Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 15
[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.] [Maximum Marks] : 100
- All Questions are compulsory.
- Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
- Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
Question.1. Why do we need international organizations like the UNO ?
Answer. We need International Organizations like the UNC to prevent international conflicts to maintain international peace and security and to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems.
Question.2. Mention any two member nations of SAARC.
Answer. SAARC was established in 1985. There are seven countries in the South Asian region which combine to form SAARC— India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Maldives.
Question.3. What does security relate to ?
Answer. Security relates to freedom from threats, whether external or internal. It is an essence for the existence of human life.
Question.4. Why did the senior Congress leaders support Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister of India in 1966 ?
Answer. The senior Congress leaders supported Indira Gandhi feeling that her administrative and political inexperience would compel her to be dependent on them.
Question.5. What was the most important recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission ?
Answer. The creation of states could be on the basis of languages spoken by the people. The language of the majority people was taken into consideration.
Question.6. Why did the United States of America launch a war against Iraq ?
Answer. Operation Iraqi Freedom ty/as the code name given by the US when it launched invasion of Iraq on 19th March, 2003. More than forty countries joined in the US-led ‘Coalition of the Willing’ after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion.
Aims and Objectives:
(i) The main purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of Mass Destruction [WMD].
(ii) But this was an eyewash, because no evidence of WMD has been unearthed in Iraq, so it is being speculated all over the world that the invasion was motivated by other objectives such as, controlling Iraqi oil fields and installing a regime friendly to the US.
Question.7. Mention any two components of India’s security strategy.
Answer. (i) India tried to strengthen its military capabilities because it has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours and has fulfledged wars with Pakistan in 1947-48,1965,1971 and 1999 and with China in 1962.
(ii) Since it is surrounded by nuclear armed countries in the south Asian region, India’s decision to conduct Nuclear tests in 1998 was justified in terms of safeguarding national security.
Question.8. What is Reorganisation of States ? When did it take place ?
Answer. Reorganisation of States means redrawing boundaries of a state with the integration of princely states into the Indian Union. After the partition, many princely states like Kashmir, Hyderabad, Junagarh, Mysore, Wlanipur, etc. refused to join the Indian Union.
(i) The process of nation building was a difficult task and the Government appointed a State Reorganisation Commission in 1953. Its main aim was to draw internal boundaries.
(ii) On the basis of the report of this commission, States Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956. As a result 14 states and 6 union territories were created, from among the princely states.
Question.9. What strategies were used by Narmada Bachao Aandolan to put forward its demands ?
Answer. Narmada Bachao Aandolan used every available democratic strategy to put forward its demands such as:
(i) Appeals to judiciary
(ii) Mobilization of support at the international level
(iii) Public rallies to support the movement
(iv) Satyagraha to convince people
Question.10. Explain the term separatism with reference to Kashmir.
Answer. Separatism means demanding separate/independent status from the parent body.
In Kashmir, separatist politics began in 1989 and is nowhere near an end. The Kashmir problem can be seen from the following three angles:
(i) Those who want a separate Kashmiri nation.
(ii) Those who want to merge with Pakistan.
(iii) Those who want greater autonomy for the people of the state within the Indian Union.
Question.11. Describe any two cultural consequences of globalization.
Answer. As far as cultural consequences are concerned, it would be a mistake to assume that cultural consequences of globalization are only negative. Actually culture is not static. All cultures accept outside influences all the time. Some external influences are negative because they reduce our choices.
But sometimes external influences simply enlarge our choices and sometimes they modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional norms. For example, a burger is no substitute for a masala dosa and therefore does not pose any real challenge. In the same way blue jeans can go well with a homespun khadi kurta. Here the outcome of outside influences is a new combination, that is unique. Globalization broadens our cultural outlook and promotes cultural homogenisation.
The cultural globalization leads to a fear that this process poses a threat to cultures in the world. The rise of a uniform culture is not the emergence of globalization or a global culture. What we have in the name of a global culture is the imposition of western culture on the rest of the world.
(i) The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves its imprint on a less powerful society and the world begins to look more like a dominant power wishes it to be.
(ii) This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire global.
Question.12. What does US hegemony mean in today’s world? Mention any two constraints that operate on the US hegemony.
Answer. The USA is the sole superpower since the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991.
(i) American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US today has military capabilities that can target any point on the planet accurately.
(ii) The US hegemony is also reflected in the role played by it in providing global public goods.
Constraints on American Power:
(i) The institutional architecture of the American state itself, i.e., they follow a system of division of powers between the three organs of the government.
