Unseen Passage for Class 11 Factual CBSE With Answers

Factual passages: convey information in a straightforward and direct manner about a particular subject. Usually, the language and style are simple and clear. Factual passages may give instructions or descriptions or report of an event or a new finding.

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Unseen Passage for Class 11 Factual CBSE With Answers

Steps To Attempt Reading Comprehension

The following steps have to be attempt while reading comprehension

  • Read each and every line in the Passage carefully. Reading the Passage twice is always favourable as it helps in better understanding and makes it easier for a student to find answers.
  • If the title of the Passage is given, read it first as it gives the central insight of the Passage.
  • Underline all the difficult words while reading the Passage, as you might be tested on these words in the vocabulary Questions.
  • Always give emphasis on the beginning and end of the Passages. These paragraphs often hold the most important information of the Passage.
  • While answering be sure that you’ve clearly understood the question. The answer must be relevant to the question.
  • Ensure that you answer the question according to the marks it carries. Subjective Questions should be answered in complete sentences.
  • Try to use your own language and modify the answer according to the question.
  • Answers should be based on the information given/inference derived from the information in the Passage.
  • Make sure that you use the same tense in which the question has been asked.
  • In MCQ’s analyze the Questions and options carefully before selecting the correct option because some of the four options are often closely related.
  • Write the correct question number on each answer sheet to avoid mistakes.

Unseen Passage with Questions and Answers for Class 11 CBSE Pdf

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Factual Unseen Passage for Class 11 CBSE Pdf

The outer solar system is the name of the planets beyond the asteroid belt. These planets are called gas giants because they are made up of gas and ice.

The first stop of our tour is the fifth planet, Jupiter. Jupiter is bigger than three hundred Earths! It is made up of hydrogen and helium and a few other gases. There are violent wind storms that circle around Jupiter. The most famous storm is called the Great Red Spot. It has been churning for more than four hundred years already. At last count, Jupiter has sixty-three known moons and a faint ring around it too.

Next in our space neighbourhood comes Saturn. It is well-known for the series of beautiful rings that circle it. They are made up of tiny bits of frozen dirt and ice. Like Jupiter, Saturn is made up of mostly hydrogen and helium. It is smaller though, at only ninety-five times the size of Earth. Saturn has sixty-two moons.

The seventh planet, Uranus and its twenty-seven moons orbit very far from the sun. In addition to helium and hydrogen, Uranus atmosphere also contains ammonia ice and methane ice. It is a very cold planet, with no internal heat source. One of the strangest things about Uranus is that it is tipped over and orbits the sun on its side at a ninety-degree angle. The twenty-seven moons it has orbit from top to bottom, instead of left to right like our moon.

The eighth planet is Neptune. Like Uranus, it is made up of hydrogen, helium, ammonia ice and methane ice. But unlike Uranus, Neptune does have an inner heat source, just like Earth. It radiates twice as much heat as it receives from the sun. Neptune’s most distinctive quality is its blue colour. Most of the information we know about it came from the Voyager 2 spacecraft passing close by it in 1989.

Pluto is the last and was considered a planet after its discovery in 1930. In 2006, Pluto was demoted and reclassified as a dwarf planet. Pluto exists in the Kuiper belt. That’s just a fancy name for the band of rocks, dust and ice that lies beyond the gas giants. Scientists have found objects bigger than Pluto in this belt. Thus, the outer solar system has many secrets to explore.

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, answer thefollowing Questions briefly.
(i) What is the Great Red Spot?
(ii) How small is Saturn as compared to Jupiter?
(iii) Why the moons of Uranus are peculiar?
(iv) What is Neptune’s unique quality which distinguishes it from other ‘gas giants’?
(v) What may have been the reason that in 2006 Pluto was demoted and reclassified as a dwarf planet?
(vi) Why are the planets beyond the asteroid belt called ‘gas giants’?
Answer:
(i) The Great Red Spot is one of the violent wind storms that circle around Jupiter. It has already been churning for more than four hundred years.
(ii) As Jupiter is bigger than three hundred Earths and Saturn is 95 times the size of Earth, Saturn is less than 95/300 or less than 32% smaller than Jupiter.
(iii) The moons of Uranus are peculiar because they orbit the planet from top to bottom instead of left to right like our moon.
(iv) Neptune’s one unique quality which distinguishes it from other ‘gas giants’ is its blue colour.
(v) The probable reason was that scientists had found objects bigger than Pluto in the Kuiper belt.
(vi) The planets beyond the asteroid belt are called ‘gas giants’ because they are made up of gas and ice and are very.large in size than Earth.

