’ based on the visual given below. Write the article. You are Karan/ Nandini.
Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples 5

Note Making Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is an advanced writing skill which is gaining importance due to knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills.

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Note Making Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is an advanced writing skill which is acquiring increasing importance due to the knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills. Note-making is useful as it saves time, energy and the space at the working place, while attending a lecture at school or in college, in a meeting etc. It enhances the confidence to revise the topic whenever we want.

Note-making basically involves noting the main points of whatever is read or heard, as one cannot be expected to remember all that one has read.

Types of Passages
The Note-making passage could be anyone of the following types
(i) Factual (550-600 words) A factual passage includes some facts about the physical aspects of a subject. It includes instructions, descriptions and reports. It helps the students to get a detailed view of the subject and develop a complete mental picture of a specific person, place, object or being.

(ii) Discursive (550-600 words) A discursive passage includes argumentative, interpretative and persuasive text. Such passages may include opinions or feedback. It allows students to arrive at a conclusion through reasoning and understanding rather than intuition. It presents a balanced and objective approach towards the subject being discussed.

Types of Questions
The Note-Making passage in the examination carries and is 550-600 words in length. It consists of two types of Questions
(i) Making Notes of the Given Passage This carries 5 marks split up into 3 marks for the actual notes, 1 mark for the title and 1 mark for the abbreviations listed (minimum 4 abbreviations). We can use title, heading, sub-headings and abbreviations while answer this question.

(ii) Write a Summary of the Given Passage The summary carries 3 marks. It should be grammatically correct and cover all the important points given in the notes. Word limit of the summary should be 80-100 words.

How To Make Good Notes And Summary Of The Given Passage
The following points will help you in making good notes

  • Read the passage quickly but carefully. Try to understand main points and supporting details.
    Underline the keywords as you read.
  • Notes should be in points and in an appropriate format.
  • Organise your ideas into main heading, sub-headings and sub-sub-headings (if possible).
  • Abbreviations and symbols are freely used.
  • Give title to your notes. Avoid a long sentence.
  • While making summary sure that your summary does not exceed 1/3 of the length of the original text.
  • The summary should contain only the main ideas and the supporting details.
  • Refer back to the original to ensure that your summary is a true reflection of the writer’s ideas.

Uses of Abbreviations in Note-Making
Abbreviation helps in writing the information briefly. The following are some of the ways in which you can use abbreviations.

First few letters of the word are enough to remember what the abbreviation stands.
For example:

  • imp for ‘important’
  • info for ‘information’
  • eval for ‘evaluation’

Remove all (or most of) the vowels from the word and use just the key consonants bunched together.
For example

  • mngmt for ‘management’
  • mkt for ‘market’
  • mktng for ‘marketing’
  • dvpt for ‘development’

Some Common Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words Abbreviations Words
+ Positive, Plus e.g. for example
Minus, Negative ie that is
= equals, is the same as, w/o without
* does not equal, is not the same as etc. etcetera
= is approximately equal to ♂♀ male / female
< is less than, is smaller than Viz namely
> is greater than, is larger than Asap as soon as possible
increase, rise, growth Mr. Mister
decrease, fall, shrinkage Mrs. Mistress
& and Dr. Doctor
special, important, notable Govt. Government
/ per, each

Note Making Solved Examples CBSE Class 11 Pdf

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 1

What actually is a robot? When different persons have different concepts of robots, the only way of deciding what really is a robot is to look for a definition of the term robot.

The dictionary meaning of a robot is that it is an automatic apparatus or device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings or operates with what appears to be almost-human intelligence. It is interesting to observe that this meaning does not give a human shape to the robot. In order to dramatise the fact that the robot does the work of a human being, a human shape is given to the robot in science-fiction stories and movies. The human shape is irrelevant as far as the functions of the robot are concerned.

The Robot Institute of America, which is an association of several robot manufacturers gives the following definition of an industrial robot.

“An industrial robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialised devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety oftasks. ”

The key word in this definition is ‘reprogrammable’. This means that a robot is capable of being reprogrammed. This feature is the one that distinguishes it from a fixed automation. A fixed automation is designed to do one, and only one, specific task. If the specifications of the tasks change even slightly, the fixed automation becomes incapable of performing the task it was designed to perform according to one fixed specification. However, a robot can be reprogrammed to perform even when the specifications are changed drastically. The original program is simply erased and the new program takes care of the changed tasks.

The characteristic that a robot can be reprogrammed to handle a variety of tasks makes the robot a flexible device. Because of the flexibility offered by robots, manufacturing systems which use robots are called Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS).

Karel Capek was responsible for introducing the word robot. Sir Isaac Asimov is the one who coined the word robotics. According to Asimov, robotics is the science of dealing with robots. Hence robotics involves a scientific study of robots. The study includes design, selection of materials of proper quality for the components, fabrication, study of various motors required for moving the components, design of electronic circuits, computers and computer programming, and control of robots. Since robots and robotics are still in the developing stages, a considerable amount of research is required and is being pursued. Robotics involves various disciplines-mechanical engineering, material science, electronics, computer science, computer engineering, and control systems, to name just a few. Depending on the area in which robots are to be used, robotics includes disciplines such as biology, medical science, psychology, agriculture, mining, outer space engineering etc.

Basically, there are two types of robots: fixed and mobile. A fixed robot is attached to a stationary platform. A fixed robot is analogous to a human standing or sitting in one fixed location while doing his work with his hands. A mobile robot moves from place to place. Mobility is given to robots by providing wheels or legs or other crawling mechanisms. A mobile robot can be given a human shape, but the actual shape has nothing to do with the functions of the robot. Wheeled locomotion is good for smooth terrains. For rugged terrain, legged locomotion is preferable. A mobile robot should have at least three wheels or legs for stability.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Robots and Robotics-Introduction Notes
I. Robot Definition
(i) Diet meaning
(a) auto apparatus
(b) performs funcs ascribed to humans
(c) human shape irrelevant for functioning
(ii) RIA defines robot
(a) reprogrammable – different from fixed automation
(b) Flexible – used in FMS

II. Robotics
(i) Karel Capek introduced word robot
(ii) Isaac Asimov defined Robotics – science dealing with robots
(iii) Study includes steps:
Design → Selection of mtrl → fabrication → motor selection → EC design → Computers and comp progmg Robot Ctrl

III. Disciplines involved in Robotics
(a) Electronics
(b) Material Science
(c) Computer Engineering
(d) Control Systems
(e) Mechanical Engineering
(f) Computer Science

IV. Robot Types
(i) Fixed
(a) stationary
(b) analogous to standing human
(ii) Mobile – mobility due to
(a) wheels – good for smooth terrain
(b) legs – good for rugged terrain
(c) another crawling mech

Key to Abbreviations

Abbrevations Words
diet dictionary
auto automatic
funcs functions
RIA Robot Institute of America
FMS Flexible Manufacturing Systems
mtrl material
EC electronic circuits
comp progmg computer programming
Ctrl control
mech mechanism

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
A robot is a flexible reprogrammable automatic device that works just like human beings and operates with almost man-like intelligence. Robotics is the scientific study of robots. It includes design, selection of proper materials, design of electronic circuits, computers and computer programming and controls.

Robotics is a combination of many disciplines – electronics, material science, computer engineering, computer science, mechanical engineering etc. Robots can be fixed or mobile. A mobile robot moves from place to place with the help of wheels or legs or other crawling mechanisms.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 1

Information is power. It is predictable, therefore, that those in authority will seek to manipulate others through the control of data. However, all information in a democratic society should be freely available unless there are specific, well-formulated reasons for withholding it in the interest of security.

The Freedom of Information (FOI) functions at a number of different levels: in itself, for the fulfilment of all other rights and as an underpinning of democracy.

Information held by public bodies is not only for the benefit of officials, politicians or other designated people associated with the organisation, but also for the public as a whole. Unless there are good reasons for withholding such information, all interested parties should be able to access it. More importandy, freedom of information is a key component of transparent and accountable government. It plays a key role in enabling citizens to see what is going on within government, and in exposing corruption and mismanagement. Transparent and open government is also essential if voters are to be able to assess the performance of elected officials and if individuals are to exercise their democratic rights effectively, for example, through timely protests against new policies, or by using their vote against candidates who have indulged in undemocratic activity.

Freedom of expression and access to information is a fundamental right and must be held as a cornerstone of democracy. In its absence, government can, and often does, behave with impunity. It is argued, however, that it is not an absolute right – the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) for instance, specifies certain permissible constraints. One of these is the right of the state to withhold information ‘for the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health and morals’. This is irascibly vague and provides many loopholes for governments to use this wording as a basis for restricting information that is inconsistent with their ambitions.

The public’s right to know is an intrinsic part of informed public debate, which has traditionally been dependent on the freedom to receive and impart information without government interference. However, it may also be argued that this does not mean a right to receive any type of information from the government. It is of paramount importance that any restrictions on information or expression regarding security matters must designate in law only the specific and narrow categories of information absolutely necessary to protect a legitimate national security concern.

A threat to national security can be defined as ‘any expression or information that is intended to incite imminent violence, or is likely to incite violence’. In addition, there must be a direct and immediate connection between the expression and the likelihood or occurrence of such violence. The public interest in having information at all times must remain a priority consideration in any FOI Bill, and that any denial of this right should be subject to independent review.

Along these lines, in a seminal judgment in 1982, the Supreme Court held that, ‘The concept of an open Government is the direct emanation from the right to know, which seems to be implicit in the right of free speech and expression. disclosure of information in regard to the functioning of government must be the rule, and secrecy an exception, justified only where the strictest requirement of public interest so demands’.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Freedom of Information (FOI)

I. Information
(i) Pwr
(ii) Access: Officials, politicians, public
(iii) Should be freely avlbl

II. Importance
(i) Fulfil rights
(ii) Supports dmcrcy

III. Functions
(i) Transparent and accessible Govt
(ii) Citizens aware of the workings of Govt
(iii) Expsg crptn and msmng

IV. Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Information
(i) Infmddbt
(ii) Fndmntl but not abslt
(iii) In public interest
(iv) Withhold if
(a) NS affected
(b) Likely to incite violence
(v) SC judgement supports

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
pwr power
avlbl available
dmcrcy democracy
govt government
expsg exposing
crptn corruption
msmng mismanagement
infmd informed
dbt debate
fndmntl fundamental
abslt absolute
NS National Security
SC Supreme Court

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Freedom of Information (FOI) is essentially important for the fulfilment of public rights and as a support for democracy. Information is power and thus, its access must not be limited to officials or politicians but should include the public. Its function is to assure a transparent and accountable government, inform the public about the workings within the government and expose corruption and mismanagement. Freedom of expression and access to information are imperative for an informed public debate. They are fundamental but not absolute rights, with restrictions for information of national security or with potential to incite violence, as supported by a Supreme Court judgement.

Note Making Practice Factual Passages and Summary Writing Examples Pdf

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 1

The Mayan civilisation of Mexico and Central America is one of the ancient world’s most fascinating, prolific and mysterious civilisations. They left their mark on the region’s culture, architecture, cuisine, and language — and left an indelible impression on the imagination of the modern world. Who were they? How were they able to build such an impressive civilisation of towering temples and sophisticated artwork in the middle of the harsh rainforests of Meso-America? And why did they vanish?

The earliest Mayans lived along the Pacific coast of what is now Guatemala and can be dated to about 1800 BC; by 1000 BC they were also living in Guatemala’s southern lowlands. The period from about 1800 BC to about AD 250 is referred to as the Pre-classic, a time when the early Mayans lived as farmers in small villages along rivers and other bodies of water, hunting game, tending gardens and making use of the abundant natural foods found in the region’s marshes and seasonal swamps.

In time, strong rulers began wielding power over these communities and the Mayan culture grew in complexity. Cities rose from the forest floor, boasting of stone temples with stuccoed and painted facades created at the behest of elite rulers. People in the new power centres communicated over long distances and traders using the same routes carried luxury goods such as cacao beans, jade ornaments, quetzal feathers and jaguar pelts.

The Classic period, AD 250-900, is the time of the civilisation’s greatest glory and of the greatest depths of political intrigue between rival cities. During these centuries, the Mayans erected coundess stelae, stone monuments inscribed with portraits and hieroglyphs that recorded dynastic histories — the births, marriages and conquests of the ruling families. There were dozens of important regional capitals at the time, and among the most important were.

Tikal in Guatemala and its fierce rival Calakmul in Mexico, Palenque in southern Mexico, Caracol in Belize and Copan in Honduras. The Classic period is known for artistic and intellectual splendour. The Mayans developed a complex religious and ritual system that considered rulers divine beings and called for blood sacrifices. They also grasped the numerical notion of zero, created agricultural timetables and sophisticated calendars to track the heavens, and made beautiful polychrome pottery as well as exquisite ornaments, murals, and carved decorations.

But the Classic Mayans were also known for their rancorous political fighting and for being extremely bellicose — warfare was always on the horizon. One by one, the cities in the southern Mayan lowlands fell to each other, their downfall often recorded on stelae in the conquering city. By AD 900 most of the important Classic period cities had collapsed, and their remaining populations had scattered into the surrounding forests. The last date recorded on stelae that archaeologists have found so far is from AD 909 in Tonina, in southern Mexico.

Among the factors that help explain why the civilisation collapsed were the endemic warfare, overpopulation, degradation of the environment, and drastic climate change and drought. While the cities and ceremonial centres to the southern lowlands were being reclaimed by the jungle, the Mayans living to the North were gaining prominence, rising to amazing heights during the post-classic period (AD 900-1502), wonderful and wealthy cities in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula flourished, most famous among them being Chichen ltza. Yet it too fell victim to political infighting and by AD 1200 had collapsed.

