Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 13

[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.]                                                                                              [Maximum Marks] : 100

General Instruction:

  1. All Questions are compulsory.
  2. Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
  3. Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
  4. Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  5. Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
  6. Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.

Question.1. What did the ‘Second World’ mean ?
Answer. The Second World was the group of East European countries which had been liberated by Soviet army from the fascist forces. After being liberated they came under the control of the USSR and their political and economic systems were modelled after the USSR.

Question.2. Correct the following statement and rewrite:
“Veto power of the permanent members in the Security Council is in agreement with the concept of democracy and sovereign equality.”
Answer. Veto power of the permanent members in the Security Council is a special voting power with negative nature. The Security Council can trke no decisions if any of these members uses the Veto power.

Question.3. What continues to be the most important resource in the global strategy in the sphere of economy ?
Answer. The most important resource in the global strategy in the sphere of economy is the economic flows or exchanges expressed in the form of commodities, capital, people and ideas.
It also draws our attention to the role of international institutions like the IMF and the WTO in determining economic policies across the world.

Question.4. What is meant by White Revolution ?
Answer. White Revolution signifies revolution in the field of milk production. The White Revolution was launched in Gujarat by Verghese Kurien, known as the Milkman of India.
He launched the Gujarat Cooperative Milk and Marketing Federation Ltd. to promote and channelise the milk product.
Marketing federation later on launched the well known Amul Dairy.

Question.5. Write the name of the second largest party in the Lok Sabha in the first three general elections.
Answer. The Communist Party of India was the second largest party next to Congress in the Lok Sabha in the first three general elections.

Question.6. Describe the economic system of the former Soviet Union.
Answer. The economic system of the former Soviet Union was planned and controlled by the state.

  1.  Soviet Union had a domestic consumer industry.
  2.  It had a complex communications network.
  3.  The Soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living.

Question.7. “An International organisation is not a super state with authority over its members.” Justify.
Answer. The given statement is true to the extent the international organisation is created by and responds to states. Once created, it can help member states resolve their problems peacefully.
• Actually international organisations are not the answer to every thing. But they help with matters of war and peace.
• An international organisation also helps countries cooperate to make better living conditions for us.

Question.8. “Partition of India implies administrative concern and financial strains.” Discuss.
Answer. The partition of India saw a division of properties, liabilities and assets. It also saw a political division of the country and the administrative apparatus.
• Besides there was also the division of financial assets and things like tables, chairs, typewriters, paper-clips, books and musical instruments of the police band.
• The employees of the government and the railways were also divided.
• Above all, it was a violent separation of communities who had hitherto lived together as neighbours.
All these show that the partition saw administrative concerns and financial strains.

Question.9. What does Panchsheel imply ?
Answer. The word Panchsheel signifies five principles of peaceful coexistence.
Panchsheel was signed between India and China in 1954 and is a guideline in our relations with other countries.
The “five principles of Panchsheel” are as follows :

  1. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
  2.  Mutual understanding
  3.  Non-intervention in each other’s internal affairs
  4. Mutual benefits and equality
  5. Peaceful co-existence

Question.10. What are the components of vital National Interests ?
Answer. The main components of National and political interest would include issues like border problems, role in the UN and NAM, territorial integrity, etc.

  1. For India, the economic interest would involve foreign exchange problems, North-south dialogue, south-south cooperation, etc.
  2.  Political dimension : National development, national stability, defence dimension i.e. national security.
  3. The defence aspect would include arms production, regional security, etc.

Question.11. In spite of having different political systems, how is democracy becoming an accepted norm in the entire region of South Asia ? Explain.
Answer. From the experience of Bangladesh and Nepal, we can say that democracy is becoming an accepted norm in the entire region of South Asia.
Pakistan and Bangladesh have experienced both civilian and military rule with Bangladesh remaining a democracy in the cold war period. Pakistan began the post-cold war period with successive democratic governments under Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif respectively. But it suffered a military coup in 1999 and has been run by a military regime since then.

  1.  Till 2006, Nepal was a constitutional monarchy .with the danger of the king taking over executive powers. In 2006, a successful popular uprising led to the restoration of democracy and reduced the king to a nominal position.
  2.  In the same way, despite many problems, Sri Lanka and India have successfully operated a democratic system. Despite many limitations India has remained a democracy throughout its existence as an independent country. The same is true of Sri Lanka.
    Hence, it is proved that the democratic system is an integral part of south Asian political model.