(b) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, complete the statements given below by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) The two gases which make up most of Jupiter and Saturn are
(a) hydrogen and ammonia
(b) hydrogen and methane
(c) hydrogen and helium
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) hydrogen and helium

(ii) The Kuiper belt is an area of rocks, dust, and ice that
(a) is between Jupiter and Saturn
(b) is beyond Pluto
(c) includes Pluto
(d) surrounds Saturn’s rings
Answer:
(c) includes Pluto

(iii) A synonym of ‘faint’ used in paragraph 2 is
(a) indistinct
(b) slight
(c) muffled
(d) unconscious
Answer:
(a) indistinct

(iv) A synonym of ‘circle’ used in paragraph 3 is
(a) group
(b) rotate
(c) band
(d) surround
Answer:
(d) surround

(v) A synonym of ‘tipped’ used in paragraph 4 is
(a) topped
(b) tilted
(c) poured
(d) presented
Answer:
(b) tilted

(vi) A synonym of ‘passing’ used in paragraph 5 is
(a) travelling
(b) short-lived
(c) adopting
(d) overtaking
Answer:
(a) travelling

Factual Unseen Passage Practice Exercises for Class 11 CBSE Pdf

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Factual Unseen Passage for Class 11 CBSE Pdf – 1

The Chipko (literally ‘to cling’ in Hindi) movement or Chipko andolan is a social-ecological movement that practises the Gandhian methods of satyagraha and non-violent resistance through the act of hugging trees to protect them from being cut.

The Chipko movement started in the early 1970s in Garhwal with growing resentment towards rapid deforestation. The landmark event in this struggle took place on 26th March, 1974, when a group of peasant women in Reni village, Uttarakhand, acted to prevent the cutting of trees and reclaimed their traditional forest rights that were threatened by the contractor system of the state Forest Department. Their actions inspired hundreds of such actions throughout the region. By the 1980s the movement led to the formulation of people-sensitive forest policies, which put a stop to the cutting of trees in regions as far reaching as the Vindhyas and the Western Ghats.

The first recorded event of Chipko however, took place in village Khejrali, Jodhpur, in 1731, when 363 Bishnois led by Amrita Devi sacrificed their lives while protecting Khejri trees, considered sacred by the community, by hugging them, and braved the axes of loggers sent by the local ruler. Today, it is seen as an inspiration and an originator for Garhwal’s Chipko movement.

Though primarily a livelihood movement rather than a forest conservation movement, it went on to become a rallying point for many future movements all over the world and created a model for non-violent protest. It occurred at a time when there was hardly any environmental movement in the developing world, and its success meant that the world immediately took notice. It inspired many eco-groups by helping to slow down rapid deforestation, increase ecological awareness and demonstrate the possibility of people power. Above all, it stirred up the existing civil society in India, which began to address the issues of tribal and marginalised people. So much so that, a quarter of a century later, ‘India Today’ mentioned the people behind the ‘forest satyagraha of the Chipko movement as amongst the hundred people who shaped India.

Today, it is also being seen increasingly as an eco-feminism movement. Women were its backbone and core because they were the ones most affected by the rampant deforestation, which led to a lack of firewood and fodder as well as drinking and irrigation water. In 1987, the Chipko movement was awarded the Right Livelihood Award.

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, answer thefollowing Questions briefly.
(i) What was the landmark event in Garhwal’s Chipko movement?
(ii) What did the Chipko movement ultimately lead to?
(iii) What event in history was an inspiration for Garhwal’s Chipko movement?
(iv) Why was the Chipko movement awarded the Right Livelihood Award?
(v) Which word in paragraph 4 means the same as ‘attend to’?
(vi) Which word in paragraph 5 is the antonym of‘afforestation’?