The Mayans never truly disappeared. Centuries after the major cities were abandoned, small groups of Mayans continued to live in the area. It was they who met and resisted the Spanish conquistadors after the first contact in 1502. And today, more than six million Mayans live in Mexico, Guatemala and Belize, speaking 28 languages and blending ancient and modern ways.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub- headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Title The Mystery Behind Mayan Civilisation

I. Questions Regarding Mysteries
(i) who were they?
(ii) how did they create impressive civilisation?
(iii) why disappeared?

II. The Pre-Classic Period (1800 BC – AD 250)
(i) 1800 -1000 BC used in Guatemala
(ii) farmers in small villages
(iii) ruled by strong rulers
(iv) complex culture – architecture, comn, trade dvlpd

III. The Classic Period (AD 250 – 900): Glory
(i) pltcl conspiracies
(ii) countless monuments
(a) recorded dynastic histories
(iii) many regional capitals came up
(iv) complex religious & ritual system
(v) excellence in maths
(vi) notion of zero
(vii) made agricultural timetables
(viii) beautiful art & craft

IV. The Post-Classic period (AD 900 -1502): Downfall
(i) most important cities collapsed
(ii) reasons
(a) endemic warfare
(b) overpopulation
(c) degradation of envrmt
(iii) northern Mayans survived
(vi) resisted Spanish conquistadors
(v) now live in Mexico, Guatemala 81 Belize

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
comn communication
dvlpd developed
pltcl political
& and
maths mathematics
envrmt environment

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The Mayan civilisations of Mexico and central. America is one of the mysteries civilisation. From the monuments discovered there, their history can be traced back to 1800 BC, when they lived in Guatemala. They reached the peak of their glory during the Classic period (AD 250 – 900), which saw magnificence in architecture, intellectual excellence including mathematics, along with a rise in complex religious systems and rituals. Subsequently their downfall occurred due to endemic warfare, overpopulation and environmental degradation. The remnant Mayans still live in Mexico, Guatemala & Belize.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 2

You may never want to fly kites to keep away evil spirits, as the Chinese have done for centuries, or to make rain, as the Tibetans did, but some more modern and western uses may tempt you to try experimenting yourself along similar lines. Ancient and medieval Chinese sources, describe kites being used for measuring distances, testing the wind, lifting men, signalling and communication for military operations.

The earliest known Chinese kites were flat (not bowed) and often rectangular. Later, tailless kites incorporated a stabilising bowline. Kites were decorated with mythological motifs and legendary figures; some were fitted with strings and whistles to make musical sounds while flying. From China, kites were introduced to Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea and the western world.

The most widespread use of kites in modern times has been for meteorological investigations. Everybody knows about how Benjamin Franklin, the great American scholar and statesman, sent a kite up in 1752 during a thunderstorm to prove that lightning was caused by electricity. He produced sparks at ground level from a key hung on the wet line as the current flowed down it.

A second investigator repeated Franklin’s experiment shortly afterwards and was killed. By sending up instruments on kites it has been possible to make readings of air pressure, temperature, speed, direction and humidity. Although thermometers had been sent up long before, it was not until 1894, that a self-reading thermometer, a thermograph, was sent up by a kite. The army, navy and air force have used kites in various ways for decades. Another Korean version of the invention of the kite tells how a general used one to carry a line across a stream. This line then formed the basis of a bridge.

Lines are still occasionally flown from point to point in this way using kites. At sea, kites have often been used to carry a line to distressed ships in rough weather. Kites, especially box and bow kites, have been used as gunnery targets. They are easy to make and cheap to use and will stand quite a lot of punishment before they cease to fly. Apart from their use as targets, kites have been used by the army to fly flags, for aerial photography over enemy trenches, for suspending flares over targets during night fighting, for carrying a man over enemy lines, for dragging torpedoes etc to a target area.

They have been used by both military and civil authorities for raising, transmitting and receiving aerials to obtain improved wireless reception. As a matter of fact, the first long-distance short wave transmission of all made use of an aerial flown on a kite. When Marconi made the famous transatlantic transmission, he raised his receiving aerial some 400 feet on a kite. During World War II the RAF developed ‘a kite flare’ as part of survival equipment for airmen forced down at sea. When airborne, the kite was attached to a special shock absorber which was fixed to the dinghy.

It was stated that provided there was a 6 mph wind, the kite would stay aloft indefinitely. Some of these kites were brought to Australia and sent to the 6th Australian Division in 1944 for trials to determine whether they were of use in jungle warfare, especially in defining locations. After experiments, the authorities decided that they were of no value for this purpose.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Kites and Their History

I. History of Flying Kites
(i) Chinese in ancient times used them for various purposes
(ii) Tibetans used them for making rain
(iii) Intrdcd to rest of the world from China

II. Modern Uses of Flying Kites
(i) for mtrlgl invstgtns
(ii) started with Benjamin Franklin’s famous expt
(iii) used for
(a) msrg air pressure, temperature, humidity
(b) msrg wind speed and direction

(iv) civil and military purposes of kites
(a) aerial phtgy
(b) improving wireless rcptn
(c) carrying flares
(d) not useful in jungle warfare
(v) other uses
(a) gunnery targets
(b) carrying lines across streams

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
intrdcd introduced
mtrlgl meteorological
invstgtns investigations
expt experiment
msrg measuring
phtgy photography
rcptn reception

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
In ancient times, kites in China and Tibet were thought to bring rain and keep away evil spirits. The Chinese also used them for other purposes and introduced them to the rest of the world. Benjamin Franklin discovered that electricity produced lightning by flying a kite. Kites are presently used for measuring various atmospheric parameters like air pressure, temperature, wind speed, direction etc. Civil and military purposes of kites include aerial photography, improving wireless reception and carrying flares, but they are not useful in jungle warfare. Kites are also used as gunnery targets and for carrying lines.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 3

Cloud computing is a type of Internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is a model for enabling ubiquitous, on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. computer networks, servers, storage, applications and services) which can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort. Cloud computing and storage solutions provide users and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process their data in third-party data centres that may be located far from the user – ranging in distance from across a city to across the world. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economy of scale, similar to a utili ty (like the electricity grid) over an electricity network.

As a metaphor for the Internet, ‘the cloud’ is a familiar cliche, but when combined with ‘computing’, the meaning gets bigger and fuzzier. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription based or pay per use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends IT’s existing capabilities.

In a cloud computing system, there’s a significant workload shift. Local computers no longer have to do all the heavy lifting when it comes to running applications. The network of computers that make up the cloud handles them instead. Hardware and software demands on the user’s side decrease. The only thing the user’s computer needs to be able to run is the cloud computing system’s interface software, which can be as simple as a Web browser, and the cloud’s network takes care of the rest.

Advocates of cloud computing claim that cloud computing allows companies to avoid upfront infrastructure costs (e.g. purchasing servers). It also enables organisations to focus on their core businesses instead of spending time and money on computer infrastructure. Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and enables Information Technology (ii) teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.

The goal of cloud computing is to apply traditional supercomputing or high-performance computing power, normally used by military and research facilities, to perform tens of trillions of computations per second, in consumer-oriented applications such as financial portfolios, to deliver personalised information, to provide data storage or to power large, immersive computer games. As the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. Companies can scale up as computing needs increase and then scale down again as demands decrease. In 2013, it was reported that cloud computing had become a highly demanded service or utility due to the advantages of high computing power, cheap cost of services, high performance, scalability, accessibility as well as availability.

It’s only in recent years that companies have started renting servers and storage instead of purchasing hardware and running it at huge costs. And with more organisations especially those that rely on India’s outsourcing infrastructure – transferring some of their IT work onto the cloud, companies such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro have stepped up to facilitate that shift. They have positioned themselves as enablers between owners and renters.

A report published by IT research and advisory firm Gartner estimates that in India alone the market for cloud-based services will rise by a third to $557 million this year and more than triple by 2018. Cloud computing will become even more prominent in the coming years, with the predicted rapid, continued growth of major global cloud data centres.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Cloud Computing

I. Definition and Meaning of Cloud Computing
(i) servers ntwkd to centralise data storage, access computer services or rscs
(ii) sharing cmptg rscs
(iii) Internet-base cmptg

II. Goal of Cloud Computing
(i) apply tdnl supercomputing or high pfmc cmptg power to perform trillions of computations p/s
(ii) deliver prsnld info in consumer-oriented apps
(iii) provide data storage
(iv) power large, immersive computer games
(v) converge infra and shared services

III. Recent Developments
(i) cos rent servers and storage
(ii) more org relying on India’s outsourcing infra
(iii) TCS, Infosys, Wipro facilitate services
(iv) market expectations
(a) will rise by a third to $ 557 million this year
(b) more than triple by 2018
(v) cloud cmptg to grow steeply in future

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
ntwkd networked
rscs resources
cmptg computing
tdnl traditional
pfmc performance
p/s per second
prsnld personalised
info information
apps applications
infra infrastructure
COS companies
org organisations
TCS Tata Consultancy Services

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
In cloud computing, large groups of remote servers are networked to allow centralised data storage. It is basically internet-based computing and relies on sharing computing resources. Its goal is to apply traditional supercomputing or high performance computing power to perform trillions of computations per second. It can also power consumer-oriented applications. It is based on the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. In recent years major Indian companies like Wipro, TCS and Infosys have started renting servers and storage. More companies are relying on India’s outsourcing infrastructure. The market for India is expected to grow steeply in future.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 4

The effects of plastic bags on the environment are really quite devastating because there is no disposal method that will really help eliminate the problem. While reusing them is the first step, most people don’t do it, because most of them are not durable enough to survive multiple use.

The biggest problem with them is that once they have been soiled, they end up in the trash, which then ends up in the landfill or is burned. Either solution is very poor for the environment. Burning emits toxic gases that harm the atmosphere while landfills hold them indefinitely as part of the plastic waste problem throughout the globe.

One of the greatest problems is that an estimated 300 million plastic bags end up in the Atlantic Ocean alone. These bags are very dangerous for sea life, especially those of the mammal variety. Any hunting mammal can easily mistake the size, shape and texture of the plastic bag for a meal and find its airway cut off. Needless deaths from plastic bags are increasing every year.

The environmental balance of the waterways is being thrown off by the rate of plastic bags finding their way into the mouths and intestinal tracts of sea mammals. As one species begins to die off at an abnormal rate, every other living organism in the waterways is impacted.

The indefinite period of time that it takes for the average plastic bag to break down can be literally hundreds of years. Every bag that ends up in the woodlands of the country threatens the natural progression of wildlife. Because the breakdown rate is so slow, the chances that the bag will harmlessly go away are extremely slim. Throughout the world plastic bags are responsible for suffocation and deaths of woodland animals as well as inhibiting soil nutrients.

The land litter that is made up of plastic bags has the potential to kill over and over again. It has been estimated that one bag has the potential to unintentionally kill one animal per every three months due to unintentional digestion or inhalation.

While it’s a noble thought to place the plastic bags in the recycling bin every week, studies have proven that there are very few recycling plants that actually recycle them. Most municipalities either burn them or send them off to the landfill after sorting. This is because it can be expensive to recycle this type of plastic. It doesn’t melt down easily and is often not fit to be reused in its original form.

The premise of recycling these bags is nice. Yet funding for the upgrading of the recycling units just has not happened and thus less than one per cent of all bags are sent to recycling plants worldwide. Most are left to become a pollution problem in one way or another.

There are always alternatives to plastic bags and the search for more alternatives continues. Paper bags are a possible option but they also take their toll on the environment. The use of trees to increase the production of paper products will also have a negative environmental effect.

Reusable plastic bags are being introduced into regions that want to outlaw the plastic bags altogether. These are stronger and more durable and can be used for three to five trips to the market. Of course, the reusable cloth bag is fast becoming a favourite among environment supporters. While, thus far, no bag is without its issues, these are the bags that are currently recommended for use to help protect environmental concerns.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Harmful Effects of Plastic Bags

I. Plastic bags harmful for Environment
(i) No effective disposal method
(a) trashed in Ifls and held indefinitely
(b) burned but emit harmful gases
(ii) Reuse not practical
(iii) Millions of plastic bags end in Atlantic Ocean
(a) harmful for sea life, particularly mammals -cuts off airway, causing death -adversely affects envtl balance
(b) burned but emit harmful gases
(iv) On land, breakdown period is centuries
(a) suffocate forest animals
(b) inhibit soil nutrients

II. Recycling Impractical
(i) Few rclg plants actually work because
(a) operation expensive
(b) products cannot be used as earlier
(ii) Most bags dumped in ifls
(iii) Cause land pltn

III. Options to Plastic Bags
(i) Paper bags
(a) negative envtl effect due to tree cutting
(ii) Reusable cloth bags
(a) preferred by env supporters
(iii) Redusable piste bags
(a) stronger and more durable

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
Ifls landfills
envtl environmental
rclg recycling
pltn pollution
piste plastic

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
Plastic bags are harmful for the environment because there is no effective disposal method for them and their reuse is impractical. A large number of plastic bags which ultimately land in the Atlantic Ocean become harmful for sea life, particularly mammals, causing their death and creating an environmental imbalance in the sea.

If dumped on land, they suffocate forest animals and inhibit soil nutrients. Their recycling is impractical because few recycling plants actually work as they are uneconomic. Dumped in landfills, they cause land pollution. Options available are paper bags or reusable plastic bags, the latter being preferred by environmentalists.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 5

The work of the heart can never be interrupted. The reason is that the heart’s job is to keep oxygen rich blood flowing through the body. All the body’s cells need a constant supply of oxygen, especially those in the brain. The brain cells live only for four to five minutes after their oxygen is cut off, and then brain death occurs, leading to the entire body dying.

