Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Articles are written to give information in a wide range of contexts for magazines or newspapers. They are a relatively long and sustained piece of writing. They give information on a variety of themes such as describing an event, person, someone’s life and actions, places, and experiences. They can also be an expression of the writer’s opinions on topics of social interest or arguments for or against a topic and they often offer suggestions.

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Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples Pdf

A composition is a written attempt to describe an event, an experience, a thing or a fact. It may contain the views, ideas and opinions of the writer on a topic of general interest. The thought stimuli may be visual or verbal but it must be vividly apprehended.

Students have to observe certain limits of words, time and even space. They are supposed to write their compositions in about 150-200 words expressing their views or the descriptive/ narrative note content of the subject mentioned. Hence, they are advised not to exceed the given word limit. Students have to combine information with their own opinions, suggestions, etc.

Hence you are advised to give your own point of view rather than reproducing hackneyed, expected opinions and ideas.
The composition, whether it be an article, a report, a speech, a description, or a narration, should be meaningful, brief, to the point and couched in a simple and grammatically correct language. For the benefit of the students, examples—exercises have been arranged in the following order:

(A) Article Writing

  1. Verbal Input
  2. Visual Input

(B) Speech Writing

  1. Verbal Input
  2. Visual Input

(C) Report Writing—3rd person point of view or
(D) Recounting experience/incident in the writer’s life

While writing a composition keep the following points in mind:

  1. Study carefully the hints/points given in verbal input.
  2. Arrange the given hints in the order you want to develop them for the article.
  3. Organise the points properly. Add your own ideas.
  4. Arrange the points in a logical order.
  5. Put them under different main headings.
  6. Add sub-points to the main points.
  7. Develop each point in a systematic or logical manner.
  8. Substantiate your arguments if you are writing on a debatable point.
  9. Introduce the topic, main idea/issue in the first few sentences.
  10. End your composition with a proper conclusion on the topic/issue.

Article Writing Format CBSE Class 11

Failure and success are part of life. Failures show us our weaknesses and help us to achieve success by conquering them. Write an article on ‘Failure is a Stepping Stone to Success’in 150 – 200 words. You are Girish/Garima.
Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples 1

Article Writing Examples with Answers Class 11 CBSE

Question 1.
You are Rachana/Rakesh. You have been asked to write an article for your school magazine titled ‘The Sights and Sounds of Our City’. You decide to observe a busy street in the main shopping area to collect material for your article. You note the following: —quiet in the morning—crowded in the afternoon—housewives out shopping—vehicular traffic—noise—vendors occupying pavements—stray cattle on the road—evening—lights transform the scene-people out for strolling—eating.
Write your article in 150-200 words using the above notes and your own ideas.

(by Rachana/Rakesh)

Railway Road of our city is a very busy street. It has shops, eating places and residential accommodation above the shops. The pavements on either side are occupied by the vendors. There are small kiosks of ‘pan-wallahs’ and the ironing man. The cobblers, vegetable sellers and cheap ready-made clothes sellers sit on the ground in front of the shops. Thus the wide road is reduced to a narrow lane.
There is peace and quietness in the morning as there is very little activity in the market. Children and adults are busy at home. The street comes to life as the day advances and the shops start opening. By 11 o’clock the street begins to hum with activities. People from villages start pouring in for shopping. Afternoons are busier as local housewives also go for shopping. As early evening approaches, more vegetable and fruit vendors appear. The scene is transformed with the switching on of lights. The atmosphere becomes bright, gay and festive. Well-dressed people can be seen shopping for children and visiting restaurants. It is indeed a time for family outing. Roads are crowded as people start coming back from offices, factories and outstations. The only blemish in this street is that stray cattle—cows, buffaloes, dogs, pigs and monkeys—wander freely on the road and cause inconvenience to all.

Question 2.
You are Sameer / Sameera, a student of Class XI-A. Clean drinking water is important for health. Write an article in 150-200 words for your school magazine about the importance of clean drinking water for a healthy life.

Clean Drinking Water Important For Health
by Sameera,
Class XI-A

We are well aware how important clean drinking water is for a healthy life. It should be particularly free from any contamination with sewerage water, as this can cause a variety of water-borne diseases. These can be typhoid, cholera or dysentery if contaminated water is consumed. In serious cases, this may result in long-term diseases like jaundice. No wonder that many suppliers of water make a living out of this!

Our water supply organisations like the Jal Boards and Municipalities should ensure that clean drinking water is supplied to all homes through a water pipeline connection. Any leakage in the pipelines must be repaired without delay to prevent contamination.

Under no circumstances should sewer water be allowed to mix wiifi water going to household taps. The filtration plants of the water supply utilities must function properly and their storage tanks must be cleaned periodically to ensure that the consumers of water do not fall ill. Let us all join to help them in this noble endeavour.

Article Writing Examples for Class 11 CBSE Pdf with Answers

Question 1.
We cannot imagine life without our mobile phones, TV sets and other modern gadgets. Write an article on ‘Role of Modern Gadgets’in 150-200 words. You are Rashi/Rishi.

by Rishi

It is difficult to imagine a life without modern gadgets. Gadgets are electronically simplified applications that have been designed to make our life simple and convenient. The gadgets over the years have gained so much popularity and wide use that today they have become an integral part of our lives and it is difficult to go through a day without the help of these gadgets. Every day new gadgets are launched in the market with the sole purpose of serving us and we become proud to own a few of these. Gadgets are very important for a modern family where both husband and wife are working and do not have much time at their disposal. Gadgets come to their rescue and save a lot of time.

On the flip side, gadgets are responsible for making people engrossed in them’and forgetting social etiquette. Today we find that teens go berserk over the gadgets and whenever they find something new, they don’t get peace till they are able to check out the features in it. It is good to use gadgets in our lives, but to a certain limit only, and everyone must spend some quality time with family members instead of being engrossed in mobiles or watching TV.

Question 2.
Every activity that man indulges in creates pollution and waste of some kind. In fact, the need of the hour is to reduce pollution in all possible ways. Write an article on the topic ‘Reducing Pollution-Need of the Hour’in 150-200 words. You are Brinda, an environmentalist.

Reducing Pollution—Need Of The Hour
by Brinda, Environmentalist

Pollution is contamination of land, water and air. It is increasing daily due to human activities performed in day-to-day life in order to live conveniently. But this gradually leads to the dangerous depletion of the environment. Plastic used by man is a big nuisance because it causes pollution. Plastic never decays. If we burn it, it pollutes the air we breathe. If we dump it in rivers or the sea, it pollutes the water and kills marine life. Chemical fertilisers are another source of pollution of land and water.

In order to check pollution, the polluted effluents from factories should be treated suitably before being disposed off in water bodies. Plastic and other materials should be recycled wherever possible. New techniques should be adopted in motor vehicles to reduce pollution from engine exhausts. We should use environmentally safe cleaning liquids for use at home and other public places.

To trap solid particulate matter emitted by chimneys, appropriate filters should be used. Lofty smokestacks should be built. Gases should be discharged through exhaust pipes higher in the air. Chemical industries should not be allowed to be set up on the banks of rivers.

In view of the great danger to mankind, many countries in the world including India have passed laws to prevent pollution. But it has been seen that anti-pollution laws are not being obeyed rigorously, pushing pollution up to new levels.

Question 3.
Write an article for a newspaper in 150-200 words on the topic ‘The Problem of Unemployment in India.’Your are Nayan/Namita.

The Problem Of Unemployment In India
by Namita

The problem of unemployment in India means the problem of providing work to those who are willing to work. A large number of educated and uneducated people, who are capable of working and are also willing to do it, roam here and there without any job. So, the problem has assumed an acute form.

The population is increasing by leaps and bounds, leaving a large section of the people unemployed. Even highly educated persons fail to get employment in India.

The economic and educational policy of the country should thus be reframed. Avenues for employment for the abundant labour should be provided by encouraging entrepreneurship. Besides this, stress must be laid on family planning. Every effort must be made to check the rapid rise in population. More stress should be laid on technical and vocational education.

Our country can advance economically, politically or socially only when the unemployment problem is solved. Frustration, drug addiction, even suicides, are by and large the evil results of unemployment.

Unrest and disorder has increased in society. It is, therefore, the duty of the government to make every possible effort to solve this problem.

Question 4.
Incidents of child abuse are on the rise, resulting in an increasing number of child deaths. You are Deepika/Deepak. Write an article in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Child Abuse’.

Child Abuse
by Deepika

Sexual abuse of children has become rampant. Over a million reports of child abuse are made every year and it is believed that there are still many more cases unreported and undisclosed. The number of child deaths due to child neglect and abuse are also increasing to terrifying numbers. Children who are abused at a tender age undergo a psychological trauma that leads to lifelong depression and indifference to society and family. The worst part is that in most cases the culprits are those who are expected to protect and take care of the child.

Victims of child abuse never fully recover from the scars and, at times, suffer from distrust of others, hostility, depression, anxiety, inability to form close relationships and a host of other psychological and psychiatric problems. The only solution is the enactment of a law that protects the victims. Presently, the laws of the country are so liberal that a person who commits a crime once is inclined to repeat it because the consequences are not severe.

Besides the law, parents have an important role to play in checking child abuse. They should educate their children on social and cultural values as well as making children understand how to distinguish between a ‘good touch’ and ‘bad touch’ and then act accordingly. Working parents should find time to look after their children rather than employ baby sitters.

Question 5.
You are concerned about the ongoing controversy regarding the media’s role in sensationalising news, moulding public opinion and moral policing. Write an article for a newspaper in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Role of Media-What Should it be?’. You are Mallika/Manish.

Role Of Media—What Should It Be?
by Mallika

The role of media is extremely vital in a country like India. But are the different media like press, print and electronic, playing a constructive role in shaping our society and nation? This question needs a positive answer. It is apparent that media has strayed from the required path and absolved its responsibility due to commercial pressures. ‘Profit is all’ is the dictum for them, whether it is the newspapers, magazines, news channels or the mushrooming FM radio stations.

They prefer to sensationalise every bit of information. Be it the marriages or reported affairs of popular movie stars or even the rescue operation of a child from a narrow ditch, they over-dramatise and exaggerate everything. Is this constructive?

The new trend of showing sting operations on the news channels has become an everyday occurrence. It is an easy but cheap way to gain popularity and increase the TRP of their channels. By resorting to such tactics, they are exploiting the freedom granted to them. Is this constructive?

The media should understand its responsibility and get down to the right business, leaving behind the alluring target of being number one. It should only focus at passing on correct and exact information without any comments for or against anyone.

Question 6.
On the occasion of Teachers Day (5th September) and International Literacy Day (8th September), write an article in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Each One Teach One’ for your school magazine. You are Sadhna/Suresh.

Each One Teach One
by Sadhna

The slogan, ‘Each One Teach One’, is a motivation for the educated class to understand their moral and social responsibility of teaching at least one person. This makes a big difference in society.

We students have to work together for a noble mission to realise the dream of the National Literacy Mission. We envisage and dream of India where each person is literate-. Our learners are not necessarily children; they will include the vast number of adults who are illiterate for no fault of theirs. Even in our towns and cities, there are many such people. Let each one of us take up the challenge of educating at least one adult in our locality so that the person is able to read, write and understand at least in the local language.

The learning strategies that we have to adopt in our programme will be exploratory and interactive. Some of our objectives are to bring about basic learning of reading, writing and counting. We wish to promote better health and awareness. We also want to create awareness about democratic processes, rights, duties and obligations. We have to focus on the status of women and the girl child.

We must enable them to fight against exploitation and injustice and thus build their own self-confidence and .. respect. All this will be possible through spread of education and awareness. Then only will we be living up to the slogan, Each One Teach One.

Question 7.
Coaching centres for school-going children as well as for competitive examinations are proliferating. It is difficult to choose a satisfactory centre for coaching. Write some tips for selecting the right centre for a monthly publication as an article in 150-200 words with the title ‘Selecting the Right Coaching Centre’. You are Salim/Saraswati.

Selecting The Right Coaching Centre
by Salim

One can find coaching centres, both for school-going children and competitive examinations, in every nook and corner of the city. They have proliferated due to the actions of both teachers and parents. Such centres boast of a guaranteed success rate by publishing inflated numbers regularly in leading newspapers and magazines. But, either as a parent or a student, how should you select one that is the best?

Before selecting a coaching centre, certain criteria should be kept in mind. A proper coaching centre must provide a proper competitive environment with a team of professional teachers and necessary study material. Mock tests and exams should be conducted on a regular basis and proper feedback should be provided to the students. Some coaching centres charge high fees, that too in lumpsum, and provide substandard teaching at their centre, so efforts should be made to find the right coaching centre after consulting many students taking coaching at various centres.

Question 8.
You are worried about the rampant deforestation going on and its effects on our lives in future. Based on this fact and the visual given below, write an article in 150 – 200 words with the title ‘Deforestation and its Effects’ for your school magazine. You are Nikhil / Neena.
Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples 2

Deforestation And Its Effects
by Neena

Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses.

An estimated 7.3 million hectares of forest are lost each year, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). The effects are far-reaching and will prove disastrous for humanity in the long run.

Deforestation is considered to be one of the contributing factors to global climate change. Cutting trees impacts the global carbon cycle. This not only lessens the amount of carbon stored, it also releases carbon dioxide into the air. This is because when trees die, they release the stored carbon dioxide. Deforestation is the second largest human-caused source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, the first one being combustion in various forms.

Further, 70 per cent of the world’s plants and animals live in forests and are losing their habitats to deforestation. It also has negative consequences for local populations and medicinal research, which rely on the animals and plants in the forests for hunting and medicine respectively.

There are many other problems like soil erosion, interruption of the water cycle etc which occur due to deforestation. So let us arrest this quickly to save our lives in future.

Question 9.
Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Vocational Training as Part of the School Curriculum’ for your school magazine expressing your views on its need in the present scenario and suggesting steps to make it successful. You are Ashok / Arpita.

Vocational Training As Part Of
The School Curriculum
by Arpita

Our present system of school education has a major flaw that does not make a person ready for employment if that person has to forego further education for any reason. Many problems are faced by people who pass out from school in the competitive world because they cannot be employed. The only solution for this is to introduce vocational training as an essential part of the school curriculum.

The students who intend going for employment after schooling can get knowledge of professional courses through career counselling programmes arranged by the school. Then they should attempt suitable aptitude tests to choose the correct professional course. The practical training for each course must be arranged by the school either in their own premises or in suitable workshops or technical institutions.

After successful completion of the vocational course, employers should select them through campus interviews arranged by the school. In cases of self-employment, the schools can tie up with banks and other financial institutions for arranging loans. All these measures will involve a major change in the system of school education, but this is the need of the hour.

Question 10.
India has always respected women, but recent trends are disturbing, causing us to re-evaluate their status. Write an article on ‘Status of Women in Society’ in 150 – 200 words. You are Ram/Rama.

Status Of Women In Society
by Ram

Women in India enjoyed a high status and position in ancient times. However, later on, during the middle period, their status deteriorated. Evidently, a majority of Indian women do not enjoy equal status to men currently.

It appears that the Indian woman is still not treated at par with the man in social and family life. Women’s position in the family very much depends upon the level of their education. The higher the level of her education, the greater equality she enjoys in the family. But even today, educated women, though they are earning, comply with the doctrine of male domination. Their education may have made them economically independent, but they still lack the needed self-confidence to assert their equality. The reason seems to be that they have been brought up in the prevailing cultural atmosphere of male dominated society. Thus, they have not been able to shake off its influence even after acquiring modern education.

However, society has started recognising their contribution. Women are excelling in almost every field and winning laurels. It is high time they are accorded an equal status in society for their intelligence, courage and compatibility.

Article Writing Examples for Class 11 Pdf

1 India is fast emerging as a major hub of cyber crime. It seems to be the worst affected nation online, with over three-quarters of Indian web surfers having fallen victim to cyber crimes, including computer viruses, online credit card fraud and identity theft. Write an article in 150-200 words on the topic ‘India Emerging as Major Centre for Cyber Crime’. You are Mona/ Rajat.

2. You are Mehak/ Bhavesh. A lot of homework is assigned to the students by their teachers. Most of the students copy the answers from the textbooks or from the guides, rendering the whole exercise useless. Write an article in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Should the Practice of Assigning Homework be Retained?’

3. You are very much worried about children who have become bookworms. They find no time to read anything other than their course books. Their parents also force them to do so. Their only anxiety is marks and more marks in the examination. Write an article for your school magazine in 150-200 words showing your anxiety about the trend titled ‘Marks and More Marks’. You are Mithir/ Ria.

4. You are Rohan/ Diksha of class XI. Write an article in 150-200 words for your school magazine on the topic ‘Aping of Western Culture by the Younger Generation’.

5. You are Mansi/ Shivam. Many of your friends are getting expensive gifts from their parents but not the attention and time of their parents. Write an article for your school magazine urging all the parents to give their time and moral support to their children, especially the adolescents. Also stress on how a secure home atmosphere plays a key role in promoting success in life. (150-200 words)

6. Today the 24 hour television news channel give us instant news from every nook and corner of the world. But the fact is that the importance of the newspaper remains intact. Write an article in 150-200 words expressing your views on ‘The Relevance of Newspapers’. You are Adirath/ Simran.

7. You are Sumit/ Smita. You are concerned about the changing attitude of politicians who are using religion for political gains. Write an article in 150-200 words for publication in a local daily suggesting to these people to separate religion from politics and work for the betterment of society.

8. Write an article in not more than 200 words condemning the use of furs and animal skins for making clothes and accessories. You are Bharti/ Rajesh.

9. You are Rohan/ Chavi. Every activity that man indulges in creates waste of some kind. Some of the waste can be recycled or reused. In fact, the need of the hour is to conserve Earth’s resources in all possible ways. Write an article on the topic ‘Conservation, Need of the Hour’ in 150-200 words.

10. Narendra is allergic to smoking and wants a complete ban on smoking in public places. He writes an article for a prominent daily newspaper titled ‘The Evils of Smoking’. Write the article for him in 150-200 words. You are Mehak/ Mehul.

11. ‘What People Read is What People Believe’. You are concerned about the ongoing controversy regarding the media’s role in sensationalising news, moulding public opinion and moral policing. Write an article emphasising the responsibility of the media. You are Mohan/ Bhavika.

12. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Drug Abuse among Students’ to bring out the idea that drug addiction harms both the addict as well as society, basing it on the picture given below. You ’ Praveen / Pooja.
Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples 3

13. You are worried about the various forms of pollution caused by the explosion of crackers during the Diwali festival, marriages and other celebrations. Based on the visual given below, write an article in 150-200 words for your school magazine on ‘Say No to Crackers’ to bring out your concern and suggest alternatives. You are Saloni / Devendra of class XI-A.
Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples 4

14. You are Rashmi/ Sachin of class XI-B. You are worried that your generation of students is crazy about fast foods without realising the harm they cause. Write an article for your school magazine in 150-200 words on the topic ‘How Fast Foods Harm’ based on what you know about the dangers of consuming such foodstuffs.

15. Your father was killed in the November 2008 terror attack in Mumbai. You were deeply affected by this tragedy. You decide to write an article for a national daily in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Terrorism, a Threat to Global Peace’ based on the visual given below. Write the article. You are Karan/ Nandini.
Article Writing Topics for Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples 5

Note Making Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is an advanced writing skill which is gaining importance due to knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills.

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Note Making Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is an advanced writing skill which is acquiring increasing importance due to the knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills. Note-making is useful as it saves time, energy and the space at the working place, while attending a lecture at school or in college, in a meeting etc. It enhances the confidence to revise the topic whenever we want.

Note-making basically involves noting the main points of whatever is read or heard, as one cannot be expected to remember all that one has read.

Types of Passages
The Note-making passage could be anyone of the following types
(i) Factual (550-600 words) A factual passage includes some facts about the physical aspects of a subject. It includes instructions, descriptions and reports. It helps the students to get a detailed view of the subject and develop a complete mental picture of a specific person, place, object or being.

(ii) Discursive (550-600 words) A discursive passage includes argumentative, interpretative and persuasive text. Such passages may include opinions or feedback. It allows students to arrive at a conclusion through reasoning and understanding rather than intuition. It presents a balanced and objective approach towards the subject being discussed.

Types of Questions
The Note-Making passage in the examination carries and is 550-600 words in length. It consists of two types of Questions
(i) Making Notes of the Given Passage This carries 5 marks split up into 3 marks for the actual notes, 1 mark for the title and 1 mark for the abbreviations listed (minimum 4 abbreviations). We can use title, heading, sub-headings and abbreviations while answer this question.

(ii) Write a Summary of the Given Passage The summary carries 3 marks. It should be grammatically correct and cover all the important points given in the notes. Word limit of the summary should be 80-100 words.

How To Make Good Notes And Summary Of The Given Passage
The following points will help you in making good notes

  • Read the passage quickly but carefully. Try to understand main points and supporting details.
    Underline the keywords as you read.
  • Notes should be in points and in an appropriate format.
  • Organise your ideas into main heading, sub-headings and sub-sub-headings (if possible).
  • Abbreviations and symbols are freely used.
  • Give title to your notes. Avoid a long sentence.
  • While making summary sure that your summary does not exceed 1/3 of the length of the original text.
  • The summary should contain only the main ideas and the supporting details.
  • Refer back to the original to ensure that your summary is a true reflection of the writer’s ideas.

Uses of Abbreviations in Note-Making
Abbreviation helps in writing the information briefly. The following are some of the ways in which you can use abbreviations.

First few letters of the word are enough to remember what the abbreviation stands.
For example:

  • imp for ‘important’
  • info for ‘information’
  • eval for ‘evaluation’

Remove all (or most of) the vowels from the word and use just the key consonants bunched together.
For example

  • mngmt for ‘management’
  • mkt for ‘market’
  • mktng for ‘marketing’
  • dvpt for ‘development’

Some Common Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words Abbreviations Words
+ Positive, Plus e.g. for example
Minus, Negative ie that is
= equals, is the same as, w/o without
* does not equal, is not the same as etc. etcetera
= is approximately equal to ♂♀ male / female
< is less than, is smaller than Viz namely
> is greater than, is larger than Asap as soon as possible
increase, rise, growth Mr. Mister
decrease, fall, shrinkage Mrs. Mistress
& and Dr. Doctor
special, important, notable Govt. Government
/ per, each

Note Making Solved Examples CBSE Class 11 Pdf

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 1

What actually is a robot? When different persons have different concepts of robots, the only way of deciding what really is a robot is to look for a definition of the term robot.

The dictionary meaning of a robot is that it is an automatic apparatus or device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings or operates with what appears to be almost-human intelligence. It is interesting to observe that this meaning does not give a human shape to the robot. In order to dramatise the fact that the robot does the work of a human being, a human shape is given to the robot in science-fiction stories and movies. The human shape is irrelevant as far as the functions of the robot are concerned.

The Robot Institute of America, which is an association of several robot manufacturers gives the following definition of an industrial robot.

“An industrial robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialised devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety oftasks. ”

The key word in this definition is ‘reprogrammable’. This means that a robot is capable of being reprogrammed. This feature is the one that distinguishes it from a fixed automation. A fixed automation is designed to do one, and only one, specific task. If the specifications of the tasks change even slightly, the fixed automation becomes incapable of performing the task it was designed to perform according to one fixed specification. However, a robot can be reprogrammed to perform even when the specifications are changed drastically. The original program is simply erased and the new program takes care of the changed tasks.

The characteristic that a robot can be reprogrammed to handle a variety of tasks makes the robot a flexible device. Because of the flexibility offered by robots, manufacturing systems which use robots are called Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS).

Karel Capek was responsible for introducing the word robot. Sir Isaac Asimov is the one who coined the word robotics. According to Asimov, robotics is the science of dealing with robots. Hence robotics involves a scientific study of robots. The study includes design, selection of materials of proper quality for the components, fabrication, study of various motors required for moving the components, design of electronic circuits, computers and computer programming, and control of robots. Since robots and robotics are still in the developing stages, a considerable amount of research is required and is being pursued. Robotics involves various disciplines-mechanical engineering, material science, electronics, computer science, computer engineering, and control systems, to name just a few. Depending on the area in which robots are to be used, robotics includes disciplines such as biology, medical science, psychology, agriculture, mining, outer space engineering etc.

Basically, there are two types of robots: fixed and mobile. A fixed robot is attached to a stationary platform. A fixed robot is analogous to a human standing or sitting in one fixed location while doing his work with his hands. A mobile robot moves from place to place. Mobility is given to robots by providing wheels or legs or other crawling mechanisms. A mobile robot can be given a human shape, but the actual shape has nothing to do with the functions of the robot. Wheeled locomotion is good for smooth terrains. For rugged terrain, legged locomotion is preferable. A mobile robot should have at least three wheels or legs for stability.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Robots and Robotics-Introduction Notes
I. Robot Definition
(i) Diet meaning
(a) auto apparatus
(b) performs funcs ascribed to humans
(c) human shape irrelevant for functioning
(ii) RIA defines robot
(a) reprogrammable – different from fixed automation
(b) Flexible – used in FMS

II. Robotics
(i) Karel Capek introduced word robot
(ii) Isaac Asimov defined Robotics – science dealing with robots
(iii) Study includes steps:
Design → Selection of mtrl → fabrication → motor selection → EC design → Computers and comp progmg Robot Ctrl

III. Disciplines involved in Robotics
(a) Electronics
(b) Material Science
(c) Computer Engineering
(d) Control Systems
(e) Mechanical Engineering
(f) Computer Science

IV. Robot Types
(i) Fixed
(a) stationary
(b) analogous to standing human
(ii) Mobile – mobility due to
(a) wheels – good for smooth terrain
(b) legs – good for rugged terrain
(c) another crawling mech

Key to Abbreviations

Abbrevations Words
diet dictionary
auto automatic
funcs functions
RIA Robot Institute of America
FMS Flexible Manufacturing Systems
mtrl material
EC electronic circuits
comp progmg computer programming
Ctrl control
mech mechanism

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
A robot is a flexible reprogrammable automatic device that works just like human beings and operates with almost man-like intelligence. Robotics is the scientific study of robots. It includes design, selection of proper materials, design of electronic circuits, computers and computer programming and controls.

Robotics is a combination of many disciplines – electronics, material science, computer engineering, computer science, mechanical engineering etc. Robots can be fixed or mobile. A mobile robot moves from place to place with the help of wheels or legs or other crawling mechanisms.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 1

Information is power. It is predictable, therefore, that those in authority will seek to manipulate others through the control of data. However, all information in a democratic society should be freely available unless there are specific, well-formulated reasons for withholding it in the interest of security.

The Freedom of Information (FOI) functions at a number of different levels: in itself, for the fulfilment of all other rights and as an underpinning of democracy.

Information held by public bodies is not only for the benefit of officials, politicians or other designated people associated with the organisation, but also for the public as a whole. Unless there are good reasons for withholding such information, all interested parties should be able to access it. More importandy, freedom of information is a key component of transparent and accountable government. It plays a key role in enabling citizens to see what is going on within government, and in exposing corruption and mismanagement. Transparent and open government is also essential if voters are to be able to assess the performance of elected officials and if individuals are to exercise their democratic rights effectively, for example, through timely protests against new policies, or by using their vote against candidates who have indulged in undemocratic activity.

Freedom of expression and access to information is a fundamental right and must be held as a cornerstone of democracy. In its absence, government can, and often does, behave with impunity. It is argued, however, that it is not an absolute right – the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) for instance, specifies certain permissible constraints. One of these is the right of the state to withhold information ‘for the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health and morals’. This is irascibly vague and provides many loopholes for governments to use this wording as a basis for restricting information that is inconsistent with their ambitions.

The public’s right to know is an intrinsic part of informed public debate, which has traditionally been dependent on the freedom to receive and impart information without government interference. However, it may also be argued that this does not mean a right to receive any type of information from the government. It is of paramount importance that any restrictions on information or expression regarding security matters must designate in law only the specific and narrow categories of information absolutely necessary to protect a legitimate national security concern.

A threat to national security can be defined as ‘any expression or information that is intended to incite imminent violence, or is likely to incite violence’. In addition, there must be a direct and immediate connection between the expression and the likelihood or occurrence of such violence. The public interest in having information at all times must remain a priority consideration in any FOI Bill, and that any denial of this right should be subject to independent review.