(b) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, complete the statements given below by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Practitioners of the Chipko movement
(a) are fond of Gandhiji
(b) live in cities
(c) cut trees to prevent hugging
(d) hug trees to prevent their cutting

(ii) They are counted amongst the hundred people that shaped India because they tribals and marginalised people.
(a) hid
(b) highlighted
(c) trivialised
(d) didn’t believe in

(iii) They followed the ideals of.
(a) violence and boycott
(b) boycott and strikes
(c) non-violence and satyagraha
(d) armed protest

(iv) Today it is seen as an eco-feminism movement because
(a) women were its backbone and core
(b) women want their voting rights
(c) women wanted firewood
(d) it was eco-friendly

(v) A synonym of ‘endangered’ used in paragraph 2 is
(a) resentment
(b) struggled
(c) risked
(d) threatened

(vi) A word meaning ‘holding tightly in the arms’ used in paragraph 3 is
(a) protecting
(b) hugging
(c) squeezing
(d) clinging

Factual Unseen Passage for Class 11 CBSE Pdf – 2

There’s no concept of good or bad food in nutrition science. What matters is the amount of food you consume, something that can be measured in terms of portion or size of serving. Portions and sizes vary from country to country and community to community. Large portions are commonly consumed in the advanced economies while smaller size portions are found mostly in developing economies of Africa and Asia.

Incidentally, portion sizes have undergone a considerable change over the years and continue to do so even today. The trend, in general, has been towards consuming larger and larger food portions (expanding waisdines are proof of this). The human mind seems to count the number of portions rather than the portion size. For example, when people say they have only one chapatti for lunch or dinner, they rarely discuss its size.

Short-term studies have also shown that people eat more when confronted with larger portion sizes. A study at a restaurant setting showed that when pasta was served in different portion sizes on different days, people ate larger amounts on being served larger portions, regardless of the taste. Also, studies show that people do not adjust or eat less in subsequent meals if they have already had larger portions.

Technically a portion means the amount of food you choose to eat at one time – at a restaurant, from a package, or at home. A ‘serving’ size indicates the calories and nutrients in a certain serving listed under a product’s ‘nutrition facts’ or a single unit or commonly regarded unit of food. The serving size is not the recommended amount to be eaten.

Sometimes, the portion size and serving size match; sometimes they don’t. For example, one slice of bread equals one serving of bread. But the number of slices you eat would be the number of portions you have eaten, so if you have eaten two slices, you have consumed two portions.

So how do we recognise what’s the right amount of food to eat on a regular basis? Learn to recognise standard serving sizes as they help you judge how much you are eating. It may also help to compare serving sizes to common objects.

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, answer the following Questions briefly.
(i) What does nutrition science believe in?
(ii) What do expanding waistlines prove?
(iii) What is the difference between a ‘portion’ and a ‘serving’?
(iv) What two facts about people’s eating habits have studies shown?
(v) Which word in paragraph 1 is the synonym of ‘eaten’?
(vi) Which word in paragraph 3 is the antonym of ‘avoided’?

(b) Onthe basis ofyour readingofthePassage, answer the following Questions by choosingthe most appropriate option.
(i) How do portions and sizes vary?
(a) From country to country
(b) From community to community
(c) From developed economies to developing economies
(d) All of the above

(ii) What do people do in subsequent meals after they consume large portion sizes for one meal?
(a) They skip the next meal
(b) They eat less in the next meal
(c) They do not eat less in subsequent meals
(d) They count the calories they have consumed

(iii) What is the recommended amount of food to be eaten?
(a) It is the portion size and not the serving size
(b) It is the serving size and not the portion size
(c) It is measured in terms of slices of bread
(d) It is to be decided by the individual

(iv) What is the technical meaning of a ‘portion’?
(a) The recommended amount of that particular food to be eaten at one time
(b) The amount of calories in the food you choose to eat at one time
(c) The amount of nutrition in the food you choose to eat at one time
(d) The amount of food you choose to eat at one time.