The heart is a specialised muscle that serves as a pump. This pump is divided into four chambers, two called atria and two called ventricles, connected by tiny doors called valves. The chambers work to keep the blood flowing round the body in a circle with a detour to the lungs to purify the blood by removing carbon dioxide from it and adding oxygen to it.

At the end of each circuit, veins carry the blood to the right atrium, the first of the four chambers. Two-fifths of the oxygen by then is used up and it is on its way back to the lungs to pick up a fresh supply and to give up the carbon dioxide it has accumulated. From the right atrium the blood flows through the tricuspid valve into the second chamber, the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts when it is filled, pushing the blood through the pulmonary artery, which leads to the lungs. In the lungs the blood gives up its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen. Then it travels to the third chamber, the left atrium. When this chamber is filled, it forces the blood through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. From here it is pushed into a big blood vessel called aorta, the main artery, and sent round the body through the various arteries.

Fleart disease can result from any damage to the heart muscle, the valves or the ‘natural pacemaker’ of the heart. Electrical impulses from the heart muscle cause our heart to beat (contract). This electrical signal begins in the sino-atrial (SA) node, located at the top of the heart’s upper-right chamber (the right atrium). The SA node is sometimes called the heart’s ‘natural pacemaker’.

If the muscle is damaged, the heart is unable to pump properly. If the valves are damaged blood cannot flow normally and easily from one chamber to another, and if the pacemaker is defective, the contractions of the chambers will become un-coordinated.

Until the twentieth century, few doctors dared to touch the heart. In 1953 all this changed. After twenty years of work, Dr John Gibbon in the USA had developed a machine that could take over temporarily from the heart and lungs. Blood could be routed through the machine, bypassing the heart so that surgeons could work inside it and see what they were doing. The era of open heart surgery had begun.

In the operating theatre, it gives surgeons the chance to repair or replace a defective heart. Many parties have had plastic valves inserted in their hearts when their own was faulty. Many people are being kept alive with tiny battery operated pacemakers; none of these repairs could have been made without the heart-lung machine. But valuable as it is to the surgeons, the heart-lung machine has certain limitations. It can be used only for a few hours at a time because its pumping gradually damages the bloods cells.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title How the Heart Works

I. Functions of Heart
(i) vital for living
(a) never stop wrkg
(ii) supplies oxygen rich blood to diff parts of body

II. Structure of Heart
(i) divided into 4 chambers connected by vlvs
(ii) blood purified in lungs
(iii) arteries carry pure blood to diff parts of body

III. Causes of Heart Disease
(i) weak heart muscles
(ii) defective vlvs
(iii) defective ‘natural pacemaker’

IV. History of Open Heart Surgery
(i) 1953: Dr Gibbon invents Heart lung m/c
(a) blood could pass through m/c bypassing heart . and lungs
(ii) enabled open heart srgy
(iii) m/c limitations
(a) used only for few hrs at a time because it damages blood cells

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
wrkg working
diff different
vlvs valves
Dr Doctor
m/c machine
srgy surgery
hrs hours

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The heart is a vital organ of the body which never stops working. It supplies oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body. It is divided into four chambers inter-connected by valves. Blood is purified in the lungs and arteries carry it to different parts of the body.

Heart disease has various causes such as weak heart muscles, defective valves or a defective natural pacemaker. The era of open-heart surgery began in 1953 when Dr Gibbon developed the heart-lung machine. Replacement of valves and other areas of a damaged heart is now possible.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 6

The Maasai tribe live on the wide plains in southern and northern Kenya and northern Tanzania. They are among the best known local populations due to their residence near the many game parks of the African Great Lakes, as well as their distinctive customs and dress. The Maasai were famous fighters. They used to raid the neighbouring tribes and carry away their cattle. All the other tribes were afraid of them because of their skills in war.

The Maasai are handsome people, tall and slim with light brown skins, straight noses and long hair. They do not belong completely to the Negro race. They belong mosdy to the same race as the people of ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians probably looked like the Maasais of today.

The Maasais live in a very beautiful part of Africa. It consists of miles of rolling grassland, on which you can find thorny bushes and here and there a rocky hill. The people move from one place to another according to the seasons, looking for the grasses and other plants on which their cattle can graze. They have no permanent home. When they want to setde in a place for some time, they build a kind of camp called a ‘Manyatta’, where a few families live for a few weeks or months. Then they move on again, taking their few belongings with them, and burning the old ‘Manyatta’ to the ground.

To make a hut, they take a number of long thin wooden poles and plant them in a circle. Then each pole is bent into a shape of a ‘U* and its other end is also planted in the earth. Now the framework for the hut is ready.

Next, the space between the poles is filled with leaves, and small branches of tree and mud. Then the outside of earth hut is covered or plastered with cow-dung, which quickly becomes hard in the sun. An opening is left for the door but there are no windows. The hut is about 5 feet high, so that grown-up men cannot stand up straight inside his hut. There is no furniture, except perhaps a small wooden stool for the head of the family.

The huts are arranged in a big circle. Around the outside of the circle the Maasais build a thorn fence, about 7 feet high, with several openings so that the people can go in and out with their cattle. After dark, all the openings are closed. Then all the people and cattle in the ‘Manyatta’ are safe from wild animals.

Nowadays there are no wars between the tribes. So a Maasai warrior has very little to do now. But they sometimes go hunting. The Maasais like to kill lions with spears, and a lion-hunt is a great test of courage. The warrior who first kills a lion is given great honour, and he wears the lion’s mane round his neck to show that he is a lion-killer.

The Maasais are fairly well-to-do and intelligent and live comfortable lives. However, most of them are happy to live as their ancestors lived hundreds of years ago. The Tanzanian and Kenyan governments have instituted programmes to encourage the Maasai to abandon their traditional semi-nomadic lifestyle, but the people have continued their age-old customs. Many Maasai tribes throughout Tanzania and Kenya welcome visits to their village to experience their culture, traditions, and lifestyle.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title The Maasai Tribe – Life and History

I. Maasai Tribe-Famous Fighters
(i) live in Kenya & northern Tanzania
(ii) carried away cattle of nbrg tribes

II. Maasais Handsome People
(i) tall & slim with light brown skins
(ii) straight noses & long hair
(iii) don’t big to Negro groups
(iv) big to people of ancient Egypt

III. Maasais are Nomadic Cattle Herders
(i) move from place to place looking for grass for cattle
(ii) build ‘Manyatta’ – a camp
(iii) use wdn poles to build huts
(a) plant U shaped wdn poles in circle on earth
(b) fill frmwk with leaves, branches & mud
(c) plaster outside with cow-dung
(d) opening kept for door – no windows
(iv) no furniture- wdn stool for family head
(v) put thorn fence around ‘Manyatta’
(a) keeps them safe from wild animals

IV. Nowadays- No War Between Tribes
(i) Maasai warriors go hunting for lions
(a) Lion hunt- test of courage
(ii) lion killer wears lion’s mane as sign
(iii) Maasais live comfortable life
(iv) invite people to experience their lives

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
& and
nbrg neighbouring
big belong
wdn wooden
frmwk framework

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The Maasai tribe live in Kenya and northern Tanzania. They were famous fighters and attacked other tribes for cattle. They were handsome people and belong mostly to the same race as that of ancient Egypt, and not to the Negro race. They move from place to place looking for grass for their cattle. When they settle in a place they build a camp called ’Manyatta’ with dome shaped wood-frame huts in a big circle. They put a thorn fence around the ’Manyatta’ to save themselves from wild animals. Lion hunting is a test of courage for them. They are intelligent and live comfortable lives.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 7

After creating the world’s fastest mode of transport, the French are now returning to something much more simple, the bicycle (veto in French). On July 15, 2007, 10000 public bicycles were made available to the residents of Paris, in a new experiment on urban transport.

The basic principle is that nobody owns the cycle, but everybody can borrow one. For €29 and a deposit of €150, one can subscribe to a year’s access to the cycles. Cycle-stands have been created outside every metro station in the city. With a magnetic card in hand, one can simply help oneself to a cycle, use it to ride up to one’s destination and park it at the nearest cycle-stand.

It took three years of negotiations before the experiment was put into place, but one week before the launch, nearly 8000 Parisians had signed up for a subscription. The city expects to have nearly 200000 by the end of the year. In the last seven years, Paris has doubled its cycle tracks to 371 km at present.

This emerging new trend has quite a serious impact on urban planning, as rules are changed to suit a growing population of cyclists. Instead of the motor-car, in some places the cyclists have priority, allowing them to use one-way streets and even ignore traffic lights.

Finally, it comes down to a personal choice that the French are making. Cycling is good for one’s health; according to some studies, half an hour of cycling per day can significandy elongate one’s lifespan, reducing stress and hypertension. It is also an efficient tool of weight control. On the other hand, a cycle is a non-polluting form of transport, using no fuel and creating no emissions. Until a few years ago, only 1-5% of Parisians used cycles on a regular basis. Now more of the urban French population is turning to a mode of transport very common in rural France.

The region of Arcachon, on the South-West coast of France, offers several landmarks for tourists but, most of all, it offers an excellent network of cycle routes. These routes, which run along the sea for almost the entire circumference of the basin, originally formed a railroad track used by Germans during World War to transport soldiers and men. However, after the war, the railroad served litde purpose and the path was converted into cycle tracks.

The cycle track that circles the basin is inaccessible to a motor vehicle, however small it may be. It covers a length of nearly 75 to 80 km and, on a sunny day, one can see people of all ages cycling.

Cycles are available in most towns on rent for as litde as €2 an hour. A variety of cycles, tandem bicycles, three-wheelers and cycles with baby carriages, makes it possible for older citizens, mothers with babies and even the physically challenged, to cycle. To make it easier for tourists, cycles rented in one town can be returned in another to the same chain of stores.

The enthusiasm to return to the cycle as a form of transport as well as a hobby is not limited to Arcachon. Gironde also boasts of a network of nearly 600 km of cycle tracks. Bordeaux, the capital of Gironde, is a university town that gives all students free use of bicycles that belong to the town. Further North, Nantes offers free raincoats and backpacks to state employees who cycle to work.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviation wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Revival of Cycling in France

I. French Experiment in Urban Transport
(i) Public bicycles hired to Parisians
(ii) can xchg bicycles at cycle stands at metro stations
(iii) popular
(a) 8000 signed up before launch
(b) 2 lakh expected by year end
(c) cycle tracks doubled

II. Impact of Experiment
(i) road rules changed
(ii) cycles given priority in some places
(iii) will improve health
(a) t lifespan
(b) + stress
(c) control weight
(d) non-pltg
(iv) reduces pltn

III. Popularity of Cycling in Rural Arcachon Region of France
(i) trsm popular here
(ii) old railway track converted for cycles
(iii) no motor vhcls allowed
(iv) cycles available at many places in rgn
(v) low rent
(vi) dfrt types of cycles available

IV. Similar Schemes in Other Areas of France
(i) Gironde-province has 600 km of cycle tracks
(a) uvrsty in Bordeaux, the capital, allows students fee use of cycles
(ii) Nantes offers govt employees incentives to cycle to work

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
xchg exchange
t increase
1 reduce
pitg polluting
pltn pollution
trsm tourism
vhcls vehicles
rgn region
dfrt different
uvrsty university
govt government

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Cycling has been revived as a mode of transport in France, Public bicycles are hired to Parisians, which can be exchanged at various cycle stands, making the experiment popular. Its impact is that road rules have been changed to give cycles priority in some places.

It will improve health, increase lifespan, reduce stress and control weight of people, besides reducing pollution. Cycling is also popular elsewhere in France like the Arcachon region, a popular tourism area, Gironde province and Nantes. All of these have exclusive cycle tracks with cycles of all types hired on low rent or for free.

Note Making Practice Discursive Passages and Summary Writing Examples Pdf

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 1

Fasting, in some form or the other, is part of every religion. In Islam, it is called ‘roza’. The Arabic equivalent of ‘roza’ is sawm. Sawm literally means abstinence, i.e. to refrain from doing something. The ninth month of the Hijri calendar, i.e. Ramzan, has been especially chosen for fasting. Fasting during the month of Ramzan is obligatory for every Muslim, except when he has a genuine reason not to do so.

In every human being there are two faculties to take into consideration: one is desire and the other is reason. In all matters, the individual has to decide whether to follow his desire or his reason. The great merit in fasting is that it trains us to refrain from following our desires and instead always to bow to reason. That is the spirit of sawm.

According to the Prophet of Islam, one who fasts should never stoop to using abusive language; if someone abuses him, he should simply say ‘I am fasting’. Islamic fasting, as far as formal practice is concerned, is to abstain from food and drink. But the actual spirit of fasting is to refrain from indulging in negative thinking and the use of negative language.

Self-control, far from being a negative or passive action, has great value in human behaviour. In life, there are more than 50 per cent of occasions when one should refrain from action and less than 50 per cent of occasions when one should take action. This is the formula for success for both individuals and society.

Self-control is integral to social ethics. If you live alone on an island, there is no need for any control, as the absence of others leaves you free to do whatever you want to do. However, when you are living in a society, you have to give leeway to others. This is what every person on the road does when he drives a car: he either keeps to the left (or to the right depending upon which country he is in) so that he gives way to other cars and can carry on his journey without accidents. This principle is applicable to the entire life of an individual. It entails giving others the chance to live their lives while living one’s own life.

Self-control is a kind of mutual adjustment. When a person adopts the way of self-control, it is far-reaching in effect.

In this way he promotes the culture of self-control in society and indicates to others through his actions that they should follow the path that he is following.

Thus, the way of self-control leads to a better society, while lack of self-control in individuals leads to the destruction of peace. As far as the individual is concerned, self-control serves as a means of personality development. This way of life, in turn, saves others from unnecessary problems.