Along these lines, in a seminal judgment in 1982, the Supreme Court held that, ‘The concept of an open Government is the direct emanation from the right to know, which seems to be implicit in the right of free speech and expression. disclosure of information in regard to the functioning of government must be the rule, and secrecy an exception, justified only where the strictest requirement of public interest so demands’.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Freedom of Information (FOI)

I. Information
(i) Pwr
(ii) Access: Officials, politicians, public
(iii) Should be freely avlbl

II. Importance
(i) Fulfil rights
(ii) Supports dmcrcy

III. Functions
(i) Transparent and accessible Govt
(ii) Citizens aware of the workings of Govt
(iii) Expsg crptn and msmng

IV. Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Information
(i) Infmddbt
(ii) Fndmntl but not abslt
(iii) In public interest
(iv) Withhold if
(a) NS affected
(b) Likely to incite violence
(v) SC judgement supports

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
pwr power
avlbl available
dmcrcy democracy
govt government
expsg exposing
crptn corruption
msmng mismanagement
infmd informed
dbt debate
fndmntl fundamental
abslt absolute
NS National Security
SC Supreme Court

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Freedom of Information (FOI) is essentially important for the fulfilment of public rights and as a support for democracy. Information is power and thus, its access must not be limited to officials or politicians but should include the public. Its function is to assure a transparent and accountable government, inform the public about the workings within the government and expose corruption and mismanagement. Freedom of expression and access to information are imperative for an informed public debate. They are fundamental but not absolute rights, with restrictions for information of national security or with potential to incite violence, as supported by a Supreme Court judgement.

Note Making Practice Factual Passages and Summary Writing Examples Pdf

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 1

The Mayan civilisation of Mexico and Central America is one of the ancient world’s most fascinating, prolific and mysterious civilisations. They left their mark on the region’s culture, architecture, cuisine, and language — and left an indelible impression on the imagination of the modern world. Who were they? How were they able to build such an impressive civilisation of towering temples and sophisticated artwork in the middle of the harsh rainforests of Meso-America? And why did they vanish?

The earliest Mayans lived along the Pacific coast of what is now Guatemala and can be dated to about 1800 BC; by 1000 BC they were also living in Guatemala’s southern lowlands. The period from about 1800 BC to about AD 250 is referred to as the Pre-classic, a time when the early Mayans lived as farmers in small villages along rivers and other bodies of water, hunting game, tending gardens and making use of the abundant natural foods found in the region’s marshes and seasonal swamps.

In time, strong rulers began wielding power over these communities and the Mayan culture grew in complexity. Cities rose from the forest floor, boasting of stone temples with stuccoed and painted facades created at the behest of elite rulers. People in the new power centres communicated over long distances and traders using the same routes carried luxury goods such as cacao beans, jade ornaments, quetzal feathers and jaguar pelts.

The Classic period, AD 250-900, is the time of the civilisation’s greatest glory and of the greatest depths of political intrigue between rival cities. During these centuries, the Mayans erected coundess stelae, stone monuments inscribed with portraits and hieroglyphs that recorded dynastic histories — the births, marriages and conquests of the ruling families. There were dozens of important regional capitals at the time, and among the most important were.

Tikal in Guatemala and its fierce rival Calakmul in Mexico, Palenque in southern Mexico, Caracol in Belize and Copan in Honduras. The Classic period is known for artistic and intellectual splendour. The Mayans developed a complex religious and ritual system that considered rulers divine beings and called for blood sacrifices. They also grasped the numerical notion of zero, created agricultural timetables and sophisticated calendars to track the heavens, and made beautiful polychrome pottery as well as exquisite ornaments, murals, and carved decorations.

But the Classic Mayans were also known for their rancorous political fighting and for being extremely bellicose — warfare was always on the horizon. One by one, the cities in the southern Mayan lowlands fell to each other, their downfall often recorded on stelae in the conquering city. By AD 900 most of the important Classic period cities had collapsed, and their remaining populations had scattered into the surrounding forests. The last date recorded on stelae that archaeologists have found so far is from AD 909 in Tonina, in southern Mexico.

Among the factors that help explain why the civilisation collapsed were the endemic warfare, overpopulation, degradation of the environment, and drastic climate change and drought. While the cities and ceremonial centres to the southern lowlands were being reclaimed by the jungle, the Mayans living to the North were gaining prominence, rising to amazing heights during the post-classic period (AD 900-1502), wonderful and wealthy cities in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula flourished, most famous among them being Chichen ltza. Yet it too fell victim to political infighting and by AD 1200 had collapsed.

The Mayans never truly disappeared. Centuries after the major cities were abandoned, small groups of Mayans continued to live in the area. It was they who met and resisted the Spanish conquistadors after the first contact in 1502. And today, more than six million Mayans live in Mexico, Guatemala and Belize, speaking 28 languages and blending ancient and modern ways.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub- headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Title The Mystery Behind Mayan Civilisation

I. Questions Regarding Mysteries
(i) who were they?
(ii) how did they create impressive civilisation?
(iii) why disappeared?

II. The Pre-Classic Period (1800 BC – AD 250)
(i) 1800 -1000 BC used in Guatemala
(ii) farmers in small villages
(iii) ruled by strong rulers
(iv) complex culture – architecture, comn, trade dvlpd

III. The Classic Period (AD 250 – 900): Glory
(i) pltcl conspiracies
(ii) countless monuments
(a) recorded dynastic histories
(iii) many regional capitals came up
(iv) complex religious & ritual system
(v) excellence in maths
(vi) notion of zero
(vii) made agricultural timetables
(viii) beautiful art & craft

IV. The Post-Classic period (AD 900 -1502): Downfall
(i) most important cities collapsed
(ii) reasons
(a) endemic warfare
(b) overpopulation
(c) degradation of envrmt
(iii) northern Mayans survived
(vi) resisted Spanish conquistadors
(v) now live in Mexico, Guatemala 81 Belize

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
comn communication
dvlpd developed
pltcl political
& and
maths mathematics
envrmt environment

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The Mayan civilisations of Mexico and central. America is one of the mysteries civilisation. From the monuments discovered there, their history can be traced back to 1800 BC, when they lived in Guatemala. They reached the peak of their glory during the Classic period (AD 250 – 900), which saw magnificence in architecture, intellectual excellence including mathematics, along with a rise in complex religious systems and rituals. Subsequently their downfall occurred due to endemic warfare, overpopulation and environmental degradation. The remnant Mayans still live in Mexico, Guatemala & Belize.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 2

You may never want to fly kites to keep away evil spirits, as the Chinese have done for centuries, or to make rain, as the Tibetans did, but some more modern and western uses may tempt you to try experimenting yourself along similar lines. Ancient and medieval Chinese sources, describe kites being used for measuring distances, testing the wind, lifting men, signalling and communication for military operations.

The earliest known Chinese kites were flat (not bowed) and often rectangular. Later, tailless kites incorporated a stabilising bowline. Kites were decorated with mythological motifs and legendary figures; some were fitted with strings and whistles to make musical sounds while flying. From China, kites were introduced to Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea and the western world.

The most widespread use of kites in modern times has been for meteorological investigations. Everybody knows about how Benjamin Franklin, the great American scholar and statesman, sent a kite up in 1752 during a thunderstorm to prove that lightning was caused by electricity. He produced sparks at ground level from a key hung on the wet line as the current flowed down it.

A second investigator repeated Franklin’s experiment shortly afterwards and was killed. By sending up instruments on kites it has been possible to make readings of air pressure, temperature, speed, direction and humidity. Although thermometers had been sent up long before, it was not until 1894, that a self-reading thermometer, a thermograph, was sent up by a kite. The army, navy and air force have used kites in various ways for decades. Another Korean version of the invention of the kite tells how a general used one to carry a line across a stream. This line then formed the basis of a bridge.

Lines are still occasionally flown from point to point in this way using kites. At sea, kites have often been used to carry a line to distressed ships in rough weather. Kites, especially box and bow kites, have been used as gunnery targets. They are easy to make and cheap to use and will stand quite a lot of punishment before they cease to fly. Apart from their use as targets, kites have been used by the army to fly flags, for aerial photography over enemy trenches, for suspending flares over targets during night fighting, for carrying a man over enemy lines, for dragging torpedoes etc to a target area.

They have been used by both military and civil authorities for raising, transmitting and receiving aerials to obtain improved wireless reception. As a matter of fact, the first long-distance short wave transmission of all made use of an aerial flown on a kite. When Marconi made the famous transatlantic transmission, he raised his receiving aerial some 400 feet on a kite. During World War II the RAF developed ‘a kite flare’ as part of survival equipment for airmen forced down at sea. When airborne, the kite was attached to a special shock absorber which was fixed to the dinghy.

It was stated that provided there was a 6 mph wind, the kite would stay aloft indefinitely. Some of these kites were brought to Australia and sent to the 6th Australian Division in 1944 for trials to determine whether they were of use in jungle warfare, especially in defining locations. After experiments, the authorities decided that they were of no value for this purpose.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Kites and Their History

I. History of Flying Kites
(i) Chinese in ancient times used them for various purposes
(ii) Tibetans used them for making rain
(iii) Intrdcd to rest of the world from China

II. Modern Uses of Flying Kites
(i) for mtrlgl invstgtns
(ii) started with Benjamin Franklin’s famous expt
(iii) used for
(a) msrg air pressure, temperature, humidity
(b) msrg wind speed and direction

(iv) civil and military purposes of kites
(a) aerial phtgy
(b) improving wireless rcptn
(c) carrying flares
(d) not useful in jungle warfare
(v) other uses
(a) gunnery targets
(b) carrying lines across streams

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
intrdcd introduced
mtrlgl meteorological
invstgtns investigations
expt experiment
msrg measuring
phtgy photography
rcptn reception

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
In ancient times, kites in China and Tibet were thought to bring rain and keep away evil spirits. The Chinese also used them for other purposes and introduced them to the rest of the world. Benjamin Franklin discovered that electricity produced lightning by flying a kite. Kites are presently used for measuring various atmospheric parameters like air pressure, temperature, wind speed, direction etc. Civil and military purposes of kites include aerial photography, improving wireless reception and carrying flares, but they are not useful in jungle warfare. Kites are also used as gunnery targets and for carrying lines.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 3

Cloud computing is a type of Internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is a model for enabling ubiquitous, on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. computer networks, servers, storage, applications and services) which can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort. Cloud computing and storage solutions provide users and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process their data in third-party data centres that may be located far from the user – ranging in distance from across a city to across the world. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economy of scale, similar to a utili ty (like the electricity grid) over an electricity network.

As a metaphor for the Internet, ‘the cloud’ is a familiar cliche, but when combined with ‘computing’, the meaning gets bigger and fuzzier. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription based or pay per use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends IT’s existing capabilities.

In a cloud computing system, there’s a significant workload shift. Local computers no longer have to do all the heavy lifting when it comes to running applications. The network of computers that make up the cloud handles them instead. Hardware and software demands on the user’s side decrease. The only thing the user’s computer needs to be able to run is the cloud computing system’s interface software, which can be as simple as a Web browser, and the cloud’s network takes care of the rest.

Advocates of cloud computing claim that cloud computing allows companies to avoid upfront infrastructure costs (e.g. purchasing servers). It also enables organisations to focus on their core businesses instead of spending time and money on computer infrastructure. Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and enables Information Technology (ii) teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.

The goal of cloud computing is to apply traditional supercomputing or high-performance computing power, normally used by military and research facilities, to perform tens of trillions of computations per second, in consumer-oriented applications such as financial portfolios, to deliver personalised information, to provide data storage or to power large, immersive computer games. As the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. Companies can scale up as computing needs increase and then scale down again as demands decrease. In 2013, it was reported that cloud computing had become a highly demanded service or utility due to the advantages of high computing power, cheap cost of services, high performance, scalability, accessibility as well as availability.

It’s only in recent years that companies have started renting servers and storage instead of purchasing hardware and running it at huge costs. And with more organisations especially those that rely on India’s outsourcing infrastructure – transferring some of their IT work onto the cloud, companies such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro have stepped up to facilitate that shift. They have positioned themselves as enablers between owners and renters.

A report published by IT research and advisory firm Gartner estimates that in India alone the market for cloud-based services will rise by a third to $557 million this year and more than triple by 2018. Cloud computing will become even more prominent in the coming years, with the predicted rapid, continued growth of major global cloud data centres.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Cloud Computing

I. Definition and Meaning of Cloud Computing
(i) servers ntwkd to centralise data storage, access computer services or rscs
(ii) sharing cmptg rscs
(iii) Internet-base cmptg

II. Goal of Cloud Computing
(i) apply tdnl supercomputing or high pfmc cmptg power to perform trillions of computations p/s
(ii) deliver prsnld info in consumer-oriented apps
(iii) provide data storage
(iv) power large, immersive computer games
(v) converge infra and shared services

III. Recent Developments
(i) cos rent servers and storage
(ii) more org relying on India’s outsourcing infra
(iii) TCS, Infosys, Wipro facilitate services
(iv) market expectations
(a) will rise by a third to $ 557 million this year
(b) more than triple by 2018
(v) cloud cmptg to grow steeply in future

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
ntwkd networked
rscs resources
cmptg computing
tdnl traditional
pfmc performance
p/s per second
prsnld personalised
info information
apps applications
infra infrastructure
COS companies
org organisations
TCS Tata Consultancy Services

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
In cloud computing, large groups of remote servers are networked to allow centralised data storage. It is basically internet-based computing and relies on sharing computing resources. Its goal is to apply traditional supercomputing or high performance computing power to perform trillions of computations per second. It can also power consumer-oriented applications. It is based on the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. In recent years major Indian companies like Wipro, TCS and Infosys have started renting servers and storage. More companies are relying on India’s outsourcing infrastructure. The market for India is expected to grow steeply in future.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 4

The effects of plastic bags on the environment are really quite devastating because there is no disposal method that will really help eliminate the problem. While reusing them is the first step, most people don’t do it, because most of them are not durable enough to survive multiple use.

The biggest problem with them is that once they have been soiled, they end up in the trash, which then ends up in the landfill or is burned. Either solution is very poor for the environment. Burning emits toxic gases that harm the atmosphere while landfills hold them indefinitely as part of the plastic waste problem throughout the globe.

One of the greatest problems is that an estimated 300 million plastic bags end up in the Atlantic Ocean alone. These bags are very dangerous for sea life, especially those of the mammal variety. Any hunting mammal can easily mistake the size, shape and texture of the plastic bag for a meal and find its airway cut off. Needless deaths from plastic bags are increasing every year.

The environmental balance of the waterways is being thrown off by the rate of plastic bags finding their way into the mouths and intestinal tracts of sea mammals. As one species begins to die off at an abnormal rate, every other living organism in the waterways is impacted.

The indefinite period of time that it takes for the average plastic bag to break down can be literally hundreds of years. Every bag that ends up in the woodlands of the country threatens the natural progression of wildlife. Because the breakdown rate is so slow, the chances that the bag will harmlessly go away are extremely slim. Throughout the world plastic bags are responsible for suffocation and deaths of woodland animals as well as inhibiting soil nutrients.

The land litter that is made up of plastic bags has the potential to kill over and over again. It has been estimated that one bag has the potential to unintentionally kill one animal per every three months due to unintentional digestion or inhalation.

While it’s a noble thought to place the plastic bags in the recycling bin every week, studies have proven that there are very few recycling plants that actually recycle them. Most municipalities either burn them or send them off to the landfill after sorting. This is because it can be expensive to recycle this type of plastic. It doesn’t melt down easily and is often not fit to be reused in its original form.

The premise of recycling these bags is nice. Yet funding for the upgrading of the recycling units just has not happened and thus less than one per cent of all bags are sent to recycling plants worldwide. Most are left to become a pollution problem in one way or another.

There are always alternatives to plastic bags and the search for more alternatives continues. Paper bags are a possible option but they also take their toll on the environment. The use of trees to increase the production of paper products will also have a negative environmental effect.

Reusable plastic bags are being introduced into regions that want to outlaw the plastic bags altogether. These are stronger and more durable and can be used for three to five trips to the market. Of course, the reusable cloth bag is fast becoming a favourite among environment supporters. While, thus far, no bag is without its issues, these are the bags that are currently recommended for use to help protect environmental concerns.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Harmful Effects of Plastic Bags

I. Plastic bags harmful for Environment
(i) No effective disposal method
(a) trashed in Ifls and held indefinitely
(b) burned but emit harmful gases
(ii) Reuse not practical
(iii) Millions of plastic bags end in Atlantic Ocean
(a) harmful for sea life, particularly mammals -cuts off airway, causing death -adversely affects envtl balance
(b) burned but emit harmful gases
(iv) On land, breakdown period is centuries
(a) suffocate forest animals
(b) inhibit soil nutrients

II. Recycling Impractical
(i) Few rclg plants actually work because
(a) operation expensive
(b) products cannot be used as earlier
(ii) Most bags dumped in ifls
(iii) Cause land pltn

III. Options to Plastic Bags
(i) Paper bags
(a) negative envtl effect due to tree cutting
(ii) Reusable cloth bags
(a) preferred by env supporters
(iii) Redusable piste bags
(a) stronger and more durable

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
Ifls landfills
envtl environmental
rclg recycling
pltn pollution
piste plastic

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
Plastic bags are harmful for the environment because there is no effective disposal method for them and their reuse is impractical. A large number of plastic bags which ultimately land in the Atlantic Ocean become harmful for sea life, particularly mammals, causing their death and creating an environmental imbalance in the sea.

If dumped on land, they suffocate forest animals and inhibit soil nutrients. Their recycling is impractical because few recycling plants actually work as they are uneconomic. Dumped in landfills, they cause land pollution. Options available are paper bags or reusable plastic bags, the latter being preferred by environmentalists.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 5

The work of the heart can never be interrupted. The reason is that the heart’s job is to keep oxygen rich blood flowing through the body. All the body’s cells need a constant supply of oxygen, especially those in the brain. The brain cells live only for four to five minutes after their oxygen is cut off, and then brain death occurs, leading to the entire body dying.

The heart is a specialised muscle that serves as a pump. This pump is divided into four chambers, two called atria and two called ventricles, connected by tiny doors called valves. The chambers work to keep the blood flowing round the body in a circle with a detour to the lungs to purify the blood by removing carbon dioxide from it and adding oxygen to it.

At the end of each circuit, veins carry the blood to the right atrium, the first of the four chambers. Two-fifths of the oxygen by then is used up and it is on its way back to the lungs to pick up a fresh supply and to give up the carbon dioxide it has accumulated. From the right atrium the blood flows through the tricuspid valve into the second chamber, the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts when it is filled, pushing the blood through the pulmonary artery, which leads to the lungs. In the lungs the blood gives up its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen. Then it travels to the third chamber, the left atrium. When this chamber is filled, it forces the blood through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. From here it is pushed into a big blood vessel called aorta, the main artery, and sent round the body through the various arteries.

Fleart disease can result from any damage to the heart muscle, the valves or the ‘natural pacemaker’ of the heart. Electrical impulses from the heart muscle cause our heart to beat (contract). This electrical signal begins in the sino-atrial (SA) node, located at the top of the heart’s upper-right chamber (the right atrium). The SA node is sometimes called the heart’s ‘natural pacemaker’.

If the muscle is damaged, the heart is unable to pump properly. If the valves are damaged blood cannot flow normally and easily from one chamber to another, and if the pacemaker is defective, the contractions of the chambers will become un-coordinated.

Until the twentieth century, few doctors dared to touch the heart. In 1953 all this changed. After twenty years of work, Dr John Gibbon in the USA had developed a machine that could take over temporarily from the heart and lungs. Blood could be routed through the machine, bypassing the heart so that surgeons could work inside it and see what they were doing. The era of open heart surgery had begun.

In the operating theatre, it gives surgeons the chance to repair or replace a defective heart. Many parties have had plastic valves inserted in their hearts when their own was faulty. Many people are being kept alive with tiny battery operated pacemakers; none of these repairs could have been made without the heart-lung machine. But valuable as it is to the surgeons, the heart-lung machine has certain limitations. It can be used only for a few hours at a time because its pumping gradually damages the bloods cells.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title How the Heart Works

I. Functions of Heart
(i) vital for living
(a) never stop wrkg
(ii) supplies oxygen rich blood to diff parts of body

II. Structure of Heart
(i) divided into 4 chambers connected by vlvs
(ii) blood purified in lungs
(iii) arteries carry pure blood to diff parts of body

III. Causes of Heart Disease
(i) weak heart muscles
(ii) defective vlvs
(iii) defective ‘natural pacemaker’

IV. History of Open Heart Surgery
(i) 1953: Dr Gibbon invents Heart lung m/c
(a) blood could pass through m/c bypassing heart . and lungs
(ii) enabled open heart srgy
(iii) m/c limitations
(a) used only for few hrs at a time because it damages blood cells

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
wrkg working
diff different
vlvs valves
Dr Doctor
m/c machine
srgy surgery
hrs hours

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The heart is a vital organ of the body which never stops working. It supplies oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body. It is divided into four chambers inter-connected by valves. Blood is purified in the lungs and arteries carry it to different parts of the body.

Heart disease has various causes such as weak heart muscles, defective valves or a defective natural pacemaker. The era of open-heart surgery began in 1953 when Dr Gibbon developed the heart-lung machine. Replacement of valves and other areas of a damaged heart is now possible.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 6

The Maasai tribe live on the wide plains in southern and northern Kenya and northern Tanzania. They are among the best known local populations due to their residence near the many game parks of the African Great Lakes, as well as their distinctive customs and dress. The Maasai were famous fighters. They used to raid the neighbouring tribes and carry away their cattle. All the other tribes were afraid of them because of their skills in war.

The Maasai are handsome people, tall and slim with light brown skins, straight noses and long hair. They do not belong completely to the Negro race. They belong mosdy to the same race as the people of ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians probably looked like the Maasais of today.

The Maasais live in a very beautiful part of Africa. It consists of miles of rolling grassland, on which you can find thorny bushes and here and there a rocky hill. The people move from one place to another according to the seasons, looking for the grasses and other plants on which their cattle can graze. They have no permanent home. When they want to setde in a place for some time, they build a kind of camp called a ‘Manyatta’, where a few families live for a few weeks or months. Then they move on again, taking their few belongings with them, and burning the old ‘Manyatta’ to the ground.

To make a hut, they take a number of long thin wooden poles and plant them in a circle. Then each pole is bent into a shape of a ‘U* and its other end is also planted in the earth. Now the framework for the hut is ready.

Next, the space between the poles is filled with leaves, and small branches of tree and mud. Then the outside of earth hut is covered or plastered with cow-dung, which quickly becomes hard in the sun. An opening is left for the door but there are no windows. The hut is about 5 feet high, so that grown-up men cannot stand up straight inside his hut. There is no furniture, except perhaps a small wooden stool for the head of the family.

The huts are arranged in a big circle. Around the outside of the circle the Maasais build a thorn fence, about 7 feet high, with several openings so that the people can go in and out with their cattle. After dark, all the openings are closed. Then all the people and cattle in the ‘Manyatta’ are safe from wild animals.

Nowadays there are no wars between the tribes. So a Maasai warrior has very little to do now. But they sometimes go hunting. The Maasais like to kill lions with spears, and a lion-hunt is a great test of courage. The warrior who first kills a lion is given great honour, and he wears the lion’s mane round his neck to show that he is a lion-killer.

The Maasais are fairly well-to-do and intelligent and live comfortable lives. However, most of them are happy to live as their ancestors lived hundreds of years ago. The Tanzanian and Kenyan governments have instituted programmes to encourage the Maasai to abandon their traditional semi-nomadic lifestyle, but the people have continued their age-old customs. Many Maasai tribes throughout Tanzania and Kenya welcome visits to their village to experience their culture, traditions, and lifestyle.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title The Maasai Tribe – Life and History

I. Maasai Tribe-Famous Fighters
(i) live in Kenya & northern Tanzania
(ii) carried away cattle of nbrg tribes

II. Maasais Handsome People
(i) tall & slim with light brown skins
(ii) straight noses & long hair
(iii) don’t big to Negro groups
(iv) big to people of ancient Egypt

III. Maasais are Nomadic Cattle Herders
(i) move from place to place looking for grass for cattle
(ii) build ‘Manyatta’ – a camp
(iii) use wdn poles to build huts
(a) plant U shaped wdn poles in circle on earth
(b) fill frmwk with leaves, branches & mud
(c) plaster outside with cow-dung
(d) opening kept for door – no windows
(iv) no furniture- wdn stool for family head
(v) put thorn fence around ‘Manyatta’
(a) keeps them safe from wild animals

IV. Nowadays- No War Between Tribes
(i) Maasai warriors go hunting for lions
(a) Lion hunt- test of courage
(ii) lion killer wears lion’s mane as sign
(iii) Maasais live comfortable life
(iv) invite people to experience their lives

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
& and
nbrg neighbouring
big belong
wdn wooden
frmwk framework

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The Maasai tribe live in Kenya and northern Tanzania. They were famous fighters and attacked other tribes for cattle. They were handsome people and belong mostly to the same race as that of ancient Egypt, and not to the Negro race. They move from place to place looking for grass for their cattle. When they settle in a place they build a camp called ’Manyatta’ with dome shaped wood-frame huts in a big circle. They put a thorn fence around the ’Manyatta’ to save themselves from wild animals. Lion hunting is a test of courage for them. They are intelligent and live comfortable lives.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 7

After creating the world’s fastest mode of transport, the French are now returning to something much more simple, the bicycle (veto in French). On July 15, 2007, 10000 public bicycles were made available to the residents of Paris, in a new experiment on urban transport.

The basic principle is that nobody owns the cycle, but everybody can borrow one. For €29 and a deposit of €150, one can subscribe to a year’s access to the cycles. Cycle-stands have been created outside every metro station in the city. With a magnetic card in hand, one can simply help oneself to a cycle, use it to ride up to one’s destination and park it at the nearest cycle-stand.

It took three years of negotiations before the experiment was put into place, but one week before the launch, nearly 8000 Parisians had signed up for a subscription. The city expects to have nearly 200000 by the end of the year. In the last seven years, Paris has doubled its cycle tracks to 371 km at present.

This emerging new trend has quite a serious impact on urban planning, as rules are changed to suit a growing population of cyclists. Instead of the motor-car, in some places the cyclists have priority, allowing them to use one-way streets and even ignore traffic lights.

Finally, it comes down to a personal choice that the French are making. Cycling is good for one’s health; according to some studies, half an hour of cycling per day can significandy elongate one’s lifespan, reducing stress and hypertension. It is also an efficient tool of weight control. On the other hand, a cycle is a non-polluting form of transport, using no fuel and creating no emissions. Until a few years ago, only 1-5% of Parisians used cycles on a regular basis. Now more of the urban French population is turning to a mode of transport very common in rural France.

The region of Arcachon, on the South-West coast of France, offers several landmarks for tourists but, most of all, it offers an excellent network of cycle routes. These routes, which run along the sea for almost the entire circumference of the basin, originally formed a railroad track used by Germans during World War to transport soldiers and men. However, after the war, the railroad served litde purpose and the path was converted into cycle tracks.

The cycle track that circles the basin is inaccessible to a motor vehicle, however small it may be. It covers a length of nearly 75 to 80 km and, on a sunny day, one can see people of all ages cycling.

Cycles are available in most towns on rent for as litde as €2 an hour. A variety of cycles, tandem bicycles, three-wheelers and cycles with baby carriages, makes it possible for older citizens, mothers with babies and even the physically challenged, to cycle. To make it easier for tourists, cycles rented in one town can be returned in another to the same chain of stores.

The enthusiasm to return to the cycle as a form of transport as well as a hobby is not limited to Arcachon. Gironde also boasts of a network of nearly 600 km of cycle tracks. Bordeaux, the capital of Gironde, is a university town that gives all students free use of bicycles that belong to the town. Further North, Nantes offers free raincoats and backpacks to state employees who cycle to work.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviation wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Revival of Cycling in France

I. French Experiment in Urban Transport
(i) Public bicycles hired to Parisians
(ii) can xchg bicycles at cycle stands at metro stations
(iii) popular
(a) 8000 signed up before launch
(b) 2 lakh expected by year end
(c) cycle tracks doubled

II. Impact of Experiment
(i) road rules changed
(ii) cycles given priority in some places
(iii) will improve health
(a) t lifespan
(b) + stress
(c) control weight
(d) non-pltg
(iv) reduces pltn

III. Popularity of Cycling in Rural Arcachon Region of France
(i) trsm popular here
(ii) old railway track converted for cycles
(iii) no motor vhcls allowed
(iv) cycles available at many places in rgn
(v) low rent
(vi) dfrt types of cycles available

IV. Similar Schemes in Other Areas of France
(i) Gironde-province has 600 km of cycle tracks
(a) uvrsty in Bordeaux, the capital, allows students fee use of cycles
(ii) Nantes offers govt employees incentives to cycle to work

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
xchg exchange
t increase
1 reduce
pitg polluting
pltn pollution
trsm tourism
vhcls vehicles
rgn region
dfrt different
uvrsty university
govt government

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Cycling has been revived as a mode of transport in France, Public bicycles are hired to Parisians, which can be exchanged at various cycle stands, making the experiment popular. Its impact is that road rules have been changed to give cycles priority in some places.

It will improve health, increase lifespan, reduce stress and control weight of people, besides reducing pollution. Cycling is also popular elsewhere in France like the Arcachon region, a popular tourism area, Gironde province and Nantes. All of these have exclusive cycle tracks with cycles of all types hired on low rent or for free.