(v) What does the word ‘regarded’ mean in paragraph 4?
(a) esteemed
(b) considered
(c) contemplated
(d) studied

(vi) Which word in paragraph 6 means the same as ‘normal’?
(a) standard
(b) typical
(c) established
(d) right

Factual Unseen Passage for Class 11 CBSE Pdf – 3

Last week was spent glued to TV, watching India getting thrashed by a rejuvenated England at Lord’s. Like most Indians, I too was dispirited by India’s inability to live up to its reputation as the number one team. But at least there was the immense satisfaction of watching the match live and even listening to BBC’s good-humoured Test Match Special on Internet radio.

It was such a change from my schooldays when you had to tune in to a crackling short wave broadcast for intermittent radio commentary. Alternatively, we could go to the cinema, some three weeks after the match, to see a two-minute capsule in the Indian News Review that preceded the feature film.

It is not that there was no technology available to make life a little more rewarding. Yet, in 1971, when BS Chandrasekhar mesmerised the opposition and gave India its first Test victory at the Oval, there was no TV, except in Delhi.

Those were the bad old days of the shortage economy when everything, from cinema tickets to two-wheelers, had a black market premium. Telephones were a particular source of exasperation. By the 1970s, the telephone system in cities had collapsed. You may have possessed one of those heavy, black bakelite instruments but there was no guarantee of a dial tone when you picked up the receiver. The ubiquitous ‘cable fault’ would render a telephone useless for months on end.

What was particularly frustrating was that there was precious little you could do about whimsical public services. In the early 1980s, when opposition MPs complained about dysfunctional telephones, the then Communications Minister CM Stephen retorted that phones were a luxury and not a right. If people were dissatisfied, he pronounced haughtily, they could return their phones.

Inefficiency was, in fact, elevated into an ideal. When capital-intensive public sector units began running into the red, the regime’s economists deemed that their performance shouldn’t be judged by a narrow capitalist yardstick.

The public sector, they pronounced, had to exercise ‘social’ choices. ‘India’, wrote Jagdish Bhagwati (one of the few genuine dissidents of that era), “suffered the tyranny of anticipated consequences from the wrong premises.”

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, answer the following Questions briefly.
(i) About what was the author satisfied, even though India lost to England at Lord’s?
(ii) What were the options for Indians to watch or listen about cricket matches in England during the author’s schooldays?
(iii) What example does the author give to justify his statement about ‘whimsical public services’?
(iv) How did the government’s economists justify the losses in the public sector units?
(v) Which word in paragraph 1 is the synonym of ‘tremendous’?
(vi) Which word in paragraph 2 means the same as ‘condensed version’?

(b) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, complete the statements given below by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) The narrator felt dispirited as his team
(a) was the number one team of the world
(b) could not perform as per people’s expectations
(c) could not play even 100 overs
(d) performed like professionals

(ii) BS Chandrasekhar played a crucial role in making India register
(a) its complaint to the match referee
(b) itself as a Test playing team
(c) its first Test win at the Oval
(d) its humiliating loss at the Oval

(iii) Telephones were a source of exasperation because
(a) cable faults made telephones unusable
(b) the telephone system in cities had collapsed
(c) the telephone instruments were heavy
(d) there was no guarantee of a dial tone when you picked up the receiver

(iv) The author calls his schooldays as ‘bad old days’because
(a) almost everything had a black market premium
(b) things were too costly
(c) his teachers would not distribute anything under welfare schemes
(d) he could not get a handsome amount of pocket money

(v) The word in paragraph 2 which means the same as ‘occurring at intervals’is
(a) ubiquitous
(b) exasperation
(c) mesmerised
(d) intermittent

(vi) In paragraph 6, the word is the antonym of ‘lowered’.
(a) promoted
(b) denigrated
(c) elevated
(d) deemed

Factual Unseen Passage for Class 11 CBSE Pdf – 4

Dolphins are highly intelligent marine mammals and are part of the family of toothed whales that include Orcas and pilot whales. They are found worldwide, mostly in shallow seas of the continental shelves, and are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid. Dolphin colouration varies, but they are generally grey in colour with darker backs than the rest of their bodies. Dolphins consume a variety of prey including fish, squid and crustaceans.

It is difficult to estimate population numbers since there are many different species spanning a large geographic area.

Like bats, dolphins use echolocation to navigate and hunt, bouncing high pitched sounds off objects, and listening for the echoes. Most species live in shallow areas of tropical and temperate oceans throughout the world. Five species live in the world’s rivers.