There is a ‘pre-control’ for exercising self-control and it is thinking. When a person adopts a life of self-control, at all times he first thinks about what path he should tread. Only after considerable thought does he plan out his course of action. A life lived in this way will necessarily be marked by creative thinking. In addition, self-control contributes to one’s intellectual development and turns one into a man of wisdom.

In Islam, fasting is worship – for God. Fasting is the kind of worship which is simultaneously for the sake of God and man. Thus, if fasting is observed in the right spirit, in all sincerity, it will make an individual pious and responsible.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Tjte Traditional Culture of Self-restraint Notes

I. Fasting
(i) roza in Islam
(ii) refrain from doing smth
(iii) Ramzan, ninth month of Hijri clnd
(iv) oblgtry for every Muslim
(v) train to refrain from folwg our desires, howto reason
(vi) worship – for God
(vii) observed in right spirit – make individual pious and responsible

II. Teachings of Islam
(i) during fasting
(a) should not use abusive lang
(b) abstain from food and drink
(c) refrain from-ve thkg

III. Self-control: Need and Importance
(i) great value in human behaviour
(ii) formula for success for indvls and society
(iii) integral to social ethics
(iv) a kind of mutual adjsmt
(v) lack of it leads to destruction of peace
(vi) means of personality devpt

IV. Exercising Self-Control
(i) ‘pre-control’ i.e. thkg
(ii) thoughtful course of action
(iii) marked by creative thkg
(iv) cntrbs to intellectual devpt
(v) makes man wiser

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
smth something
clnd calendar
oblgtry obligatory
folwg following
lang language
-ve negative
thkg thinking
indvls individuals
adjsmt adjustment
devpt development
cntrbs contributes

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Fasting is known as ‘roza’ in Islam, which means to refrain from doing something. It is obligatory for every Muslim, wherein one should refrain from using abusive language, negative thinking, food and drink. It is worship for God. Fasting basically teaches self-control, which is observed as a formula for success for individuals and society. Self-control is a kind of mutual adjustment and leads to personality development. Exercising self-control requires ‘pre-control’, that is thinking. It contributes to intellectual development and a thoughtful course of action to lead a wiser life.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 2

Just a few years ago, we witnessed how a national project, the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO), which is to study fundamental particles called neutrinos, was subject to a barrage of Questions from environmentalists, politicians and others ever since it was cleared. The project, which involves the construction of an underground laboratory, was initially to be located in the Nilgiris but later, on grounds that it was too close to tiger habitat, was moved to a cavern under a rocky mountain in the Bodi West Hills region of Theni district, about 110 Kilometres West of Madurai in Tamil Nadu. The already much-delayed and important physics project needs to be explained.

India has been among the pioneers in neutrino research, the first of such laboratories having been established in the 1960s. We led neutrino research when our physicists used a gold mine at Kolar in Karnataka to set-up what was then the world’s deepest underground laboratory. This was called the Kolar Gold Field Lab. In 1965, it enabled researchers to detect atmospheric neutrinos. In 1992, when the mine became uneconomical, the laboratory was shut down. With that, we lost our advantage in understanding the most mysterious particle in the universe. INO may now reclaim this advantage and our global leadership.

Most of the advanced countries are already working vigorously in neutrino science with dedicated labs. These include the United States, Russia, France, Italy, China, Japan and South Korea. India is set to not only join this league, but also become a key player in global efforts in neutrino science. The Magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) being set-up at INO will be among the largest ever in the world, weighing over 50000 tonnes.

Neutrinos, first proposed by Swiss Scientist Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, are the second most widely occurring particle in the universe, only second to photons, the particles which make up light. In fact, neutrinos are so abundant among us that every second, there are more than 100 trillion of them passing right through each of us – we never even notice them.

This is the reason why INO needs to be built deep into the earth – 1300 metres into the earth. At this depth, it would be able to keep itself away from all the trillions of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere and which would otherwise choke an over-the-ground neutrino detector. Neutrinos have been in the universe literally since forever, being almost 14 billion years old – as much as the universe itself.

From experiments so far, we know that neutrinos have a tiny mass, but the ordering of the neutrino mass states is not known and is one of the key Questions that remain unanswered till today. This is a major challenge INO will set to resolve, thus completing our picture of the neutrino.

Neutrinos are very important for our scientific progress and technological growth for three reasons. First, they are abundant. Second, they have very feeble mass and no charge and hence can travel through planets, stars, rocks and human bodies without any interaction.

In fact, a beam of trillions of neutrinos can travel thousands of kilometres through a rock before an interaction with a single atom of the rock and the neutrino occurs. Third, they hide within them a vast pool of knowledge and could open up new vistas in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics, communication and even in medical imaging, through the detector spin-offs.

While this should be a moment of joy, there is also some scepticism, partly arising due to the fact that the neutrino, though so abundant, is a silent stranger to most people.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Race for the Neutrino

I. India-based Neutrino Observatory
(i) subject of Questions from envlsts & others
(ii) involves cnstrn of underground lab
(iii) initially to be located in Nilgiris
(iv) later moved to Bodi West Hills in Tamil Nadu

II. India’s Position in Research
(i) pioneer
(ii) 1st lab estd in 1960s
(iii) Kolar in Karnataka: world’s deepest underground lab
(a) anabled detection of atmospheric neutrinos
(b) lab shut down in 1992
(iv) magnetized Iron Calorimeter
(a) set up at INO
(b) among largest ever in world

III. Understanding Neutrinos
(i) 1 st proposed by Swiss Scientist Wolfgang Pauli
(ii) 2nd most widely occurring particle
(iii) labs to be built deep into earth
(iv) in atmosphere, detector would Choke
(v) have tiny mass & no charge
(vi) mass states ordering unknown

IV. Importance of Neutrinos
(i) scientific progress & tchgl growth
(a) abundant
(b) can travel w/o interaction

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
envlsts environmentalists
& and
cnstrn construction
lab laboratory
1st first
estd established
INO India-Based Neutrino Observatory
2nd second
tchgl technological
w/o without

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) was subject to Questions from many groups. It involved construction of an underground laboratory, which was supposed to be located in the Nilgiris, but was later moved to Bodi West Hills in Tamil Nadu.

India had been among the pioneers in neutrino research and the first lab was set up in 1960, but was shut down in 1992. Understanding neutrinos has become essential due to their wide occurrence.

They have been found to have tiny mass with unknown order and no charge. They are important for scientific progress and technological growth.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 3

Fashion is a force – a powerful force of constantly altering patterns of change and growth. Its constant movement affects the fate of the designers and manufacturers who distribute it, and of course, the lives of the consumers, who follow what it dictates. All of its facts taken together add up to a multimillion dollar industry. Fashion today means mega bucks.

Fashion is also a science. Surprising, isn’t it? However, it is well known that it involves known facts and basic principles, and its actions and reactions can be predicted, as these are based on those facts and principles. Fashion is one of those distinct and unique trades that is highly dependent on the environment and the changes that are continuously taking place in it. These have to be understood by the designers if they want to become successful.

For one to make it to the top in the fashion business and stay there, one has to continue to discover and innovate to fulfil the needs and wants of the customers. For this, most of the top designers such as Yves Saint Laurent, Karl Lagerfeld, Liz Claiborne, etc all rely upon their creativity backed by years of invaluable experience. In this line of work, instinct and intuition play a very major role besides the knowledge of past successes and failures.

As the power of fashion to influence our lives grows, a number of misconceptions about it continue to abound. The most common of these is that the designers and retailers dictate what the fashion will be, by accepting or rejecting the styles and trends that are offered. They are truly, as one ‘fashion guru’ once said, “Variety vultures”. However, it is not so – actually customers dictate the trends.

The second misconception is that fashion acts as an influence on women only. However, actually, men today are as much influenced by, and responsive to, fashion, as women. In point of fact, the male fashion industry has been growing at a dizzying rate. Yes, there was a time when menswear was not exacdy worth talking about. It was staid and unimaginative. But that does not mean that men did not dress up according to the latest trends of the day.

There were changes in Western dressing that followed the dictates of the designers and the fashionable elite trend-setters. These were the fashion world’s drainpipes in the 60s, the popular safaris in the 70s, the denims in the 80s and the ethnic wear that has caught on these days.

Fashion today is more lifestyle oriented and quite practical. The modern male and female want to dress differently for office and leisure. Designers are becoming more daring so that the women as well as the men have a wide choice. There are different designs for every moment of a busy social schedule – from work, lunch to afternoon tea, cocktails, dinner and gala banquets.

Lastly, fashion is the force that causes women to raise and lower their skirt length, straighten or fizz their hair and change from sportswear to dressy clothes. Fashion is also that force which influences men to grow or shave off their moustaches and beards, choose wide or narrow ties and lapels, and change from casual jeans into three piece suits and tuxedos. It is indeed this dynamic and varied force that adds spice and colour to our lives.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Fashion – A Life Force

I. Constantly Altering Patterns Affect
(i) dsnrs
(ii) mfrs
(iii) lives of consumers

II. Fashion means Multimillion Dollar Industry
III. Fashion-A Science
(i) Facts & basic principles
(ii) Action & reaction predicted
(iii) Dependent on envt

IV. Fashion – Discover and Innovate
(i) Continue to fulfil needs and wants
(ii) Instinct & intuition play major role

V. Misconception that Designers and Retailers Dictate Fashion
(i) it is consumers who dictate
(ii) influences both women & men equally

VI. Fashion-Western Dressing
(i) Trend setters
(a) Drainpipes in 60s
(b) Safaris in 70s
(c) Denims in 80s
(d) Ethnic wears today

VII. Fashion-Changes
(i) Life-style oriented and practical
(ii) Every ocsn diff dress
(iii) Adds spice and clr to our lives

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
dsnrs designers
mfrs manufacturers
envt environment
ocsn occasion
diff different
clr colour
& and

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Fashion is a force which keeps changing and affecting all related people. It is a science as it is based on facts and principles. To remain on top in this business, designers have to continually innovate and discover to fulfil people’s needs. Fashion is not dictated by designers and retailers but by consumers. Both women and men are equally influenced by it. Western dressing gave us drainpipes, safaris and denims but now ethnic wears are fashionable. Fashion has become more practical, as people want to change dresses for every occasion. Fashion adds spice, flavour and colour to our lives.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 4

The problem of unemployment is a serious problem in our country. If millions of people are without any jobs, its effect is very bad. A man without any employment is a burden on others. If he has got to maintain a family, the situation is worse. Such unemployed persons are reduced to poverty. It demoralises them and they are forced to do undesirable things. They may commit crimes. They may create trouble and spread discontent. In fact, they are a source of danger to society and the state.

The causes of unemployment are mainly the rapid growth of population, the prevailing system and under¬development of industry and trade. The population of India is growing very rapidly. It is very difficult to get jobs for all who are in need of it. The British Government had introduced a system of education in this country for carrying on administration only. It is being continued in free India also with very slight changes. The system of education prepares most young men to be clerks. But neither the Government nor private firms can absorb all the educated unemployed persons in their offices for clerical work. Industry and trade have not yet properly developed.

Cottage industries in the villages have been ruined owing to the establishment of large mills and factories in towns. Consequently, many artisans have been thrown out of employment. There has been great pressure on agricultural land because of the growth of population; consequently, many cultivators have got no land for cultivation. All these are mainly responsible for this acute problem of unemployment.

The acute problem of unemployment is a cause of unrest in the country. So the Government is seriously thinking over the matter and trying to find out a remedy. The remedy is to find work for the people. The Government had earlier undertaken five-year plans for the material prosperity of the country. For carrying out these plans many mills and factories had been set up both by the Government and by industrialists. Many new offices had been started. Many educated young men were absorbed in offices as clerks and in mills and factories as skilled workers. Uneducated and unskilled men were being absorbed in mills and factories as labourers. But these measures have been proved inadequate.

Our government is now encouraging the revival of cottage industries in the villages. This will help many villagers to earn a living. Our Government is also trying to develop agriculture. But as yet, it has not been able to cope with the situation fully. The number of unemployed persons is increasing. So our Government should allow establishment of a large number of large and small technical and vocational institutions in the country. Only a limited number of bright young men should try to get higher education in the universities. Most young men try to enter technical or vocational institutions.

After coming out of these, they may find jobs in factories and commercial firms. For this, of course, more factories must be set up throughout the country. Unskilled labourers should be taught various traits in technical institutes. They may find jobs in factories as skilled labourers. They may also set up cottage industries in their villages. Government will have to help them with loans to start their work. It is heartening to find that our Government has already taken some steps in this direction. Nationalised banks are now giving lump sum loans to intending young persons under self employment schemes.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Unemployment: A Serious Problem

I. Consequence of Unemployment
(i) poverty
(ii) low morale
(iii) high crime rate
(iv) discontent

II. Causes of Unemployment
(i) rapid growth of ppltn
(ii) prevailing system of edu
(a) prepares young people to be clerks
(iii) underdevelopment of indty & trade

III. Remedy: Role of Government
(i) follow up 5-yr plans
(a) set up many factories
(b) create more job optnts
(ii) allow vocational & technical institutions to open
(iii) help unskilled to become skilled
(iv) revive cottage industries
(v) give loans for self-employment

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
ppltn population
edu education
Indty industry
yr year
& and
optnts opportunities

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The consequences of unemployment, a serious problem in India, are poverty, low morale, high crime rate and discontent in the population. The causes of unemployment are rapid growth of population, the prevailing system of education which prepares young people to be clerks, and underdevelopment of industry and trade. The remedy is that ‘ the role of Government should change: it should follow up the 5-yr plans by setting up many factories to create more job opportunities. It should allow vocational and technical institutions to open to help the unskilled become skilled. Government should revive cottage industries by giving loans for self-employment.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 5

Depression is a common problem of modern times. Both the rich and poor suffer from it. According to the World Health Organisation, by the year 2020, depression will become the second leading cause of disease in the world. Many solutions have been prescribed for the problem of depression but most have proved to be ineffective as a complete cure. They may offer temporary relief but fail to resolve the problem permanently.