Note Making Practice Discursive Passages and Summary Writing Examples Pdf

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 1

Fasting, in some form or the other, is part of every religion. In Islam, it is called ‘roza’. The Arabic equivalent of ‘roza’ is sawm. Sawm literally means abstinence, i.e. to refrain from doing something. The ninth month of the Hijri calendar, i.e. Ramzan, has been especially chosen for fasting. Fasting during the month of Ramzan is obligatory for every Muslim, except when he has a genuine reason not to do so.

In every human being there are two faculties to take into consideration: one is desire and the other is reason. In all matters, the individual has to decide whether to follow his desire or his reason. The great merit in fasting is that it trains us to refrain from following our desires and instead always to bow to reason. That is the spirit of sawm.

According to the Prophet of Islam, one who fasts should never stoop to using abusive language; if someone abuses him, he should simply say ‘I am fasting’. Islamic fasting, as far as formal practice is concerned, is to abstain from food and drink. But the actual spirit of fasting is to refrain from indulging in negative thinking and the use of negative language.

Self-control, far from being a negative or passive action, has great value in human behaviour. In life, there are more than 50 per cent of occasions when one should refrain from action and less than 50 per cent of occasions when one should take action. This is the formula for success for both individuals and society.

Self-control is integral to social ethics. If you live alone on an island, there is no need for any control, as the absence of others leaves you free to do whatever you want to do. However, when you are living in a society, you have to give leeway to others. This is what every person on the road does when he drives a car: he either keeps to the left (or to the right depending upon which country he is in) so that he gives way to other cars and can carry on his journey without accidents. This principle is applicable to the entire life of an individual. It entails giving others the chance to live their lives while living one’s own life.

Self-control is a kind of mutual adjustment. When a person adopts the way of self-control, it is far-reaching in effect.

In this way he promotes the culture of self-control in society and indicates to others through his actions that they should follow the path that he is following.

Thus, the way of self-control leads to a better society, while lack of self-control in individuals leads to the destruction of peace. As far as the individual is concerned, self-control serves as a means of personality development. This way of life, in turn, saves others from unnecessary problems.

There is a ‘pre-control’ for exercising self-control and it is thinking. When a person adopts a life of self-control, at all times he first thinks about what path he should tread. Only after considerable thought does he plan out his course of action. A life lived in this way will necessarily be marked by creative thinking. In addition, self-control contributes to one’s intellectual development and turns one into a man of wisdom.

In Islam, fasting is worship – for God. Fasting is the kind of worship which is simultaneously for the sake of God and man. Thus, if fasting is observed in the right spirit, in all sincerity, it will make an individual pious and responsible.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Tjte Traditional Culture of Self-restraint Notes

I. Fasting
(i) roza in Islam
(ii) refrain from doing smth
(iii) Ramzan, ninth month of Hijri clnd
(iv) oblgtry for every Muslim
(v) train to refrain from folwg our desires, howto reason
(vi) worship – for God
(vii) observed in right spirit – make individual pious and responsible

II. Teachings of Islam
(i) during fasting
(a) should not use abusive lang
(b) abstain from food and drink
(c) refrain from-ve thkg

III. Self-control: Need and Importance
(i) great value in human behaviour
(ii) formula for success for indvls and society
(iii) integral to social ethics
(iv) a kind of mutual adjsmt
(v) lack of it leads to destruction of peace
(vi) means of personality devpt

IV. Exercising Self-Control
(i) ‘pre-control’ i.e. thkg
(ii) thoughtful course of action
(iii) marked by creative thkg
(iv) cntrbs to intellectual devpt
(v) makes man wiser

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
smth something
clnd calendar
oblgtry obligatory
folwg following
lang language
-ve negative
thkg thinking
indvls individuals
adjsmt adjustment
devpt development
cntrbs contributes

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Fasting is known as ‘roza’ in Islam, which means to refrain from doing something. It is obligatory for every Muslim, wherein one should refrain from using abusive language, negative thinking, food and drink. It is worship for God. Fasting basically teaches self-control, which is observed as a formula for success for individuals and society. Self-control is a kind of mutual adjustment and leads to personality development. Exercising self-control requires ‘pre-control’, that is thinking. It contributes to intellectual development and a thoughtful course of action to lead a wiser life.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 2

Just a few years ago, we witnessed how a national project, the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO), which is to study fundamental particles called neutrinos, was subject to a barrage of Questions from environmentalists, politicians and others ever since it was cleared. The project, which involves the construction of an underground laboratory, was initially to be located in the Nilgiris but later, on grounds that it was too close to tiger habitat, was moved to a cavern under a rocky mountain in the Bodi West Hills region of Theni district, about 110 Kilometres West of Madurai in Tamil Nadu. The already much-delayed and important physics project needs to be explained.

India has been among the pioneers in neutrino research, the first of such laboratories having been established in the 1960s. We led neutrino research when our physicists used a gold mine at Kolar in Karnataka to set-up what was then the world’s deepest underground laboratory. This was called the Kolar Gold Field Lab. In 1965, it enabled researchers to detect atmospheric neutrinos. In 1992, when the mine became uneconomical, the laboratory was shut down. With that, we lost our advantage in understanding the most mysterious particle in the universe. INO may now reclaim this advantage and our global leadership.

Most of the advanced countries are already working vigorously in neutrino science with dedicated labs. These include the United States, Russia, France, Italy, China, Japan and South Korea. India is set to not only join this league, but also become a key player in global efforts in neutrino science. The Magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) being set-up at INO will be among the largest ever in the world, weighing over 50000 tonnes.

Neutrinos, first proposed by Swiss Scientist Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, are the second most widely occurring particle in the universe, only second to photons, the particles which make up light. In fact, neutrinos are so abundant among us that every second, there are more than 100 trillion of them passing right through each of us – we never even notice them.

This is the reason why INO needs to be built deep into the earth – 1300 metres into the earth. At this depth, it would be able to keep itself away from all the trillions of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere and which would otherwise choke an over-the-ground neutrino detector. Neutrinos have been in the universe literally since forever, being almost 14 billion years old – as much as the universe itself.

From experiments so far, we know that neutrinos have a tiny mass, but the ordering of the neutrino mass states is not known and is one of the key Questions that remain unanswered till today. This is a major challenge INO will set to resolve, thus completing our picture of the neutrino.

Neutrinos are very important for our scientific progress and technological growth for three reasons. First, they are abundant. Second, they have very feeble mass and no charge and hence can travel through planets, stars, rocks and human bodies without any interaction.

In fact, a beam of trillions of neutrinos can travel thousands of kilometres through a rock before an interaction with a single atom of the rock and the neutrino occurs. Third, they hide within them a vast pool of knowledge and could open up new vistas in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics, communication and even in medical imaging, through the detector spin-offs.

While this should be a moment of joy, there is also some scepticism, partly arising due to the fact that the neutrino, though so abundant, is a silent stranger to most people.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Race for the Neutrino

I. India-based Neutrino Observatory
(i) subject of Questions from envlsts & others
(ii) involves cnstrn of underground lab
(iii) initially to be located in Nilgiris
(iv) later moved to Bodi West Hills in Tamil Nadu

II. India’s Position in Research
(i) pioneer
(ii) 1st lab estd in 1960s
(iii) Kolar in Karnataka: world’s deepest underground lab
(a) anabled detection of atmospheric neutrinos
(b) lab shut down in 1992
(iv) magnetized Iron Calorimeter
(a) set up at INO
(b) among largest ever in world

III. Understanding Neutrinos
(i) 1 st proposed by Swiss Scientist Wolfgang Pauli
(ii) 2nd most widely occurring particle
(iii) labs to be built deep into earth
(iv) in atmosphere, detector would Choke
(v) have tiny mass & no charge
(vi) mass states ordering unknown

IV. Importance of Neutrinos
(i) scientific progress & tchgl growth
(a) abundant
(b) can travel w/o interaction

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
envlsts environmentalists
& and
cnstrn construction
lab laboratory
1st first
estd established
INO India-Based Neutrino Observatory
2nd second
tchgl technological
w/o without

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) was subject to Questions from many groups. It involved construction of an underground laboratory, which was supposed to be located in the Nilgiris, but was later moved to Bodi West Hills in Tamil Nadu.

India had been among the pioneers in neutrino research and the first lab was set up in 1960, but was shut down in 1992. Understanding neutrinos has become essential due to their wide occurrence.

They have been found to have tiny mass with unknown order and no charge. They are important for scientific progress and technological growth.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 3

Fashion is a force – a powerful force of constantly altering patterns of change and growth. Its constant movement affects the fate of the designers and manufacturers who distribute it, and of course, the lives of the consumers, who follow what it dictates. All of its facts taken together add up to a multimillion dollar industry. Fashion today means mega bucks.

Fashion is also a science. Surprising, isn’t it? However, it is well known that it involves known facts and basic principles, and its actions and reactions can be predicted, as these are based on those facts and principles. Fashion is one of those distinct and unique trades that is highly dependent on the environment and the changes that are continuously taking place in it. These have to be understood by the designers if they want to become successful.

For one to make it to the top in the fashion business and stay there, one has to continue to discover and innovate to fulfil the needs and wants of the customers. For this, most of the top designers such as Yves Saint Laurent, Karl Lagerfeld, Liz Claiborne, etc all rely upon their creativity backed by years of invaluable experience. In this line of work, instinct and intuition play a very major role besides the knowledge of past successes and failures.

As the power of fashion to influence our lives grows, a number of misconceptions about it continue to abound. The most common of these is that the designers and retailers dictate what the fashion will be, by accepting or rejecting the styles and trends that are offered. They are truly, as one ‘fashion guru’ once said, “Variety vultures”. However, it is not so – actually customers dictate the trends.

The second misconception is that fashion acts as an influence on women only. However, actually, men today are as much influenced by, and responsive to, fashion, as women. In point of fact, the male fashion industry has been growing at a dizzying rate. Yes, there was a time when menswear was not exacdy worth talking about. It was staid and unimaginative. But that does not mean that men did not dress up according to the latest trends of the day.

There were changes in Western dressing that followed the dictates of the designers and the fashionable elite trend-setters. These were the fashion world’s drainpipes in the 60s, the popular safaris in the 70s, the denims in the 80s and the ethnic wear that has caught on these days.

Fashion today is more lifestyle oriented and quite practical. The modern male and female want to dress differently for office and leisure. Designers are becoming more daring so that the women as well as the men have a wide choice. There are different designs for every moment of a busy social schedule – from work, lunch to afternoon tea, cocktails, dinner and gala banquets.

Lastly, fashion is the force that causes women to raise and lower their skirt length, straighten or fizz their hair and change from sportswear to dressy clothes. Fashion is also that force which influences men to grow or shave off their moustaches and beards, choose wide or narrow ties and lapels, and change from casual jeans into three piece suits and tuxedos. It is indeed this dynamic and varied force that adds spice and colour to our lives.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Fashion – A Life Force

I. Constantly Altering Patterns Affect
(i) dsnrs
(ii) mfrs
(iii) lives of consumers

II. Fashion means Multimillion Dollar Industry
III. Fashion-A Science
(i) Facts & basic principles
(ii) Action & reaction predicted
(iii) Dependent on envt

IV. Fashion – Discover and Innovate
(i) Continue to fulfil needs and wants
(ii) Instinct & intuition play major role

V. Misconception that Designers and Retailers Dictate Fashion
(i) it is consumers who dictate
(ii) influences both women & men equally

VI. Fashion-Western Dressing
(i) Trend setters
(a) Drainpipes in 60s
(b) Safaris in 70s
(c) Denims in 80s
(d) Ethnic wears today

VII. Fashion-Changes
(i) Life-style oriented and practical
(ii) Every ocsn diff dress
(iii) Adds spice and clr to our lives

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
dsnrs designers
mfrs manufacturers
envt environment
ocsn occasion
diff different
clr colour
& and

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Fashion is a force which keeps changing and affecting all related people. It is a science as it is based on facts and principles. To remain on top in this business, designers have to continually innovate and discover to fulfil people’s needs. Fashion is not dictated by designers and retailers but by consumers. Both women and men are equally influenced by it. Western dressing gave us drainpipes, safaris and denims but now ethnic wears are fashionable. Fashion has become more practical, as people want to change dresses for every occasion. Fashion adds spice, flavour and colour to our lives.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 4

The problem of unemployment is a serious problem in our country. If millions of people are without any jobs, its effect is very bad. A man without any employment is a burden on others. If he has got to maintain a family, the situation is worse. Such unemployed persons are reduced to poverty. It demoralises them and they are forced to do undesirable things. They may commit crimes. They may create trouble and spread discontent. In fact, they are a source of danger to society and the state.

The causes of unemployment are mainly the rapid growth of population, the prevailing system and under¬development of industry and trade. The population of India is growing very rapidly. It is very difficult to get jobs for all who are in need of it. The British Government had introduced a system of education in this country for carrying on administration only. It is being continued in free India also with very slight changes. The system of education prepares most young men to be clerks. But neither the Government nor private firms can absorb all the educated unemployed persons in their offices for clerical work. Industry and trade have not yet properly developed.

Cottage industries in the villages have been ruined owing to the establishment of large mills and factories in towns. Consequently, many artisans have been thrown out of employment. There has been great pressure on agricultural land because of the growth of population; consequently, many cultivators have got no land for cultivation. All these are mainly responsible for this acute problem of unemployment.

The acute problem of unemployment is a cause of unrest in the country. So the Government is seriously thinking over the matter and trying to find out a remedy. The remedy is to find work for the people. The Government had earlier undertaken five-year plans for the material prosperity of the country. For carrying out these plans many mills and factories had been set up both by the Government and by industrialists. Many new offices had been started. Many educated young men were absorbed in offices as clerks and in mills and factories as skilled workers. Uneducated and unskilled men were being absorbed in mills and factories as labourers. But these measures have been proved inadequate.

Our government is now encouraging the revival of cottage industries in the villages. This will help many villagers to earn a living. Our Government is also trying to develop agriculture. But as yet, it has not been able to cope with the situation fully. The number of unemployed persons is increasing. So our Government should allow establishment of a large number of large and small technical and vocational institutions in the country. Only a limited number of bright young men should try to get higher education in the universities. Most young men try to enter technical or vocational institutions.

After coming out of these, they may find jobs in factories and commercial firms. For this, of course, more factories must be set up throughout the country. Unskilled labourers should be taught various traits in technical institutes. They may find jobs in factories as skilled labourers. They may also set up cottage industries in their villages. Government will have to help them with loans to start their work. It is heartening to find that our Government has already taken some steps in this direction. Nationalised banks are now giving lump sum loans to intending young persons under self employment schemes.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Unemployment: A Serious Problem

I. Consequence of Unemployment
(i) poverty
(ii) low morale
(iii) high crime rate
(iv) discontent

II. Causes of Unemployment
(i) rapid growth of ppltn
(ii) prevailing system of edu
(a) prepares young people to be clerks
(iii) underdevelopment of indty & trade

III. Remedy: Role of Government
(i) follow up 5-yr plans
(a) set up many factories
(b) create more job optnts
(ii) allow vocational & technical institutions to open
(iii) help unskilled to become skilled
(iv) revive cottage industries
(v) give loans for self-employment

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
ppltn population
edu education
Indty industry
yr year
& and
optnts opportunities

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The consequences of unemployment, a serious problem in India, are poverty, low morale, high crime rate and discontent in the population. The causes of unemployment are rapid growth of population, the prevailing system of education which prepares young people to be clerks, and underdevelopment of industry and trade. The remedy is that ‘ the role of Government should change: it should follow up the 5-yr plans by setting up many factories to create more job opportunities. It should allow vocational and technical institutions to open to help the unskilled become skilled. Government should revive cottage industries by giving loans for self-employment.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 5

Depression is a common problem of modern times. Both the rich and poor suffer from it. According to the World Health Organisation, by the year 2020, depression will become the second leading cause of disease in the world. Many solutions have been prescribed for the problem of depression but most have proved to be ineffective as a complete cure. They may offer temporary relief but fail to resolve the problem permanently.

Meditation is often advised to treat this problem of depression. But meditation focuses on the heart and modern science has established that the heart is merely an organ that pumps blood, whereas many kinds of depression stem from the mind. It is the mind that controls the heart and not vice-versa. In many cases, depression is non-physical and the heart is physical. How can a physical organ resolve a non-physical problem?

We also often hear about physical techniques to counter depression. But the reach of physical techniques is confined to the body and does not extend to the mind.

Many kinds of depression are the result of non-acceptance of reality. The real solution to this problem is the acceptance of reality. While non-acceptance creates the problem, acceptance of reality will solve it.

Our world is one of freedom, competition, challenge and clash of interests. This nature of human life is bound to create problems. No one is exempt from this process. This being so, to de-stress, learn the art of stress management rather than trying to eliminate the stress.

A person may become sad upon facing a loss in business or feeling discriminated against at work. He may give in to anxiety and frustration if he suffers a loss in an election, his love marriage turns into a problem or if he is offended by criticism. In all such cases, a person becomes negative because of being unaware of the real cause. He attributes the cause to another person and holds this person responsible for his difficulties. He fails to realise that all these are due to the law of nature.

If you attribute the cause of the problem to the divine law of nature, it will arouse no negativity, but when you attribute it to a person, it brings on negative thinking. This is because the law of nature is not your rival, whereas you see a person as your competitor. When you attribute the cause of your problem to a rival, it will invariably arouse negative thoughts and cause anger. But when you attribute the cause to the law of nature, because it is not your rival and is equal in its treatment of all, it will lead to introspection.

When you follow nature-based thinking instead of man-based thinking, you will try to discover its wisdom and will realise that whatever has happened is for your betterment. It was to activate your mind and enhance its creativity. It was a means of developing a realistic approach, fostering incentive, making you realise your mistake and helping you to re-plan practically.

When this thought comes to you, your mind will automatically change from negative to positive. You will be grateful towards the law of nature for bestowing this blessing in disguise. This thought will eliminate your stress and you will be able to live normally. This is a good way to help de-stress the mind.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Depression: Accept It, Tackle It

I. Depression
(i) common prblm of modern times
(ii) acc to WFIO, will soon become second leading disease,
(iii) prescribed soln
(a) offer temporary relief
(iv) no permanent cure

II. Kinds of Depression and its Cure
(i) non-acceptance of reality
(a) soln – acceptance of reality
(ii) Clash of interests
(a) soln – learn stress mgmt

III. Causes of Stress/Depression
(i) atrbt to another person cause of prblm
(ii) fail to realise law of nature

IV. Ways to De-Stress
(i) atrbt prblm to the divine law of nature
(ii) don’t atrbt cause of problem to a person
(iii) follow nature-based thinking
(iv) this causes realisation that
(a) whatever hpnd is for betterment
(b) means of dvlpg a realistic approach
(c) fostering incentive
(d) helping you to re-plan
(e) understanding mistake
(v) realisation eliminates stress

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
prblm problem
acc according
WHO World Health Organisation
soln solution
mgmt management
atrbt attribute
hpnd happened
dvlpg developing

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
According to the World Health Organisation, depression is expected to become the second leading cause of disease in the world. Prescribed solutions offer temporary relief but offer no permanent solution. The cause is non-acceptance of reality or clash of interests.

Solutions are acceptance of reality and learning to manage stress. Stress is caused by attributing problems to other persons instead of understanding the law of nature. One should realise that whatever has happened is for the betterment. This enables development of a realistic approach to the problem and helps in re-planning. This realisation eliminates stress.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 6

In Indian homes, the floor of the house is always the best maintained element, cleaned twice a day and wiped down to a sparkling state. In front of the threshold of the home the floor often is decorated with Rangoli and other ritual diagrams. This is true in rural as well as in many urban homes in metropolitan cities. When building a new home, people spend as much money per square foot for a beautiful floor as they would spend on the entire structure. Yet, this pride and obsession for a clean floor suddenly vanish as we step out into the street: the floor of the city.

In Delhi, where 80 percent of the people are pedestrians in some stage of their commuting, least attention is paid to pedestrian paths. Delhi’s sidewalks are too narrow, very poorly maintained and full of potholes, poles, junction boxes and dangerous electrical installations, not to speak of the garbage dumps that stink and stare at the pedestrian. Ashram Chowk is a good case in point where thousands of pedestrians change direction from the Mathura Road radial to the Ring Road. A flyover facilitates the automobiles while the pedestrian is orphaned by the investment-hungry authorities.

One corner of Ashram Chowk has a ridiculous imitation wood sculpture with an apology of a fountain, and across the same chowk, you have the open mouthed, massive garbage dump right on the pedestrian path, in full exhibition for the benefit of the public. These symbols of poor taste and abject apathy are then connected by narrow, dangerous and often waterlogged footpaths for the hapless pedestrians to negotiate. In the night, street lighting in the central median lights up the carriageway for cars and leaves the pedestrian areas in darkness.

Delhi’s citizens leave home and want to get to their destination as fast as they can. No one wants to linger on the road; no leisure walks; no one looks a stranger in the eye. It is on the pedestrian path that the citizen encounters head-on the poor public management and the excuse called ‘multiplicity of authorities’. One agency makes the road, another digs it up to lay cables, a third one comes after months to clear up the mess and the cycle of unaccountability goes on.

Meanwhile crores are spent in repairing the carriageway for vehicles and in construction of flyovers without a care for the pedestrians below. The solution offered is to make an expensive underpass or an ugly foot over bridge, ostensibly for facilitating the pedestrian, while in reality it only facilitates the cars to move faster at the expense of the pedestrians. Take Kashmiri Gate, ITO, Ashram Chowk, AIIMS or Dhaula Kuan. At all these important pedestrian cross-over points the story is the same: they have pulled the sidewalk from under the pedestrians’ feet.

In modern cities across the world, the pedestrian is king. The floor of the city is designed and maintained as an inclusive environment, helping the physically challenged, the old and the infirm, children and the ordinary citizen to move joyfully across the city. Delhi aspires to be a ‘world class city’. Hopefully the authorities would look once again at the floor of Delhi. The pleasure of strolling on the sidewalks is deeply connected to our sense of citizenship and sense of belonging. Pride in the city grows only on a well designed floor of the city.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Delhi’s Neglected Pedestrians

I. Floors in Indian homes
(i) well mntnd
(ii) clnd twice a day
(iii) decorated
(iv) home buyers invest on good floors
(v) streets neglected in cmprsn

II. Delhi’s Pedestrian Sidewalks
(i) most people use them for some time
(ii) sdwks poorly made and cltrd due to
(a) potholes
(b) dangerous electrical installations
(c) garbage dumps
(d) being too narrow
(e) waterlogging
(f) dug up due to ‘multiplicity of authorities’
(iii) crossings facilitate vehicles, not pdstns
(iv) lighting on roads, not on sdwks
(v) spending more on road users than pdstns

III. Roads in Other Modern Cities
(i) roads designed for all categories of pdstns
(ii) give them a sense of belonging
(iii) Delhi authorities should improve the situation

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
mntnd maintained
clnd cleaned
cmprsn comparison
sdwks sidewalks
cltrd cluttered
pdstns pedestrians

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Floors in Indian homes are well maintained and decorated. Home buyers invest on good floors, but in comparison, the streets are neglected. Delhi’s pedestrian sidewalks, used by most people, are poorly made and cluttered due to various installations or remaining dug up due to a ‘multiplicity of authorities’.

Road crossings facilitate vehicles, not pedestrians, with lighting on roads, not on sidewalks and spending more on road users than on pedestrians. In contrast, modern cities worldwide are better, with roads designed for all categories of pedestrians, . which give them a sense of belonging. Delhi authorities should thus work on improving the situation.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 7

India is surrounded by water bodies on three sides, yet we face water shortage every year! Consider this – the per capita water availability in India was 3450 cu m in 1951. By 2025, the annual per capita availability of water is expected to fall drastically from the current 1800 cu m per person to between 1200 and 1500 cu m.

Mumbai’s demand for water was 7950 MLD (million litres per day) in 2011. The supply was only around 3100 MLD – a substantial shortfall, but the city receives only 2500 MLD, the balance being lost on account of leakages and pilferage. Delhi Jal Board is able to supply only around 650 million gallons of water per day against the demand of 750 million gallons. According to a World Bank study of 27 Asian cities with population of over one million, Kolkata is the fourth worst performing metro in terms of hours of water availability per day.

The quality of available water is also fast deteriorating. In 1982 it was reported that 70 percent of all available water in India was polluted. The situation is much worse today. Over-extraction of ground water has led to salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers. It has also resulted in problems of excessive fluoride, iron, arsenic and salinity in water, which is currently affecting about 44 million people in India. Ground water is facing an equally serious threat from contamination by industrial effluents and faecal matter, as well as pesticides and fertilisers from farm run-offs.

Unless priority is given quickly to creating an infrastructure to assure availability of water, there may soon be no water to meet the agricultural, domestic and industrial needs of a population that will has tripled in 50 years to one and a quarter billion.

Water management is therefore a major challenge for town planners, builders and architects today, not just in terms of availability of water, but most importantly its quality.

As water shortage increases, alternate sources of water supply are gaining importance. These include sewage recycling, rainwater harvesting, generating water from humidity in the atmosphere etc. Water recycling is a simple, effective and economical solution to conserve water so that more fresh water is available for uses such as drinking, bathing, cooking and laundry.

Rajesh Sharma, Managing Director, Ion Exchange (India) Ltd, opines, “Population, industrialisation and pollution are putting pressure on our limited fresh water resources. There is a limit to increasing water supply because we are running out of sources and the cost of additional facilities is prohibitive. Moreover as industry, which pays heavily for the water it uses, recycles more and more of it, it will be increasingly difficult for municipalities to find the money for subsidy.

Sewage recycle would help reduce infrastructural costs on public water supply systems as well as avoid heavy losses of water through leakages during distribution through public supply pipelines. The best way to solve water scarcity, therefore, is by conserving water and recycling it wherever possible. Recycling must be made mandatory for all new projects – industrial or domestic. It should be promoted for existing buildings also. Apart from priority to watershed development, rainwater harvesting and water recycling, another area we need to address is optimising use of water in agriculture (which uses 70% of the fresh water available) through drip irrigation etc.”

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Tackling Water Scarcity

I. Water Availability Status
(i) per capita in India: 3450 cu m 951) reduced to1800 cum (today) and will reduce to 1200-1500 cu m (2025)
(ii) Mumbai’s dmd more than triple of supply
(iii) Delhi’s dmd is 15% more than supply
(iv) Kolkata 4th worst performing metro in Asia for water supply

II. Quality of Available Water
(i) groundwater constantly dtrtg
(a) salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers
(b) excessive fluoride, arsenic, iron and salinity
(c) polluted by
– industrial effluents
– faecal matter
– pesticides and fertilisers from farm run-offs

III. Howto Handle the Problems
(i) water mgmt major problem
(ii) promote alternate sources
(a) sewage recycling
(b) rainwater harvesting
(c) water gnrtn from atmospheric humidity
(iii) effective and economical solution to conserve water

IV. Opinion of MD, Ion Exchange (India)
(i) prsr on fresh water resources due to
(a) t population
(b) industrialisation
(c) water pollution
(ii) additional facilities cost prohibitive
(iii) cannot subsidise
(iv) solns suggested
(a) conserve & recycle water
(b) watershed development
(c) optimise use in agriculture

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
dmd demand
dtrtg deteriorating
mgmt management
gnrtn generation
MD Managing Director
prsr pressure
T increasing
solns solutions
& and

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Water availability in India is falling steadily, particularly in the metros. The quality of available water is also deteriorating, with 70 per cent of water being polluted due to salinity and excessive presence of fluorides, iron and arsenic. Groundwater is contaminated by industrial effluents, faecal matter and agricultural run-offs.

According to the Managing Director, Ion Exchange (India), we need to prioritise water availability through sewage recycling, rainwater harvesting, water generation from atmospheric humidity etc. In addition watershed development should be done and water use in agriculture must be optimised.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 8

There is nothing more frustrating than when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand, you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Samuel Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various facts of your physical and internal environment,” she adds.

To begin with, one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focused thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours, identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library. In case you are living in a market area, you may want to study at a time when the market is not open.

She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh. “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books.

Also do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one should try and provide as litde stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh.

The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of time. The human mind recognises fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more th^n random thoughts. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focused system will follow.

She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to.

For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.

Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build ’ your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects.

More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Concentration Techniques

I. Enhance your Concentration
(i) avoid wdrg thoughts
(ii) idfy phsl & int env
(iii) create focus
(iv) plan study hrs time and Ictn

II. Avoid
(i) distractive env
(ii) divide schedule
(iii) actvtg two senses

III. Setting Goals
(i) fix goals & targets
(ii) study near window
(iii) attempt dfclt tasks first

IV. Discipline your Mind
(i) avoid working long at a stretch
(ii) take very short breaks
(iii) don’t relax too long
(iv) practice & patience help

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
wdrg wandering
idfy identify
phsl physical
& and
int internal
env environment
hrs hours
Ictn location
actvtg activating
> more than
dfclt difficult

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
It is very frustrating to lose concentration while working. Certain techniques will definitely help to build up concentration. Firstly, the physical and internal environment should be conducive for focused thinking. Avoid noisy areas and other distractions such that not more than two of your senses are active at any time. Secondly, establish definite goals and accomplish them, thus establishing a focused system. Plan, divide and prioritise your schedule. Avoid working long stretches, taking only short breaks to improve your concentration. With patience and practice, concentration will become a lifelong habit.