Question.12. Describe any four drawbacks of the Soviet system.
Answer. The Soviet system suffered from several drawbacks :

  1.  Soviet system became bureaucratic and authoritarian. Due to lack of democracy and absence of freedom, the Soviet system became bureaucratic and authoritarian. It made the life difficult for its citizens.
  2.  Soviet system became weak in economic sphere. As the Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenal and the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe, the Soviet system became weak and its economy stagnant.
  3.  Created disparities between East and West. The Soviet system created disparities between East and West by entering into an arms race and forming military alliances.
  4.  Lack of democracy and absence of freedom of speech. In the Soviet system there was lack of democracy and absence of freedom of speech. This system was centred around the communist party and no other political party or opposition was allowed.

Question.13. Explain the concept of sustainable development.
Answer. The concept of ‘sustainable development’ signifies that development should take place without damaging the environment and development in the present should not comprdmise with the needs of the future generations.
Sustainable development is important because it results in
(i) protecting the people against pollution enduring their quality of life and health.
(ii) conserving environment which is necessary for sustainable development.
(iii) raising the standard of living of the existing population.

Question.14. How has globalisation enhanced the position of a state ?
Answer. Globalisation has enhanced the position of state in many ways.
(i) Now the state is able to rule in a better manner due to advanced technology of collecting information.
(ii) The state continues to discharge its essential functions (law and order, national security) in a very firm manner.
(iii) Even the primacy of the state continues to be an unchallenged basis of political community.
(iv) Thus, states became more powerful as an outcome of the new technology in the global Era.

Question.15. Explain India’s changing relationship with Pakistan.
Answer. Although India-Pakistan relations seem to be a story of endemic conflict and violence recently there have been a series of efforts to manage tensions and build peace.
Under the agreement of friendship signed in 2005-2006, the two countries have agreed to undertake confidence building measures to reduce the threat of war.

  1. Social activists and prominent personalities have collaborated to create an atmosphere of friendship among the people of both countries.
  2.  Leaders have met at summits to understand each other better and to find a solution to the major problems.
  3.  A number of bus routes have been opended up between the two countries.
  4.  Trade between the twq parts qf Punjab has increased substantially in the last five years.

Question.16. What is meant by ‘Common, but differential responsibilities’ in relation to environment ?
Answer. Common but differentiated responsibility signifies that states have common but differentiated responsibilities over the contribution of Global environmental degradation.
The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international purrsuit of sustainable development in view of pressures their societies place on the Global environment and of the technological and financial resources they command.
Conventions and Declarations on Differentiated Responsibilities.
We can implement the ideas with the help of Conventions and Declarations like :

  1. The Rio Declaration of 1992 convened on Environmental issues says that “states shall cooperate in the spirit of Global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem.
  2.  The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change (UNFCCC) also provides that the parties should act to protect the climate system on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.
  3.  The Kyoto protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. The protocol was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto in Japan, based on principles set out in UNFCCC.
    (i) The Kyoto Protocol, also enjoined on its members to protect the climatic system on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated respective capabilities.
    (ii) Besides, certain gases the carbon dioxide, methane, hydro-fluoro carbons, etc are considered responsible for global warming, the rise in global temperature which may have catastrophic consequences for life on Earth. The Kyoto Protocol stands for the protection of Earth from all these dangerous gases.

Question.17. As a citizen of India, how would you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the Security Council ? Justify your proposal.
Answer. Being the citizen of India we would firmly support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the security council on the following grounds :
• India is the second most populous country in the world comprising almost one-fifth of the world population.
• India is also the world’s largest democracy and has participated in virtually all of the initiatives of the UN.
• Its role in the UN’s peace keeping efforts is a long and substantial one.
• India’s economic emergence on the world stage is another factor that perhaps justifies our statement for India’s permanent seat in the Security Council.
• Besides, India has also made regular financial contributions to the UN and never faltered on its payments.
Apart from these, we also feel that permanent membership of the Security Council has symbolic importance and signifies a country’s growing importance in world affairs.
And this greater status is an advantage to a country in the conduct of its foreign policy. .
On the basis of above discussed grounds we can safely conclude that India has the capability to become a permanent member of the Security Council.

Question.18. Read the three extracts in the chapter from the Lok Sabha debate on the Indo-US deal. Develop any one of these into a full speech depending on a certain position on Indo- US relations.
Answer. Speech of Maj. Gen. [Retd.] B.C. Khanduri (BJP).
“Sir, I would respectfully urge this august House to pay a serious attention towards the present unipolar world led by US, the only superpower. Today the world is under the hegemony of US. But at the same time we must remember that in this unipolar world India has its own identity and has all the probability of becoming a super power.
As history tells us that although at its height hegemony seems formidable, it does not last for ever. To the contrary, balance of power politics over time, reduces the relative power of the hegemon. This is what may happen to US hegemony because of its challenges and constraints. Therefore, we feel that we should have a good and harmonious relationship with the US in. the international scenario for the mutual promotion of trade and technology. At the same time India will learn some diplomatic stands and will have a fair chance in UN. But it should not be at the cost of our security and independent identity.
With these words I conclude my speech, that by seeing the growing convergence of interests between the US and India as a historic opportunity for India, we must develop a strategy that would alow India to take advantage of US hegemony and the mutual convergences to establish the best possible options for itself.