Dolphins are well-known for their agility and playful behaviour, making them a favourite of wildlife watchers. Many species will leap out of the water, spy-hop (rise vertically out of the water to view their surroundings) and follow ships, often synchronising their movements with one another. Scientists believe that dolphins conserve energy by swimming alongside ships, a practice known as bow-riding.

Dolphins live in social groups of five to several hundred. They use echolocation to find prey and often hunt together by surrounding a school of fish, trapping them and taking turns swimming through the school and catching fish. Dolphins will also follow seabirds, other whales and fishing boats to feed opportunistically on the fish they scare up or discard.

To prevent drowning while sleeping only half of the dolphin’s brain goes to sleep while the other half remains awake so they can continue to breathe.

Dolphins reproduce their kin throughout the year, although in some areas there is a peak in spring and fall. The gestation period is 9 to 17 months depending on the species. When it is time to give birth, the female will distance herself from the pod, often going near the surface of the water. The number of offspring is usually one; twins are rare. As soon as the offspring is born, the mother must quickly take it to the surface so that it can take its first breath.

The baby dolphin will nurse from 11 months to 2 years, and after it is done nursing, it will still stay with its mother until it is between 3 and 8 years old.

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, answer thefollowing Questions briefly.
(i) What kind of food do dolphins consume?
(ii) What is the habitat of dolphins?
(iii) What actions of dolphins make them favourites of wildlife watchers?
(iv) What is the first action of the mother dolphin when its calf is born?
(v) Which word in paragraph 1 is the antonym of ‘paler’?
(vi) Which word in paragraph 4 is the synonym of ‘confining’?

(b) On the basis of your reading of the above Passage, complete the statements given below by choosing most appropriate option.
(i) Dolphins are mostly found in
(a) deep seas
(b) shallow seas
(c) all kinds of seas
(d) deep rivers

(ii) Dolphins swim alongside ships
(a) to conserve energy
(b) to help ships sail faster
(c) in search of their prey
(d) to attack their prey

(iii) They use echolocation to
(a) find ships in the sea
(b) be with their group
(c) enjoy themselves
(d) find food for themselves

(iv) The dolphin’s brain remains half active while sleeping to
(a) look at its surroundings
(b) save itself from ships
(c) prevent drowning
(d) find its prey

(v) The word ‘agility’ used in paragraph 3 means the same as
(a) slow moving
(b) perfection
(c) quickness
(d) gracefulness

(vi) The word ‘distance’used in paragraph 6 means the same as
(a) far away
(b) withdraw
(c) interval
(d) aloofness

Factual Unseen Passage for Class 11 CBSE Pdf – 5

A vast-blanket of pollution stretching across South Asia is cutting down sunlight by 10 per cent over India, damaging agriculture, modifying rainfall patterns and putting hundreds of thousands of people at risk, according to a new study. The startling findings also indicate that the spectacular economic growth seen here earlier may soon falter as a result of this pollution. The report also says that the haze caused by pollution might be reducing winter rice harvests by as much as 10 per cent.

“Acids in the haze may, by falling as acid rain, have the potential to damage crops and trees. Ash falling on leaves can aggravate the impacts of reduced sunlight on Earth’s surface. The pollution that is forming the haze could be leading to several hundreds of thousands of premature deaths as a result of higher levels of respiratory diseases”, it said. Results from seven cities in India alone, including Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad and Kolkata, estimate that air pollution was annually responsible for 24000 premature deaths in the early 1990s. By the mid 1990s they resulted in an estimated 37000 premature fatalities. “The haze has cut down sunlight over India by 10 per cent (so far) – a huge amount! As a repercussion, the North West of India is drying up”, Professor V Ramanathan said when asked specifically about the impact of the haze over India. Stating that sunlight was going down every year, he said, “We are still in an early stage of understanding the impact of the haze.”

Asked whether the current drought in most parts of India after over a decade of good monsoons was owing to the haze, he said, “It was too early to reach a conclusion. If the drought persists for about four to five years, then we should start suspecting that it may be because of the haze.”