(ii) The open nature of American society and political culture, i.e., their mass media, may promote or impose a particular issue on domestic public opinion but never opposed regarding the purposes and methods of government in American political culture.
(iii) The most important constraint is that there is only one organisation i.e. NATO, in the international system that can moderate the exercise of American power today.
Question.13. How does political leadership of a nation affect its foreign policy ? Explain this with the help of examples from India’s foreign policy.
Answer. Foreign policy of any country is always dictated by ideas of national interest. So, to some extent, the change in political leadership of a nation affects its foreign policy as well. To prove it we can take India’s example.
In India the period starting from 1977 saw the emergence of Non-Congress governments, i.e. The Janata Party. The Janata Party government, which came to power in 1977, announced that it would follow genuine non-alignment. This implied that the pro-Soviet tilt in the foreign policy will be corrected. Since then, all governments (Congress or Non-Congress) have taken initiatives for restoring better relations with China and entering into close ties with the US.
(i) Moreover, in post-1990 period, the ruling parties have often been criticized for their
pro-US tilt. At the sametime, in the period after 1990, Russia, though it continues to be an important friend of India, has lost its global pre-eminence. Therefore, India’s foreign policy has shifted to become more pro-US.
(ii) Besides, the contemporary international situation is more influenced by economic interests than by military interests. This has also made an impact on India’s foreign policy choices. At the same time, Indo-Pakistan relations have witnessed many developments during this period.
Question.14. What is meant by ‘Global Commons’? Suggest two steps for the protection of Global Commons.
Answer. There are some areas or regions of the world which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state. They need a common governance by the international
community. These are known as ‘Global Commons’ or ‘res communis humanitatis’. Global Commons include the earth’s atmosphere, Antarctica, the ocean floor, outer space and Arctic polar regions.
Two steps to protect Global Commons:
(i) Commercial exploitation should not be allowed.
(ii) Activities in these areas are restricted to scientific research.
(iii) The advanced countries should find environment friendly technologies to prevent environmental degradation.
(iv) NGOs and international organisations should come forward to work actively and to create awareness among the people.
Question.15. How far is it correct to say that coalition government in India has helped in arriving at some consensus ?
Answer. It is correct to say that coalition government in India has helped in arriving at some consensus. In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most parties.on many crucial issues. This consensus consists Of four elements.
(i) Agreement on new’economic policies: While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.
(ii) Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes: Political parties have recognised that the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result all political parties now support reservation of seats for the backward classes in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
(iii) Acceptance of the role of state level parties in governance of the country : The
distinction between the state level and the national level parties is fast becoming less important.
(i v) Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement: Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power politics.
Question.16. What does the term Syndicate mean in the context of the Congress Party of the sixties ? What role did the syndicate play in the Congress party ?
Answer. Syndicate was the informal name given to a group of Congress leaders within the Congress who were in control of the party’s organisation.
(i) It was led by K. Kamraj, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and the then President of
the Congress Party. It included powerful state leaders like S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, N. Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulaya Ghosh. –
(ii) In the sixties, the syndicate played a decisive role in the installation of both Lai Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi as the Prime Ministers.
(iii) This group had a decisive say in Indira Gandhi’s first Council of Ministers and also in policy formulation and its implementation.
(iv) But after the Congress split, the leaders of the syndicate and those owing allegiance to them stayed with the Congress (0) and a group led by Indira Gandhi formed Congress (R).
Question.17. Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
“Patel, the organisational man of the Congress, wanted to purge the Congress of other political groups and sought to make of it a cohesive and disciplined political party. He … sought to take the Congress away from its all-embracing character and turn it into a close-knit party of disciplined cadres. Being a ‘realist’ he looked more for discipline than for comprehension. While Gandhi took too romantic a view of “carrying on the movement,” Patel’s idea of transforming the Congress into strictly political party with a single ideology and tight discipline showed an equal lack of understanding of the eclectic role that the Congress, as a government, was to be called upon to perform in the decades to follow.”
(a) Why does the author think that Congress should not have been a cohesive and disciplined party ?
(b) Give some examples of the eclectic role of the Congress party in the early years.
(c) Why does the author say that Gandhi’s view about Congress future was romantic ?
Answer. (a) The author thinks that Congress should not have been a cohesive and disciplined party
because he wanted to take the Congress away from its all embracing character and turn it into a close-knit party of disciplined cadres.
(b) There are some examples of the “Electic role” of the Congress party in the early years.