Meditation is often advised to treat this problem of depression. But meditation focuses on the heart and modern science has established that the heart is merely an organ that pumps blood, whereas many kinds of depression stem from the mind. It is the mind that controls the heart and not vice-versa. In many cases, depression is non-physical and the heart is physical. How can a physical organ resolve a non-physical problem?

We also often hear about physical techniques to counter depression. But the reach of physical techniques is confined to the body and does not extend to the mind.

Many kinds of depression are the result of non-acceptance of reality. The real solution to this problem is the acceptance of reality. While non-acceptance creates the problem, acceptance of reality will solve it.

Our world is one of freedom, competition, challenge and clash of interests. This nature of human life is bound to create problems. No one is exempt from this process. This being so, to de-stress, learn the art of stress management rather than trying to eliminate the stress.

A person may become sad upon facing a loss in business or feeling discriminated against at work. He may give in to anxiety and frustration if he suffers a loss in an election, his love marriage turns into a problem or if he is offended by criticism. In all such cases, a person becomes negative because of being unaware of the real cause. He attributes the cause to another person and holds this person responsible for his difficulties. He fails to realise that all these are due to the law of nature.

If you attribute the cause of the problem to the divine law of nature, it will arouse no negativity, but when you attribute it to a person, it brings on negative thinking. This is because the law of nature is not your rival, whereas you see a person as your competitor. When you attribute the cause of your problem to a rival, it will invariably arouse negative thoughts and cause anger. But when you attribute the cause to the law of nature, because it is not your rival and is equal in its treatment of all, it will lead to introspection.

When you follow nature-based thinking instead of man-based thinking, you will try to discover its wisdom and will realise that whatever has happened is for your betterment. It was to activate your mind and enhance its creativity. It was a means of developing a realistic approach, fostering incentive, making you realise your mistake and helping you to re-plan practically.

When this thought comes to you, your mind will automatically change from negative to positive. You will be grateful towards the law of nature for bestowing this blessing in disguise. This thought will eliminate your stress and you will be able to live normally. This is a good way to help de-stress the mind.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Depression: Accept It, Tackle It

I. Depression
(i) common prblm of modern times
(ii) acc to WFIO, will soon become second leading disease,
(iii) prescribed soln
(a) offer temporary relief
(iv) no permanent cure

II. Kinds of Depression and its Cure
(i) non-acceptance of reality
(a) soln – acceptance of reality
(ii) Clash of interests
(a) soln – learn stress mgmt

III. Causes of Stress/Depression
(i) atrbt to another person cause of prblm
(ii) fail to realise law of nature

IV. Ways to De-Stress
(i) atrbt prblm to the divine law of nature
(ii) don’t atrbt cause of problem to a person
(iii) follow nature-based thinking
(iv) this causes realisation that
(a) whatever hpnd is for betterment
(b) means of dvlpg a realistic approach
(c) fostering incentive
(d) helping you to re-plan
(e) understanding mistake
(v) realisation eliminates stress

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
prblm problem
acc according
WHO World Health Organisation
soln solution
mgmt management
atrbt attribute
hpnd happened
dvlpg developing

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
According to the World Health Organisation, depression is expected to become the second leading cause of disease in the world. Prescribed solutions offer temporary relief but offer no permanent solution. The cause is non-acceptance of reality or clash of interests.

Solutions are acceptance of reality and learning to manage stress. Stress is caused by attributing problems to other persons instead of understanding the law of nature. One should realise that whatever has happened is for the betterment. This enables development of a realistic approach to the problem and helps in re-planning. This realisation eliminates stress.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 6

In Indian homes, the floor of the house is always the best maintained element, cleaned twice a day and wiped down to a sparkling state. In front of the threshold of the home the floor often is decorated with Rangoli and other ritual diagrams. This is true in rural as well as in many urban homes in metropolitan cities. When building a new home, people spend as much money per square foot for a beautiful floor as they would spend on the entire structure. Yet, this pride and obsession for a clean floor suddenly vanish as we step out into the street: the floor of the city.

In Delhi, where 80 percent of the people are pedestrians in some stage of their commuting, least attention is paid to pedestrian paths. Delhi’s sidewalks are too narrow, very poorly maintained and full of potholes, poles, junction boxes and dangerous electrical installations, not to speak of the garbage dumps that stink and stare at the pedestrian. Ashram Chowk is a good case in point where thousands of pedestrians change direction from the Mathura Road radial to the Ring Road. A flyover facilitates the automobiles while the pedestrian is orphaned by the investment-hungry authorities.

One corner of Ashram Chowk has a ridiculous imitation wood sculpture with an apology of a fountain, and across the same chowk, you have the open mouthed, massive garbage dump right on the pedestrian path, in full exhibition for the benefit of the public. These symbols of poor taste and abject apathy are then connected by narrow, dangerous and often waterlogged footpaths for the hapless pedestrians to negotiate. In the night, street lighting in the central median lights up the carriageway for cars and leaves the pedestrian areas in darkness.

Delhi’s citizens leave home and want to get to their destination as fast as they can. No one wants to linger on the road; no leisure walks; no one looks a stranger in the eye. It is on the pedestrian path that the citizen encounters head-on the poor public management and the excuse called ‘multiplicity of authorities’. One agency makes the road, another digs it up to lay cables, a third one comes after months to clear up the mess and the cycle of unaccountability goes on.

Meanwhile crores are spent in repairing the carriageway for vehicles and in construction of flyovers without a care for the pedestrians below. The solution offered is to make an expensive underpass or an ugly foot over bridge, ostensibly for facilitating the pedestrian, while in reality it only facilitates the cars to move faster at the expense of the pedestrians. Take Kashmiri Gate, ITO, Ashram Chowk, AIIMS or Dhaula Kuan. At all these important pedestrian cross-over points the story is the same: they have pulled the sidewalk from under the pedestrians’ feet.

In modern cities across the world, the pedestrian is king. The floor of the city is designed and maintained as an inclusive environment, helping the physically challenged, the old and the infirm, children and the ordinary citizen to move joyfully across the city. Delhi aspires to be a ‘world class city’. Hopefully the authorities would look once again at the floor of Delhi. The pleasure of strolling on the sidewalks is deeply connected to our sense of citizenship and sense of belonging. Pride in the city grows only on a well designed floor of the city.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Delhi’s Neglected Pedestrians

I. Floors in Indian homes
(i) well mntnd
(ii) clnd twice a day
(iii) decorated
(iv) home buyers invest on good floors
(v) streets neglected in cmprsn

II. Delhi’s Pedestrian Sidewalks
(i) most people use them for some time
(ii) sdwks poorly made and cltrd due to
(a) potholes
(b) dangerous electrical installations
(c) garbage dumps
(d) being too narrow
(e) waterlogging
(f) dug up due to ‘multiplicity of authorities’
(iii) crossings facilitate vehicles, not pdstns
(iv) lighting on roads, not on sdwks
(v) spending more on road users than pdstns

III. Roads in Other Modern Cities
(i) roads designed for all categories of pdstns
(ii) give them a sense of belonging
(iii) Delhi authorities should improve the situation

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
mntnd maintained
clnd cleaned
cmprsn comparison
sdwks sidewalks
cltrd cluttered
pdstns pedestrians

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Floors in Indian homes are well maintained and decorated. Home buyers invest on good floors, but in comparison, the streets are neglected. Delhi’s pedestrian sidewalks, used by most people, are poorly made and cluttered due to various installations or remaining dug up due to a ‘multiplicity of authorities’.

Road crossings facilitate vehicles, not pedestrians, with lighting on roads, not on sidewalks and spending more on road users than on pedestrians. In contrast, modern cities worldwide are better, with roads designed for all categories of pedestrians, . which give them a sense of belonging. Delhi authorities should thus work on improving the situation.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 7

India is surrounded by water bodies on three sides, yet we face water shortage every year! Consider this – the per capita water availability in India was 3450 cu m in 1951. By 2025, the annual per capita availability of water is expected to fall drastically from the current 1800 cu m per person to between 1200 and 1500 cu m.

Mumbai’s demand for water was 7950 MLD (million litres per day) in 2011. The supply was only around 3100 MLD – a substantial shortfall, but the city receives only 2500 MLD, the balance being lost on account of leakages and pilferage. Delhi Jal Board is able to supply only around 650 million gallons of water per day against the demand of 750 million gallons. According to a World Bank study of 27 Asian cities with population of over one million, Kolkata is the fourth worst performing metro in terms of hours of water availability per day.

The quality of available water is also fast deteriorating. In 1982 it was reported that 70 percent of all available water in India was polluted. The situation is much worse today. Over-extraction of ground water has led to salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers. It has also resulted in problems of excessive fluoride, iron, arsenic and salinity in water, which is currently affecting about 44 million people in India. Ground water is facing an equally serious threat from contamination by industrial effluents and faecal matter, as well as pesticides and fertilisers from farm run-offs.

Unless priority is given quickly to creating an infrastructure to assure availability of water, there may soon be no water to meet the agricultural, domestic and industrial needs of a population that will has tripled in 50 years to one and a quarter billion.

Water management is therefore a major challenge for town planners, builders and architects today, not just in terms of availability of water, but most importantly its quality.

As water shortage increases, alternate sources of water supply are gaining importance. These include sewage recycling, rainwater harvesting, generating water from humidity in the atmosphere etc. Water recycling is a simple, effective and economical solution to conserve water so that more fresh water is available for uses such as drinking, bathing, cooking and laundry.

Rajesh Sharma, Managing Director, Ion Exchange (India) Ltd, opines, “Population, industrialisation and pollution are putting pressure on our limited fresh water resources. There is a limit to increasing water supply because we are running out of sources and the cost of additional facilities is prohibitive. Moreover as industry, which pays heavily for the water it uses, recycles more and more of it, it will be increasingly difficult for municipalities to find the money for subsidy.

Sewage recycle would help reduce infrastructural costs on public water supply systems as well as avoid heavy losses of water through leakages during distribution through public supply pipelines. The best way to solve water scarcity, therefore, is by conserving water and recycling it wherever possible. Recycling must be made mandatory for all new projects – industrial or domestic. It should be promoted for existing buildings also. Apart from priority to watershed development, rainwater harvesting and water recycling, another area we need to address is optimising use of water in agriculture (which uses 70% of the fresh water available) through drip irrigation etc.”

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Tackling Water Scarcity

I. Water Availability Status
(i) per capita in India: 3450 cu m 951) reduced to1800 cum (today) and will reduce to 1200-1500 cu m (2025)
(ii) Mumbai’s dmd more than triple of supply
(iii) Delhi’s dmd is 15% more than supply
(iv) Kolkata 4th worst performing metro in Asia for water supply

II. Quality of Available Water
(i) groundwater constantly dtrtg
(a) salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers
(b) excessive fluoride, arsenic, iron and salinity
(c) polluted by
– industrial effluents
– faecal matter
– pesticides and fertilisers from farm run-offs

III. Howto Handle the Problems
(i) water mgmt major problem
(ii) promote alternate sources
(a) sewage recycling
(b) rainwater harvesting
(c) water gnrtn from atmospheric humidity
(iii) effective and economical solution to conserve water

IV. Opinion of MD, Ion Exchange (India)
(i) prsr on fresh water resources due to
(a) t population
(b) industrialisation
(c) water pollution
(ii) additional facilities cost prohibitive
(iii) cannot subsidise
(iv) solns suggested
(a) conserve & recycle water
(b) watershed development
(c) optimise use in agriculture

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
dmd demand
dtrtg deteriorating
mgmt management
gnrtn generation
MD Managing Director
prsr pressure
T increasing
solns solutions
& and

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Water availability in India is falling steadily, particularly in the metros. The quality of available water is also deteriorating, with 70 per cent of water being polluted due to salinity and excessive presence of fluorides, iron and arsenic. Groundwater is contaminated by industrial effluents, faecal matter and agricultural run-offs.

According to the Managing Director, Ion Exchange (India), we need to prioritise water availability through sewage recycling, rainwater harvesting, water generation from atmospheric humidity etc. In addition watershed development should be done and water use in agriculture must be optimised.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 8

There is nothing more frustrating than when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand, you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Samuel Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various facts of your physical and internal environment,” she adds.

To begin with, one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focused thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours, identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library. In case you are living in a market area, you may want to study at a time when the market is not open.

She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh. “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books.

Also do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one should try and provide as litde stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh.

The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of time. The human mind recognises fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more th^n random thoughts. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focused system will follow.

She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to.

For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.

Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build ’ your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects.

More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Concentration Techniques

I. Enhance your Concentration
(i) avoid wdrg thoughts
(ii) idfy phsl & int env
(iii) create focus
(iv) plan study hrs time and Ictn

II. Avoid
(i) distractive env
(ii) divide schedule
(iii) actvtg two senses

III. Setting Goals
(i) fix goals & targets
(ii) study near window
(iii) attempt dfclt tasks first

IV. Discipline your Mind
(i) avoid working long at a stretch
(ii) take very short breaks
(iii) don’t relax too long
(iv) practice & patience help

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
wdrg wandering
idfy identify
phsl physical
& and
int internal
env environment
hrs hours
Ictn location
actvtg activating
> more than
dfclt difficult

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
It is very frustrating to lose concentration while working. Certain techniques will definitely help to build up concentration. Firstly, the physical and internal environment should be conducive for focused thinking. Avoid noisy areas and other distractions such that not more than two of your senses are active at any time. Secondly, establish definite goals and accomplish them, thus establishing a focused system. Plan, divide and prioritise your schedule. Avoid working long stretches, taking only short breaks to improve your concentration. With patience and practice, concentration will become a lifelong habit.