Note Making Class 12 CBSE Format, Examples

Note Making Class 12 CBSE Format, ExamplesNote-making is an advanced writing skill which is gaining importance due to knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills.

Looking for an easy way to learn English Grammar? then you are in right place. Here we providing basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc…

Note Making Class 12 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is a skill that helps you organize, categorise and recall information in a concise and tabulated form. It helps you in your academic life as note-making skills are needed when you go for higher education. Some of the advantages of note-making are as follows.

Advantages of Note Making :

  • helps ypu to remember the salient features of a text.
  • requires the retrieving of information from a larger and expanded text.
  • allows the reader to select what she or he wants to gather from a given text. .
  • helps you to summarise a larger text into a precise form for better retention and comprehension.
  • can be used for storing a large quantity of reading matter in a compact form.

Note Making Steps

Keep the following steps in mind while making the notes.

  • Step 1 : A thorough reading of the given passage is needed to follow what the subject matter of the given passage is.
  • Step 2 : Underline key words/phrases that you would like to note or recall from the passage. These should not include explanations or examples, but core ideas and facts.
  • Step 3 : Include subpoints to elaborate a main point. These will enlarge the knowledge base without being verbose.
  • Step 4 : Follow the format laid down for note-making so that the points remain legible and under¬standable at the end of the exercise.

Format for Note Making CBSE Class 12

While there are different formats used, such as flow charts, pie charts, graphic presentation of data among others, it is best to make use of the format given below:

Numbering and Indenting
Caution: Do not write complete sentences in note-making.
The following rules are followed with regard to abbreviations:
All standard abbreviations should be used (UN, &,…)
Use the first and last letters of words coined for abbreviations (wrtg for writing)

Contractions of words: can’t
Symbols used in mathematics and otherwise (e.g./p.m.)

Note Making Passages for Class 12 CBSE With Answers Pdf

Note Making Passages Pdf 1
Read the passage given below.

Getting enough sleep is as important as taking time out to relax. A good night’s sleep is essential for preserving the health of your brain and gives you the best chance to meet the coming day with a razor sharp mind. An average person needs about six to eight hour sleep a night—although it is also true that you need slightly less than this, as you grow older—another advantage of aging stress and sleep deprivation often feed on each other, since stress tends to make it harder for you to fall asleep at night and sleep deprivation in itself causes stress.

Eventually, too little sleep can dramatically interfere with the performance of your memory— something you obviously want to prevent. If you are not getting enough sleep, try going to bed 30 to 60 minutes earlier than your normal bed time for a few days. Lie down on the bed and try to relax by dissociating yourself from your daily routine work. This is normally enough to catch up on any sleep deprivation.

If, however, you suffer from insomnia you should seek the advice of your doctor. The chances are it is already affecting your ability to remember and recall information—and if you are struggling to improve your memory scores, this could be at the root of your problem. Prolonged periods of insufficient sleep can deplete your immune system, make you more accident prone and even cause depression—this can also reinforce a more negative outlook on life, which can contribute to your stress burden. The good news is that your memory and mood should automatically improve once you improve your sleep patterns.

Tackle your sleep issues and everything else should fall into place. Because stress management is so essential to maximize your brain power, if you are not in the habit of setting aside time to relax, make it a priority to do so. Even a minute or two of deep breathing can start to work wonders. Often the best ideas and memories can come to you when you are in a state of relaxation as it is during these moments that your brain stores, processes and plays with the information it has received.

Meditation has long been part of religious and spiritual life, specially in Asia. Today, more and more people are adopting it in Western countries also, for its value in developing peace of mind and lowering stress. There is some evidence that regular meditation can have real sleep gain and health benefits particularly in terms of protecting your brain against aging.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary—minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Problems of sleep deprivation
I. Lack of a good night’s sleep
(i) affects our health and mind
(ii) is a problem of aging stress
(iii) causes mental problem
(iv) intrfrs with performance of our memory

II. Good memory and mood
(i) need good sleep
(ii) can improve your immune system
(iii) help to have your +ve outlook on life
(iv) can save you from insomnia

III. Regular meditation
(a) has health benefits
(b) brings about good sleep
(c) helps reducing stress
(d) empowers your religious and sports life

Title: Meditation Cures Stress and Insomnia

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 100 words.
Stress and sleep deprivation is a major problem for sound health and sound mind. So, it interferes with the performance of our memory and immune system. It also reinforces our negative outlook and bad mood. So, our best ideas and memories can come to us only if we have good sleep and stress free life. In. fact, stress management can maximize opr brain power. Hence, the hour of need is to practise meditation in order to solve the issue of stress and sleep deprivation. Above all, meditation is a bliss to gain health benefits and religious and spiritual life.

Note Making Passages Pdf 2
Read the passage given below.

James Doohan, Scotty from the original ‘Star Trek’ series, died in 2005. Before his death he left instructions in his will that he wished to be buried in space. It took a long time, but Doohan’s ashes made it to space in 2012.

The first space burial took place 20 years before Doohan’s and it involved the ashes of another person involved in ‘Star Trek’, that of its series creator Gene Roddenberry. Since then, space burials have become big business. And believe it or not, with traditional funeral expenses going through the roof, the costs of space burials have actually become competitive. A company that specialises in space burials, Celestrix, offers a price list to potential customers. The launch of a single gram of a loved one’s ashes into the earth’s orbit starts at around $5,000. A launch of the same amount of ashes into deep space costs $12,500. The third option, of having one’s ashes scattered on the moon can cost $9,950.

The popularity of space burials is now changing funeral habits in the United States. More and more people are choosing cremation instead of burial so that their relatives have the option of sending their ashes into space. Since 1999, according to the Cremation Association, in Canada and the United States, the rate of cremations has almost doubled.

Companies like Celestrix take payment from the departed family, receive the ashes and even provide the container to carry the remains. The container in this case is a special one as it must be secure enough to get past thermal, vibration and vacuum tests, before it can be launched so as not to explode while orbiting in space.

The space urn then is taken to ride out to space. It needs a vessel in which it can escape Earth’s gravity. Thus it has to be launched into space with the help of rockets with satellites, scientific equipment, climate instrumentation and other payloads.

As there are yet no dedicated spacecraft to run exclusive burial services, the remains have to be in waiting till a suitable opportunity can be found in a craft which can find room to accommodate the urn. Some companies have begun to specialise in this operation. Ceveit is one company that offers customers ‘a dignified memorial spaceflight.’ The company takes the ‘remains’ up to join communication satellites, spy satellites and thousands of other satellites that circle the earth.

As a step further, there are companies that are looking at other options. One of them is planning to start a service to send a keepsake, such as a DNA sample, a wedding ring, a photograph, to the moon. Once the keepsake reaches its destination, the client will get a photograph on the social media or any other network of one’s choice, to cherish forever afterwards.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it. using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Lure of Space Burials
I. James Doohan’s last wish
(i) left as instructions in his will
(ii) wished to be buried in space
(iii) wish fulfilled in 2012, though died in 2005

II. Scenario 20 yrs before and now
(i) Gene Roddenberry’s ashes carried into space 20 yrs earlier
(ii) Rising cremation rate provides space burial options
(iii) space burials now competitive with ritual burials ill.

III. Offers made by Celetrix to customers
(i) price list available
(ii) $5000 for earth orbiting of ashes
(iii) $12,500 for space burial
(iv) ashes scattered on moon for $9950
(v) ashes collection by company .
(vi) provision of thermal, vibration and vacuum sealed container

IV. Process of ashes launch
(i) launched by rockets/satellites
(ii) carrying sc equip, climate instrumentation & other payloads.

V. Drawbacks of the system
(i) dedicated spacecraft for exclusive ash carrying
(ii) long wait for suitable launch
(iii) Ceveit’s services on commn satellites /spy satellites and others

VI. Future steps
(i) carrying keepsakes
A. DNA Sample
B. Wedding ring
C. photographs
D. facilitate posting on social networking sites.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Following Gene Roddenberry’s example, James Doohan’s ashes were taken into space. With cremations rising and space burials turning competitive, companies like Celestrix offer services of collecting ash, providing containers and earth orbiting, deep space carrying, or scattering ash on the moon. Despite a long gestation period, as there are no dedicated flights for ashs carriage, companies manage to dispatch their cargo ort satellites. Future plans include carrying keepsakes such as DNA samples, wedding rings and sending photographs for posting on social media networks.

Note Making Passages Pdf 3
Read the passage given below carefully:

How does one go about creating joy on a regular basis?

According to Meadow Linn, one should start small. Happiness can grow and blossom into a beautiful bouquet, but first it needs to start as a tiny seed. Thereafter it must be nurtured every day. One must begin by reveling in seemingly insignificant objects and moments. Perhaps it could be the perfume of a vibrant flower; the way the evening light dances across the sky before sunset. Once one starts seeing the beauty and magic in everyday life, one can begin to experience the same in all areas of one’s life.

Thereafter these ‘eureka’ moments begin to prompt the person into making big and small changes in life and help the person in mending broken relationships, help them find a new hobby and so on. The list is endless.

Sitar player Anoushka Shankar says that she would like to create her moments of happiness by staying connected with her inner core and then projecting her own unique light outwards. Greek mathematician Archimedes, when he uttered the words: ‘I’ve found it’, established the important principle of physics in that moment. Today we don’t need life-changing discoverers. We can find personal inspirations by discovering our own ‘eureka’ moments.

According to Katja Rusanen, a spiritual coach, the two most powerful words that can empower us are: I AM. According to him, whatever we attach to ‘I AM’ is what you will finally become. If you give yourself the power to be negative, negativity will be repeated and if you give the power to be positive, you will create eureka moments every day.

According to fashion designer Kir an Uttam Ghosh one should take time out to repeat one’s happy moments every day. During breaks through the day by doing new things, one indulges in an unknowable essence that exists. Her eureka moment comes when she creates a new outfit or drinks a cup of chai.

Another eureka moment comes in our lives when we suddenly start understanding a complicated problem. According to writers John Kounios and Mark Beeman, it is the moment when the fog clears and you have a rare insight into a problem which you didn’t have before.

Yoga coach Mini Thapar says that for her there need not be something extraordinary to find her eureka moment. One can get one’s eureka moment from the complacency that sets in while living an everyday routine. The ecstatic moment comes when one least expects it. Researchers have seen that much of what is seen as creativity folklore actually has foundations in rock-hard fact. There are firm reasons why we get our best ideas at times when we are simply gazing at the ceiling.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Search for Happiness

I. Meadow Linn’s idea
(i) start small
(ii) happiness will blossom into bouquet
(iii) happiness lies in seemingly small objects
(iv) find happiness in everyday life

II. Eureka moments begin to change life
(i) help mend broken re’la’ips
(ii) find new hobby, etc.

III. When they found their eureka moment.
(i) Anoushka Shankar
(ii) Staying connected with her inner core and proj’g own light
(iii) Greek mathematician Archimedes:
(iv) A.his defining moment in physics
(v) Kiran Uttam Ghosh: fashion designer
(vi) A. taking breaks by doing new things

B. an indulgent cup of chai
C. creating a new outfit
(vii) personal inspiration key to individual eureka moments individual

IV. Views of Rusanen, spiritual coach
(i) take time out to repeat happy moments
(ii) Empower yourself with the words: I AM
(iii) do not indulge in negative thoughts

V. Writers John Kounios and Mark Beeman’s eureka moment
(i) understanding a complicated problem
(ii) getting insight into problems which one didn’t have earlier

VI. Mini Thaar’s emphasis
(i) happiness is in everyday moments
(ii) folkloric creativity rests on rock-hard facts
(iii) firm reasons behind best ideas while gazing at ceiling

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Meadow Linn advises that to gain happiness, start small, collect a happiness bouquet subsequently. Eureka moments can change life, build broken relationships, start new hobbies.

According to Anoushka Shankar, it comes from inner connectivity. For Archimedes it was his defining moment in physics while Kiran Uttam Ghosh gets her after creating a new outfit and drinking chai. Writers state eureka moments are linked with solving niggling problems but Mini Thapar claims that happiness lies in everyday things as there are solid reasons why some sources yield happiness.

Note Making Passages Pdf 4
Read the passage given below.

As healthcare turns costlier in developed countries, the availability of accredited facilities are drawing hundreds to India. As a result, the Indian medical tourism market is expected to grow from $3 billion at present to around $8 billion by 2020. Witness an annual growth of 30% in medical tourism, India is set to become the number one destination for patients requiring medical attention. Cashing in on this demand, players in this space are making a medical trip for a visitor as convenient as a vacation.

A Pune-based medical company has about 1500 partnerships with hospitals and doctors in India and Turkey. The company has provided services to about 1000 patients. They describe themselves as an online marketplace for medical tourism and not a discovery platform. In this company all details are provided on the website and on payment of a token amount one can immediately buy a package/treatment with a hospital. The company also provides concierge medical services, such as visas, hotel and accommodation and sight-seeing, as value-added services.

Another medical centre which gets about 15 patients a month, provides a list of various treatments, with categories like cancer treatment packages, and cosmetic surgery packages, among others, along with their pricing details. Walking clients through every step, right from when they plan to leave their home country till they are back home after the surgery, the company provides medical opinion and evaluations, suggestions with details of fees and stay, besides post-operative care.

While lower costs have always buoyed India’s position as a favoured medical tourist §pot, cost is not the only reason for drawing people to these facilities. It is also the quality of care and a personalized experience that these places are providing and which counts. The international patient care teams at these places are the key. Realising that India is more individual oriented, unlike the West which is more process-driven, the staff at these places are trained to understand the culture of various countries, starting with the basic etiquette of greeting a person, to their festivals. The idea is to create a personalized interaction with the patient. Thus India has adopted a system that has a more holistic approach.

As the non-metropolitan cities offer a lower rate for the same level of medical quality, substantial growth is foreseen in these places. However, the availability of direct flights has a significant bearing in the choice of locations. But with new opportunities come new challenges. For India, it is staying up on the curve to appease the international audience.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Rise of Medical Tourism in India
I. The current status of medi tourism in. India
(i) costlier healthcare in the West
(ii) estimated rise from $3 million to $8 million by 2020
(iii) players making medi trips like vacations

II. Profile of Pune-based Co
(i) 1500 partnerships with hospitals and patients from Turkey
(ii) online marketplace for med tourism
(iii) token fee for package treatment info
(iv) provision for concierge services
A. visas
B. hotel and accom’n
C. sight-seeing

III. Other medi centre facilities
(i) separate treatment packages with prices
(ii) controlling door-to-door care
(iii) medi opinion and evaluation
(iv) post-operative care

IV. Reasons for India’s growth
(i) quality care and attention given
(ii) more individual oriented
(iii) staff trained to be culture-sensitive
(iv) overall holistic approach

V. growth in non-metro cities
(i) same level of medí quality
(ii) drawback: connectivity to metro poor
(iii) challenge: to maintain present status

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Rising costs have driven medical tourism growth in India, from $3 million to an expected $8 million by 2020 as medical trips turn vacation-like. A Pune-based company has a 1500 partnership data with hospitals and Turkish patients. Online information and package treatment information on nominal payment is available. The concierge services include visa facilitation, hotel accommodation and post-operative care. Others offer staff trained to be culture-sensitive. Growth has fanned to non-metro cities because of pricing advantages, but is hampered by poor connectivity and challenges to keep up standards.

Note Making Passages Pdf 5
Read the passage given below.

The presence of a pollutant in air is not necessarily life threatening. It becomes a killer only after its concentration breaches safety limits. As many as 4000 Londoners died of air pollution when the Great Smog hit the UK capital in 1952. This was mainly due to PM 2.5 and S02 levels crossing all limits of safety. What makes matters scarier is a new found pollutant ultra fine particulate matter (PMI). Experts haven’t yet defined a safety limit for this.

Natural air consists of different gases, including PM 2.5 and PMI. The problem arises when the levels of some of the more dangerous gases elements breaches safety levels. Human activity is usually to blame for such a rise, although weather can also play a role.

The more lethal PMI penetrates the lungs and enfers the blood stream. A study on it clarifies that CO, ozone, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide, and volatile compounds are just as life threatening if their concentration jumps alarmingly.

Toxic air pollutants such as dioxins, benzene, arsenic, beryllium, mercury and vinyl chloride are also strongly linked to cancer and birth defects. Air toxins are found in trace amounts and are extremely toxic even in very small quantities. That is why they are measured in nanograms, not micrograms. Thus measures to check air pollution, according to the experts, should be measured based on which pollutants are dominant in an area and how toxic they are.

Historically, it has been found that S02 and C02 levels are not rising as significantgly as PM 2.5 and N02 in the capital which has serious cardiovascular and respiratory impactgs. Similarly, pollutants generated from combustion are more toxic than those from natural sources such as road, or wind blown dust. While ambient air data may be easier to measure but they do not always represent human exposure. Dose, a measure to measure change in the body due to exposure to pollutants, can be an accurate measure of impact, but is not available for many important pollutants. Ambiet monitoring is especially useful for providing a long-term record of the overall level of pollution and how that changes with respect to policies. But people don’t breathe ambient air. They breathe the air wherever they happen to be. Exposure assessment takes the process of measuring air pollution to where people spend most of their time.

Fine particulate components have recently been classified as a cause of lung cancer along with diesel combustion and the burning of coal, the two main causes of household and ambient pollution as – sources of carcinogenic. Around 30% of all lung cancer deaths can be attributed to the combined effects of household and ambient air pollution.

In order to quantify air exposures one can measure air quality in indoor and outdoot environments in which people spend time.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary’ — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Life threatening levels of air pollutants
I. Air pollutants become killers
(i) when concentration breaches safety levels
(ii) At Great Smog (London) death from dangerous levels
(iii) PM level 2.5 and S02 levels beyond safety norms
(iv) newest threat from PMI-extra fine particulate matter
(v) dahger levels of it not calculated

II. Dangers to natural air
(i) comp of natural air, including PM and PMI
(ii) breach in safety7 levels, particularly
(iii) A. CO
B. sulphur dioxide
C. nitrogen oxide
D. volatile compounds
(iv) domestic activity, besides weather

III. Links bet toxic air and diseases
(i) PMI enters lungs and penetrates bid stream
(ii) trace elements for
(iii) dioxins, benzene, arsenic, beryllium, mercury, vinyl chloride cause cancer and birth defects
(iv) pollutant check based on which pollutants are present in an area

IV. Findings about pollutants
(i) PM 2.5 and N02 causing cardiovascular and respiratory complaints in the capital
(ii) combustion more toxic that road dust
(iii) Ambient monitoring for assessing long-term, overall record of pollutants
(iv) measuring air where people abound
(v) coal fire and diesel cause for carcinogens
(vi) 30% of lung cancer from ambient air pollution

V. Ways to quantify air exposure
(i) measuring quality of air both indoors and outdoors
(ii) measuring where people spend time

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Air pollutants become dangerous when safety levels are breached. The effects of pollutant PMI, is not ascertained. Besides, dangers to natural air arises from breach in natural levels of CO, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Findings show that PM 2.5 is causing cardiovascular and respiratory complaints while coal fires and deisel cause carcinogens. Ambient air pollution caused 30% lung cancer cases. Measuring air quality includes checks of both indoor and outdoor places where people spend time.

Note Making Passages Pdf 6
Read the passage given below carefully:

To most of us the most fascinating thing about spiders is the webs they spin. But actually a spider is the most amazing creature in many other respects. First of all, spiders are not insects. They belong to a group known as ‘arachnids’ and differ from insects in that they have eight legs, usually eight eyes, no wings and only two parts to their bodies.

They can live on any type of climate and are found in every part of the world. They can live in the air, on the water, on the ground, depending on their species. They vary in size from 8 centimeters to some that are so small that they are barely visible. Some spiders can go a whole year without water. One type of spider, the large tarantula, eats birds and can live for as long as 15 years. Yet most spiders live for just one year.

The silk in a spider’s web is manufactured in certain abdominal glands. The silk is forced through many tiny holes from the spinning organs at the tip of the abdomen. It comes out as a liquid which becomes solid on contact with the air.

There are many kinds of silk that a spider can spin. The sticky silk which the spider uses in its web to catch its prey is the sticky one. The strong supporting spokes which are non-sticky and the silks in its cocoon in which the eggs are laid are actually soft and fluffy. Other silks that it weaves are hard and even fibrous.

Even the shapes of spiders’ webs differ. Some make webs that are shaped like wheels arid are commonly used for catching its prey. It is made by first forming a rectangle with heavy outer lines which form the foundation lines of the web. The spokes of the wheel are constructed next. Then comes a scaffolding of three to four spiels. The close, sticky silk spiral is built last.

Other webs that a spider spins are ‘sheet webs’. They are flat and are funnel-shaped. Sometimes, they are even dome-shaped masses of silk. The spider uses one side of the web to live in it. ‘Trap’ door spiders make a burrow with a lid at the top. It is disguised by sticks and dirt. A ‘Wolf’ spider builds a tunnel into the ground and lines the area with silk.

The European water spider builds a home in the shape of a bell. This is done entirely under water! The spider then fills it with air brought from the surface in the hairs of its abdomen. Then she lays eggs’and rears the young in this enclosure until they are old enough to build webs for themselves. Yet not all spiders build nests for themselves. Some of them just make a ‘home’ in a leaf, or a slice of tree bark instead.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Characteristics Of Spiders
I. Amazing facts about spiders
(i) spiders, not insects
(ii) family of arachnids: 8 legs/8 eyes/2 bodies/no wings
(iii) can survive in any climate
(iv) live on air, water, ground as per species
(v) size variations: 8 cm minuscule
(vi) tarantula preys on birds and lives 15 yrs
(vii) can survive without water

II. Silk in a spider’s web
(i) manfd in abdominal glands
(ii) spinning organs at tip of abdominal glands
(iii) emits as liquid and solidifies on contact with air

III. Types of silk made
(i) sticky silk to catch prey
(ii) spp’ting spokes: non sticky
(iii) scaffolding of 3-4 spiels
(iv) sticky silk spiral, built last

IV. Varieties of spider webs
(i) sheet webs
A. flat and funnel-shaped
B. also tunnel-shaped

(ii) trap door
A. burrow shaped
B. having lid on top

(iii) wolf spiders burrow underground
(iv) wheel-shaped for catching prey

V. The European water spider
(i) builds bell-shaped home under water
(ii) fills with air
(iii) brought from surfaced in hairs of abdomen
(iv) rears eggs
(v) nurses them till maturity
(vi) leaves when young can build nests indep

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Spiders are arachnids, survive in all climates and range from 8cm to minuscule sizes. Tarantulas can eat birds and live 15 years. The silk in a web is manufactured in abdominal glands and emit as liquid before solidifying under air contact. The sticky silk helps in trapping prey. Non-sticky scaffolding and spokes support the web. Varieties of webs include sheet webs, trap door webs wolf spider burrows, and wheel-shaped webs. The European water spider burrows under water, hatches eggs, rears young, nurses till maturity, all under water.

Note Making Passages Pdf 7
Read the passage given below.

Hundreds of thousands of years ago giant mammoths still roamed the earth and the surface of the earth was covered by dense forests. Men took shelter in caves and covered their bodies with animal skins. At that time, dogs became man’s best friend. At first they followed man on his hunting trips and waited to get whatever scraps he could get, from the kill his master made. Then the instinct for companionship made him adopt man as his leader. Soon man began to train dogs to help him during the hunt, to carry his burdens and to give him companionship as he sat by the fireside in the evenings. These changes took place much before recorded history came into practice.

These findings can only be confirmed by the study of the bones of primitive dogs which lay beside the bones of primitive men in caves. As the history of the dog goes back to a time when records were not maintained, it is impossible to be sure of these happenings.

Some scientists believe that dogs are the result of mating between wolves and jackals. Other scientists say that some species of dogs descended from wolves while others descended from jackals. Some even go on to say that dogs descended from coyotes and from foxes. A widely held theory is that our modern dogs that we keep as pets descended from a remote common ancestor.

This last theory substantiates the difference in size and appearance between various breeds of dogs. Other evidence of the wild ancestry of dogs is the built of their bodies, which is very distinctly adopted for speed and strength. Together with their keen sense of small, quick hearing qualities, it becomes obvious thatjhey have wild hunters in their genes.

From the time when recorded history began, there have been references to dogs in them. Here are images of dogs on Egyptian tombs that are 5000 years old. The Egyptians considered their dog as sacred and the whole family would go into mourning if the dog in an Egyptian home died. Today, the dog is an indispensable part of our lives. For hundreds of young, healthy blind people, the dog is their seeing eye.

A seeing-eye dog is usually a German shepherd dog. It takes three months to train a guide dog. First-come the obedience exercises repeated daily as ‘setting up exercises’. Then a U-shaped leather harness is buckled on and the dog learns to walk at the left of the trainer. He is taught to stop and wait at the curb, watch traffic and let cats pass. Before the dog is passed on to a blind master a final check is made. Then the blind master and his dog train together for four weeks before they go home to work smoothly as a team.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Companionship Of Dog And Man
I. Conditions on earth in prehistoric times
(i) giant mammoths roamed about
(ii) dense forests
(iii) men were cave-dwellers & wore animal skins
(iv) time when dogs became man’s best friend

II. Companionship between man and dog between
(i) instinct for companionship led to friendship
(ii) followed man on hunting trips
(iii) ate scraps from hunts
(iv) man trained dogs & became fireside companion
(v) dog bones recovered around caves

III. Ancestry of dogs
(i) offspring bom of wolves & jackals
(ii) other theory: sep offspring from them
(iii) descended from coyotes and foxes
(iv) mod dogs descended from remote common ancestor
(v) size & agility indicates wild dog genes

IV. Dog references in recorded hist
(i) dog images on Egyptian tombs
(ii) family member in Egyptian households
(iii) seeing eye for blind

V. Character of seeing-eye dog
(i) usually a German shepherd dog
(ii) training methodology
(iii) A. initial ‘setting up ex’

B. fitted with U-shaped harness
C. walks left of man
1. 4-week man-and-dog training
2. back home as a team

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
When mammoth creatures roamed the densely forested earth, dogs became man’s best companion. They sought companionship with man, was fed on scraps after the hunt and trained to hunt on becoming man’s fireside companion. Dogs are believed to be the offspring of jackal and wolf parents or separate offspring from them. Others believe all modern dogs have a common ancestor. Dogs were loved by ancient Egyptians and seeing-eye dogs are German Shepherds trained to work smoothly as a team with his owner.

Note Making Passages Pdf 8
Read the passage given below.

The great Sphinx sits in the desert of Egypt, about eight miles from the capital city of Cairo. It is besides three other pyramids and is said to be guarding the three large pyramids of Giza. It is a monster structure made of rock with the head of a man and the body of a crouching lion with its forepaws extended in front.

While the body is roughly sculptured, the head of the Sphinx is carved with care. The eyes look mysterious and has a look which nobody has been able to explain. It seems to be gazing out into the desert with a look of mystical superiority.

The figure of the Sphinx measures above 18 metres in height and is 57 metres long. It is believed that the Sphinx was made 5000 years ago. Archeologists are also able to tell us why the Sphinx was built. The one piece of evidence that points to its being built is to be found in a little chapel that is found between the paws of the large figure. This chapel has inscriptions put there by two ancient Egyptian kings. According to these writings, the Sphinx represents one of the forms of the Sun god Harmarchis. Thus the purpose of the Sphinx is to keep away all evil from the cemetery around the Pyramids.

Contrary to our belief, there are many sphinxes in Egypt besides the great Sphinx of Giza. They are different from this mammoth structure because their heads represent different kings of Egypt. This explains why these structures are called ‘sphinx’ for the word means lord’ according to the sacred writings of the EgyptiAnswer: In ancient religions the king was believed to have the strength and cunning of various beasts. These kings acquired the strengths of various beasts by putting on the animal’s head or by wearing their skins. So the carvers of Egypt made their kings in shapes that were half-human and half-beast.

The idea of making sphinxes in ancient times was not confined to Egypt alone. They were also built by the kings of Assyria and Greece. In these regions the sphinxes were slightly different from their Egyptian counterparts in that they had wings. In Assyria these figures were usually that of male kings but in Greece they had heads of women. The word ‘sphinx’ comes from a Greek word.