India, China and Indonesia are the worst affected owing to their population density, economic growth and depleting forest cover. The preliminary results indicate that the build up of haze, a mass of ash, acids, aerosols and other particles, is disrupting weather systems, including rainfall and wind patterns and triggering droughts in western parts of the Asian Continent. The concern is that the regional and global impacts of the haze are set to intensify over the next 30 years as the population of the Asian region rises to an estimated five billion people.

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, answer thefollowing Questions briefly.
(i) How has the haze over South Asia impacted agriculture?
(ii) What were the levels of premature deaths estimated in seven major cities during the 1990s due to respiratory diseases caused by the haze?
(iii) Why is Professor V Ramanathan not giving a definite answer about the effects of the haze?
(iv) What did he say about the effect of the haze on the current drought in most parts of India?
(v) Which countries are most affected by the haze and why?
(vi) Why is there overall concern for Asia over the next 30 years?

(b) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, complete the statements given below by choosing the most appropriate option,
(i) The preliminary results indicated by the build up of haze are that it is
(a) disrupting rainfall and wind patterns
(b) triggering droughts in West Asia
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Neither (a) nor (b)

(ii) The haze consists of
(a) ash, acids, aerosols and other particles
(b) pollution products and aerosols
(c) acid rain and ash
(d) None of these

(iii) An antonym of ‘predictable’ in paragraph 1 is
(a) damaging
(b) shocking
(c) startling
(d) stretching

(iv) In paragraph 2 the word ‘premature’ means the same as.
(a) impulsive
(b) rash
(c) unseasonable
(d) untimely

(v) A synonym of ‘particularly’ in paragraph 2 is
(a) strictly
(b) specifically
(c) individually
(d) definitely

(vi) A synonym of ‘disturbing’ in paragraph 4 is
(a) disrupting
(b) depleting
(c) triggering
(d) interrupting

Factual Unseen Passage for Class 11 CBSE Pdf – 6

There’s a part of India where the tiger may still have a fighting chance; the Western Ghats. The big cat roams free i here and in goodly numbers, from the southern tip right up to Maharashtra, Eight tiger reserves, in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, have been rated ‘good’ to ‘satisfactory’ by the Centre’s 2009 preliminary status report on the tiger. Experts say this is because of good governances, constant surveillance and monitoring, pro-active local tribes, a zealous scientific community, habitat quality and contiguity, and an excellent ‘prey base’, which means plentiful supplies of deer.

In Mudumalai, for instance, tiger numbers are believed nearly to have doubled in recent times. Field Director Rajiv Srivastava says anti-poaching watchers patrol the deep deciduous forests round-the-clock. “The wireless network helps rush them to vulnerable areas when they receive information about movement of suspected poachers”, he adds. Each watcher, mostly from a local tribe, covers 15-20 km daily.

The tiger has also returned to Sathyamangalam sanctuary – erstwhile Veerappan country – after two decades. Some say this is because the guns have fallen silent, along with rising tiger numbers in adjoining Mudumalai and Bandipur, which sends the animals looking for more areas to roam. Scientists working in the field spotted two tigresses with five cubs at two different locations last year. Forest officers estimate that there are at least 10 tigers in the division.

The 2008 status report on tigers by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and Wildlife Institute of India (WII) estimates tiger numbers in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala at 402, with a lower limit of 336 and upper limit of487. The Bandipur and Nagarhole tiger reserves are almost foil. “High quality research on tigers and their prey base has resulted in a pool of scientific data which facilitates reliable monitoring”, says Ravi Chellam, Country Director, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), India programme. WCS staff range across 22000 sq km of forest in Karnataka, tracking tigers to gather data from the field. Every quarter, the WCS shares data with the Karnataka forest department. “Strict protection of the forests by using science is the hallmark of tiger conservation in Karnataka”, says Chellam.

Recently, WCS scientists led by Ullas Karanth used high-tech fecal sampling to tally and assess numbers. Tiger scat is thought to provide a unique DNA signature, allowing researchers to accurately identify individual animals.

Questions
1 (a) Onthebasisofyourreading ofthePassage, answer thefollowing Questions briefly.
(i) Why are tiger reserves in the Western Ghats rated highly?
(ii) What helps anti-poaching watchers in Mudumalai to work effectively and how?
(iii) What two reasons have made tigers return to Sathyamangalam sanctuary?
(iv) What facilitates reliable monitoring, according to the Country Director, WCS India programme?
(v) How does WCS help the Karnataka forest department? .
(vi) What new scientific method is being used to identify individual tigers?