Note Making Class 12 CBSE Format, Examples

Note Making Class 12 CBSE Format, ExamplesNote-making is an advanced writing skill which is gaining importance due to knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills.

Looking for an easy way to learn English Grammar? then you are in right place. Here we providing basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc…

Note Making Class 12 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is a skill that helps you organize, categorise and recall information in a concise and tabulated form. It helps you in your academic life as note-making skills are needed when you go for higher education. Some of the advantages of note-making are as follows.

Advantages of Note Making :

  • helps ypu to remember the salient features of a text.
  • requires the retrieving of information from a larger and expanded text.
  • allows the reader to select what she or he wants to gather from a given text. .
  • helps you to summarise a larger text into a precise form for better retention and comprehension.
  • can be used for storing a large quantity of reading matter in a compact form.

Note Making Steps

Keep the following steps in mind while making the notes.

  • Step 1 : A thorough reading of the given passage is needed to follow what the subject matter of the given passage is.
  • Step 2 : Underline key words/phrases that you would like to note or recall from the passage. These should not include explanations or examples, but core ideas and facts.
  • Step 3 : Include subpoints to elaborate a main point. These will enlarge the knowledge base without being verbose.
  • Step 4 : Follow the format laid down for note-making so that the points remain legible and under¬standable at the end of the exercise.

Format for Note Making CBSE Class 12

While there are different formats used, such as flow charts, pie charts, graphic presentation of data among others, it is best to make use of the format given below:

Numbering and Indenting
Caution: Do not write complete sentences in note-making.
The following rules are followed with regard to abbreviations:
All standard abbreviations should be used (UN, &,…)
Use the first and last letters of words coined for abbreviations (wrtg for writing)

Contractions of words: can’t
Symbols used in mathematics and otherwise (e.g./p.m.)

Note Making Passages for Class 12 CBSE With Answers Pdf

Note Making Passages Pdf 1
Read the passage given below.

Getting enough sleep is as important as taking time out to relax. A good night’s sleep is essential for preserving the health of your brain and gives you the best chance to meet the coming day with a razor sharp mind. An average person needs about six to eight hour sleep a night—although it is also true that you need slightly less than this, as you grow older—another advantage of aging stress and sleep deprivation often feed on each other, since stress tends to make it harder for you to fall asleep at night and sleep deprivation in itself causes stress.

Eventually, too little sleep can dramatically interfere with the performance of your memory— something you obviously want to prevent. If you are not getting enough sleep, try going to bed 30 to 60 minutes earlier than your normal bed time for a few days. Lie down on the bed and try to relax by dissociating yourself from your daily routine work. This is normally enough to catch up on any sleep deprivation.

If, however, you suffer from insomnia you should seek the advice of your doctor. The chances are it is already affecting your ability to remember and recall information—and if you are struggling to improve your memory scores, this could be at the root of your problem. Prolonged periods of insufficient sleep can deplete your immune system, make you more accident prone and even cause depression—this can also reinforce a more negative outlook on life, which can contribute to your stress burden. The good news is that your memory and mood should automatically improve once you improve your sleep patterns.

Tackle your sleep issues and everything else should fall into place. Because stress management is so essential to maximize your brain power, if you are not in the habit of setting aside time to relax, make it a priority to do so. Even a minute or two of deep breathing can start to work wonders. Often the best ideas and memories can come to you when you are in a state of relaxation as it is during these moments that your brain stores, processes and plays with the information it has received.

Meditation has long been part of religious and spiritual life, specially in Asia. Today, more and more people are adopting it in Western countries also, for its value in developing peace of mind and lowering stress. There is some evidence that regular meditation can have real sleep gain and health benefits particularly in terms of protecting your brain against aging.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary—minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Problems of sleep deprivation
I. Lack of a good night’s sleep
(i) affects our health and mind
(ii) is a problem of aging stress
(iii) causes mental problem
(iv) intrfrs with performance of our memory

II. Good memory and mood
(i) need good sleep
(ii) can improve your immune system
(iii) help to have your +ve outlook on life
(iv) can save you from insomnia

III. Regular meditation
(a) has health benefits
(b) brings about good sleep
(c) helps reducing stress
(d) empowers your religious and sports life

Title: Meditation Cures Stress and Insomnia

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 100 words.
Stress and sleep deprivation is a major problem for sound health and sound mind. So, it interferes with the performance of our memory and immune system. It also reinforces our negative outlook and bad mood. So, our best ideas and memories can come to us only if we have good sleep and stress free life. In. fact, stress management can maximize opr brain power. Hence, the hour of need is to practise meditation in order to solve the issue of stress and sleep deprivation. Above all, meditation is a bliss to gain health benefits and religious and spiritual life.

Note Making Passages Pdf 2
Read the passage given below.

James Doohan, Scotty from the original ‘Star Trek’ series, died in 2005. Before his death he left instructions in his will that he wished to be buried in space. It took a long time, but Doohan’s ashes made it to space in 2012.

The first space burial took place 20 years before Doohan’s and it involved the ashes of another person involved in ‘Star Trek’, that of its series creator Gene Roddenberry. Since then, space burials have become big business. And believe it or not, with traditional funeral expenses going through the roof, the costs of space burials have actually become competitive. A company that specialises in space burials, Celestrix, offers a price list to potential customers. The launch of a single gram of a loved one’s ashes into the earth’s orbit starts at around $5,000. A launch of the same amount of ashes into deep space costs $12,500. The third option, of having one’s ashes scattered on the moon can cost $9,950.

The popularity of space burials is now changing funeral habits in the United States. More and more people are choosing cremation instead of burial so that their relatives have the option of sending their ashes into space. Since 1999, according to the Cremation Association, in Canada and the United States, the rate of cremations has almost doubled.

Companies like Celestrix take payment from the departed family, receive the ashes and even provide the container to carry the remains. The container in this case is a special one as it must be secure enough to get past thermal, vibration and vacuum tests, before it can be launched so as not to explode while orbiting in space.

The space urn then is taken to ride out to space. It needs a vessel in which it can escape Earth’s gravity. Thus it has to be launched into space with the help of rockets with satellites, scientific equipment, climate instrumentation and other payloads.

As there are yet no dedicated spacecraft to run exclusive burial services, the remains have to be in waiting till a suitable opportunity can be found in a craft which can find room to accommodate the urn. Some companies have begun to specialise in this operation. Ceveit is one company that offers customers ‘a dignified memorial spaceflight.’ The company takes the ‘remains’ up to join communication satellites, spy satellites and thousands of other satellites that circle the earth.

As a step further, there are companies that are looking at other options. One of them is planning to start a service to send a keepsake, such as a DNA sample, a wedding ring, a photograph, to the moon. Once the keepsake reaches its destination, the client will get a photograph on the social media or any other network of one’s choice, to cherish forever afterwards.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it. using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Lure of Space Burials
I. James Doohan’s last wish
(i) left as instructions in his will
(ii) wished to be buried in space
(iii) wish fulfilled in 2012, though died in 2005

II. Scenario 20 yrs before and now
(i) Gene Roddenberry’s ashes carried into space 20 yrs earlier
(ii) Rising cremation rate provides space burial options
(iii) space burials now competitive with ritual burials ill.

III. Offers made by Celetrix to customers
(i) price list available
(ii) $5000 for earth orbiting of ashes
(iii) $12,500 for space burial
(iv) ashes scattered on moon for $9950
(v) ashes collection by company .
(vi) provision of thermal, vibration and vacuum sealed container

IV. Process of ashes launch
(i) launched by rockets/satellites
(ii) carrying sc equip, climate instrumentation & other payloads.

V. Drawbacks of the system
(i) dedicated spacecraft for exclusive ash carrying
(ii) long wait for suitable launch
(iii) Ceveit’s services on commn satellites /spy satellites and others

VI. Future steps
(i) carrying keepsakes
A. DNA Sample
B. Wedding ring
C. photographs
D. facilitate posting on social networking sites.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Following Gene Roddenberry’s example, James Doohan’s ashes were taken into space. With cremations rising and space burials turning competitive, companies like Celestrix offer services of collecting ash, providing containers and earth orbiting, deep space carrying, or scattering ash on the moon. Despite a long gestation period, as there are no dedicated flights for ashs carriage, companies manage to dispatch their cargo ort satellites. Future plans include carrying keepsakes such as DNA samples, wedding rings and sending photographs for posting on social media networks.

Note Making Passages Pdf 3
Read the passage given below carefully:

How does one go about creating joy on a regular basis?

According to Meadow Linn, one should start small. Happiness can grow and blossom into a beautiful bouquet, but first it needs to start as a tiny seed. Thereafter it must be nurtured every day. One must begin by reveling in seemingly insignificant objects and moments. Perhaps it could be the perfume of a vibrant flower; the way the evening light dances across the sky before sunset. Once one starts seeing the beauty and magic in everyday life, one can begin to experience the same in all areas of one’s life.

Thereafter these ‘eureka’ moments begin to prompt the person into making big and small changes in life and help the person in mending broken relationships, help them find a new hobby and so on. The list is endless.

Sitar player Anoushka Shankar says that she would like to create her moments of happiness by staying connected with her inner core and then projecting her own unique light outwards. Greek mathematician Archimedes, when he uttered the words: ‘I’ve found it’, established the important principle of physics in that moment. Today we don’t need life-changing discoverers. We can find personal inspirations by discovering our own ‘eureka’ moments.

According to Katja Rusanen, a spiritual coach, the two most powerful words that can empower us are: I AM. According to him, whatever we attach to ‘I AM’ is what you will finally become. If you give yourself the power to be negative, negativity will be repeated and if you give the power to be positive, you will create eureka moments every day.

According to fashion designer Kir an Uttam Ghosh one should take time out to repeat one’s happy moments every day. During breaks through the day by doing new things, one indulges in an unknowable essence that exists. Her eureka moment comes when she creates a new outfit or drinks a cup of chai.

Another eureka moment comes in our lives when we suddenly start understanding a complicated problem. According to writers John Kounios and Mark Beeman, it is the moment when the fog clears and you have a rare insight into a problem which you didn’t have before.

Yoga coach Mini Thapar says that for her there need not be something extraordinary to find her eureka moment. One can get one’s eureka moment from the complacency that sets in while living an everyday routine. The ecstatic moment comes when one least expects it. Researchers have seen that much of what is seen as creativity folklore actually has foundations in rock-hard fact. There are firm reasons why we get our best ideas at times when we are simply gazing at the ceiling.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Search for Happiness

I. Meadow Linn’s idea
(i) start small
(ii) happiness will blossom into bouquet
(iii) happiness lies in seemingly small objects
(iv) find happiness in everyday life

II. Eureka moments begin to change life
(i) help mend broken re’la’ips
(ii) find new hobby, etc.

III. When they found their eureka moment.
(i) Anoushka Shankar
(ii) Staying connected with her inner core and proj’g own light
(iii) Greek mathematician Archimedes:
(iv) A.his defining moment in physics
(v) Kiran Uttam Ghosh: fashion designer
(vi) A. taking breaks by doing new things

B. an indulgent cup of chai
C. creating a new outfit
(vii) personal inspiration key to individual eureka moments individual

IV. Views of Rusanen, spiritual coach
(i) take time out to repeat happy moments
(ii) Empower yourself with the words: I AM
(iii) do not indulge in negative thoughts

V. Writers John Kounios and Mark Beeman’s eureka moment
(i) understanding a complicated problem
(ii) getting insight into problems which one didn’t have earlier

VI. Mini Thaar’s emphasis
(i) happiness is in everyday moments
(ii) folkloric creativity rests on rock-hard facts
(iii) firm reasons behind best ideas while gazing at ceiling

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Meadow Linn advises that to gain happiness, start small, collect a happiness bouquet subsequently. Eureka moments can change life, build broken relationships, start new hobbies.

According to Anoushka Shankar, it comes from inner connectivity. For Archimedes it was his defining moment in physics while Kiran Uttam Ghosh gets her after creating a new outfit and drinking chai. Writers state eureka moments are linked with solving niggling problems but Mini Thapar claims that happiness lies in everyday things as there are solid reasons why some sources yield happiness.

Note Making Passages Pdf 4
Read the passage given below.

As healthcare turns costlier in developed countries, the availability of accredited facilities are drawing hundreds to India. As a result, the Indian medical tourism market is expected to grow from $3 billion at present to around $8 billion by 2020. Witness an annual growth of 30% in medical tourism, India is set to become the number one destination for patients requiring medical attention. Cashing in on this demand, players in this space are making a medical trip for a visitor as convenient as a vacation.

A Pune-based medical company has about 1500 partnerships with hospitals and doctors in India and Turkey. The company has provided services to about 1000 patients. They describe themselves as an online marketplace for medical tourism and not a discovery platform. In this company all details are provided on the website and on payment of a token amount one can immediately buy a package/treatment with a hospital. The company also provides concierge medical services, such as visas, hotel and accommodation and sight-seeing, as value-added services.

Another medical centre which gets about 15 patients a month, provides a list of various treatments, with categories like cancer treatment packages, and cosmetic surgery packages, among others, along with their pricing details. Walking clients through every step, right from when they plan to leave their home country till they are back home after the surgery, the company provides medical opinion and evaluations, suggestions with details of fees and stay, besides post-operative care.

While lower costs have always buoyed India’s position as a favoured medical tourist §pot, cost is not the only reason for drawing people to these facilities. It is also the quality of care and a personalized experience that these places are providing and which counts. The international patient care teams at these places are the key. Realising that India is more individual oriented, unlike the West which is more process-driven, the staff at these places are trained to understand the culture of various countries, starting with the basic etiquette of greeting a person, to their festivals. The idea is to create a personalized interaction with the patient. Thus India has adopted a system that has a more holistic approach.