For the Egyptians, the Sphinx held a special place just like the idea we have, of dragons. We think of dragons as huge creatures capable of much destruction but no one really believes that there are real dragons on earth.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Mystery of the Great Sphinx
I. Location of the Great Sphinx
(i) In the desert of Egypt & 8 miles from Cairo
(ii) alongside three other sphinxes
(iii) guarding the pyramids of Giza
(iv) 18 m high and 57 m long

II. Physical dimensions of the Sphinx
(i) monster structure made of rock
(ii) head of a man (MI) body of a lion
(iv) forepaws extended in front
(v) mysterious look in eyes, gazing into desert

III. Details of its structure
(i) built 5000 years ago
(ii) reason for its building inside its chapel .
(iii) rep one of the forms of the sun god Harmarchis
(iv) keeps off evil from the Pyramids

IV. Differences from other sphinxes
(i) heads rep diff kings of Egypt
(ii) reason behind name
A. sphinx means lord or ruler
B. derived from sacred writings
C. Greek origin of the word ‘sphinx
(iii) reason behind name
A. kings protect their subjects
B. kings acqd strengths by wearing a part animal’s skin & clothes

V. Sphinx making not exclusive to Egypt
(i) built by kings of Assyria and Greece
(ii) These had sphinx
(iii) Assyrian sphinxes with male heads
(iv) Greek sphinxes female heads
(v) Egyptian sphinx half beast and half man

VI. Compared to other ages
(i) can be equated to dragons from other cultures
(ii) like sphinxes, no one believes in their existence

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
The Grealt Sphinx (18 m x 57 m) located 8 miles in the desert from Cairo, alongside 3 other sphinxes, supposedly guards the Pyramids. The monster structure has a finely carved man’s head, a lion’s body, forepaws stretched forward, and mysterious eyes. Built 5000 years ago to represent the sun god Harmarchis it differs from other Egyptian sphinxes that have heads of kings representing their protective power over subjects. Sphinxes in Assyria and Greece are winged, bearing male heads in Assyria and female ones in Greece.

Note Making Passages Pdf 9
Read the passage given below carefully:

Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, Spenser, Dr Johnson are among the literary masters who contributed greatly to the growth, enrichment and development of the English language. Among them Shakespeare has no equal with regard to extent and profundity of his influence on the language. Critics conclude that his mind is not shown by the fact that he was acquainted with around 20,000 words but by the fact that since he wrote about it in a great variety of subjects and touched upon several human facts and relationships that he needed his number of words in his writings.

He also had a remarkable familiarity with technical expressions. He also used language to individualise the characters in his plays. The every day of the artisans in A Midsummer Night’s Dream’ is comic and different from the diction or the other superior characters. A great many words used by Shakespeare have another value than they had then. For instance, the word ‘bonnet’ was a man’s cap and not a woman’s headgear. To charm a person was in his time associated with witchcraft while notorious was used for someone well known in a good sense.

Chaucer’s writings too had a powerful influence on the English language although it is difficult to prove this fact by definite examples. He was regarded as a poet of new thought. He not only imported hundreds of words from other languages but also created hundreds of them. Like him, Milton contributed about 7000 words to English vocabulary. Words like ‘pandemonium’ are examples of his coinage, and phrases such as ‘the human face divine’ are examples of his phrases. Another poet of our time, Spenser, left his mark on the English poetic style. Though many of his expressions have now become obsolete, in the middle of the 18th century writers and poets were eager to adopt his romantic style when they wanted to move away from everyday realities.

By far the greatest influence on English has come from the Bible and many of its words have become household words today. The best judges of English style recommend a constant study of the Bible as a training ground in English. The scriptural ‘holy of holies’ which contains the Hebrew manner of expressing the superlative, has given rise to phrases such as ‘horror of horrors’. Some scriptural proper nouns such a Jehu, are mentioned when a driver is driving furiously in context with Jehu’s driving mentioned in the Bible. In poetry it is due to the Biblical influence that the ‘th’ forms began to be used by poets in words such as ‘loveth’ ‘hath, etc. Besides giving us words, the Bible had a tremendous influence on the technical grammar of modern poetry, particularly in the works of Milton, Tennyson and Shakespeare.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Enriching Of English
I. The enrichment of English is through the writings of Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, Spenser
II. The contribution of Shakespeare include
(i) knew more than 20K words
(ii) used them to express a vast number of subjects
(iii) to express human relationships and facts
(iv) to individualise characters
(v) the artisans in ‘A midsummer Night’s Dream’

III. Changes in usage of words since Shakespeare’s time
(i) bonnet a man’s cap
(ii) charm: associated with witchcraft
(iii) notorious: used in a good sense

IV. The contributions of other greats
(i) Chaucer: poet of new thought
(ii) Milton: added 7000 words to Eng vocabulary
(iii) Spenser: popular for the romantic style in poetry

V. The greatest infl from the Bible
(i) for bettering English style
(ii) use of the super’ve rooted in Hebrew
(iii) holy of holies
(iv) scriptural proper nouns now common usage
(v) influence of the ‘th’ form in Eng poetry
(vi) contribution to technical grammar of poetry writing

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
The English language has been enriched through the writings of Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, Spenser. Shakespeare’s contribution of 20,000 words was used to express varied subjects, and individualise characters. Chaucer’s poetry provided new thought and Milton increased vocabulary with 7000 more words. Spenser introduced the romantic style of poetry writing and the Bible exerted the greatest influence of all times with bringing scriptural proper nouns into common usage, bettering style, and contributing to the technical grammar of poetry writing.

Note Making Passages Pdf 10
Read the passage given below.

One of the disheartening sights at a wedding venue is the kilos of food scraped off plates and thrown into bins. While there are groups of volunteers working towards food waste management, in weddings, there is an increasing number of couples coming forward to reduce food wastage when they get married. Wedding planners and caterers in the capital say that it has now become an important part of their checklist and that they are being asked by clients to include food management as a service and even a mandatory part of the pack. If the wedding planners fail to take care of the leftover food, couples themselves reach out to NGOs that come to the wedding venture, collect the excess food and distribute it among the needy and homeless.

Other couples say that as part of the money spent on the wedding, a part is kept aside on clearing out the trash. Hence while researching out the best caterers, wedding planners and makeup artists, these couples also keep looking out for volunteers and NGOs who could clear up the extra food. Such NGOs exist in Delhi, Hyderabad and Chennai. When the wedding guests have left, they arrive at the buffet area to collect the leftover food and distribute it among the homeless. Not confined to the main wedding function, they also arrive for the minor ceremonies such as the sangeet and the mehendi and even the post-wedding functions. Also, they put up posters at the wedding site telling people not to waste food.

According to one of the caterers, in around 40%of the weddings, clients are more than happy to come on board when the concept of disposal of extra food is explained to them. Clients also prefer this food disposal system as the venue remains clean and the clients do not have to pay extra to have the food thrown away.

With increasing demand for such facilities some caterers are also arranging storage facilities for their clients to be used after the wedding. Caterers concede that such an arrangement means an extra effort on their part as they have to learn new techniques of food preservation, be it summer, winter or the monsoon. Thus even if the caterers do not come across needy people at night the food can be stored and distributed conveniently later. Clients, on their part, do not just want a distribution of the extra food but also demand quality-wise 100% fitness of the food distributed.

Usually, the margin of excess in weddings is huge. Thus some caterers are now keeping a separate section where, whatever amount of food is left, is stored. Others coordinate with a few orphanages in advance where the food can be distributed. Clients even ask volunteer organizations to refer them to caterers who have facilities for storage and who will undertake distribution of the leftdver food after the feast.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Checking Food Wastage At Weddings
I. Food wastage at weddings
(i) disheartening sight of kilos scraped into bins
(ii) couples coming fwd to check food wastage
(iii) important agenda for wedding planners
(iv) sometimes mandatory part of pack
(v) NGOs coming fwd to carry out the task

II. Couples keep aside part of wedding expenditure
(i) for clearing away trash
(ii) search for volunteers for collecting extra food
(iii) services avail’le at Chennai, Hyd, Del
(iv) volunteers arrive post-wedding .
(v) nature of services extended
(vi) A. bring their own volunteers
B. even cover mehndi, sangeet & post-wedding
C. hang posters about not wasting food at venue

III. Initiatives by caterers include
(i) services for food storage to use after wedding
(ii) welcomed by clients
(iii) area remains clean .

IV. Pressure on caterers
(i) forcing them to learn food preservation techniques
(ii) clients demand 100% fitness of food distributed
(iii) caterers allocate sep section for food storage
(iv) coord with orphanages for taking away extra food
(v) client preference for such service providers

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
With couples coming forward to check food wastage at weddings, this is becoming an important part of the planning agenda. NGOs are pitching in and collecting leftover food for distribution to the needy, homeless and orphanages. Couples are setting aside a part of wedding expenditure for trash clearance and availing volunteer services for food collection. Initiatives by caterers include storage of leftover food ensuring quality preservation, scheduled for later use and orphanage distribution, as client preference increases for such facilities.

Note Making Passages Pdf 11
Read the following passage carefully.

Over 60% of doctors in the country now prefer, one out of three times, digital interaction with their patients as against the traditional face-to-face interaction, indicating a trend where WhatsApp, text messages and emails are increasingly being used for consultations. This is slightly lower, but in keeping with the trend in the United States, Japan and China, where a greater number of healthcare professionals (HCPs) — in certain markets, over 90% — have switched to the digital medium, using WeChat, blogs, email and text messaging to engage with patients for follow-up.

Also, a majority of doctors — globally 60% — demand drug companies combine the use of digital tablets and iPads along with direct interaction when medical representatives (MRs) are detailing the portfolio of medicines. These findings are part of the Digital Savvy HCP (Healthcare Practitioner)

2015, an annual global survey on the digital habits of doctors across the United States, Japan, China and India, by healthcare solutions firm Indegeiie, shared exclusively with TOI.

The survey involved more than 1,600 healthcare professionals across the globe, with 67% speciality doctors, and the remaining 33% general practitioners. In India, over 300 doctors were part of the survey with more than 10 years of experience, practising in tier 1 and tier 2 places across the country.

The survey found that 76% doctors in the US prefer personal interaction (of field force) along with detailing with the tablet, while the corresponding figure in India is 90%.

As against this, doctors in India prefer a face-to-face detailing with their digital tablets, wherein they meet MRs in their clinics and the latter are equipped with detailing on their tablets/iPads.

Globally, drug companies are increasingly switching to digital channels like emails, websites, webinars, apps and text messages due to compliance requirements, the survey says, adding 34% of physicians globally value the smartphone as a key resource in seeking-medical information. Other devices used by doctors are laptops, PCs and tablets. India sees less than half the global usage of smartphones (by doctors), while the most preferred device for doctors here is laptops (34%).

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Doctors and the Digital Interaction
I. The growing preference for digital interaction
(i) preferred by 60% of doctors
(ii) choosing above face-to-face interaction with patients
(iii) choice of WhatsApp, text msg and emails messaging
(iv) used for consultancy
(v) figures at a par with trend in China, Japan, US ‘& China

II. Usage in other countries ,
(i) 90% of HCP use method health care professionals
(ii) choice of WeChat, blogs, email, text msg
(iii) engaging with patients for follow-up

III. Usage among doctors globally
(i) 60% global demand to drug companies
(ii) use of digital tablets and iPads along with direct consultancy
(iii) used by MRs when detailing portfolio of medicines
(iv) demand by HCPs of 2015

IV. The findings of Indegene company
(i) survey conducted on 16 HCPs globally
(ii) included 67% specialists 33% GPs
(iii) 300 Indian doctors with 10 years experience
(iv) ranged across tier I and tier II cities in India

V. Findings of the team
(i) 76% US doctors prefer personal interaction-! tablet usage
(ii) Indian doctors
(iii) A. prefer face-to-face detailing with tablet
B. prefer meeting in clinics
(iv) prefer smartphone for keeping medical info

VI. Findings about drug companies
(i) inc switching to emails, websites, webinars, apps, msg
(ii) Indian doctors use half of the world usage
(iii) most preferred device: laptops

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Indian doctors, like those in the US, Japan and China, prefer digital usage during patient interaction. Among HCPs, 90% showed preference for digital usage, while engaging with patients for follow-up. Also, 60% doctors demand digital usage by medical representatives of drug companies. The Indegene company’s survey of 300 Indian doctors with decade-long experience, in tier I & II cities, showed preference for tablets during patient contact and smartphones for keeping information. Drug companies found that half of digital users were Indian doctors and their preferred gadget was laptops.

Footprints without Feet Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet

In this article, we are providing Footprints without Feet Extra Questions and Answers PDF Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet CBSE, Extra Questions for Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet was designed by subject expert teachers.

Footprints without Feet Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet

Extract Based Questions [3 Marks each]

Read the following extracts carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Question 1.
As they gazed, a remarkable sight met their eyes. A fresh footmark appeared from nowhere! Further footprints followed, one after another, descending the steps and progressing down the street.
(a) Who are ‘they’ in the above extract?
(b) Who is making these footprints?
(c) Find the word from the extract that means the same as ‘continuing’.
(d) What is the opposite of ‘remarkable’?
(a) ‘They’ in the above extract are two boys on a street in London.
(b) The scientist Griffin, who has become invisible, is making these footprints.
(c) The word is ‘progressing’.
(d) Its opposite is ‘ordinary’.

Question 2.
The air was bitterly cold and he could not do without clothes. Instead of walking about the streets he decided to slip into a big London store for warmth.
(a) Who is ‘he’ in the above extract?
(b) Why was the air bitterly cold?
(c) Find a word from the extract that means the same as ‘quietly enter’
(d) What is the opposite of ‘warmth’?
(a) ‘He’ in the above extract is Griffin, the invisible scientist.
(b) The air was bitterly cold because the season was mid-winter.
(c) The word is ‘slip’.
(d) Its opposite is ‘chill’.

Question 3.
They naturally gave chase. In the end he was able to escape only by quickly taking off his newly found clothes. So once more he found himself invisible but naked in the chill January air.
(a) Who are ‘they’ and ‘he’ referred to in the above extract?
(b) Why has the author used the phrase ‘once more’?
(c) Find a word from the extract that means the same as ‘run away’.
(d) What is the opposite of ‘invisible’?
(a) ‘They’ are the shop assistants and ‘he’ is the invisible scientist, Griffin.
(b) The author has used the phrase ‘once more’ because Griffin was naked before he had entered the large store, from where he had taken the ‘newly found’ clothes.
(c) The word is ‘escape’.
(d) Its opposite is ‘visible’.

Question 4.
Suspicion grew even stronger when he suddenly produced some ready cash, though he had admitted not long before that he had no money. [CBSE 2014]
(a) Who is ‘he’ in the above extract?
(b) What was ‘he’ suspected for?
(c) Find a word / phrase from the extract that means the same as ‘money’.
(d) Give a synonym of ‘suddenly’.
(a) ‘He’ in the above extract is Griffin, the invisible scientist.
(b) ‘He’ was suspected for having a role in the burglary at the clergyman’s home.
(c) The phrase is ‘ready cash’.
(d) Its synonym is ‘immediately’.

Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks each]

Question 1.
Why were the two boys in London surprised and fascinated?
The two boys in London were surprised and fascinated when they saw fresh muddy footprints of a human being on the steps of a house, but no man was there making them! As they looked, a fresh footprint appeared from nowhere.

Question 2.
Why did Griffin decide to slip into a big London store? [CBSE 2011]
Griffin decided to slip into a big London store, because the season was mid-winter, due to which it became difficult to wander around without clothes in London.

Question 3.
How was Griffin a lawless man?
Griffin was lawless because he had committed many anti-social deeds for which he never felt guilty. He set fire to his landlord’s house and ran away, he stole ‘ foodstuffs and clothes from a London store, stole other goods from a theatrical company and also stole money from a clergyman’s house to pay his bills.

Question 4.
What did Griffin do in the shop of a theatrical company? [CBSE 2012]
The second time Griffin tried the stock of a theatrical company in the hope of finding not only clothes but also something like side whiskers, glasses, false nose, bandages, hat etc that would hide the empty space above his shoulders.

Question 5.
How did Griffin find himself invisible but naked in the chill January air for the second time?
As he had overslept in the big London store, when the store opened in the morning the store assistants came in. Griffin panicked and ran, chased by the assistants. He had to take off his newly found clothes to become invisible and escape, so that he found himself invisible but naked in the chill January air for the second time.

Question 6.
What did the Halls see in the scientist’s room? [CBSE 2013]
As the door of the room was open and nobody appeared to be inside, the Halls entered the scientist’s room. They saw that the bedclothes were cold, showing that the scientist must have been up for some time; and stranger still, the clothes and bandages that he always wore were lying about the room.

Question 7.
How did the visible man become invisible? What did he do then? [CBSE 2014]
The invisible man got angry with Mrs Hall for asking an explanation for the mysterious happenings and threw off all he was wearing on his head so that he became a man without a head. Soon the constable Jaffers arrived to arrest him, but the invisible man threw off all his clothes to become invisible and, in the ensuing scuffle, knocked Jaffers unconscious and escaped.

Question 8.
What happened to Jaffers when he tried to catch the invisible scientist?
When constable Jaffers tried to catch Griffin, he became invisible by removing his clothes. Jaffers found himself struggling with someone who couldn’t be seen. He was hit blows by Griffin and soon was knocked unconscious.

Question 9.
What was the explanation of ‘mystery’? (Footprints Without Feet)
The two boys followed muddy footprints being made fresh without seeing anybody making the prints, which was a ‘mystery’ for them. The explanation was that the bewildered boys had been following a scientist who had just discovered how to make the human body transparent, and thus invisible, by swallowing certain drugs.

Long Answer (Value Based) Type Questions [8 Marks each]

Question 1.
Griffin was not a true scientist as he misused his scientific discovery. Illustrate this point by giving two incidents from the story.
A true scientist is a law-abiding person. A scientist is also called a ‘natural philosopher’. Griffin was not a true scientist as he did not use his discovery of how to make himself invisible for good uses. He lost control of himself and behaved like a criminal. First, he set fire to his landlord’s house and ran away. Then he stole food without paying for it in a London store. Besides, he robbed the owner of a theatrical company and stole money from a clergyman’s desk.

Question 2.
Describe the landlord’s and his wife’s experience with the strange scientist. [CBSE 2016]
Both Mrs Hall and her husband were
surprised to find the scientist’s room door open because normally it was always locked. So they peeped in, but found nobody there. The clothes and bandages that he always wore were lying about the room. Suddenly Mrs Hall heard a sniff close to her ear and the hat on the bedpost
leapt up and dashed itself into her face. Then the bedroom chair sprang into the air and pushed them both out of the room and then appeared to slam and lock the door after them. Mrs Hall became hysterical and almost fell down the stairs. She thought that her furniture was haunted. They decided to confront the scientist next time when they met him.

Question 3.
What impression do you form of Griffin after reading the lesson, “Footprint,without Feet”?
Griffin was a brilliant scientist, as he discovered a drug due to which his body became transparent as a sheet of glass after swallowing it. This made him invisible. But he was a lawless person. Because of his misdeeds, he became a homeless wanderer without clothes and money. He was an introvert with a desire for solitude. He was always seeking adventure, being fond of mysterious things. However, he was unscrupulous, as he robbed various people to finance his work, besides he got angry very quickly, which caused him to become a fugitive.

Question 4.
If, somehow you discovered how to become invisible, how would you use that opportunity? [CBSE 2015]
If I discovered how to become invisible, I would use this opportunity to punish all those people who cause trouble to others for their own selfish motives. I would catch them and hand them over to the police without letting them know that I was behind them. I will also help the law-enforcing agencies when they conduct raids on criminal hideouts, as I will be able to move in the open without fear of being seen. This will help the people of the country to become more law-abiding citizens.

For More Resources

Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples

Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 1Posters are an amalgam of notices, advertisements, and invitations. They may be in the form of large hoardings to be put up on walls, or the size of handbills to be displayed on the noticeboards, etc. Hence, they have to be captivating, attractive and persuasive so as to influence a large number of people. Generally, they are designed to create social awareness about current issues or to even extend public invitations and write notices.

Looking for an easy way to learn English Grammar? then you are in right place. Here we providing basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… in this page, we are explained Poster Making Class 11.

Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples PDF

A poster is a very useful means to create awareness about current social problems or needs and issues or to even extend public invitations and write notices. Essentially a very brief communication with a powerful visual and a powerful message, a poster is always prepared with a particular target audience in mind. It very clearly mentions the theme or the topic, the schedule of an event and the occasion for it. The poster should be clear in communicating the intended message in an easily readable manner. It has to be captivating, attractive and persuasive so as to influence a large number of people.

Posters Writing Publicising and Highlighting

Posters can be used for publicising and highlighting the following

  • Cultural show/ exhibition/ seminar/ workshop/ fair/ fete etc.
  • Educational institutions and students’ activities.
  • Promoting sales of a product or service.
  • Influencing public opinion.
  • Advancing a social cause and so on.

Types of Posters Pdf
There are two types of posters

A. For Awareness Of A Social Problem

  • Details associated with the theme
  • Effct of the problem
  • Solution to the problem
  • Any additional useful information

Points to be Kept in Mind

  • A poster is designed to be put up at a public place, so it should be designed in such a way that it catches the attention of the passers by.
  • A poster should have bigger/ bold/ capital letters because it is read by the public from a distance.
  • A poster should not have any extra or irrelevant matter.
  • A poster can be made more catchy by using phrases, slogans and attractive language.

Format of a Poster Writing CBSE

You are the Director of National Agriculture Organisation, Jaipur. You have to make the people all over Rajasthan state aware of the necessity of conserving water and also how to do it. Design a suitable poster to be inserted in the newspapers as well as being put up at prominent places in the towns of Rajasthan.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 2

Poster Writing Questions Answers for Class 11 CBSE Pdf

Question 1.
You are the Director of Disaster Management Authority. You want to make the people aware about earthquakes. Draft a poster for the same.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 3

Question 2.
You are the Marketing Manager of Starbucks Coffee Products Company. To promote the sales of ‘Starbucks Coffee’, you have to design a poster detailing the vast variety of Starbucks coffee available in restaurants all over India. Design a suitable poster.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 4

Poster Writing Topics for Class 11 with Answers

Question 1.
You are the Director of Health Services, Mizoram. You have to educate the public about the necessity of oral polio vaccine for small children. Design a simple and catchy poster to be put up at prominent locations in the whole state.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 5

Question 2.
You are the Principal of an English medium primary school. Design a catchy poster to instil discipline in the children which can be put up in the classrooms.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 6

Question 3.
Incidents of Road- rage are increasing day by day. Draft a poster on behalf of Delhi Traffic Police on Road Safety tips.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 7

Question 4.
You are a professional poster designer who has been asked to design a poster for recruitment of soldiers in the Indian Army, to be put up at prominent places in a district where a recruitment camp is to be held. Draft a poster giving details of the recruitment camp.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 8

Question 5.
You are Director General of Health Services. You want to invite people to come forward for eye donation. Draft a poster for the same.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 9

Question 6.
Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment needs a poster for its ‘Prevention of Drug Abuse’ campaign on the occasion of International Day against Drug Abuse (26th June every year). Draft a poster to raise public awareness against drug abuse.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 10

Question 7.
Draft an attractive poster for ‘Save Trees, Save Earth’ Campaign.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 11

Question 8.
Design a poster against the ill-effects of plastics on the environment. Suggest alternative solutions as well.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 12

Question 9.
Draft a poster to be issued by the Delhi Police cautioning people not to touch any unclaimed object.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 13

Question 10.
You are the Sports Instructor at Sadbhavna Primary School. You are arranging the Annual Sports Day of the school. Design an attractive poster to inform the parents of the students about it.
Poster Writing Class 11 Format, Examples 14

Poster Writing Self Assessment Class 11 CBSE Pdf

(Here we have covered all types of posters.)

Question 1.
Repeated floods in various flood-prone areas in India have resulted in unprecedented damage and destruction to both life and property. Educating people on the precautions to be taken is the need of the hour. Prepare a poster for creating this awareness.

Question 2.
Design a poster to highlight the evils of the dowry system.

Question 3.
Design an attractive poster for a ‘Dog Show’ that your Kennel Club is going to organise.

Question 4.
MTV Roadies is going to conduct auditions for its new season. Create an attractive poster announcing the auditions.

Question 5.
Prepare a thought-provoking poster on the topic ‘Stop Child Abuse’. Use catchy slogans and visuals.

Question 6.
The police of your city needs a poster to raise public awareness on the increase in the number of cases of violence against women. Draft the poster for them.

Question 7.
You are making an effort to spread the message of Communal Harmony. Design an attractive poster to be displayed in the school campus.

Question 8.
Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, is organising a science exhibition in your school. Make an attractive poster announcing the event and inviting the general public to visit it.

Question 9.
Design a poster emphasising the ill effects of binging on junk food.

Question 10.
Design a poster urging people to adopt the three Rs — Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

Question 11.
You are Gaurav, the Secretary of the Science Club of Avinash Public School, Rewari. Your school is organising an Exhibition on the cultural variety of India. Draft a poster to bring awareness among the school students about the importance of culture.

Question 12.
You are the Mayor of your town. The Municipal Corporation of your town has decided to conduct a ‘Tree Plantation Programme’ to make your city, a ‘Green City’. Design a poster to invite participation from the public for this noble cause.

Question 13.
You are the Publicity Manager of ABC TV Channel. Your channel is organising a ‘Talent Hunt Show’ of college students to be telecast on your channel. Design a suitable poster giving necessary details.

Question 14.
Prepare a poster on behalf of the local police advising the public to be wary of pickpockets in buses and bag snatchers on the roads. Suggest the precautions to be taken.

Question 15.
Prepare a poster for announcing the Annual Drama Festival of your school, asking for participation of groups of students interested. Invent the necessary details.

Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 Format, Examples, Samples

English grammar has hundred of thousands of words. Everyone can be placed into at least one of eight groups or classifications. The system of classifying words based on their function is known as parts of speech. Noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection are the eight parts of speech.

Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 Format, Examples, Samples PDf

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 6 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.

I.  The Noun

A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place, or thing.

Ashoka was a great king.
The rose smells sweet.
The sun shines bright.
I sit on the chair.
This is my pen.
India is a vast country.
Mount Everest is the highest peak.
Ramesh is my brother.
I always speak the truth.
Honesty is the best policy.

All the words in italics are nouns.
The definition of noun includes:
(a)    all objects that we can see, hear, taste, touch or smell.
(b)    something that we can think of, but cannot perceive by the senses.

II.  The Pronoun

A Pronoun is a word, which is used instead of or in place of a noun. ‘

Rita did not come as she was unwell.
The books are where you left them.
Umesh failed because he was careless.
The dress is on the table where I put it.
This is the cow, which gives us milk.

All the words in italics are pronouns.

III.  The Adjective

An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun or a pronoun.

Yuvraj is a brave boy.
My uncle gave me an expensive gift.
Reena is a good girl.
India is a great country.
Partho is an intelligent student.
She is poor but happy.

All the words in italics are adjectives.

IV.    The Verb

A Verb is a word used to express an action, performance or state.

I bought a new book yesterday.
Nikhil goes to school daily.
Mumbai is a big city.
The sun rises in the east.
I saw an elephant yesterday.

All the words in italics are verbs.

V.    The Adverb

An Adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

He is a very good student.
She plays well.
He worked the sum quickly.
Surely you are mistaken.
Cut it lengthwise.

All the words in italics are adverbs.

VI.    The Preposition

The Preposition is a word or group of words used with a noun or pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else.


I had gone to Mumbai.
The book is on the table.
The cow sits under a tree.
He is fond of tea.
The boy ran across the road.

All the words in italics are prepositions.

VII.    The Conjunction

A Conjunction is a word which joins two words, sentences or clauses.

Partho and Sharan came to our house.
Mohan is poor but honest.
She must weep or she will go mad.
Either take it or leave it.
It is neither useful nor ornamental.

All the words in italics are conjunctions.

VIII.    The Interjection

An Interjection is a word which expresses some sentiment or sudden feeling.

Hurrah! we have won the match.
Alas! my uncle is dead.
Oh! it is you.
Bravo! you have done well.

All the words in italics are interjections.