(b) On the basis of your reading ofthePassage, answer the folio wing Questions by choosingthe most appropriate option.
(i) In which states are the tigers being conserved successfully?
(a) Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala
(b) Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
(c) Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala
(d) The Western Ghats

(ii) What are the estimated tiger numbers in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, according to the 2008 status report by NTCA and WII?
(a) Between 336 and 487
(b) Between 336 and 402
(c) Between 402 and 487
(d) The report is not able give the numbers

(iii) Which word in paragraph 1 means the same as ‘considerable in quantity’?
(a) large
(b) zealous
(c) goodly
(d) fighting

(iv) Which word in paragraph 2 is a synonym of ‘observers’?
(a) witnesses
(b) watchers
(c) numbers
(d) None of these

(v) Which word in paragraph 3 is an antonym of ‘departed’?
(a) resulted
(b) spotted
(c) arrived
(d) returned

(vi) Which of the following words is a synonym of ‘conservation’ used in paragraph 4?
(a) care
(b) preservation
(c) supervision
(d) maintenance

Factual Unseen Passage for Class 11 CBSE Pdf – 7

Vegetables are important protective food and highly beneficial for the maintenance of health and prevention of disease. They contain valuable food ingredients which can be successfully utilised to build-up and repair the body.

Vegetables are valuable in maintaining alkaline reserves in the body. They are valued mainly for their high vitamin and mineral content. Vitamins A, B and C are contained in vegetables in fair amounts. Faulty cooking and prolonged careless storage can, however, destroy these valuable elements.

There are different kinds of vegetables. They may be edible roots, stems, leaves, fruits and seeds. Each group contributes to diet in its own way. Roots are high in energy value and good sources of vitamin B group. Seeds are relatively high in carbohydrates and proteins. Leaves, stems and fruits are excellent sources of minerals, vitamins, water and roughage.

It is not the green vegetables only that are useful. Farinaceous vegetables consisting of starchy roots such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, the tubers and legumes are also valuable. They are excellent sources of carbohydrates and provide energy to the body.

To prevent loss of nutrients in vegetables, we should steam or boil vegetables in their own juices on a slow fire and the water or cooking liquid should not be drained off. Vegetables lose their nutritive and medicinal values if they are boiled hard and for a long time in a large quantity of water.

No vegetable should be peeled unless it is so old that the peeling is tough and unpalatable. In most root vegetables the largest amount of minerals are directly under the skin and these are lost if vegetables are peeled. Soaking of vegetables should also be avoided if taste and nutritive value are to be preserved. Finally, vegetables should not be cooked in aluminium utensils. Aluminium is a soft metal and is acted upon by both food acids and alkalis. There is scientific evidence to show that tiny particles of aluminium from foods cooked in such utensils enter the stomach and that the powerful astringent properties of aluminium injure the sensitive lining of the stomach, leading to gastric irritation as well as digestive and intestinal ailments.

An intake of about 280 grams of vegetables per day is considered essential for maintenance of good health. Of this, leafy vegetables should constitute 40 per cent, roots and tubers 30 per cent and the other vegetables like brinjals and lady fingers the remaining 30 per cent.

Questions
(a) On the basis ofyour reading of the Passage, answer the following Questions briefly.
(i) Why are vegetables called ‘protective food’?
(ii) What valuable nutritive elements do vegetables contain?
(iii) What operations on vegetables before eating them can destroy their valuable nutritive elements?
(iv) Why should vegetables not be cooked in aluminium vessels?
(v) Which word in paragraph 3 means the same as ‘indigestible material which helps food pass through the digestive system’?
(vi) Which word in paragraph 4 means the same as ‘containing starch’?