As the non-metropolitan cities offer a lower rate for the same level of medical quality, substantial growth is foreseen in these places. However, the availability of direct flights has a significant bearing in the choice of locations. But with new opportunities come new challenges. For India, it is staying up on the curve to appease the international audience.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Rise of Medical Tourism in India
I. The current status of medi tourism in. India
(i) costlier healthcare in the West
(ii) estimated rise from $3 million to $8 million by 2020
(iii) players making medi trips like vacations

II. Profile of Pune-based Co
(i) 1500 partnerships with hospitals and patients from Turkey
(ii) online marketplace for med tourism
(iii) token fee for package treatment info
(iv) provision for concierge services
A. visas
B. hotel and accom’n
C. sight-seeing

III. Other medi centre facilities
(i) separate treatment packages with prices
(ii) controlling door-to-door care
(iii) medi opinion and evaluation
(iv) post-operative care

IV. Reasons for India’s growth
(i) quality care and attention given
(ii) more individual oriented
(iii) staff trained to be culture-sensitive
(iv) overall holistic approach

V. growth in non-metro cities
(i) same level of medí quality
(ii) drawback: connectivity to metro poor
(iii) challenge: to maintain present status

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Rising costs have driven medical tourism growth in India, from $3 million to an expected $8 million by 2020 as medical trips turn vacation-like. A Pune-based company has a 1500 partnership data with hospitals and Turkish patients. Online information and package treatment information on nominal payment is available. The concierge services include visa facilitation, hotel accommodation and post-operative care. Others offer staff trained to be culture-sensitive. Growth has fanned to non-metro cities because of pricing advantages, but is hampered by poor connectivity and challenges to keep up standards.

Note Making Passages Pdf 5
Read the passage given below.

The presence of a pollutant in air is not necessarily life threatening. It becomes a killer only after its concentration breaches safety limits. As many as 4000 Londoners died of air pollution when the Great Smog hit the UK capital in 1952. This was mainly due to PM 2.5 and S02 levels crossing all limits of safety. What makes matters scarier is a new found pollutant ultra fine particulate matter (PMI). Experts haven’t yet defined a safety limit for this.

Natural air consists of different gases, including PM 2.5 and PMI. The problem arises when the levels of some of the more dangerous gases elements breaches safety levels. Human activity is usually to blame for such a rise, although weather can also play a role.

The more lethal PMI penetrates the lungs and enfers the blood stream. A study on it clarifies that CO, ozone, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide, and volatile compounds are just as life threatening if their concentration jumps alarmingly.

Toxic air pollutants such as dioxins, benzene, arsenic, beryllium, mercury and vinyl chloride are also strongly linked to cancer and birth defects. Air toxins are found in trace amounts and are extremely toxic even in very small quantities. That is why they are measured in nanograms, not micrograms. Thus measures to check air pollution, according to the experts, should be measured based on which pollutants are dominant in an area and how toxic they are.

Historically, it has been found that S02 and C02 levels are not rising as significantgly as PM 2.5 and N02 in the capital which has serious cardiovascular and respiratory impactgs. Similarly, pollutants generated from combustion are more toxic than those from natural sources such as road, or wind blown dust. While ambient air data may be easier to measure but they do not always represent human exposure. Dose, a measure to measure change in the body due to exposure to pollutants, can be an accurate measure of impact, but is not available for many important pollutants. Ambiet monitoring is especially useful for providing a long-term record of the overall level of pollution and how that changes with respect to policies. But people don’t breathe ambient air. They breathe the air wherever they happen to be. Exposure assessment takes the process of measuring air pollution to where people spend most of their time.

Fine particulate components have recently been classified as a cause of lung cancer along with diesel combustion and the burning of coal, the two main causes of household and ambient pollution as – sources of carcinogenic. Around 30% of all lung cancer deaths can be attributed to the combined effects of household and ambient air pollution.

In order to quantify air exposures one can measure air quality in indoor and outdoot environments in which people spend time.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary’ — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Life threatening levels of air pollutants
I. Air pollutants become killers
(i) when concentration breaches safety levels
(ii) At Great Smog (London) death from dangerous levels
(iii) PM level 2.5 and S02 levels beyond safety norms
(iv) newest threat from PMI-extra fine particulate matter
(v) dahger levels of it not calculated

II. Dangers to natural air
(i) comp of natural air, including PM and PMI
(ii) breach in safety7 levels, particularly
(iii) A. CO
B. sulphur dioxide
C. nitrogen oxide
D. volatile compounds
(iv) domestic activity, besides weather

III. Links bet toxic air and diseases
(i) PMI enters lungs and penetrates bid stream
(ii) trace elements for
(iii) dioxins, benzene, arsenic, beryllium, mercury, vinyl chloride cause cancer and birth defects
(iv) pollutant check based on which pollutants are present in an area

IV. Findings about pollutants
(i) PM 2.5 and N02 causing cardiovascular and respiratory complaints in the capital
(ii) combustion more toxic that road dust
(iii) Ambient monitoring for assessing long-term, overall record of pollutants
(iv) measuring air where people abound
(v) coal fire and diesel cause for carcinogens
(vi) 30% of lung cancer from ambient air pollution

V. Ways to quantify air exposure
(i) measuring quality of air both indoors and outdoors
(ii) measuring where people spend time

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Air pollutants become dangerous when safety levels are breached. The effects of pollutant PMI, is not ascertained. Besides, dangers to natural air arises from breach in natural levels of CO, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Findings show that PM 2.5 is causing cardiovascular and respiratory complaints while coal fires and deisel cause carcinogens. Ambient air pollution caused 30% lung cancer cases. Measuring air quality includes checks of both indoor and outdoor places where people spend time.

Note Making Passages Pdf 6
Read the passage given below carefully:

To most of us the most fascinating thing about spiders is the webs they spin. But actually a spider is the most amazing creature in many other respects. First of all, spiders are not insects. They belong to a group known as ‘arachnids’ and differ from insects in that they have eight legs, usually eight eyes, no wings and only two parts to their bodies.

They can live on any type of climate and are found in every part of the world. They can live in the air, on the water, on the ground, depending on their species. They vary in size from 8 centimeters to some that are so small that they are barely visible. Some spiders can go a whole year without water. One type of spider, the large tarantula, eats birds and can live for as long as 15 years. Yet most spiders live for just one year.

The silk in a spider’s web is manufactured in certain abdominal glands. The silk is forced through many tiny holes from the spinning organs at the tip of the abdomen. It comes out as a liquid which becomes solid on contact with the air.

There are many kinds of silk that a spider can spin. The sticky silk which the spider uses in its web to catch its prey is the sticky one. The strong supporting spokes which are non-sticky and the silks in its cocoon in which the eggs are laid are actually soft and fluffy. Other silks that it weaves are hard and even fibrous.

Even the shapes of spiders’ webs differ. Some make webs that are shaped like wheels arid are commonly used for catching its prey. It is made by first forming a rectangle with heavy outer lines which form the foundation lines of the web. The spokes of the wheel are constructed next. Then comes a scaffolding of three to four spiels. The close, sticky silk spiral is built last.

Other webs that a spider spins are ‘sheet webs’. They are flat and are funnel-shaped. Sometimes, they are even dome-shaped masses of silk. The spider uses one side of the web to live in it. ‘Trap’ door spiders make a burrow with a lid at the top. It is disguised by sticks and dirt. A ‘Wolf’ spider builds a tunnel into the ground and lines the area with silk.

The European water spider builds a home in the shape of a bell. This is done entirely under water! The spider then fills it with air brought from the surface in the hairs of its abdomen. Then she lays eggs’and rears the young in this enclosure until they are old enough to build webs for themselves. Yet not all spiders build nests for themselves. Some of them just make a ‘home’ in a leaf, or a slice of tree bark instead.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Characteristics Of Spiders
I. Amazing facts about spiders
(i) spiders, not insects
(ii) family of arachnids: 8 legs/8 eyes/2 bodies/no wings
(iii) can survive in any climate
(iv) live on air, water, ground as per species
(v) size variations: 8 cm minuscule
(vi) tarantula preys on birds and lives 15 yrs
(vii) can survive without water

II. Silk in a spider’s web
(i) manfd in abdominal glands
(ii) spinning organs at tip of abdominal glands
(iii) emits as liquid and solidifies on contact with air

III. Types of silk made
(i) sticky silk to catch prey
(ii) spp’ting spokes: non sticky
(iii) scaffolding of 3-4 spiels
(iv) sticky silk spiral, built last

IV. Varieties of spider webs
(i) sheet webs
A. flat and funnel-shaped
B. also tunnel-shaped

(ii) trap door
A. burrow shaped
B. having lid on top

(iii) wolf spiders burrow underground
(iv) wheel-shaped for catching prey

V. The European water spider
(i) builds bell-shaped home under water
(ii) fills with air
(iii) brought from surfaced in hairs of abdomen
(iv) rears eggs
(v) nurses them till maturity
(vi) leaves when young can build nests indep

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Spiders are arachnids, survive in all climates and range from 8cm to minuscule sizes. Tarantulas can eat birds and live 15 years. The silk in a web is manufactured in abdominal glands and emit as liquid before solidifying under air contact. The sticky silk helps in trapping prey. Non-sticky scaffolding and spokes support the web. Varieties of webs include sheet webs, trap door webs wolf spider burrows, and wheel-shaped webs. The European water spider burrows under water, hatches eggs, rears young, nurses till maturity, all under water.

Note Making Passages Pdf 7
Read the passage given below.

Hundreds of thousands of years ago giant mammoths still roamed the earth and the surface of the earth was covered by dense forests. Men took shelter in caves and covered their bodies with animal skins. At that time, dogs became man’s best friend. At first they followed man on his hunting trips and waited to get whatever scraps he could get, from the kill his master made. Then the instinct for companionship made him adopt man as his leader. Soon man began to train dogs to help him during the hunt, to carry his burdens and to give him companionship as he sat by the fireside in the evenings. These changes took place much before recorded history came into practice.

These findings can only be confirmed by the study of the bones of primitive dogs which lay beside the bones of primitive men in caves. As the history of the dog goes back to a time when records were not maintained, it is impossible to be sure of these happenings.

Some scientists believe that dogs are the result of mating between wolves and jackals. Other scientists say that some species of dogs descended from wolves while others descended from jackals. Some even go on to say that dogs descended from coyotes and from foxes. A widely held theory is that our modern dogs that we keep as pets descended from a remote common ancestor.

This last theory substantiates the difference in size and appearance between various breeds of dogs. Other evidence of the wild ancestry of dogs is the built of their bodies, which is very distinctly adopted for speed and strength. Together with their keen sense of small, quick hearing qualities, it becomes obvious thatjhey have wild hunters in their genes.

From the time when recorded history began, there have been references to dogs in them. Here are images of dogs on Egyptian tombs that are 5000 years old. The Egyptians considered their dog as sacred and the whole family would go into mourning if the dog in an Egyptian home died. Today, the dog is an indispensable part of our lives. For hundreds of young, healthy blind people, the dog is their seeing eye.

A seeing-eye dog is usually a German shepherd dog. It takes three months to train a guide dog. First-come the obedience exercises repeated daily as ‘setting up exercises’. Then a U-shaped leather harness is buckled on and the dog learns to walk at the left of the trainer. He is taught to stop and wait at the curb, watch traffic and let cats pass. Before the dog is passed on to a blind master a final check is made. Then the blind master and his dog train together for four weeks before they go home to work smoothly as a team.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Companionship Of Dog And Man
I. Conditions on earth in prehistoric times
(i) giant mammoths roamed about
(ii) dense forests
(iii) men were cave-dwellers & wore animal skins
(iv) time when dogs became man’s best friend

II. Companionship between man and dog between
(i) instinct for companionship led to friendship
(ii) followed man on hunting trips
(iii) ate scraps from hunts
(iv) man trained dogs & became fireside companion
(v) dog bones recovered around caves

III. Ancestry of dogs
(i) offspring bom of wolves & jackals
(ii) other theory: sep offspring from them
(iii) descended from coyotes and foxes
(iv) mod dogs descended from remote common ancestor
(v) size & agility indicates wild dog genes

IV. Dog references in recorded hist
(i) dog images on Egyptian tombs
(ii) family member in Egyptian households
(iii) seeing eye for blind

V. Character of seeing-eye dog
(i) usually a German shepherd dog
(ii) training methodology
(iii) A. initial ‘setting up ex’

B. fitted with U-shaped harness
C. walks left of man
1. 4-week man-and-dog training
2. back home as a team

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
When mammoth creatures roamed the densely forested earth, dogs became man’s best companion. They sought companionship with man, was fed on scraps after the hunt and trained to hunt on becoming man’s fireside companion. Dogs are believed to be the offspring of jackal and wolf parents or separate offspring from them. Others believe all modern dogs have a common ancestor. Dogs were loved by ancient Egyptians and seeing-eye dogs are German Shepherds trained to work smoothly as a team with his owner.

Note Making Passages Pdf 8
Read the passage given below.

The great Sphinx sits in the desert of Egypt, about eight miles from the capital city of Cairo. It is besides three other pyramids and is said to be guarding the three large pyramids of Giza. It is a monster structure made of rock with the head of a man and the body of a crouching lion with its forepaws extended in front.

While the body is roughly sculptured, the head of the Sphinx is carved with care. The eyes look mysterious and has a look which nobody has been able to explain. It seems to be gazing out into the desert with a look of mystical superiority.