(i) The Congress party provided a ‘Platform’ for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
(ii) The Congress party also presented a “Rainbow-like social coalition” broadly representing India’s diversity in terms of class and castes, religions and languages and various interests.
(c) . The author says that Gandhiji’s view about Congress future was romantic because
Gandhiji believed in the inclusive character of the National Movement led by the Congress, which in turn enabled it to attract different sections, groups and interests.
And all these made the Congress a “broad based social and ideological coalition”.
Question.18. “If Bharatiya Jana Sangh or the Communist party of India had formed the government after the first election, in which respects would the policies of the government have been different. Specify three differences each for both the parties.
Answer. If Bharatiya Jana Sangh or the Communist Party of India had formed the government after the first election, the policies of government may have been different in following ways:
(i) For Bharatiya Jarfa Sangh the policies were based on
(a) One country, one culture and one nation replacing secular concept.
(b) India would have reunited with Pakistan under the concept of Akhand Bharat.
(c) No cultural and educational rights as the Bharatiya Jan Sangh opposed the granting of concessions to religious and cultural minorities.
(ii) • For Communist Party the government policy directed towards the system of proportional representation.
• Control on the electronic mass media by an autonomous body or corporation.
• Government would follow the communist ideology on broad policy matters.
Question.19. Here are two opinions—
Bismay : “The merger with the Indian State was an extension of democracy to the people of the Princely States.”
Inderpreet : “I am not so sure, there was force being used. Democracy comes by creating consensus.”
What is your own opinion in the light of accession of Princely States and the responses of the people in these parts ?
Answer. In our opinion the accession of princely states and merger with Indian Union was an extension of democracy to the people of the princely states because people of the princely states never enjoyed political rights and struggled for democratic set-up.
To some extent central government used force to extend democracy.
Question.20. Look at the Cartoon given above and answer the following question:
A cartoonist’s reading of Charan Singh’s attempt to build a United Front of non-communist parties in 1974.
(i) What is meant by “Keep Right, no left turn” ?
(ii) Mention the full form of the follgwing;
Answer. (i) ‘Keep Right, no Left Turn’ signifies that the United Front party by Charan Singh is ‘ formed on the basis of non-communist ideology and expected to follow rightist only. The term ‘Right’ refers to ‘non-communists’ and ‘Left’ refer to “Communist Party”.
(ii) (a) BKD— Bhartiya Kranti Dal
(b) SSP— Samyukta Socialist Party .
(c) BKS— Bihar Kranti Sabha
Question.21. In the given political map of India identify the Princely states and write about any two states how they integrated with India.
Answer. The Princely states at the time of Independence were :
1. Jammu and Kashmir 2. Rajputana
3. Gwalior 4. Gujarat
5. States of Western India 6. Baroda
7. Hyderabad 8. Mysore
9. Khasi states 10. Manipur
11. Tripura 12. Cooch Behar.
It was the largest princely state which covers today parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
The ruler carried the title ‘Nizam’ who wanted an independent status for Hyderabad. In the meantime, a popular movement was launched against Nizam’s rule. It was joined by Peasants in Telengana, women, the communists and the Hyderabad Congress.
The Nizam responded by sending a para-military force (Razakars) to terrorise the people. They brutally attacked the people, murdered, raped, looted and targetted the non-Muslims. To tackle the situation the central government sent the army in September 1948 and after a few days the Nizam surrendered and finally Hydrabad integrated with India.
A few days before Independence, the Maharaja of Manipur (Bodachandra Singh) signed an agreement called “Instrument of*Accession” with the Indian government. It ensured that the internal autonomy of Manipur would be maintained.
In June 1948 an election was held and Manipur became the first constitutional monarchy. The state Congress wanted to merge with India but other political parties opposed. Later the Govt, of India succeeded and the Maharaja signed “Merger Agreement” in 1949. This caused a lot of problems and resentment in Manipur.
Question.22. “The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control.” What were the reasons for both these developments ?
Write an essay for or against the following proposition, “With the disintegration of the Second World, India should change its foreign policy and focus more on Friendship with the US rather than with traditional friends like Russia.”
Answer. The Cold War was an outcome of the emergence of the US and the USSR as two superpowers who were rival to each other. They were keen on expanding their spheres of influence in different parts of the world. Hence, the world was sharply divided between the two alliance systems.
Arms Race and use of Military Power: In some cases, the superpowers used their military power to bring countries into their respective alliances. Thus, their mutual rivalry and suspicions led them to arm themselves to the teeth and to constantly prepare for war. Huge stocks of arms were considered necessary to prevent wars from taking place. This is also known as ‘arms race.’ .