Read the picture story.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 1

Parts Of Speech Practice Exercises for Class 6 CBSE

A. Answer the following questions from the story above.
1. How much was the doctor’s fee? _____________
2. How much money was there in the wallet? _____________
3. Why did doctor not ready to accept fee in kind? _____________

B. Identify the parts of speech in the story above.
Noun _____________ Pronoun _____________ Verb _____________
Adjective _____________ Adverb _____________ Preposition _____________
Conjunction _____________ Interjection _____________

A. Choose the correct option to describe the part of speech in bold in the sentence.
1. They each found the books they wanted to buy.
a) noun ()
b) verb ()
c) pronoun ()
d) adjective ()

2. She quickly completed her experiment.

Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 2
a) verb ()
b) adjective ()
c) preposition ()
d) adverb ()

3. Nitin solved the equation on paper.

Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 3
a) preposition ()
b) adverb ()
c) adjective ()
d) noun ()

4. Rohit works best in his office.

Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 4
a) preposition ()
b) interjection ()
c) pronoun ()
d) conjunction ()

5. Wow! Those look like very complicated plans!
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 5

a) conjunction ()
b) noun ()
c) interjection ()
d) adverb ()

6. Ditya is practicing for her concert tomorrow.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 6
a) pronoun ()
b) adverb ()
c) preposition ()
d) noun ()

7. That backpack looks very heavy!
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 7
a) adverb ()
b) noun ()
c) adjective ()
d) conjunction ()

B. Write whether the word in bold works as a verb or a noun in the sentence.

1. Julie and Mohit work at the radio station.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 8
This is a: _____________

2. Can you please go over there?
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 9
This is a: _____________

3. Those fancy clothes really suit him.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 10
This is a: _____________

4. We heard a loud cry of happiness when the graduation ceremony ended.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 11
This is a: _____________

5. Mr. Tandon will do more work after lunch.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 12
This is a: _____________

6. We are playing hide and seek. Is it my turn to search or to hide?
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 13
This is a: _____________

7. Radhika made a big jump into the pile of leaves.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 14
This is a: _____________

8. Follow me. I will show you to your table.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 15
This is a: _____________

9. We must pack all the toys before we send them to the customers.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 16
This is a: _____________

10. He is looking at a point in the distance.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 17
This is a: _____________

C. A word is missing in each sentence. Use the part of speech given in brackets to complete each sentence.

1. Gautam is running his pajamas.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 18

2. Isha reads books.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 19

3. Veena a really terrible gift.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 20

4. She is the tennis player on her team.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 21

5. She knows a lot cutting hair.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 22

6. Her scooter is new, she really likes it.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 23

7. Mohit is going to history class.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 24

8. He does not really like the tie I gave him.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 25

9. Will you work in your garden?
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 26

10. Riding a motorcycle can be dangerous, he always wears a helmet.
Parts Of Speech Exercises for Class 6 27

D. Look at the word in bold. Which part of speech is it?

1. I like ice-cream. ____________
2. Deepak is moving to France. ____________
3. The cat keeps fighting with the dog. ____________
4. Hey, this is mine! ____________
5. He bought a new hat and a new shirt. ____________
6. She handled it very smoothly. ____________
7. This is the most beautiful view I have ever seen. ____________
8. You should be able to fix it. ____________
9. Obviously, you will not be alone. ____________
10. Hi, it’s good to see you. ____________
11. Reading is important. ____________
12. This is for you. ____________
13. He is the best in the area. ____________
14. He probably hates himself now. ____________
15. He is good looking, but is he smart? ____________
16. I am ready. ____________

Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 14

Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 14

[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.]                                                                                              [Maximum Marks] : 100

General Instruction:

  1. All Questions are compulsory.
  2. Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
  3. Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
  4. Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  5. Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
  6. Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.

Question.1. Mention any one problem created by protectionism.
Answer. The system of protectionism led by the two super powers threatened to divide the entire world into two camps. In a way the smaller states lost their identity and independence.

Question.2. What is Human Rights Watch ?
Answer. “Human Rights Watch” is an international NGO involved in research and advocacy of human rights. It is the largest international human rights organisation set up in US with the aim to draw the media’s attention to human rights abuses.

Question.3. What do you mean by charismatic leader-oriented party ?
Answer. ‘Charismatic leader-oriented party’ is the party in which a leader holds a very strong position and is the nucleus of the party. It is the leader’s personality and his charisma which holds the party together and leads to a great height, for example, Congress Party under the leadership of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

Question.4. What do you mean by seven sisters ?
Answer. The North-East region which consists of seven states is referred to as “seven sisters”. This region has only 4 per cent of the country’s population but about twice as much share of its area.

Question.5. Which two diametrically opposite political groups supported the National Front Government in 1989 ?
Answer. The two diametrically opposite political groups which supported the National Front Government in 1989 were RIP and the Left Front.”

Question.6. Suggest any two major changes to improve the functioning of the Security Council.
Answer. The following reforms are being suggested to improve the functioning of Security Council.
(i) Members states should be judged by their contribution to peace keeping as well as the other developmental activities of the UN.
(ii) The geographic distribution principle should also be taken into consideration.
The Security Council thus needs to be reconstructed and expanded. It must shed its static image.

Question.7. What was Marshall Plan ? How did it pave the way for the formation of OEEC (Organisation of European Economic Cooperation) ?
Answer. Marshall Plan was introduced by America to provide financial help for the revival ofEuropean Economy. To initiate the plan an Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) was established in 1948.

Question.8. Write any two steps taken by India to have cordial relations with China.
Answer. (i) India was one of the first countries to recognise the communist government after the Chinese revolution in 1949.
(ii) India and China signed The Panchsheel Agreement on 29th April, 1954 which was a step in the direction of strong relationship between the two.

Question.9. What is meant by the Bihar and Gujarat Movements of 1974-1975 ?
Answer. (i) Student protest in Gujarat and Bihar against the Congress governments in their respective states was against rising prices of food grains, cooking oil and other essential commodities.
(ii) The opposition parties supported their movement.

Question.10. Write few lines on “Instrument of Accession
Answer. “Instrument of Accession” was an agreement signed between the Maharaja of Kashmir and the “Government of India” in 1949.
This agreement was on the matter of India’s military help to Kashmir when Pakistan sent tribal infiltrators to capture Kashmir.
Under the accord it was also agreed that once the situation is normalised, the views of the people Of Jammu and Kashmir will be ascertained about their future,

Question.11. “Non-alignment and neutrality are different”. Explain.

Question.12. Describe any four reforms suggested in the Report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in 1972 entitled ‘Towards a New Trade Policy for Development.’
Answer. The idea of a “New International Economic Order” (NIEO) originated for the sustainable economic development of the “least developed countries of NAM”. The United Nations’ Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report in 1972 entitled “Towards a new Trade Policy for Development”.
The report proposed a reform of the global trading system to

  1. give the Least Developed Countries [LDCs] control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western countries.
  2. obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
  3. reduce the cost of technology from the western countries.
  4.  provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic ‘”ctitutions.

Question.13. What does SAFTA stand for ? When was it signed ? What is the spirit behind it ?
Answer. The term SAFTA stands for South Asian Free Trade Area Agreement. It was signed in 2004 at the 12th SAARC summit in Islamabad to provide for a free trade zone for the whole of South Asia.

  1.  It was SAPTA which gradually progressed to SAFTA. The leaders at the tenth SAARC summit in Colombo, decided to set up a committee of experts to conclude a treaty by 2001 on SAFTA.
  2.  By this, items listed by the countries would be traded free from custom restrictions and duties.
  3.  SAFTA would ensure free flow of items between the South Asian countries and promote and sustain mutual trade and economic co-operation in the region.
  4.  The spirit behind SAFTA is that the peace and cooperation would evolve in South Asia if all the countries in the region allow free trade across the borders.
    The agreement on SAFTA came into effect on 1st January, 2006. SAFTA aims at lowering trade tariffs by 20 per cent by 2007.

Question.14. Explain any four criticisms of globalisation.
Answer. Criticism of Globalisation :

  1. The contemporary globalisation referred to as ‘Global capitalism’ helps make the rich richer and the poor poorer.
  2.  In political terms, there is a fear, i.e., weakening of the state, which leads to a reduction in the capacity of the state to protect the interests of the poor.
  3. The left wing fears that economically it affects self-reliance.
  4.  Culturally they are worried that traditional culture will be harmed and people will lose their age-old values.

Question.15. “The conduct of foreign affairs is an outcome of a two-way interaction between domestic compulsions and prevailing international climate.” Take one example from India’s external relations in the 1960s to substantiate your answer.
Answer. The above statement to a great extent is justified in the international forum. We can take the example of “Sino-Indian eonflict of 1962” which dented India’s image at home and abroad. India had to approach the Americans and the British for military assistance to tide over the crisis. The Soviet Union remained neutral during the conflict.

  1.  It induced a sense of national humiliation and at the same time strengthened the spirit of nationalism.
  2.  Nehru’s own stature suffered as he was severely criticised for his naive assessment of the Chinese intentions and lack of military preparedness.
  3.  For the first time, a No-confidence motion against his government was moved and debated in the Lok Sabha. As a result soon thereafter, the Congress lost some key By-elections to the Lok Sabha. Thus, the political mood of the country had begun to change.
  4. The “Sino-Indian conflict” affected the opposition as well. This and the growing rift between China and Soviet Union created irreconciliabfe differences within the Communist Party of India [CPI], Ultimately, the party split in 1964 and the leaders of the latter faction formed Communist Party of India [CPI-M],
  5. Besides, the war with China alerted Indian leadership to the volatile situation in the Northeast region. Apart from being isolated and extremely underdeveloped, this region also presented India with the challenge of national integration and political unity.

Question.16. What is meant by popular movements ? Explain the party-based and non-party based movements.
Answer. Popular Movements:
When the people are not satisfied with the attitude of the government, (social groups such as women, students, farmers, dalits, etc.), they come together and voice their demands. They form a group or come under the banner of some social organisations.
There are two types of popular movements-party-based and non-party based movements. Party-based movements are those movements which are supported by the political parties e.g.: Trade Union Movement in Mumbai, Kolkata and Kanpur, etc.
Non-Party Movements:
The groups of people lose faith in existing democratic institutions and electoral politics. Students and young political activists from various sections of the society merge themselves as part of mass mobilisation. They also launch service organisations and constructive programmes. They are known as ‘Voluntary Organisations’.

Question.17. It is said that the nation is to a large extent an “imagined community” held together by common beliefs, history political aspirations and imaginations. Identify the features that make India a nation.
Answer. The above mentioned traits of a nation are very much applied to India as a nation. India also passed through all the stages in the way of its three challenges or problems at the time of nation building like
• Common Beliefs and History : India is the land of continental size and diversity. Its people speak different languages and follow different cultures and religions. In spite of these India is recognised as the nation of unity in diversity with common faith and beliefs for nation.
• Democratic set up as the political aspiration: India adopted representative democracy based on the parliamentary form of government. These features ensure that political competition would take place in a democratic framework.
• Imaginative nature, i.e., to ensure development and well being : India as a nation clearly laid down in its Constitution the principle of equality and special protection to socially disadvantaged groups and religions and cultural communities. India has tried all these to establish a ’welfare state’.-
On the basis of the above discussion we can safely say that India chose to shape it self into a nation, united by a shared history and common destiny which in turn reflect the aspirations of people across the different regions.

Question.18. Compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies required by states to save planet Earth. Substantiate the statement in the light of the ongoing negotiations between the north and south on environmental issues.
Answer. It is very significant that compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies” required by states to save planet Earth. But there is a difference in the approach to environment between the countries of the North and the South. We can throw light on the ongoing negotiations between the North and-South on environmental ‘cr in such a manner:
• The developed countries of the north want to discuss the environment issue as it stands now and want everyone to be equally responsible for ecological conservation.
• At the same time the developing countries of the South feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world is the product of industrial development undertaken by the developed countries.
• And to the most if developed countries have caused more degradation they must also take more responsibility for ongoing damage now.
On the other side the developing countries are in the process of industrialization and they must not be subjected to the same restrictions which apply to the developed countries. However, the special needs of the developing countries must be taken into account in the development, application and interpretation of rules of International Environmental Law. And this argument was accepted in the Rio Declaration at the “Earth Summit in 1992 under the principle of common but differentiated responsibility.

Question.19. “If big and resourceful states cannot resist the US hegemony, it is unrealistic to expect much smaller and weaker non-state actors to offer any resistance”. Examine this proposition and give your opinion.
Answer. The given proposition is to a large extent unrealistic from the theoretical point of view but very realistic from the practical point of view because non-state actors would challenge the US hegemony in a very active way.
These challenges to American hegemony will emerge in the economic and cultural realms and will come from a combination of Non-governmental organisations [NGOS], social movements, and public opinion.
The challenge may arise from sections of the media and intellectuals, artists and writers. These various actors may well form links across national boundaries, including Americans, to criticise and resist US policies.

(i) What does the cartoon indicate ?
(ii) Which struggle forced the appointment of states reorganisation commission explain.
(iii) How many states and union territories were created ?
Answer. (i) The above cartoon indicates the struggle for survival regarding the demand for linguistic states.
(ii) • The struggle for linguistic state forced the central government to appoint a State Reorganisation Commission in 1953.
• The commission in its report accepted that the boundaries of the state should relfceet the boundaries of different states.
(iii) 14 states and 6 union territories were created.

Question.21. Identify the five countries as the WARSAW members.
• Poland • Czechoslovakia
• Germany • Romania

Question.22. Write an essay for or against the following proposition- “With the disintegration of the second world, India should change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with the US rather than with traditional friends like Russia.”
What are the constraints on American hegemony today ? Which one of these do you expect to get more important in the future ?
Answer. No, India should not change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with the US, but, India should maintain a healthy relation with Russia because, Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions.
• Common view on the multipolar world order : Russia and India share a vision of multipolar world order. For both these countries, multipolar world order is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater regionalism, negotiated settlements of international conflicts, an independent foreign policy for all countries and decision making through bodies like the UN that should be strengthened, democratised and empowered.
• India’s stand towards Russia: India gets meaningful benefits for having healthy relations with Russia on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to central Asia and balancing its relation with China.
• Russia’s stand towards India : Like India Russia stands to benefit from this relationship because India is the second largest arms market for Russia.
• Besides, Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. Since India is an oil importing nation, so Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its oil crisis.
• In order to meet the demands of energy, India is trying to increase its energy imports from Russia and the republics of Kazakihstan and Turkmenistan. This also broadened the scope for partnership and investment in oilfields.
• India has also strengthened its relationship with Russia for her nuclear energy plans and space industry. India gets the cryogenic rocket from Russia whenever it needed it.
• Thus, we may safely conclude that India has maintained good relations with all the post-communist countries. But the strongest relations are still those between Russia and India.
As history reveals, every empire declines because of its weaknesses inherent in itself, so the biggest constraints to American hegemony lie within the heart of hegemony itself. Moreover, we can identify “three constraints on American power”, which were actually not in operation in the years following 9/11. All these constraints are slowly beginning to operate. Institutional Architecture : The very first constraint lies in the institutional architecture of the American state. A system of division of powers between the three branches of government places significant brakes upon the unrestrained and immoderate exercise of America’s military power by the executive.
Open Nature of American Society Possesses Constraint : The second constraint on American hegemony is also domestic in nature and stems from the open nature of American society. In spite of mass media’s promotion or imposition of a particular perspective on domestic opinion in the US, there is nevertheless a deep scepticism regarding the purposes and methods of government in American political culture. And this factor, in the long run, is a huge constraint on US military action overseas, i.e. towards the “Invasion Policy of America.” NATO as a Constraint on American hegemony: The most important constraint on American hegemony is NATO. It is the only organisation in the international system that could possibly moderate the exercise of American Hegemony today. Actually the US has an enormous interest in keeping the alliance of democracies, that follow the market economies, alive and therefore it is possible that its allies in the NATO will be able to moderate the exercise of US hegemony through their liberal economic policy.

Question.23. What important lessons can be drawn for Indian Democracy from the declaration of the Emergency of June 25,1975 ?
What is meant by ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’ ? Mention its main objective as well as the hidden objectives. Explain any two consequences of this operation.
Answer. The emergency at. once brought out both the weaknesses and the strengths of India’s democracy. Many observers think that India ceased to be democratic during the emergency.
It is noteworthy that normal democratic functioning resumed within a short span of time. Hence, we learnt some lessons*:

  1.  The very first lesson we learnt is that it is extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.
  2. Secondly, it brought out some ambiguities regarding the emergency provision in the constitution that have been rectified since 1975. Now, internal emergency can be proclaimed only on the grounds of “armed rebellion” and it is necessary that the advice to the president to proclaim emergency must be given in writing by the council of ministers.
  3. The third lesson we learnt is that the emergency made every one more aware of the value of civil liberties.

Operation Iraqi Freedom was the codename given by the US when it launched invasion of Iraq on 19th March, 2003. More than forty countries joined in the US-led ‘Coalition of the Willing’ after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion.
Aims and Objectives:

  1. The main purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction [WMD].
  2.  But this was an eyewash, because no evidence of WMD has been unearthed in Iraq, so it is being speculated all over the world that the invasion was motivated by other objectives such as controlling Iraqi oil fields and installing a regime friendly to the US.

The outcome of Iraqi invasion was very complex and contradictory.

  1.  Although the government of Saddam Hussien fell swiftly, the US has not been able to pacify Iraq.
  2.  A full-fledged insurgency against US occupation was ignited in Iraq.
  3.  Iraqi casualties are much higher than that of the US. The US has lost over 3,000 military personnel in the war.
  4.  It is conservatively estimated that 50,000 Iraqi civilians have been killed since the US led invasion.
    On the whole it is now widely recognised that the US invasion of Iraq was, in some crucial respects, both a military and political failure. (Any two)

Question.24. Discuss the consequences of Partition of India.
State the main arguments in the debate that ensued between industrialisation and agricultural development at the time of the second five year plan.
Answer. The partition year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt,unplanned and tragic transfers of population that human history has known.

  1. Communal Riots: In the name of religion, people of one community ruthlessly killed and maimed people of the other community. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border. Cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata became divided into “communal zones”.
  2.  Social Sufferings : People went through immense sufferings. They were forced to abandon their homes and move across borders. Minorities on both sides of the border fled their homes and often secured temporary shelter in “refugee camps”. Thousands of woman were abducted on both sides of the border.
    (a) In many cases women were killed by their own family members to preserve the “family honour”.
    (b) Many children were separated from their parents. Those who did manage to cross the border found that they had no home. Hence, for lakhs of these “refugees”, the country’s freedom meant life in ‘refugee camps’.
  3.  Administrative concerns and Financial strains : The partition saw not merely a division of properties, liabilities and assets or a political division of the country and the administrative apparatus. What also got divided were the financial assets and things like tables, chairs, typewriters, paper-clips, books and also musical instruments of police band.
    (a) The employees of government and the railways were also divided.
    (b) Above all, it was a violent separation of communities who had hitherto lived together as neighbours. It is estimated that the partition forced about 80 lakh to migrate across the new border. Between five to ten lakh people were killed in partition related violence.

The strategy of development followed after independence raised some key controversies regarding the relevance of agriculture over industry at the time of the second five year plan.

  1. At the time of the commencement of second five year plan, many thought that the second plan lacked an agrarian strategy for development and emphasis on industry caused agriculture and rural India to suffer.
  2. J.C. Kumarappa, a Gandhian economist, proposed an alternative blueprint that put greater emphasis on rural industrialisation.
  3.  Chaudhary Charan Singh, the Bharatiya Lok Dal leader, said that planning was leading to the creation of prosperity in urban and industrial sections at the cost of rural welfare.

Whereas, others thought that without a drastic increase in industrial production there could be no escape from the cycle of poverty.

  1.  They argued that Indian Planning did not have an agrarian strategy to boost the production of foodgrains.
  2. It also proposed programmes of community development and spent large sums on irrigation projects. And the failure was not that of policy but of its non- implementation because of the politics of land owning classes.
  3.  Besides, they also argued that even if the government hand spent more money on agriculture it would not have solved the massive problem of rural poverty.

Question.25. Examine the legacy of the Emergency of 1975.
In what way did the imposition of emergency affect the party system in India ? Elaborate your answer with example.
Answer. The legacy of the emergency of 1975 was felt in every sphere of people’s life and the politics of the nation as well.

  1.  Between the elections of 1977 and 1980, the party system had changed dramatically. Now the Congress Party identified itself with a particular ideology, claiming to be the only socialist and pro-poor party.
  2.  With the change in the nature of the Congress Party, other opposition parties relied more and more on what is known in Indian politics as non-Congressism.
  3.  In an indirect manner the issue of welfare of the backward castes also began to dominate politics since 1977. For instance the Northern states elected non-Congress governments in which the leaders of the backward castes played an important role.
  4.  Besides, the emergency and the period around it can be described as a period of constitutional crises because it had its origins in the constitutional battle over the jurisdiction of the Parliament and the judiciary.
  5.  On the other hand, it was also a period of political crisis. The party in power had absolute majority, yet, its leadership decided to suspend the democratic process.
  6. Another critical issue was the role and extent of mass protests in a Parliamentary democracy. The emergency period saw a clear tension between institution-based democracy and democracy based on spontaneous popular participation for which the party system was to be blamed.

During emergency the political situation became very quiet though tense. It was a period of political crisis with some changes in the party system such as :

  1.  The party in power had absolute majority and yet, its leadership decided to suspend the democratic process.
  2. The makers of India’s constitution trusted that all political parties would basically abide by the democratic norms. This expectation led to the wide and open-ended powers given to the government in times of emergency.
  3.  Another critical issue related to the party system during emergency was clear tension between institution-based democracy and democracy based on spontaneous popular participation.
  4. And this tension may be attributed to the inability of the party system to incorporate the aspirations of the people.
    Besides, for the first time, opposition parties came together and formed a new party known as the Janata Party. The formation of the Janata Party ensured that Non-Congress votes would not be divided.
    Thus, the 1977 elections turned into a referendum on the experience of the emergency and brought to an end the one party dominance and opened the way for the coalition type of government.

Question.26. ‘Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness.’ Do you agree with this statement ? Substantiate your answer with any three arguments.
State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to ?

  1. Assam Movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness.
    The regional aspirations reached a climax in 1980’s. The North-Eastern states are called as “Seven Sisters”. Nagaland was created in 1963, Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura in 1972 and Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became separate states in 1986. Demands for political autonomy arose when Non-Assamese felt that the Assam Government was imposing Assamese language on them. Leaders of major tribal communities wanted to separate from Assam. They formed the Eastern Tribal Union which later transformed into All Party Hill Leaders Conference in 1960.
  2. In Assam, communities like Bodos, Karbis and Dimasas wanted separate states. After Independence, the Mizo hill area was made autonomous district within Assam. Some Mizos believed that they were never a part of British India and therefore did not belong to Indian Union. The Mizo’s started Mizo National Front under the leadership of Laldenga. The story of Nagaland is similar to Mizoram and here the movement was led by Angami Zapu Phizo.
  3.  To preserve their economic and social identify, the local communities considered migrants as outsiders” and movements started against them from 1979 to 1985. The All Assam Students Union (AASU) started Anti-Foreigner Movement against illegal migrants, against domination of Bengalis and other outsiders. Assam Gana Parishad came to power in 1985 with the promise of resolving the foreign national problem and to build a “Golden Assam”.

As the decade of the eighties came to a close, the country witnessed five main issues that were to make a long-lasting impact on our politics.
(i) End of the Congress system (ii) Mandal Issue
(iii) New economic reforms (iv) Babri Masjid Issue
(v) Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi
Elections in 1989 led to the defeat of the Congress party but did not result in a majority for any other party. Thus, began an era of “Multi-party system”. What happened after 1989 was the emergence of several parties in such a way that one or two parties did not get most of the votes or seats. This also meant that no single party secured a clear majority of seats in any Lok Sabha election held since 1989. This development initiated an era of coalition governments at the centre in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming a ruling alliance.
The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the Dalit and backward castes. Many of these parties represented powerful regional assertions as well.
Thus, with the election of 1989 a long phase of coalition parties began in India. Since then there have been nine governments at the centre all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties, which did not join the government. In this new phase, any government could be formed only with the participation or support of many regional parties.

Question.27. How was non-alignment neither an isolation nor neutrality towards international affairs ?
Assess any four principles of India’s foreign policy.
Answer. ‘Non-alignment’ is not isolationism since isolationism means remaining aloof from the world affairs, but it is a neutral policy of remaining aloof from the military alliances with other countries.

  1.  Sometimes the non-aligned countries play an active role in mediating between the two rival alliances in the cause of peace and stability.
  2. Hence, the aim of staying away from alliance should not be considered isolationism or neutrality.

Non-alignment cannot be referred to as neutrality because neutrality refers principally to a policy of staying out of war.

  1.  It is a concept opposed to belligerency.
  2. States practising neutrality are not required to help end a war. They do not get involved in wars and do not take position on the appropriateness or morality of a war.
  3. On the other hand, non-alignment is a concept aiming at an independent foreign policy and peaceful co-existence. Non-aligned countries also worked to prevent war between others and tried to end wars that had broken out.
    Neutrality has relevance only in wars whereas, non-alignment has relevance during wars as well as at the time of peace.

India’s foreign policy is basically based on the principles of Panchsheel. Panchsheel is a Sanskrit word derived from two words; Panch means five and Sheel means rule of conduct. India defined these principles as the rule of conduct of peaceful co-existence which are as follows:

  1. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  2.  Mutual non-aggression
  3.  Non-intervention in each other’s internal affairs
  4. Mutual benefits and equality, and
  5. Peaceful co-existence.

Besides, India’s foreign policy has some outstanding features, which are as follows :

  1.  Panchsheel
  2.  Non-alignment, i.e., not to align with any military blocs of the super powers. It is an impartial approach towards world issues.
  3.  Opposition to colonialism, imperialism and racialism
  4. International peace and understanding. In this way, India helps UN in its peace making efforts.

CBSE Previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Maths Delhi 2014

CBSE Previous Year Solved  Papers Class 12 Maths Delhi 2014

Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                          Maximum Marks : 100
General Instructions:

  1. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Please check that this question paper contains 26 questions.
  3. Questions 1-6 in Section A are very short-answer type questions carrying 1 mark each.
  4. Questions 7-19 in Section B are long-answer I type questions carrying 4 marks each.
  5. Questions 20-26 in Section C are long-answer II type questions carrying 6 marks each.
  6. Please write down the serial number of the question before attempting it.


Note: Except for the following questions, All the remaining question have been asked in previous Sets.






23. Two schools P and Q want to award their selected students on the values of Discipline, Politeness and Punctually. The school P wants to award Rs x each, y each and Rs z each for the three respective values to its 3,2 and 1 students with a total award money of Rs 1,000. School Q wants to spend Rs 1,500 to award its 4,1 and 3 students on the respective values (by giving the same award money for the three values as before). If the total amount of awards for one prize on each value is Rs 600, using matrices, find the award money for each value. Apart from the above three values, suggest one more value for awards.
Solution: Let the awards for Discipline, Politeness and Punctuality be Rs x, Rs y and Rs z respectively.

28. A dealer in rual area wishes to purchase a number of sewing machines. He has only Rs 5,760 to invest and has space for at most 20 items for storage. An electronic sewing machine cost him Rs 360 and a manually operated sewing machine Rs 240. He can sell an electronic sewing machine at a profit of Rs 22 and a manually operated sewing machine at a profit of Rs 18. Assuming that he can sell all the items that he can buy, how should he invest his money in order to maximize his profit ? Make it as a LPP and solve it graphically.

29. A card from a pack of 52 playing cards is lost. From the remaining cards of the pack three cards are drawn at random (without replacement) and are found to be all spades. Find the probability of the lost card being a . spade. [6]
From a lot of 15 bulbs which include 5 defectives, a sample of 4 bulbs is drawn one by one with replacement. Find the probability distribution of number of defective bulbs. Hence find the mean of the distribution. ,
Solution: Let D be the event of drawing a defective bulb and X denote the variable showing the number of defective bulbs in 4 draws. Then


Note: Except for the following questions, All the remaining question have been asked in previous Set.




19. Prove the following using properties of determinants:




Note: Except for the following questions, AH the remaining question have been asked in previous Sets.




19. Using properties of determinants, prove the following:



Admission of Partner – Adjustment for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities

When assets and liabilities have to appear in the books at the revised values.

In such a case a Profit and Loss Adjustment Account or Revaluation Account is opened in the books. The following entries are to be passed.

(i) For increase in the value of an asset or decrease in the value of a liability: 

Asset/Liability A/c  Dr.

To P. & L. AdjustnientA/c

(ii) For decrease in the value of an asset or increase in the value of a liability. 

P. & L. Adjustment A/c Dr.

To Asset/Liability A/c

(iii) The profit on revaluation will be transferred to old partners’ capital accounts in the old profit sharing ratio. 

P. & L. Adjustment A/c  Dr.

To Old Partners Capital A/cs. (Individually)

In the event of loss, the entry will be reversed.

When assets and liabilities have to appear at old values in the books 

A Memorandum Profit and Loss Adjustment Account will be opened in the books. The increase in the value of assets or decrease in the value of liabilities will be credited to this account. The decrease in the value of assets or increase in the value of liabilities will be debited to this account. However only two entries will be passed:

(i) For credited in the profit on revaluation to old partners’ accounts: 

Memorandum P. & L. Adjustment A/c Dr.

To Old Partners’ Capital Accounts (in old ratio)

In case of loss the entry will be reversed.

(ii) For writing off the profit on revaluation to all partners’ capital accounts (including the new partner): 

Partners’ Capital Accounts (in the new ratio) Dr.

To Memorandum P& L. Adjustments A/c

In case of loss the entry will be reversed.

CBSE previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Biology Outside Delhi 2014

CBSE previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 Biology Outside Delhi 2014

Time allowed : 3 hours                                                                                           Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions :

  1.  There are a total of 26 questions and five sections in the question paper, All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A contains question number 1 to 5, Very Short Answer type questions of one mark each.
  3.  Section B contains question number 6 to 10, Short Answer type I questions of two marks each.
  4.  Section C contains question number 11 to 22, Short Answer type II questions of three marks each.
  5.  Section D contains question number 23, Value Based Question of four marks.
  6. Section E contains question number 24 to 26, Long Answer type questions of five marks each.
  7. There is no overall choice in the question paper, however, an internal choice is provided in one question of two marks, one question of three marks and all three questions of five marks. An examined is to attempt any one of the questions out of two given in the question paper with the same question number.