The figure of the Sphinx measures above 18 metres in height and is 57 metres long. It is believed that the Sphinx was made 5000 years ago. Archeologists are also able to tell us why the Sphinx was built. The one piece of evidence that points to its being built is to be found in a little chapel that is found between the paws of the large figure. This chapel has inscriptions put there by two ancient Egyptian kings. According to these writings, the Sphinx represents one of the forms of the Sun god Harmarchis. Thus the purpose of the Sphinx is to keep away all evil from the cemetery around the Pyramids.

Contrary to our belief, there are many sphinxes in Egypt besides the great Sphinx of Giza. They are different from this mammoth structure because their heads represent different kings of Egypt. This explains why these structures are called ‘sphinx’ for the word means lord’ according to the sacred writings of the EgyptiAnswer: In ancient religions the king was believed to have the strength and cunning of various beasts. These kings acquired the strengths of various beasts by putting on the animal’s head or by wearing their skins. So the carvers of Egypt made their kings in shapes that were half-human and half-beast.

The idea of making sphinxes in ancient times was not confined to Egypt alone. They were also built by the kings of Assyria and Greece. In these regions the sphinxes were slightly different from their Egyptian counterparts in that they had wings. In Assyria these figures were usually that of male kings but in Greece they had heads of women. The word ‘sphinx’ comes from a Greek word.

For the Egyptians, the Sphinx held a special place just like the idea we have, of dragons. We think of dragons as huge creatures capable of much destruction but no one really believes that there are real dragons on earth.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Mystery of the Great Sphinx
I. Location of the Great Sphinx
(i) In the desert of Egypt & 8 miles from Cairo
(ii) alongside three other sphinxes
(iii) guarding the pyramids of Giza
(iv) 18 m high and 57 m long

II. Physical dimensions of the Sphinx
(i) monster structure made of rock
(ii) head of a man (MI) body of a lion
(iv) forepaws extended in front
(v) mysterious look in eyes, gazing into desert

III. Details of its structure
(i) built 5000 years ago
(ii) reason for its building inside its chapel .
(iii) rep one of the forms of the sun god Harmarchis
(iv) keeps off evil from the Pyramids

IV. Differences from other sphinxes
(i) heads rep diff kings of Egypt
(ii) reason behind name
A. sphinx means lord or ruler
B. derived from sacred writings
C. Greek origin of the word ‘sphinx
(iii) reason behind name
A. kings protect their subjects
B. kings acqd strengths by wearing a part animal’s skin & clothes

V. Sphinx making not exclusive to Egypt
(i) built by kings of Assyria and Greece
(ii) These had sphinx
(iii) Assyrian sphinxes with male heads
(iv) Greek sphinxes female heads
(v) Egyptian sphinx half beast and half man

VI. Compared to other ages
(i) can be equated to dragons from other cultures
(ii) like sphinxes, no one believes in their existence

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
The Grealt Sphinx (18 m x 57 m) located 8 miles in the desert from Cairo, alongside 3 other sphinxes, supposedly guards the Pyramids. The monster structure has a finely carved man’s head, a lion’s body, forepaws stretched forward, and mysterious eyes. Built 5000 years ago to represent the sun god Harmarchis it differs from other Egyptian sphinxes that have heads of kings representing their protective power over subjects. Sphinxes in Assyria and Greece are winged, bearing male heads in Assyria and female ones in Greece.

Note Making Passages Pdf 9
Read the passage given below carefully:

Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, Spenser, Dr Johnson are among the literary masters who contributed greatly to the growth, enrichment and development of the English language. Among them Shakespeare has no equal with regard to extent and profundity of his influence on the language. Critics conclude that his mind is not shown by the fact that he was acquainted with around 20,000 words but by the fact that since he wrote about it in a great variety of subjects and touched upon several human facts and relationships that he needed his number of words in his writings.

He also had a remarkable familiarity with technical expressions. He also used language to individualise the characters in his plays. The every day of the artisans in A Midsummer Night’s Dream’ is comic and different from the diction or the other superior characters. A great many words used by Shakespeare have another value than they had then. For instance, the word ‘bonnet’ was a man’s cap and not a woman’s headgear. To charm a person was in his time associated with witchcraft while notorious was used for someone well known in a good sense.

Chaucer’s writings too had a powerful influence on the English language although it is difficult to prove this fact by definite examples. He was regarded as a poet of new thought. He not only imported hundreds of words from other languages but also created hundreds of them. Like him, Milton contributed about 7000 words to English vocabulary. Words like ‘pandemonium’ are examples of his coinage, and phrases such as ‘the human face divine’ are examples of his phrases. Another poet of our time, Spenser, left his mark on the English poetic style. Though many of his expressions have now become obsolete, in the middle of the 18th century writers and poets were eager to adopt his romantic style when they wanted to move away from everyday realities.

By far the greatest influence on English has come from the Bible and many of its words have become household words today. The best judges of English style recommend a constant study of the Bible as a training ground in English. The scriptural ‘holy of holies’ which contains the Hebrew manner of expressing the superlative, has given rise to phrases such as ‘horror of horrors’. Some scriptural proper nouns such a Jehu, are mentioned when a driver is driving furiously in context with Jehu’s driving mentioned in the Bible. In poetry it is due to the Biblical influence that the ‘th’ forms began to be used by poets in words such as ‘loveth’ ‘hath, etc. Besides giving us words, the Bible had a tremendous influence on the technical grammar of modern poetry, particularly in the works of Milton, Tennyson and Shakespeare.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Enriching Of English
I. The enrichment of English is through the writings of Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, Spenser
II. The contribution of Shakespeare include
(i) knew more than 20K words
(ii) used them to express a vast number of subjects
(iii) to express human relationships and facts
(iv) to individualise characters
(v) the artisans in ‘A midsummer Night’s Dream’

III. Changes in usage of words since Shakespeare’s time
(i) bonnet a man’s cap
(ii) charm: associated with witchcraft
(iii) notorious: used in a good sense

IV. The contributions of other greats
(i) Chaucer: poet of new thought
(ii) Milton: added 7000 words to Eng vocabulary
(iii) Spenser: popular for the romantic style in poetry

V. The greatest infl from the Bible
(i) for bettering English style
(ii) use of the super’ve rooted in Hebrew
(iii) holy of holies
(iv) scriptural proper nouns now common usage
(v) influence of the ‘th’ form in Eng poetry
(vi) contribution to technical grammar of poetry writing

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
The English language has been enriched through the writings of Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, Spenser. Shakespeare’s contribution of 20,000 words was used to express varied subjects, and individualise characters. Chaucer’s poetry provided new thought and Milton increased vocabulary with 7000 more words. Spenser introduced the romantic style of poetry writing and the Bible exerted the greatest influence of all times with bringing scriptural proper nouns into common usage, bettering style, and contributing to the technical grammar of poetry writing.

Note Making Passages Pdf 10
Read the passage given below.

One of the disheartening sights at a wedding venue is the kilos of food scraped off plates and thrown into bins. While there are groups of volunteers working towards food waste management, in weddings, there is an increasing number of couples coming forward to reduce food wastage when they get married. Wedding planners and caterers in the capital say that it has now become an important part of their checklist and that they are being asked by clients to include food management as a service and even a mandatory part of the pack. If the wedding planners fail to take care of the leftover food, couples themselves reach out to NGOs that come to the wedding venture, collect the excess food and distribute it among the needy and homeless.

Other couples say that as part of the money spent on the wedding, a part is kept aside on clearing out the trash. Hence while researching out the best caterers, wedding planners and makeup artists, these couples also keep looking out for volunteers and NGOs who could clear up the extra food. Such NGOs exist in Delhi, Hyderabad and Chennai. When the wedding guests have left, they arrive at the buffet area to collect the leftover food and distribute it among the homeless. Not confined to the main wedding function, they also arrive for the minor ceremonies such as the sangeet and the mehendi and even the post-wedding functions. Also, they put up posters at the wedding site telling people not to waste food.

According to one of the caterers, in around 40%of the weddings, clients are more than happy to come on board when the concept of disposal of extra food is explained to them. Clients also prefer this food disposal system as the venue remains clean and the clients do not have to pay extra to have the food thrown away.

With increasing demand for such facilities some caterers are also arranging storage facilities for their clients to be used after the wedding. Caterers concede that such an arrangement means an extra effort on their part as they have to learn new techniques of food preservation, be it summer, winter or the monsoon. Thus even if the caterers do not come across needy people at night the food can be stored and distributed conveniently later. Clients, on their part, do not just want a distribution of the extra food but also demand quality-wise 100% fitness of the food distributed.

Usually, the margin of excess in weddings is huge. Thus some caterers are now keeping a separate section where, whatever amount of food is left, is stored. Others coordinate with a few orphanages in advance where the food can be distributed. Clients even ask volunteer organizations to refer them to caterers who have facilities for storage and who will undertake distribution of the leftdver food after the feast.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Checking Food Wastage At Weddings
I. Food wastage at weddings
(i) disheartening sight of kilos scraped into bins
(ii) couples coming fwd to check food wastage
(iii) important agenda for wedding planners
(iv) sometimes mandatory part of pack
(v) NGOs coming fwd to carry out the task

II. Couples keep aside part of wedding expenditure
(i) for clearing away trash
(ii) search for volunteers for collecting extra food
(iii) services avail’le at Chennai, Hyd, Del
(iv) volunteers arrive post-wedding .
(v) nature of services extended
(vi) A. bring their own volunteers
B. even cover mehndi, sangeet & post-wedding
C. hang posters about not wasting food at venue

III. Initiatives by caterers include
(i) services for food storage to use after wedding
(ii) welcomed by clients
(iii) area remains clean .

IV. Pressure on caterers
(i) forcing them to learn food preservation techniques
(ii) clients demand 100% fitness of food distributed
(iii) caterers allocate sep section for food storage
(iv) coord with orphanages for taking away extra food
(v) client preference for such service providers

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
With couples coming forward to check food wastage at weddings, this is becoming an important part of the planning agenda. NGOs are pitching in and collecting leftover food for distribution to the needy, homeless and orphanages. Couples are setting aside a part of wedding expenditure for trash clearance and availing volunteer services for food collection. Initiatives by caterers include storage of leftover food ensuring quality preservation, scheduled for later use and orphanage distribution, as client preference increases for such facilities.

Note Making Passages Pdf 11
Read the following passage carefully.

Over 60% of doctors in the country now prefer, one out of three times, digital interaction with their patients as against the traditional face-to-face interaction, indicating a trend where WhatsApp, text messages and emails are increasingly being used for consultations. This is slightly lower, but in keeping with the trend in the United States, Japan and China, where a greater number of healthcare professionals (HCPs) — in certain markets, over 90% — have switched to the digital medium, using WeChat, blogs, email and text messaging to engage with patients for follow-up.

Also, a majority of doctors — globally 60% — demand drug companies combine the use of digital tablets and iPads along with direct interaction when medical representatives (MRs) are detailing the portfolio of medicines. These findings are part of the Digital Savvy HCP (Healthcare Practitioner)

2015, an annual global survey on the digital habits of doctors across the United States, Japan, China and India, by healthcare solutions firm Indegeiie, shared exclusively with TOI.

The survey involved more than 1,600 healthcare professionals across the globe, with 67% speciality doctors, and the remaining 33% general practitioners. In India, over 300 doctors were part of the survey with more than 10 years of experience, practising in tier 1 and tier 2 places across the country.

The survey found that 76% doctors in the US prefer personal interaction (of field force) along with detailing with the tablet, while the corresponding figure in India is 90%.

As against this, doctors in India prefer a face-to-face detailing with their digital tablets, wherein they meet MRs in their clinics and the latter are equipped with detailing on their tablets/iPads.

Globally, drug companies are increasingly switching to digital channels like emails, websites, webinars, apps and text messages due to compliance requirements, the survey says, adding 34% of physicians globally value the smartphone as a key resource in seeking-medical information. Other devices used by doctors are laptops, PCs and tablets. India sees less than half the global usage of smartphones (by doctors), while the most preferred device for doctors here is laptops (34%).

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Doctors and the Digital Interaction
I. The growing preference for digital interaction
(i) preferred by 60% of doctors
(ii) choosing above face-to-face interaction with patients
(iii) choice of WhatsApp, text msg and emails messaging
(iv) used for consultancy
(v) figures at a par with trend in China, Japan, US ‘& China

II. Usage in other countries ,
(i) 90% of HCP use method health care professionals
(ii) choice of WeChat, blogs, email, text msg
(iii) engaging with patients for follow-up

III. Usage among doctors globally
(i) 60% global demand to drug companies
(ii) use of digital tablets and iPads along with direct consultancy
(iii) used by MRs when detailing portfolio of medicines
(iv) demand by HCPs of 2015

IV. The findings of Indegene company
(i) survey conducted on 16 HCPs globally
(ii) included 67% specialists 33% GPs
(iii) 300 Indian doctors with 10 years experience
(iv) ranged across tier I and tier II cities in India

V. Findings of the team
(i) 76% US doctors prefer personal interaction-! tablet usage
(ii) Indian doctors
(iii) A. prefer face-to-face detailing with tablet
B. prefer meeting in clinics
(iv) prefer smartphone for keeping medical info

VI. Findings about drug companies
(i) inc switching to emails, websites, webinars, apps, msg
(ii) Indian doctors use half of the world usage
(iii) most preferred device: laptops

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Indian doctors, like those in the US, Japan and China, prefer digital usage during patient interaction. Among HCPs, 90% showed preference for digital usage, while engaging with patients for follow-up. Also, 60% doctors demand digital usage by medical representatives of drug companies. The Indegene company’s survey of 300 Indian doctors with decade-long experience, in tier I & II cities, showed preference for tablets during patient contact and smartphones for keeping information. Drug companies found that half of digital users were Indian doctors and their preferred gadget was laptops.