(b) On the basis of your reading of the Passage, complete the statements given below by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Vegetables are cherished for their
(a) maintenance of good health
(b) minerals which are directly under the skin
(c) high vitamin and mineral content
(d) None of the above

(ii) are high in energy value and good sources of vitamin B group.
(a) Fruits
(b) Leaves
(c) Seeds
(d) Roots

(iii) To preserve the nutrients in vegetables, we should
(a) boil vegetables in their own juices
(b) ensure that the cooking liquid is not removed
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Neither (a) nor (b)

(iv) A person needs per day for maintaining good health.
(a) 20 per cent leafy vegetables
(b) roots and tubers 40 per cent
(c) brinjals and ladyfingers 40 per cent
(d) 280 grams of vegetables

(v) The word in paragraph 2 which means the same as ‘available for use if required’is
(a) spare
(b) fair
(c) reserves
(d) storage

(vi) In paragraph 6, the word is the antonym of ‘destroyed’.
(a) peeled
(b) preserved
(c) cooked
(d) lost

Factual Unseen Passage for Class 11 CBSE Pdf – 8

A dance which is created or choreographed and performed according to the tenets of the Natya Shastra is called a classical dance. The two broad aspects of classical dancing are the tandava and the Iosya. Power and force are typical of the tandava; grace and delicacy, of the Iosya. Tandava is associated with Shiva, and lasya with Parvati. Dance which is pure movement is called nritta, and dance which is interpretative in nature is called nritya. The four main schools of classical dancing in India are Bharat Natyam, Kathakali, Manipuri and Kathak.

Bharat Natyam is the oldest and most popular dance form of India. Earlier, it was known by various names. Some called it Bharatam, some Natyam, some DesiAttam and some Sadir. The districts of Tanjore and Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu were the focal points in the development of Bharat Natyam. It was danced as a solo performance by devadasis (temple dancers) on all auspicious occasions. Later, kings and rich people lent their patronage to it and it started shedding its purely sacred character.

The dancer is directed by the natuvanar, who is a musician and, invariably, a teacher. Another musician plays the cymbals. The music for Bharat Natyam is from the Carnatic School of music. The mridangam (a drum), played on both sides with the hands, provides the rhythm.

The home of Kathakali is Kerala. Kathakali literally means ‘story-play’. It combines music, dance, poetry, drama and mime. Its present form has evolved out of older forms such as Ramanattam and Krishnanattam.

Kathakali dance-dramas last from dusk to dawn. The artistes use elaborate costumes; mask-like make-up and towering head-dresses. The dancers are all males. Female roles are usually played by boys. There is no stage – a few mats are spread on the ground for the audience to sit on. The only ‘stage-lighting’ is a brass lamp fed with coconut oil.

Two singers provide the vocal music. The chenda, a large drum, which is beaten on one side with two slender curved sticks, is an integral part of the Kathakali performance. A metal gong, a pair of cymbals and another drum complete the orchestra. Besides providing the beat, they are also the means by which all the sound-effects are created.

Questions
(a) On the basis ofyour reading of the Passage, answer the following Questions briefly.
(i) What are the differences between the tandava and the lasya?
(ii) What were the various names by which Bharat Natyam was earlier known as?
(iii) What are the components of Kathakali?
(iv) What instruments provide the music for Kathakali, as mentioned in the Passage?
(v) Which word in paragraph 2 is the synonym of ‘central’?
(vi) Which word in paragraph 5 means the same as ‘people watching a presentation’?

(b) On the basis ofyour reading of the Passage, answer the following Questions by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) What is the Natya Shastral
(a) A scientific study of classical dance
(b) The science of dances
(c) Shiva’s sacred thread
(d) None of these

(ii) When did Bharat Natyam start shedding its purely sacred character?
(a) When the devadasis stopped dancing
(b) When it was danced as a solo performance
(c) When kings and the rich patronised it
(d) When they used Carnatic music

(iii) Which two schools of classical dance are described in the Passage?
(a) Bharat Natyam and Kathak
(b) Kathak and Kathakali
(c) Bharat Natyam and Kathakali
(d) Manipuri and Kathak

(iv) In which drama form the dancers are all males?
(a) Bharat Natyam
(b) Kathakali
(c) DesiAttam
(d) Lasya

(v) Which of the following words is the synonym of ‘delicacy’ in paragraph?
(a) mouth-watering
(b) weakness
(c) difficulty
(d) fineness

(vi) Which word in paragraph 5 is the antonym of ‘simple’?
(a) complicated
(b) towering
(c) elaborate
(d) integral

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