Question.1. Name the part of the flower which the tassels of the corn-cob represent.
Answer : Female reproductive parts-are: stigma and style.

Question.2. Mention any two contrasting traits with respect to seeds in pea plant that were studied by Mendel.
Answer: The two contrasting traits with respect to seeds in pea plant that were studied by Mendel are :
(i) Seed shape: round and wrinkled.
(ii) Seed colour: yellow and green.

Question.3. Why is secondary immune response more intense than the primary immune response in human?
Answer: The primary immune response to antigen occurs on the first occasion and generate memory B and T cells with a high specificity for the inducing antigen. The secondary response, mediated by B cells with the help of T cells, quickly produces high-affinity and antigen-specific antibodies against pathogens.

Question.4. Why is it not possible for an alien DNA to become part of a chromosome anywhere along its length and replicate normally?
Answer : Alien DNA requires specific sequence called recognition sites (sites where restriction enzymes cut DNA) to ligate itself with host chromosome. ‘ Recognition sites sequence should be close to the origin of replication (ori sequence where DNA replication starts). This site is necessary for the binding of DNA polymerase to start replication. As this site is not be present in alien DNA molecules, so an alien piece of DNA cannot replicate normally by attaching to any DNA.

Question.5. State the role of C peptide in human insulin.
Answer: Human insulin is produced as a pro-hormone. The 31 amino acid C-peptide of proinsulin is important for the biosynthesis of insulin. It helps in maintaining the level of active insulin.

Question.6. Name the enzymes that are used for the isolation of DNA from bacterial and fungal cells for recombination DNA technology.
Answer: Enzymes used to isolate DNA from bacteria: Lysozyme Enzymes used to isolate DNA from fungi: Chitinase

Question.7. State Gause’s Competitive Exclusion Principle.
Answer : The principle that when two species compete for the same resources within an environment, one of them will eventually outcompete and displace the other. The displaced species may become locally extinct, by either migration or death.

Question.8. Name the type of association that the genus Glomus exhibits with higher plants.
Answer : Mycorrhizal is the type of association.


Question.9. Why are the human testes located outside the abdominal cavity ? Name the pouch in which they are present.
Answer : Testes lie in the scrotum outside the abdominal cavity. It is so as it keeps the temperature l-3degree C(approx. 35°) less than that of the body (i.e about 37°C). A lesser temperature is required for the sustenance of sperm which is provided by the scrotum.

Question.10. In Snapdragon, a cross between true-breeding red flowered (RR) plants and true-breeding white flowered (rr) plants showed a progeny of plants with all pink flowers.
(a) The appearance of pink flowers is not known as blending.Why?
(b) What is this phenomenon known as ?
(a) The appearance of pink flower is not known as blending because it is due to partial influence of allele for white colour over the allele for red colour. On self-crossing the Fj plants, the F2 progeny are three types of plants-red flowered, pink flowered & white flowered in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 1. The occurrence of red & white flowered plants in F2 generation, indicate that the two alleles (red & white flower colour) and not blended but partially expressed as pink flower plants.
(b) The above example is known as incomplete dominance.

Question.11. With die help of one example, explain the phenomena of co-dominance and multiple allelism in human population.
Answer: A condition in which two different alleles for a genetic trait in a heterozygote are fully expressed thereby resulting in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive.
When three or more alternative forms of a particular gene existing in a population, it is called multiple allelism.
Example : A typical example showing co-dominance is the ABO blood group system. For instance, a person having IA allele and IB allele will have a blood type AB because both the IA and IB alleles are co-dominant with each other.
ABO blood group is controlled by I gene. The gene I has 3 different alleles IA, IB and i. IA and IB produce two different types of sugars on the plasma membfane of red blood cells. The gene I does not produce any sugars. IA and IB are completely dominant over i. When IA and’lB’ are present together, they express their own type of sugars.

Question.12. Write the scientific name of the fruit-fly. Why did Morgan
prefer to work with fhiit-flies for’his experiments ? State any three reasons.
Linkage and crossing-over of genes are alternative of each other. Justify with the help of an example.
Answer : Scientific name of fruit-fly: Drosophila melanogaster. Morgan used fruitfly for his experiment because :
(i) The fruit-fly could be grown on a simple synthetic medium inside the laboratory
(ii) The life cycle of a fruit-fly is about only two weeks.
(iii) A single mating could produce a large number of progeny offsprings.
Answer : (i) There is some linkage between all genes located on the same chromosome. The linkage strength depends on the percentage of the distance between the two, But linkage can be easily broken by crossing over.
(ii) When genes located on the same chromosome, then . there is possibility of two situations, either a crossing
over between the two genes or no crossing between two genes.
(iii) Crossing over always occurs if genes are located very far from each other – 50% recombinants, 50% parental. Example :Morgan hybridized yellow-bodied, white-eyed females to brown-bodied, red eyed males and intercrossed their F progeny. He found that the genes for white and yellow were very lightly linked and showed only 13% recombinant while white and miniature wing showed 37.2% recombination.

Question.13. List of symptoms of Ascariasis. How does a healthy person acquire this infection?
Answer: Symptoms of Ascariasis include : Worms in stool, coughing up worms, loss of appetite, fever. Severe symptoms of Ascariasis include : Vomiting, shortness of breath, swelling of the abdomen, severe stomach pain, and intestinal blockage.
Mode of Transmission:
(1) It is transmitted by improper disposal of human stool containing the eggs of Ascaris.
(2) Healthy persons may get infection from contaminated water, vegetables, fruits, other food articles & fomites.

Question.14. Explain the significant role of the genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus in an ecological sensitive area.
Answer: The nucleopolyhedrovirus, a sub group of Bacu- loviruses is a virus. It affects insects, predominantly moths and butterflies and used as a biological control agent. It has been used as a pesticide for crops infested by insects specially arthropods. Though this virus is species specific, making it effective under certain circumstances and there no negative effect on plants, mammals, birds, fish or other is non-target insects.

Question.15. How does a restriction nucleases function ? Explain.
Answer : Restriction nucleases are of two different types- endonucleases cut at a specific position inside DNA strand. Exonuclease remove nucleotides from the end of a DNA. strand. Restriction endonucleases recognize short, usually palindromic (meaning the base sequence reads the same backwards and forwards), sequences of 4—8 bp and, in the presence of Mg2+, cleave the DNA within or in close proximity to the recognition sequence. For example, EcoRI digestion produces “sticky” ends.
Whereas, Smal restriction enzyme cleavage produces “blunt” ends:

Question.16. How have transgenic animals proved to be beneficial in:
(a) Production of biological products (b) Chemical safety testing.
Answer : (a) Production of biological products :
The transgenic farm mammal was produced, a sheep called ‘Rosie cow’, had a human gene that expressed high levels of the human protein alpha-1-antitrypsin. The protein, which missing in humans, can lead to a rare form of emphysema.
(b) Chemical safety testing Transgenic animals, toxicity-sensitive transgenic animals have been produced for chemical safety testing. Transgenic animals can also be used to test the identity and purity of human proteins used as drugs. A transgenic » animal that makes a human protein (e g human insulin) will recognise this substance as its own and will therefore not produce an immune response against it.

Question.17. Describe the mutual relationship between fig tree and wasp and comment on the phenomenon that operates in their relationship.
Answer : Mutual relationship : Fig tree and wasp shows mutualism between them. The interaction in which both the interacting species get benefit of each other called mutualism. Fig flower is pollinated only by wasp and not by any other species. Female wasp lays eggs inside the developing fruit and also uses the developing seeds within the fruit for nourishing its larvae. Co-evolution exists between their close specific tight relationship.

Question.18. Construct an age pyramid which reflects an expanding
growth status of human population.
Expanding pyramids of human population :

A population at any given time is composed of different age groups. These three groups include :

  1.  Pre-reproductive
  2. Reproductive
  3. Post-reproductive
  4.  If the age distribution (percent individuals of a given age or age group) is plotted for the population, the resulting structure is called an age pyramid.
  5.  In human – beings, the age pyramids show the age distribution of male and female in a combined diagram.
  6. In expanding pyramid, individuals in reproductive age group are more in number so the pyramid is expanding.


Question.19. Make a list of any three outbreeding devices that flowering plants have developed and explain how they help to encourage cross-pollination ?
Why are angiosperm anther called dithecous ? Describe the structure of its microsporangium.
Answer : The three outbreeding devices to encourage, cross-pollination
(i) Protoandry : The pollen grain and stigma of the flower mature at two different times, so that pollen release and stigma receptively are not simultaneous.
(ii) Protogyny : Mechanical barrier on the stigmatic surface of flowers, so that the anther and stigma cannot come in contact with each other of same flower.
(iii) Self incompatibility : The receptive stigma retard the growth of the pollen tube of fallen mature pollen grains of the same flower.
Angiosperm anther is bilobed. Each lobe has two theca (microsporangium) so it is known as dithecous. Structure of microsporangium: The transverse section of a typical microsporangium are circular in outline. The microsporangium surrounded by four separate wall layers: epidermis, endothecium, middle layers and tapetum. The innermost wall layer tapetum provide nourishment to developing pollen grains. Tapetum cells are multi-nuclei ‘ and have dense cytoplasm. The outer three wall layers perform the function of protection and help iif dehiscence of anther to release the pollen. When the anther is young, a group of compactly arranged homogeneous cells called the sporogenous tissue occupies the centre of each microsporangium.

Question.20. If implementation of better techniques and new strategies are required to provide more efficient care and assistance to people, then why is there a statutary ban on amniocentesis ? Write the use of this technique and give reason to justify the ban.
Answer: Amniocentesis is a prenatal technique of diagnosing the genetic & metabolic disorders of the foetus by taking out a small quantity of amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid contains foetal cells, placental cell, foetal enzymes, proteins & other biochemicals. Foetal cells give information about the sex of the foet us and any abnormality in the chromosomes. It the foet us suffers from in curable genetic & metabolic disorders, then the foetus needs to be aborted through MTP.
But this very useful technique has been misused to know the sex of the developing foetus & destroying the same if the foetus is female. Therefore, the test has been banned except it few centres & this ban is justified.

Question.21. Why is pedigree analysis done in the study of human genetics ? State the conclusions that can be drawn from it.
Answer : Pedigree analysis is the study of family history about the inheritance of a particular trait. It can be used to draw the inheritance of a specific trait, abnormality or disease in humans because control crosses are not possible in case of human being.

  1. Identification of the recessive or dominant nature of a specific trait could be done by pedigree analysis.
  2.  The trait is linked to sex chromosome or autosomal can be find out by pedigree’ analysis, for example, haemophilia is a sex linked recessive disease. X-linked recessive trait shows transmission from carrier female to – male progeny.
  3.  The pattern of inheritance of Mendelian disorders can be traced in a family by pedigree analysis. For example, most common Mendelian disorders are haemophilia, cystic
    fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia, colour blindness, phenylketonuria, thalassemia, myotonic dystrophy (autosomal dominant trait), etc.

Question.22. Identify ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘d’, ‘e’, and ‘f’ in the table given below:
Answer: a. (i) Palm is broad with characteristics palm crease; short statured with small round head.
(ii) Physical, mental, psychomotor development is retarded,
(b) Both (c) Klinefelter’s syndrome (d) Male
(e) (i) Short stature and underdeveloped feminine character,
(ii) Such females are sterile as ovaries are rudimentary. They also do not have well developed secondary sexual characters.
(f) Female

Question.23. Community service department of your school plans a visit to a slum area near the school with an objective to educate the slum dwellers with respect to health and hygiene.
(a) Why is there a need to organise such visits ?
(b) Write the steps you will highlight, as a member of this department, in your interaction with them to enable them to lead a healthy life.
Answer: (a) The well-being of each human being depends on their environment. In slum areas individuals live in congested and insanitary conditions. In this type of conditions they are more susceptible to suffer from diseased condition. So there is a need to organize such visits to educate them about the importance of health and hygiene.
(b) Steps to enable slum dwellers guide to healthy life

  1.  Use of mosquito nets while sleeping, get wire mesh fixed to doors and windows, prevent water logging, regularly change water of water-coolers to avoid mosquito breeding.
  2.  Wash hands before eating and after toilet use, maintain the environment clean so that flies do not breed. Disinfect water by chlorine tablets if it is drawn from well or any other source.
  3. Clean toilets and use disinfectants regulary.
  4. Educate people about the benefit of vaccine which are available at the health centres such as DPT for diphtheria, pertusis (whooping cough) and tetanus, polio vaccine. MMR vaccine for measles, mumps, rubella.

Question.24. The following graph shows the species —area relationship. Answer the following questions as directed.
(a) Name the naturalist who studied the kind of relationship shown in the graph. Write the observations made by him.
(b) Write the situations as discovered by the ecologists when the value of ‘Z’ (slope of the line) lies between
(i) 0.1 and 0.2 (ii) 0.6 and 1.2
What does ‘Z’ stands for ?
(c) When would the slope of the line ‘b’ become steeper ?
Answer : (a) Species area relationship was studied by Alexander Von Humboldt. He made a observation that within a region, species richness increased with increasing explored area but only upto a limit.
(b) (i) Z = 0.1 to 0.2: the stope of regression lines are similar the slope of regression is steepel when are analyse the species area relationship among very large areas like entire countinent.
(ii) Z = 0.6 to 1.2 : for large area for example entire continent.
(c) The slope of the line b become steeper when species area relationship is analyzed in a very large area like the entire continents.

Question.25. Name and describe the technique that helps in separating the DNA fragments formed by the use of restriction endonuclease.
Answer: Agarose gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA * fragments formed by restriction endonuclease.
Agarose gel electrophoresis : The DNA cleavage by restric¬tion endonucleases which results in DNA fragments. Electrophoresis is a technique used to separate and sometimes purify nucleic acids that differ in size, charge or conformation. As such, it is one of the most widely-used techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology. When DNA molecules are placed in an electric field. DNA molecules are negatively charged due to their phosphate backbone, and migrate toward the anode. The DNA fragments separate (resolve) according to their size through sieving effect’ provided by the agarose gel. Hence, the smaller the fragment size, the further it moves. The separated DNA fragments can be visualized only after staining the DNA with a compound # known as ethidium bromide followed by exposure to UV radiation (pure DNA fragments cannot be seen in the visible light and without staining). The bands are cut from the gel and extracted by using a convenient technique. This step is called elution. The eluted DNA fragments are then purified and used in constructing recombinant DNA by joining them with cloning vectors.

Question.26.State the function of a reservoir in a nutrient cycle. Explain the simplified model of carbon cycle in nature.
Answer : Function of a reservoir : To meet with the deficit which occurs due to imbalance in ttie rate of influx and efflux of nutrients.

Question.27. Since the origin of life on Earth, there were five episodes of > mass extinction of species.
(i) How is the ‘Sixth Extinction’, presently in progress, different from the previous episodes?
(ii) Who is mainly responsible for the ‘Sixth Extinction’ ?
(iii) List any four points that can help to overcome this disaster.
Answer : (i) The current extinction “sixth extinction” rates are estimated to be 100 to 1000 times faster than in pre human times.
(ii) Human activities in ecosystem are mainly responsible for sixth extinction.
Main reason for this extinction is :
(a) Habitat loss and fragmentation, (b) Over exploitation
(c) Alien species introduction (d) Co extinction
(iii) Afforestation: Creation of sacred groves in which all the trees and wild life are venerated and given total protection.
(iv) By preventing habitat loss : Zoological park, botanical gardens, wildlife sanctuaries can also help to overcove such extinction.
(v) By the use of Diverse species.
(vi) By in-situ conservation & ex-situ conservation.


Question.28. (a) Where does fertilization occur in humans ? Explain the events that occur during this process.
(b) A couple where both husband and wife are producing
functional gametes, but the wife is still unable to conceive, is seeking medical aid. Describe any one method that you can suggest to this couple to become happy parents.
Answer: (a) In humans fertilisation of male & female gamete occurs in the junction of ampulla and isthmus of fallopain tube. The various events which occur during the fusion of gametes are :
(A) Acrosomal reaction : As sperm comes in contact with the egg surface, it secretes/release enzyme Hyaluronidase which dissolves the corona radiata.
(ii) As sperm reaches Zona pellucida, the acrosome release Acrosin/zona lysin and dissolves zona pellucida.
(iii) Compatibility reaction also stimulates development of an outgrowth by the oocyte called Fertilisation cone. Egg cell has fertilizin protein and sperm has antifertilizing protein.
(B) Sperm Entry : Sperm head comes in contact with the fertilisation cone. Sperm & egg membrane dissolve at this point and components of head (nucleus), neck and middle piece of sperm enter the cytoplasm of egg. Tail of sperm is left out.
(C) Zona Reaction : The zona pellucida stiffens after ,, entry and does not allow any other sperm to enter. The phenomenon called Monospermy.
(D) Activation of oocyte to ovum : Egg is secondary ” oocyte stage undergo meiosis II by removal by MPF & development of APC/APF resulting in mature ovum/ ootid and second polar body.
(E) Karyogamy : It is the find stage of fertilisation. The sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus. Nuclear envelops breakdown forming a spindle & thus form the zygote under laboratory condition. The zygote or early embryo is transferred in the fallopian tube.
(b) Couple able to produce functional gamete but unable to conceive can assist to have children through one of following techniques commonly “called as — Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART).
In vitro fertilization followed by embryo transfer : Ova from the wife/donor and sperms from the husband/ donor male are collected and fused to form zygote under laboratory condition. The zygote or early embryo is transferred in the fallopian tube.
(a) Explain the different ways apomictic seeds can develop.
Give an example of each.
(b) Mention one advantage of apomictic seeds to farmers.
(c) Draw a labelled mature stage of a dicotyledonous embryo.
Answer : (a) Different ways apomictic seeds development;
(i) The diploid egg cell is formed without reduction division and develops into an embryo without fertilization. Example : Grasses/Asteracease.
(ii) Nuclear cells surrounding the embryo sac start dividing and protrude into the embryo sac and develop into the embryo, for example, citrus and mango. They have more than one embryo in a seed known as polyembryony.
(b) Advantage of apomictic seeds to farmers :
As apomictic seed formation does not involves meiosis and fertilization, they are genetically identical to their parents.
If the hybrid seeds become apomictic they will maintain their traits generation after generation. As does not involves meipsis so lack of segregation of characters & not involves fertilization so no recombination and trait will be maintained for several generations, so the farmers can use these apomictic seeds to raise new crop year after year.

Question.29. (a) Describe the various steps of Griffiths experiment that led to the conclusion of the ‘Transforming Principle’.
(b) How did the chemical nature of the ‘Transforming Principle’ get established ?
Describe how the lac operon operates, both in the presence and absence of inducer in E.coli.
Answer : (a) Transformation is change of genetic material of an organism by obtaining genes from other organism (dead relative). Fredrick Griffith a British bacteriologist in 1928, carried out experiments on ‘Transforming principle’. He worked with strains of streptococcus pneurnonical. These are two strains of this bacteria :
(i) Virulent or S. Strain, which produces smooth colony and has the capacity to cause the disease (pneurnonical).
(ii) Non-virulent or R-strain, which produces rough colony and does not cause pneumonia.
Griffith’s experiment was carried out as follows:

  1. R-type (strain) of live bacteria injected in the mice No disease observed in mice.
    Mice + R-strain (live) ——-> No disease in mile
  2.  Live S-strain of bacteria injected in the mice-mice has occurence of pneumonia & dies. .-
    Mice + S-strain (live) ——–> Disease seen & mice dies
  3.  Heat-killed s-strain bacteria injected in mice.
    No disease observed. Mice survives
    Mice + s-strain (Heat-killed) No disease Mice Survives
  4.  Mice injected with a mixture of heat killed s-strain of bacteria and live R-strain. Mice dies of pneumonia.
    Mice + s-strain (heat killed) ——–> Disease occurs + R-strain (live) Mice dies
    On observing the blood of mice, it showed presence of both R-strain & S-strain live bacteria. Occurrence of live s-strain was possible only th rough a change transformation of R-strain into s-strain through transfer of biochemical substance.

(b) Oswald TAvery, Collin Macleod & Maclyn McCarty in 1944 established the chemical nature of transforming principle.

  1. The heat killed s-strain of bacteria and separated their’ components – DNA, proteins & Carbohydrates
  2. The DNA component was segregated into two. One with hydrolysing enzyme DNA-ase & the other without it.
  3. They then mixed these components of s-strain with live R-strain in Separate culture media.
  4.  There was no change in three culture having additions of neat- killed s-stiain carbohydrates, proteins & DNA (with DNAase).
  5. But the fourth culture medium having neat-killed s-strain DNA without DNAase showed presence oflive s-strain bacteria.
    It was concluded that the live S-strain bacteria must have been formed from R-strain with the help of DNA of S-strain. Thus, DNA is the genetic material was established.

In E.Coli, the breakdown of lactose requires three enzymes. These enzymes are synthesized together in a coordinated manner & the unit is known as lac operon. Since the addition of lactose itself stimulates the production of lactose itself stimulates the production of required enzymes. It is also referred as Inducible system. It gets switched off in normal conditions.
The genes involved in lac operon are as follows :

  1.  Strcutural Genes : These genes code for the proteins needed by the cell which include enzymes or other proteins having structural functions. Lac operon has three structural genes :
    (a) Lap z : Gene coding for enzyme b-galactosidase for splitting lactose into glucose & galactose.
    (b) Lacy y : Gene coding for enzyme permease/Galactoside permease which is required for entry of lactose.
    (c) Lac a ; Gene coding for enzyme Transacteylase/ Galactoside acetylase.
    The three structural genes of lac operon produce a single polycistronic mRNA.
  2. Operator gene (O): It gives passage to RNA polymerase when the structural genes are to express themselves. Normally, it is covered by a repressor & is in off position.
  3.  Promoter gene (p) : This, gene is the recognition centre/ initiation point for RNA polymerase of the operon.
  4.  Regulator gene (i) : It is also called inhibitory gene. It produces a repressor protein that binds the operator gene, when the substrate (lactose) is not available, so as to keep it non-functional. It prevents the passage of RNA polymerase from promoter to structural gene.
  5.  Repressor (p) : It is a small portion formed by regulator gene which binds to operator gene & blocks the passage of RNA polymerase towards the structural genes. It has two allosteric sites, one for attaching to operator gene & second for binding to the inducer.
  6.  Inducer : It is a chemical which attaches to repressor, and changes the shape of operator binding sites so that the repressor rem ains no more attached to the operator. Mechanism of Lac Operon :
    (I) In the absence of induce (lactose) : The lac operon is generally off which is ensured by the formation of repressor by the regulator gene which blocks the operator gene. Thus, there is no transcription & no enzymes are produced. Operon is switched aff.
    (II) On the other hand, when inducer (lactose) is added, the repression protein (produced by gene i) gets bound is removed from the operator. RNA Polymerase is now allowed to act & the transcription of lac genes take place. The operon is now switched ON. All the three genes are transcribed to form a single mRNA strand. It is a polycistronic mRNA. This process continues till the inducer .is consumed. Once inducer finishes, the repressor again blind the operator gene & switches OFF the operon.

Question. 30. With advancements in genetics, molecular biology and tissue culture, new traits have been incorporated into crop plants.
Explain the main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop.
(a) State the objective of animal breeding.
(b) List the importance and limitations of inbreeding. How can the limitations be overcome ?
(c) Give an example of a new breed each of cattle and poultry.
Answer : Different steps in breeding a new crop variety.

  1. Collection of variability: Genetic variability is essential for breeding program. If genetic variability is not present than new variety can not be develops thus it is pre requisite condition for breeding. The collection of all the different alleles for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection.
  2.  Evaluation and selection of parent: Different germplasm is evaluated for desired trait and plants having the desired character are selected as parent. The selected plants are multiplied and pure lines obtained, which are used for hybridization.
  3.  Cross hybridization among the selected plant : The selected plants are hybridized to combine the character of two different parents.
  4.  Selection and testing of superior recombinants : On the basis of presence of desired character in hybrid, superior recombinants are selected. Plants are then self pollinated for several generations.
  5. Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars: These new recombinant are evaluated for their yield and different agro climatic condition (such as quality and disease resistance) for several years along with best available local check variety. If these lines are superior than local check then they are released for commercial cultivation. .

(a) Objective of animal breeding: To increase the yield of animal & improving the desirable qualities of product.
(b) Importance of Inbreeding :

  1.  Superior male & superior female of same breed are identified for mating.
  2.  To evolve a pure line of animal.
  3. Exposes harmful recessive gene that are eliminated by selection.
  4.  Also accumulates superior genes & elimination of less desirable gene.
  5.  Increases the productivity of inbreed population. Limitation of Inbreeding :
    Continued inbreeding specially closed inbreeding . usually reduces fertility & productivity. This is called as inbreeding depression.

(c) New breed of cattle —> Hisardale, and New breed of poultry —> Leghorn.



Question.1. Why is Gambusia introduced into drains and ponds ?
Answer: Gambusia introduced into drains and ponds because they feed on mosquito larvae.

Question.7. Why are analogous structures a result of conveigent evolution ?
Answer : Analogous structures are not anatomically similar though they perform similar functions so they are a result of convergent evolution.

Question.8. Name the vegetative propagules in the following:
(a) Agave (b) Bryophyllum
Answer : (a) Agave : Bulbils.
(b) Bryophyllum : nodes (leaves).


Question.11. State the difference between the structural gene in a Transcription Unit of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.
Answer : Prokaryote structural genes consist of only exons (functional) while eukaryotes consists of both introns and exons. Introns are removed by the process of splicing before translation.
Prokaryotes are having polycistronic and continuous structural genes while eukaryotes have monocistronic and split.

13. Write the location and function of the following in human testes:
(a) Sertoli Cells (b) Leydig Cells 
Answer : (a) Sertoli Cells The sertoli cells are located within the seminiferous tubules. Their task is the creation of a hemato-testicular barrier and the nourishment of the spermatozoa.
(b) Leydig Cells: Leydig cells, also known as iriterstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle. They produce testosterone in the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH).


Question.21. A woman has certain queries as listed below, before starting with contraceptive pills. Answer them.
(a) What do contraceptive pills contain and how do they acts as contraceptive ?
(b) What schedule should be followed for taking these pills ?
Answer : (a) Contraceptive pills contains progesterone and estrogen combination. This disrupts hormone patterns needed for pregnancy and affects the ovaries and the development of the uterine lining, making pregnancy less likely. They prevent ovulation (the egg leaving the ovary and moving into the fallopian tube). They block the hormones
needed for the egg to be able to be fertilized. They may affect the lining of the uterus and thus alters sperm transport, i which prevents sperm from reaching the egg to fertilize it.
(b) The pills have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days starting from the fifth days of menstrual cycle to the 25 th day. After a gap of 7 days (during which menstruation occurs), it has to be repeated in the same pattern till the female desires to prevent conception.

Question.24. Two types of aquatic organisms in a lake show specific growth pattems as shown below, in a brief period of time. The lake is adjacent to an agricultural land extensively supplied with fertilizers.
Answer the questions based on the fact given above :
(i) Name the organisms depicting the pattern A and B.
(ii) State the reason for the growth pattern seen in A.
(iii) Write the effects of the growth patterns seen above.
Answer : (i) A—>Planktonic Algae (free floating); B—>Fish
(ii) The reason for the growth pattern in ATPresence of large amount of nutrients in fertilizers in water causes excessive growth of planktonic (free – floating) algae known as Algal Bloom which consumes a lot of Oxygen and nutrients. As a result there is a sharp decline in the dissolve oxygen in the lake.
(iii) The increase in BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) due to algal bloom which causes deterioration of the water quality which results in fish mortality. Some bloom forming
algae are extremely toxic to human beings and animals also.

Question.26. Explain, giving three reasons, why tropics show greatest levels of species diversity.
Answer :

  1. Tropical latitude have remained relatively undisturbed for million of years so they have greatest level of species diversity.
  2.  Tropical environment are less seasonal, relatively more constant and predictable. Such constant environment promotes niche specialization and lead to a greater species diversity.
  3. There is more solar energy available in the tropics which contributes to higher productivity, so indirectly contribute to greater diversity.


Question.28. Describe the Hershey and chase experiment. Write the conclusion drawn by the scientists after their experiment.
Answer : Experiments by Hershey and Chase in the 1950’s using the bacteriophage T2 and E. coli cells demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of the bacteriophage.

  1. Hershey and Chase conducted their experiments on the T2 phage, a virus whose structure had recendy been shown by electron microscopy.
  2.  The phage consists of a protein shell containing its genetic material. The phage infects a bacterium by attaching to its outer membrane and injecting its genetic material and leaving its empty shell attached to the bacterium.
  3.  In their first set of experiments, Hershey andChase labeled the DNA of phages with radioactive Phosphorus-32 (the element phosphorus is present in DNA but not  present in any of the 20 amino acids from which proteins are made).
  4. They allowed the phages to infect E. coli (Escherichia coli), observed that the transfer of P32 labeled phage DNA into the cytoplasm of the bacterium.
  5.  In their second set of experiments, they labeled the phages with radioactive Sulfur-35 (Sulfur is present in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, but not in DNA).
  6.  Following infection of E. coli they then sheared the viral protein shells off of infected cells using a high – speed blender and separated the cells and viral coats by using a centrifuge.
  7.  After separation, the radioactive S35 tracer was observed , id the protein sheik, but not in the infected bacteria,
    supporting the hypothesis that the genetic material which infects the bacteria was DNA and not protein.