Cold War led to several shooting wars like Korean crisis, Berlin crisis, Congo crisis, etc. All these made the superpowers realise that war by all means should be avoided because in the event of a nuclear war both sides will be so badly harmed that it will be impossible to declare one side as the winner.
Arms control: The US and the USSR decided to collaborate In limiting or eliminating certain kindsof nuclear and non-nuclear weapons. A stable balance of weapons, they decided, could be maintained through “arms control”, s The two sides signed three significant agreements within a decade.
- Limited Test Ban Treaty
- Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
- The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
Thereafter, the superpowers held several rounds of talks on arms limitation and signed several treaties to limit their arms.
All these show that the Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control.
No, India should not change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with the US, but, India should maintain a healthy relationship with Russia because Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions.
- Common view on the multipolar world order: Russia and India share a vision of multipolar world order. For both these countries a multipolar world order is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater
regionalism, negotiated settlements of international conflicts, an independent foreign policy for all countries and decision making through bodies like the UN that should be strengthened, democratised and empowered.
- India’s stand towards Russia : India gets meaningful benefits for having healthy relations with Russia on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to central Asia and balancing its relation with China.
- Russia’s stand towards India: Like India, Russia stands to benefit from this relationship because India is the second largest arms market for Russia.
(a) Besides, Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. Since India is an oil importing nation, Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its oil crisis.
(b) In order to meet the demands of energy, India is trying to increase it energy imports from Russia and the republics of Kazakhistan and Turkmenistan. This has also broadened the scope for partnership and investment in oilfields.
(c) India has also strengthened its relation with Russia for its nuclear energy plans and space industry. India gets the cryogenic rocket from Russia whenever needed.
Thus, we may safely conclude that India has maintained good relations with all the post-communist countries but the strongest relations are still those between Russia and India.
Question.23. Critically evaluate the impact of the changing role of the state in the developing countries in the light of Globalization.
“Pursuing economic development without causing further damage to the global environment is a major challenge before the States.” Suggest any three measures to overcome this problem.
Answer. The changing role of the state has its mixed impact in the light of globalization which can be analysed in the following manner.
• At its simple level, globalization results in an erosion of state capacity, that is, the ability of governments to do what they do.
• All over the world, thg old welfare state is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens. In another way it withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic and sociakwell-being.
• In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
• The entry and the increased role of multinational companies all over the world leads to
a reduction in the capacity of governments to take decisions on their own. ‘
But at the same time globalization does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be an unchallenged basis of political community.
• The old jealousies and rivalries between countries have not ceased to matter in world politics.
Above all, to some extent, developing countries have received a boost as a consequence of globalization and have become more powerful than they were earlier as an outcome of the new technology.
Pursuing economic development without damaging global environment: In recent times the concept of sustainable development is widely spoken of. It means that the development should be at a faster rate without affecting the environment and also of keeping in view the needs of future generations. It i§ to be kept in mind that pursuit of economic development should not affect the global environment. Some of these measures can be as follows:
- Use of non-conventional resources such as water, wind, solar and natural gas could help to have clean environment. All public vehicles should use such fuels and the private individuals should also try to use clean fuels.
- Conventional sources like coal and petroleum are limited and cause damage to environment in the form of air pollution. This can be checked by changing to renewable resources, e.g. CNG has reduced the level of pollution in Delhi.
- We should use environmentally sound technology which would help both development as well as to have clean environment, e.g. the new construction of buildings should be accompanied by natural parks and rainwater harvesting system.
- The harmful gases (greenhouse emissions) should be reduced because these increase the temperature which leads to global warming. It is believed that the developed nations should take the responsibility of increasing greenhouse gases (due to their large scale industrial activities).
- Afforestation should be increased because it helps to grow more trees at all possible levels. The forest policy should cover this as main motive which would help both economic and environmental aspects.
- The government laws should be very strict in handling environment issues, e.g. there should be a ban on forest clearing and any activity which is related to deforestation. There should be a well planned system for the location of industries and the industrial waste should be disposed off in a safe process/method.
Question.24. How was the ‘one party dominant system’ in India different from similar systems elsewhere? Did the dominance of one party mean that India was not really a democracy? Give reasons to support your answer.
What was the green revolution? Which areas did it affect the most? Mention two positive and two negative consequences of the green revolution.
Answer. (a) ‘One party dominant system’ means that a single party enjoys monopoly of power over a long period of time and exclusion of other parties to reach power. In mexico PRI dominated the political system. The elections were after rigged and manipulated by the really party. But in India elections were based on fair competition among political parties.
(b) No. The dominance of one party did not mean that India was not really a democracy. Even though Congress was a dominant party for more than two decades, the Indian political system is still democratic because of the following reasons:
- Open nature of the Indian political system, i.e., existence of multi-party system.
- At the time of independence, there was no strong political party except the Congress.
- The role of Congress during our freedom struggle could be remembered and people cast votes as their tribute to the Congress leaders.
- The regional parties gained importance at national level and multi-party system had come into the picture in 1989.
- The advancement in the electoral system (electronic voting machine,’ common platform for political agenda) strengthened the democratic pattern.
- Active participation of women and improvement in Panchayat Raj system and its success make Indian political system democratic.
The term ‘green revolution’ refers to the new methods adopted by the government in agriculture in order to increase foodgrain production during 1960s.
The modern method includes the use of high yielding variety of seeds, use of fertilizers and pesticides, better irrigation methods, use of modern tools, highly subsidized prices, etc.
Positive aspects of green revolution :
- The region, where it was introduced like Punjab, Haryana and Western U.P., became prosperous.
- The middle class peasants benefitted from the fruit of green revolution.
- Modern technology was used by peasants in maximum areas of cultivation.
- It led to easy availability of latest technology, good equipment, loans, other facilities like Crop Insurance Scheme, etc.
- The food grain production increased manifold and food security was ensured.
- Many new varieties of food grains, adaptable to our climatic conditions, increased the net sown area’.
Negative aspects of green revolution :
- It increased polarisation between classes and regions. Some regions of North and Northwestern India like Punjab and Haryana became prosperous while rest of India remained backward.
- For small farmers it is still a dream because it requires large areas and investment for cultivation.
- Some of the traditional varieties of food grains lost their importance.
- There was a sharp contrast between the rich and the poor farmers.
- The left wing organisations used the poor peasants as their vote banks.
- The illiterate peasants could not understand the system behind the green revolution.
Question.25. Describe briefly the composition and any four functions of the Planning Commission of India.
“Indian policy makers made a mistake by emphasising the role of state in the economy. India could have developed much better if private sector was allowed a free play right from the beginning.” Give arguments for or against this proposition.
Answer. The Planning Commission of India was set up in 1950 by a cabinet resolution and not by a law of parliament. It is an extra-constitutional body. It does not have statutory or constitutional status.
- It is supposed to be ‘advisory’ in nature but in reality it is very powerful and is called the ‘Economic Cabinet of the Country’.
- The Planning Commission has an advisory role and its recommendations become effective after the approval of the Union Cabinet.
- The Planning Commission prepares a document that has a plan for the income and expenditure of the government for the five years plans.
- The Planning Commission prepares the plan in such a way that each citizen has a right to an adequate means of livelihood.
- also ensures that the operations of the economic system do not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment.
No, the above mentioned statement is not fully true and proved the mistake of our policy makers, because the role of state in the Indian economy was very much required to regulate our economy immediately after independence. Later on, when our economy got stabilised and regulated, the Indian policy makers introduced New Economic Policy as well in 1991 to liberalise our economy.
In the beginning India did not follow any of the two known paths— it did not accept the capitalist model of development in which development was left entirely to the private sector, nor did it follow the socialist model in which private property was abolished and all the production was controlled by the state.
But the elements from both these models were taken together in India which came to be known as “Mixed Economy”.
This concept of Mixed Economy was open to criticism both from the left and the right.
Arguments against the state control:
- Critics argued that planners refused to provide the private sector with enough space and stimulus to grow.
- According to them, the enlarged public sector created enough hurdles for private capital, in the way of installing systems of licenses and permits for investment.
- The state controlled more things than were necessary and this led to inefficiency and corruption.
Arguments in favour of the state control:
- There were critics who thought that the state did not do enough. It intervened only in those areas where the private sector was not prepared to go. Thus the state helped the private sector to make profit.
- Also, instead of helping the poor, the state intervention ended up creating a new middle class that enjoyed the privileges of high salaries without much accountablity.
Thus, we can safely say the roll of state in Indian Economy was beneficial in the early years both for the public as well as the private sector. And this led India towards development.
Question.26. Explain the presidential Election of 1969 and its significance in Indian Politics.
Explain the relationship between economic development and environment.
Answer. The Presidential election of 1969 was very much significant in Indian politics.
- It revealed the factional rivalry between the syndicate and Indira Gandhi.