Conclusion :

  1.  Hershey and chase concluded that DNA,not protein was the genetic material. They determined that a protective protein coat formed around the bacteriophage, but that the internal DNA is conferred its ability to produce progeny inside a bacteria.
  2.  They showed that, in growth, protein has no function, while DNA has some function. Only 20% of the P32 (radioactive) remained outside the cell and it was incorporated with DNA in the cell’s genetic material. All of S35(radioactive) in the protein coats remained outside the cell, it was not incorporated into the cell, and protein was not the genetic material.

“Work out a typical Mendelian dihybrid cross and state the law that he derived from it.
Mendelian Dihybrid Cross : a cross between two parents that differ by two pairs of alleles (AABBXaabb) and he derived it from law of independent assortment.
The phenotypes and general genotypes from this cross can be represented in the following manner :



Question.2. Name the stage of cell division where segregation of an independent pair of chromosomes occurs.
Answer: The stage of cell division in which the segregation of an independent pair of chromosomes occurs Anaphase of meiosis I.

Question.3. Write an alternate source of protein for animal and human nutrition.
Answer: Single cell protein is an alternative source of protein for animal and human nutrition.

Question.4 Give an example of a plant which came into India as a contaminant and is a cause of pollen allergy.
Answer : Plant came into India as a contaminant and is a cause of pollen allergy is Parthenium.


Question.16. Explain the two factors responsible for conferring stability to double helix structure of DNA.
Answer: Factors responsible for conferring stability to double helix structure of DNA:

  1.  Presence of Hydrogen bond in between base pair stack * confers stability to DNA.
  2. Presence of thymine at the plage of uracil gives more stability to DNA.

Question.18. Write the effect of the high concentration of L.H. on a mature Graafian follicle.
Answer : High levels of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) induces rupture of mature Graafian follicle and causes release of ovum known as ovulation.


Question.24. (a) Explain adaptive radiation with the help of suitable example.
(b) Cite an example where more than one adaptive radiations have occurred in an isolated geographical area. Name the type of evolution your example depicts and state why it is so named.
Answer : (a) Adaptive radiation or divergent evolution: Different species are evolved in a given geographical area starting from the single point and literally radiating to other habitats in that area.
Ex : In the Australian region, marsupials each different from the other evolved from an ancestral stock, but all within the Australian island continent when more than one adaptive radiation appeared to have occurred in an isolated geographical area, one can call this convergent evolution.
(b) Convergent evolution : Convergent evolution is the process by which unrelated or distandy related organisms evolve similar body forms, coloration, organs, and adaptations. Natural selection can result in evolutionary convergence under several different circumstances. Species can converge in sympatry, as in mimicry complexes among insects, especially butterflies.
Ex : Marsupial fauna of Australia and the placental mammals of the Old World. The two lineages are clades—that is, they each share a common ancestor that belongs to their own group, and are more closely related to one another than to any other clade— but very similar forms evolved in each isolated population.

Question.25. (a) Name any two copper releasing IUDs.
(b) Explain how do they acts as effective contraceptives in human females.
Answer : (a) Two copper releasing IUDs are CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375.
(b) CuT is a method of intrauterine devices (IUTs). These devices are administered by the doctor in the uterus through vagina. The CuT is a copper releasing device which increases phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus and the cu ions released suppress sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of the sperm. So they acts as effective contraceptives in human females.

Question.27. (a) State how the constant internal environment is beneficial to organisms.
(b) Explain any two alternatives by which organisms can overcome stressful external conditions.
Answer : (a) The constant internal environment is beneficial to organisms because there is a continuous interaction between the organisms and the environment. An organism, fully adapted to environmental conditions in which they survive, grows and reproduces. The environment can be defined as the total of all physical and biotic conditions which influence the responses of organism.
(b) The two alternatives by which organisms can overcome stressful external conditions are :
(i) Direct Factors (ii) Indirect Factors
(i) , Direct factors : These factors influence the organisms
directly e.g., light, temperature, humidity and soil nutrients etc.
(ii) , Indirect factors: These factors affect organisms indirectly
by modifying other factors e.g., soil organisms, wind etc.


Question.28. Explain the process of sewage water treatment before it can be discharged into natural water bodies. Why is this treatment essential ?
Explain the process of replication of a retrovirus after it gains entry into the human body.
Answer : There are agronomic and economic benefits of wastewater used in agriculture. Irrigation with wastewater can increase the available water supply or release better quality supplies for alternative uses.
Sewage treatment generally involves three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment.

  1.  Primary Treatment : In primary treatment, the incoming flow is slowed in large tanks which allow the dirt, gravel, and other heavier components of the waste stream to settle out. Grease, oil, and other floatables are also removed here. Rotating arms simultaneously remove the settled solids from the bottom and the separated floatables from the top. Both pollutants are pumped into large heated holding silos, called digesters.
  2.  Secondary Treatment: This treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary treatment is typically performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. It may require a separation process to remove the micro-organisms from the treated water prior to discharge or tertiary treatment.
  3.  Tertiary Treatment : It is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example, by lagoons and microfiltration) prior to discharge into a stream, river or it can be used for the irrigation of a green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.
    This treatment is essential because the sewage water contains large amount of pathogenic microbes, organic matters.

HIV multiplies in human body first in macrophages during inhibition period & later in Helper T-cells during which symptoms of AID oppear.
(I) Cycle in Macrophages :

  1.  After gaining entry into the human body, the HIV passes to all parts through blood & other body fluids.
  2.  When it comes in contact with macrophage, the gp 120 spilce of virus binds with CD4 receptor of the macrophage.
  3.  A conformational change aids the virus to attach to another co-receptor called CCR5.
  4.  This triggers change in cell membrane of the macrophage which then endocytose HIV.
  5.  Once inside, it sheds the protective cover is shed. This frees the RNA along with reverse transcriptase in the cytoplasm of macrophage.
  6.  It synthnesizes copy of DNA from which a complement DNA is produced.
  7. The double stranded DNA attaches to host DNA in the form of provirus. It then directs the host cell machinery to form genomic RNA & mRNA.
  8.  mRNA synthesizes viral proteins including reverse transcriptase. Genomic RNA & viral proteins are packet together to form the virus. In this way, several copies of virus are formed.
  9.  These viruses then bud out of the macrophages by the process of exocytosis. These then invade new macrophages to further replicate.

The HIV undergoes similar cycle of replication in the Helper T-cells.

  1. The virus first attaches to CD4 receptor hy it gp 120. The complex then comes in contact with conceptor GXCR4.
  2.  The virus then passes into the cytoplasm ofT-lymphocytes through endocytosis.
  3. Inside the cytoplasm of T-cell, the virus coat is shed the naked RNA alonwith copy DNA & then complement DNA, which then gets integrated to host DNA as provirus.
  4.  The provirus directs the synthesis of two types of RNA- genomic & mRNA. mRNA forms vital proteins (including reverse transcriptase). Genomic RNA &viral proteins are packed together to form the virion.
  5. The virion comes in contactwith the surface oflymphocyte, raptures its cell membrane & come out. These further infect healthy cells.
  6.  Thus, number of T-cells decline, compromising the immune system of the body.

CBSE previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Biology Delhi 2016

CBSE previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 Biology Delhi 2016

Time allowed : 3 hours                                                                                           Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions :

  1.  There are a total of 26 questions and five sections in the question paper, All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A contains question number 1 to 5, Very Short Answer type questions of one mark each.
  3.  Section B contains question number 6 to 10, Short Answer type I questions of two marks each.
  4.  Section C contains question number 11 to 22, Short Answer type II questions of three marks each.
  5.  Section D contains question number 23, Value Based Question of four marks.
  6. Section E contains question number 24 to 26, Long Answer type questions of five marks each.
  7. There is no overall choice in the question paper, however, an internal choice is provided in one question of two marks, one question of three marks and all three questions of five marks. An examined is to attempt any one of the questions out of two given in the question paper with the same question number.


Question.1. According to de-vries what is saltation ?
Answer : Saltation is single step, large mutation.

Question.2. Excessive nutrients in a fresh water body cause fish mortality. Give two reasons.
Answer: Excessive nutrients result in excessive algal growth which produce toxins in water. Water quality becomes poor as Dissolved Oxygen decreases leading to increase in BOD.

Question.3. Suggest the breeding method most suitable for animals that are below average in milk productivity.
Answer : To improve productivity any one of the following methods can be followed :
Outbreeding/Outcrossing/Cross-breeding/artificial insemination/hybridisation etc.

Question.4. State a difference between a gene and an allele.
Answer : Gene : It contains information that is required to express a particular trait.
Allele : Genes which code for a pair of contrasting traits.

Question.5. Suggest a technique to a researcher who needs to separate fragments of DNA.
Answer : Gel electrophoresis.


Question.6. Explain the significance of meiocytes in a diploid organism.
Answer : (i) Meiocytes undergo meiosis or gametogenesis to produce haploid gametes.
(ii) They help to restore diploidy through zygote formation or syngamy.

Question.7. Mention the kind of biodiversity of more than a thousand varieties of mangoes in India represent. How is it possible ?
Answer : Varieties of mango show genetic diversity. Single species of mango show high diversity at genetic level over its distributional range. .

Question.8. List the events that reduce the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) of a primary effluent during sewage treatment.
Answer : (i) Effluent from primary settling tank is passed into aeration tank agitated mechanically and air is pumped into it.
(ii) This allows vigorous growth of aerobic microbes into floes which consume major part of organic matter in the effluent.

Question.9. Discuss the role the enzyme DNA ligase plays during DNA replication.
Answer : (i) Discontinuous DNA fragments are joined or sealed by DNA ligase.
(ii) DNA ligase adds on nucleotide in the usual 5’ to 3’ direction along the DNA strand.

Question.10. Name the causative organism of the disease amoebiasis. List three symptoms of the disease.
Identify ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’and ‘D’ in the given table.
Answer: Amoebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica.
The symptoms of this disease are : constipation, abdominal pain, cramps, stools with excess mucous and blood clots.
B—Black rot/Curl blight black rot
C—White rust
D—Pusa Komal


Question.11. Why is breast-feeding recommended during the initial period of an infant’s growth ? Give reasons.
Answer: During initial period of infant’s growth, colostrum is produced. It is rich in nutrients. It is also rich in antibodies (IgA) which provide passive immunity to thfc new born.

Question.12. Give an example of an autosomal recessive trait in humans. Explain its pattern of inheritance with the help of a cross.
Answer : Sickle cell anaemia is an autosomal recessive trait disease than can be transmitted from parents to the off spring when both the partners are carrier for the gene. The disease is controlled by a single pair of allele, HbA and HBS. Out of three possible genotypes only homo2ygous individuals for Hbs (Hbs Hbs) show the diseased phenotype white heterozygous (HbAHbs) individuals are carrier of the disease.

Question.13. Describe the experiment that helped Louis Pasteur to dismiss the theory of spontaneous generation of life.
Answer : Leuis Pasteur took two pre-sterilised flasks with killed yeast. One flask was sealed while the other was kept open to air. Differential growth of life was observed in the flasks-life was found only in the open flask’. It proved that life comes from pre-existing life (theory of biogenesis).

Question.14. Plant breeding technique has helped sugar industry in North India. Explain how.
Answer: Saccharum barberi was originally grown in North India, but had poor sugar content and yield. Sugar cane grown in South India, Saccharum officinarum had thicker stems and higher sugar content but did not grow well in North India. The two species were crossed to get desirable qualities of high yield, thick stems, high sugar and ability to grow in N orth India.

Question.15. Suggest and describe a technique to obtain multiple copies of a gene of interest in vitro.
Answer : PCR : Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Multiple copies of the gene of interest is synthesised in vitro using two sets of primers and enzyme DNA polymerase. The enzyme extends the primers using nucleotides provided and genomic DNA as template. The process of DNA replication is repeated several times for amplification of DNA with the help of thermostable DNA polymerase which remains active during high temperature induced denaturation of double stranded DNA.

Question.16. What is a GMO ? List any five possible advantages of GMO to a farmer.
Answer : Those plants, bacteria, fungi or animals whose genes have been altered by manipulation are called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs).
Advantages :

  1. Tolerance to abiotic stresses like cold, drought, salt, heat etc.
  2.  Reduce reliance on chemical pesticides.
  3.  Reduced post harvest losses.
  4. Increased efficiency of mineral usage by plants.
  5. Enhanced nutritional value.
  6. To create tailor made plants.

Question.17. During a school trip to ‘Rohtang Pass’, one of your classmate suddenly developed ‘altitude sickness’. But, she recovered after sometime.
(a) Mention one symptom to diagnose the sickness.
(b) What caused the sickness ?
(c) How could she recover by herself after some time ?
Answer : (a) The symptoms may be nausea, fatigue or heart palpitation.
(b) The sickness was caused due to low atmospheric pressure which prevails at high altitude. The body does not get enough oxygen.
(c) The body compensates low oxygen availability by
increasing RBC production, decreasing the binding affinity of haemoglobin and by increasing breathing rate.

Question.18. How has RNA technique helped to prevent the infestation of roots in tobacco plants by a nematode ?
Answer: Using Agrobacterium vectors, nematode specific genes were introduced into the host plant. This DNA produced both sense and anti sense RNA in the host cells. These two RNAs being complementary to each other formed a double strand (dsRNA) that initiated RNAi and thus silenced the specific mRNA of the nematode. Hence the parasite could not survive in the transgenic host.

Question.19. “In a food-chain, a trophic level represents a functional level, not a species.” Explain.
(a) Name any two places where it is essential to install electrostatic precipitators. Why it is required to do so ?
(b) Mention one limitation of the electrostatic precipitator.
Answer : Position of a species in any trophic level is determined by the function performed by that mode of nutrition of species in a particular food chain. A given species may occupy more than one trophic level in the same ecosystem at a given time. If the function of the mode of nutrition of species changes, its position shall change in the trophic levels. The same species can be at the primary level of consumer in one food chain and at the secondary consumer level in another food chain in the same ecosystem at a given time.
(a) Electrostatic precipitators can be installed in thermal power plants, smelters or other particulate matter releasing industries. They are important for removing particulate matter.
(b) Limitations :

  1. Very, very small particulate matter which are less than 2.5 micrometres are not removed.
  2.  The velocity of air between the plates must be low enough to allow the dust to fall.
  3.  It cannot work without electricity.
    (Any one can be mentioned)

Question.20. Prior to a sports event blood & urine samples of sports persons are collected for drug tests.
(a) Why is there a need to conduct such tests ?
(b) Name the drugs the authorities usually look for.
(c) Write the generic names of two plants from which these drugs are obtained.
Answer : (a) To detect drug abuse or use of banned drugs cannabinoids, narcotic analgesic, diuretics, hormones or drugs used to accelerate performance, increase muscle strength etc.
(b) Cannabinoids/cocaine/coka alkaloid/coke/crack/
hashish/charas/ganja etc. ’
(c) Cannabis/Atropa/Erythoxylem/Datura etc.

Question.21. Describe the experiment that helped demonstrate the semi-conservative mode of DNA replication.
Heavy Hybrid Light Hybrid
Meselson and Stahl grew E. coli in a medium containing\( ^{ 15 }{ N{ H }_{ 4 }Cl }\) (\(N^{ 15 }\) is the heavy isotopes of nitrogen) for many generations to get\( N^{ 15 }\) incorporated into DNA. Then the cells were transferred into \( ^{ 15 }{ N{ H }_{ 4 }Cl }\). The extracted DNA was centrifuged in a CsCl density gradients to measure the densities of DNA. The DNA extracted from the culture after one generation (20 minutes) showed intermediate or hybrid density. The DNA extracted after two generations (40 minutes) showed equal amounts of hybrid and of ‘light’ DNA.

Question.22. Given below is a list of six micro-organisms. State their usefulness to humans.
(a) Nucleopolyhedrovirus
(b) Saccharomyces cerevisiae
(c) Monascus purpureus
(d) Trichoderma polysporum
(e) Penicillium notation
(f) Propionibacterium sharmanii
Answer : (a) As bio control agents for Integrated Pest Management.
(b) It is used in bread making/brewing industry or for production of ethanol.
(c) It is a cholesterol lowering agent.
(d) It produces Cyclosporin A which is an immuno-suppressive agent.
(e) It produces antibiotic penicillin.
(f) It produces large holes in swiss cheese by releasing large amount of CO2.

Question.23. Reproductive and Child Healthcare (RCH)
programmes are currently in operation. One of the major tasks of these programmes is to create awareness amongst people about the wide range of reproduction related aspects. As this is important and essential for building a reproductively healthy society.
(a) “Providing sex education in schools is one of the ways to meet this goal.” Give four points in support of your opinion regarding this statement.
(b) List any two ‘indicators’ that indicate a reproductively healthy society.
Answer : (a) It is a means of providing right information to the young so as to discourage children from believing in myths and misconceptions about sex related aspects.
Knowledge is also imparted about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe hygienic practices, STD/AIDS, available birth control options, care of pregnant mothers, post-natal care, importance of breast feeding, sex abuse and sex related crimes. .

  1.  Decreasae in IMR (Infant Mortality Rate), MMR (Maternal Mortality Rate).
  2.  Increase in number of couples with small families, better detection and cure of STDs.
  3.  Total well being in all aspects of reproduction, normal emotional and behavioural interaction among all sex related aspects.

Question.24. (a) Explain the post-pollination events leading to seed production in angiospersms.
(b) List the different types of pollination depending upon the source of pollen grain.
(a) Briefly explain the events of fertilization and implantation in an adult human female.
(b) Comment on the role of placenta as an endocrine gland.
Answer : (a) As a result of pollen-pistil interaction, germination of pollen tube takes’ place carrying two male gametes. One male gamete fuses with the egg cell (syngamy), while the other fuses with two polar nuclei to form primary endosperm nucleus (PEN). The zygote develops into an embryo while the PEN develops to form endosperm. After double fertilisation, the ovule matures into a seed while the ovary matures into a fruit.
(b) Different types of pollination depending upon the source of pollen grain are :

  1.  Autogamy: Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower.
  2.  Geitonogamy : Transfer of pollen grain from the anther to the stigma of another flower of the same plant.
  3.  Xenogamy : Only types of pollination which brings genetically different types of pollen grains to the stigma.

(a) Fertilization : A sperm comes in contact with the zona pellucida layer ovum and induces changes to block entry of additional sperms. The entry of sperm induces completion of meiosis II leading to the formation of anootid and second polar body. The haploid nucleus of the sperm and that of the ovum fuse to form a dipolid zygote.
Implantation : The trophoblast layer of the blastocyst attaches to the endometrium of the uterus. The uterine
cells divide rapidly and cover the blastocyst which becomes embedded in the endometrium and implantation is completed.
(b) Placenta acts as an endocrine tissue and produces several hormones like :

  1.  human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
  2. human placental lactogen (hPL)
  3.  Estrogens, progestogens, etc.

Question.25 . (a) How are the following formed and involved in DNA packaging in a nucleus of a cell ?
(i) Histone octomer
(ii) Nucleosomes
(iii) Chromatin
(b) Differentiate between Euchromatin and Hetero-chromatin.
Explain the role of lactose as an inducer in a facoperon.
Answer : (a) (i) Eight molecules of positively charged basic proteins called histones are organised to form histone octomer.
(ii) Negatively charged DNA is wrapped around positively charged histone octomer to give rise to a nucleosome.
(iii) Nucleosomes constitute repeating unit of a structure:
Lactose is the substrate for the enzyme beta galactosidase and it regulates switching ON and OFF of the operon. In the presence of an inducer such as lactose, the repressor is inactivated by interaction with the inducer. This allows RNA polymerase access to the promoter and transcription proceeds.

Question.26. (a) Why should we conserve biodiversity ? How can we do it ?
(b) Explain the importance of biodiversity hot-spots and sacred groves.
(a) Represent diagrammatically three kinds of age pyramids for human populations.
(b) How does an age pyramid for human population
at given point of time helps the policy-makers in planning for future.
Answer: (a) (i) Narrowly utilitarian : We derive economic benefits from nature food (cereals/pulses/fruits). We also get firewood, fibre, construction material, industrial products (tannins, lubricants, dyes, resins, perfumes), products of medicinal importance etc.
Broadly utilitarian : We get 20% of the total O2 from the Amazon rain forests. Pollination is also achieved. We derive several aesthetic pleasures from them.
Ethical Argument : Millions of species of plants, animals and microbes share this planet with us. We need to realise that every species has an intrinsic value. We have a moral duty to care for their well being and pass on our biological legacy to future generations.
(ii) In situ conservation in biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries, sacred groves etc.
Ex situe conservation in zoological parks, botanical gardens, safari parks, cryoprese-rvation, seed banks, tissue culture etc.
(b) Three of these hotspots are Western Ghats and Sri lanka, Indo-Burma and Himalaya-cover our country’s exceptionally high biodiversity regions.
Sacred Groves : They are tracts of forests containing wild life which are venerated and given total protection. Such sacred groves are found in Khasi and Jaintia Hills in Meghalaya, Aravalli hills of Rajasthan, Chand and Baster areas of Madhya Pradesh. In Meghalaya, the sacred groves are the last refuges for Meghalaya, for a large number of rare and threatened plants.
Post-reproductive Reproductive Pre-reproductive Expanding
(b) Age pyramid analysis of a population helps in planning and health, education, transport, infrastructure, finance, food or employment.



Question.3. Give an example of a human disorder that is caused due to a single gene mutation.
Answer : Sickle cell anaemia/Thalassemia/Phenylketonuria


Question.8. Explain the importance of syngamy and meiosis in a sexual life cycle of an organism.
Answer : Syngamy : It ensures restoration of diploid chromosome number through zygote formation. Variations are an important characteristic of this process.
Meiosis : Gamete formation takes place as a result of meiosis which involves reduction in chromosome number or haploidy. It also leads to variations (due to crossing over).

Question.9. List the events that lead to biogas production from waste water whose BOD has been reduced significantly.
Answer : After significant reduction of BOD, the effluent is passed into a settling tank where the floes are allowed to sediment to form activated sludge. This sludge is pumped into anaerobic sludge digesters where anaerobic bacteria digest the microbes of the sludge to release a mixture of gases such as methane, H2S and CO2. These gases form biogas which can be used as a source of energy.
10. Why the plants that inhabit a desert are not found in a mangrove ? Give reasons.
Answer : Desert plants are not adapted to survive in saline or aquatic conditions prevailing in a mangrove. Plants are conformers. They are also stenothermal. They cannot maintain constant internal environment. The osmotic concentration of their body fluids affect the kinetics of enzymes through basal metabolism.


Question.12. Differentiate between somaclones and somatic hybrids. Give one example of each.
Answer : Somaclones are produced through micro¬’ propagation or tissue culture. They are genetically identical, e.g., apple, tomato or banana.
Somatic hybrids are produced by fusion of protoplast of two different plants. They are genetically dissimilar e.g., Pomato (hybrid of potato and tomato).

Question.17. A couple with normal vision bear a colour blind child. Work out a cross to show how it is possible and mention the sex of the affected child.
Answer :
The affected child is male.

Question.19. In certain seasons we sweat profusely while in some other season we shiver. Explain.
Answer : Mammals are able to maintain homeostasis means which ensure constant body temperature.

  1.  In summer, the outside temperature is higher than the body temperature. Hence sweating causes cooling by evaporation of sweat.
  2. In winter the outside temperature is lower than the body temperature. Hence shivering is an involuntary exercise which produces heat.
  3.  Both the above exercises help to regulate our body temperature.


Question.26. List the criteria a molecule that cart act as genetic material must fulfill. Which one of the criteria are best fulfilled by DNA or by RNA thus making one of them a better genetic material than the other ? Explain.
(a) Differentiate between analogy and homology giving one example each of plant and animal respectively.
(b) How are they considered as an evidence in support of evolution ?
Answer : (i) The genetic material should be able to carry out replication or generate a replica.
(ii) It should be chemically or structurally stable.
(iii) It should provide scope for slow mutation.
(iv) It should be able to express itself as characters.
Out of the two,clearly, DNA is more stable because of the following factors :
• Presence of H and not OH at 2’ position.
• Presence of thiamine instead of uracil.
• It is less reactive.
• It is structurally more stable because of its double stranded structure with hydrogen bonding.
• DNA is slower to mutate than RNA.
• Complementary strands of DNA further resist changes by evolving a process of repair.
(a) Homology : Those structures which have similar origin but perform different functions show homology.
e.g., Forelimbs of mammals, heart of vestebrates, brain of vertebrates etc.
Thorns of bougainvilleas and tendrils of cucurbits. Analogy : Those structure which have a different origin, but perform similar functions show analogy, e.g., Wings of bat and birds, flippers of penguin and dolphin, eye of octopus and mammals etc.
Sweet potato and potato tuber.
(b) Homology shows common ancestry and divergent evolution.
Analogy does not show common ancestry. It shows convergent evolution.



Question.5. Give an example of a codon having dual functional]
Answer: AUG codes for methionine and also act as initiator codon.


Question.7. Distinguish between the roles of flocks and anaerobic sludge digesters jn sewage treatments.

Question.9. Plants that inhabit a rain-forest ‘are not found in a wetland. Explain.
Answer : Plant inhabiting a rain forest are not adapted to survive in aquatic conditions or wetlands. Plants are conformers. They are stenothermal. They cannot maintain a constant internal environment or temperature. The osmotic concentration of their body fluids affects the kinetics of enzymes through basal metabolic activity.

Question.10. Angiosperms bearing unisexual flowers are said to be either monoecious or dioecious. Explain with the help of one example each.
Answer : Monoecious : Plants bear both male and female unisexual flowers on the same plant. e.g., cucurbits, coconut, maize etc.
Dioecious : Plants bear Cither male or female unisexual flowers on different plants, e.g. papaya, date palms etc.


Question.13. (a) Name any two fowls other than chicken reared in a poultry farm.
(b) Enlist four important components of poultry farm management.
Answer : (a) Ducks, turkey, geese etc.

  1. Selection of disease free and suitable breeds.
  2.  Proper and safe farm conditions.
  3.  Proper food and water.
  4. Maintenance of hygiene and health care.

Question.18. Explain with the help of suitable examples the three different ways by which organisms overcome their stressful conditions lasting for short duration.
Answer. Three different ways are :

  1.  Migration: Organisms can move away temporarily from stressful habitat to a more hospitable area and return when stressful period is over. e.g. humans moving from Delhi to Shimla during summer.
  2.  Spore Formation : Various kinds of thick walled spores are formed which germinate on availability of suitable environment, e.g., bacteria, fungi etc.
  3.  Dormancy: Seeds or Vegetative reproductive structures help to tide over stress by reducing their metabolic activity e.g., seeds or vegetative reproductive structures of higher plants.
  4.  Hibernation : It takes place during winter e.g., bear.
  5. Aestivation : It takes place during summer to avoid heat and dessication e.g., Snails/fish etc.
  6.  Diapause : Under unfavourable conditions, zooplanktons enter a stage of suspended metablic activity e.g., zooplanktons.
    (Note : Mention any three from the above)

Question.22. How would you find genotype of a tall pea plant bearing white flowers ? Explain with the help of a cross. Name the type of cross you would use.
Answer : Test cross should be used.


Question.24. Answer the following questions based on Hershey and Chases’s experiments 
(a) Name the kind of virus they worked with and why ?
(b) Why did they use two types of culture media to grow viruses in ? Explain.
(c) What was the need for using a blender and later a centrifuge during their experiments ?
(d) State the conclusion drawn by them after the experiments.
(a) How did Darwin explain adaptive radiation ? Give another example exhibiting adaptive radiation.
(b) Name the scientist who influenced Darwin and how ?
Answer : (a) They worked with bacteriophage which infect bacteria because they want to discover whether it was protein or DNA from the viruses that entered the bacteria.
(b) They used two types of culture media in order to make protein of viruses radioactive with the help of 35S in one case, and DNA molecule in virus radioactive by using 32P in the other case. This was done to identify which one of the two had entered into the bacteria during viral infection.
(c) Blender was used to separate viral protein coats that – were still attached to the surface of bacteria.
Centrifuge was used to separate lighter supernatent containing viral protein coats from denser residue containing bacteria.
(d) They concluded that DNA is the genetic material that is passed from virus to bacteria.
(a) Darwin observed that from original seed eating features in finches, altered breaks arose enabling them to become insectivorous and vegetarian finches.
Adaptive Radiation : Is the process of evolution of different species in a given geographical area starting from a point and literally radiating to other areas of geography.
e.g., Australian marsupials, placental mammals in Australia.
(b) Thomas Malthus. Population size grows exponentially. However population size remains limited due to limited natural resources leading to competition.