- Actually after the death of then President Dr. Zakir Hussain, despite Mrs. Gandhi’s reservations, the ‘syndicate’ managed to nominate her longtime opponent N. Sanjeeva Reddy (then Speaker of the Lok Sabha) for the ensuing Presidential elections.
- In retaliation Mrs. Indira Gandhi encouraged the then Vice President V.V. Giri to file his nomination as an independent candidate.
- In support of her cause she announced several big and popular policy measures like nationalisation of fourteen leading private banks and the abolition of the Privy Purse.
- Those two issues brought differences between Morarji Desai and the then Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Ultimately Morarji Desai left the government.
- Regarding election the then Congress President, S. Nijalingappa issued a ‘whip’ asking all the Congress MPs and MLAs to vote in favour of N.Sanjeeva Reddy.
- On the other hand, Prime Minister openly called for ‘a conscience vote’ and election of 1969 ultimately resulted in the victory of V.V. Giri, the independent candidate and the defeat of Sanjeeva Reddy.
- Finally the defeat of the official Congress candidate formalised the split in the party like old Congress led by Mrs. Indira Gandhi.
In recent times the concept of sustainable development is widely spoken about. It means that the development should be at a faster rate without affecting the environment and also keeping in view the needs of future generations. It is to be kept in mind that pursuit of economic development should not affect global environment.
Some of these measures can be as follows:
- Use of non-conventional resources such as water, wind, solar and natural gas could help to have clean environment. All public vehicles should use such fuels and the private individuals should also try to use clean fuels.
- Conventional sources like coal and petroleum are limited and cause damage to environment in the form of air pollution. These can be replaced by changing to renewable resources, e.g. CNG has reduced the level of pollution in Delhi.
- We should use environmentally sound technology which would help both development as well as to have clean environment, e.g., the new construction of buildings should be accompanied by natural parks and rainwater harvesting system.
- The harmful gases (Greenhouse Emissions) should be reduced because these increase the temperature which leads to global warming. It is believed that the developed nations should take the responsibility of increasing greenhouse gases (due to their large scale industrial activities).
- Afforestation should be increased because it helps to grow more trees at all possible levels. The forest policy should cover this as the main motive which would help both in economic and environmental aspects.
- The government laws4should be very strict in handling environment issues, e.g., there
should be a ban on forest clearing and any activity which is related to deforestation. There should be a well planned system and the industrial waste should be disposed off in a judicious manner.
Question.27. Analyse any three lessons that were learnt from the Emergency declared in India on 25th June, 1975.
Explain any three major outcomes of Lok Sabha elections of 1977.
Answer. Emergency was imposed on 25th June, 1975 for the first time in India by Indira Gandhi.
There were different views on emergency. Some supported the Congress and said that it was necessary to control the internal disturbances and mentioned the unity of nation. Some criticised the emergency as being against the basic concept of democracy.
- Even after such criticism, it is to be noticed that normal democratic functioning was resumed within a short period of time. Therefore, one lesson of emergency is that it is extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.
- The second lesson, we derived from emergency, is that it brought out some differences and questions regarding the emergency provision in the Constitution that has been rectified since then. For example: When emergency was declared it did not get the approval of the cabinet and now the Constitution clearly states that ‘internal’ Emergency can be proclaimed only on the grounds of ‘armed rebellion’ and it is necessary that the advice to the President to proclaim emergency must be given in writing by the Council of Ministers.
- The third lesson was that the emergency made everyone more aware of the value of civil liberties. The courts too, have taken an active role after the emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals.
Major outcomes of the 1977 Lok Sabha elections:
After 18 months of emergency, elections were held in March 1977. For the first time the Congress lost the election and could manage to win only 154 seats in the Lok Sabha. Its share of popular votes fell to less chan 35%. The Janata Party and its allies won 330 out of 542 seats. The Congress lost from every constituency in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Haryana. It was a very high blow to the Congress. It could win only one seat each in Rajasthan and Madhaya Pradesh. Indira Gandhi was defeated from Rai Bareli, as was her son Sanjay Gandhi from Amethi. *
The Janata Party was formed out of a combination of parties. The leadership of Jayaprakash Narayan was accepted. Under the leadership of Jagjivan Ram, some Congress leaders formed the Congress for Democracy which later merged with the Janata Party. The Janata Party called this election as a referendum on emergency.
It was the time for the opposition party to realise that if non-Congress votes were not divided, they could form the government and enjoy the power. Thus, it indicated the tough time ahead for the Congress.