Question.19. The peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisations. Justify this statement.
Answer. The above statement is very suitable to the ASEAN Security Community and the ASEAN Regional Forum which are based on the conviction that outstanding territorial disputes should not escalate into armed confrontation.
(a) The ASEAN Regional Forum [ARF] carries out coordination of security and foreign policy.
(b) At the same time ASEAN is rapidly growing into a very important regional organisation. Its Vision-2020 has defined an outward-looking role for ASEAN in the international community. This builds on the existing ASEAN policy to encourage negotiations over, conflicts in the region.
(c) In the same way, the foundation of European Union was laid for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs.
(d) The European Union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc.
All these examples justify the statement that the peace and prosperity of countries lies in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisations.

Question.20. Identify the countries where the UN peace keeping operations administered in the following years.
Answer. (i) Haiti – 2004 (ii) Sudan – 2005
(iii) Sierra-Leone – 2006 (iv) Afghanistan – 2002

Question.21. Look at the picture given below and answer the following questions.
(a) When did the cartoon appear in the newspapers and why ?
(b) Who was the man behind Indira Gandhi ?
(c) What exactly does the ‘Political crisis’ stand for ? Explain.
Answer. (a) This cartoon appeared few days before the declaration of emergency and captures the sense of impending political crisis.
(b) The man behind the chair of Indira Gandhi was D.K. Barooah, the.Congress President.
(c) The political crisis exactly stands for threatened low and order and the administrative process as well.
• This happened when the opposition political parties led by Jayaprakash Narayan pressed for Indira Gandhi’s rage resignations and organised a massive demonstration.
• Jayaprakash Narayan announced a nation wide Stayagraha for her resignation and asked the army, the police and government employees not to obey illegal and immoral orders.
• This too threatened the administrative activities of the government to a standstill. In retaliation the government declared a state of emergency on 25 June 1975.

Question.22. How was Non-Alignment Policy of India criticised? What is the relevance of nonalignment after the end of Cold War ?
Explain as to how did the reforms initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev bring about the disintegration of the USSR.
Answer. There have been many occasions when India’s role in NAM was criticised:

  1.  India’s role in NAM was said to be ‘unprincipled’, i.e., in the name of national interest it often refused to take a firm stand on crucial international issues.
  2.  It is suggested that India was inconsistent and took contradictory postures.

For example, India signed a treaty of friendship with the USSR for 20 years. This was regarded by the outside observers as India virtually joining the Soviet Alliance system.
However, NAM contained some core values and enduring ideas and it meant that small and poor countries of the world need not become the followers of any of the super powers. Non-alignment as a strategy evolved in the Cold War context, but the end of Cold War and a Unipolar world did not see the end of the non-alignment.
Non-alignment still contains some core values and end-using ideas.

  1. Arts emphasis has shifted-from “political issues to economic issues”.
  2.  Liberalisation of third world economies for rapid development of the countries of south now remains the main concern of NAM.
  3.  Issues like democracy, disarmament, human rights and neo-colonialism are as relevant today as earlier.

With the disintegration of the erstwhile USSR, there is only one super power, therefore, it is very essential for NAM to make sincere efforts to check USA from taking unilateral decisions.- Now its emphasis has also shifted towards poverty alleviation, New International Economic Order (NIEO) based on equality, equity and justice and promotion of industrialisation.
NAM must make efforts to reshape and democratise the United Nations so that the domination of powerful countries is checked.
Besides, NAM must ensure that in the era of Globalisation, liberalism and explosion of Information Technology (IT), the developed and developing nations derive the maximum benefit and are not allowed to be exploited.
Therefore, the concept of non-alignment is applicable even in normal situation. Its essence is that every international issue is discussed on merit. This is an attitude which must be reflected in international affairs.

As the question is very complicated in itself, so the answer to this question becomes more controversial in nature like:

  1.  The most basic answer seems to be that when Gorbachev carried out his reforms and loosened the system, he set in motion forces and expectations that few could have predicted. These become virtually impossible to control.
  2.  There were sections of Soviet society which felt that Gorbachev should have moved much faster and were disappointed and impatient with his methods. They did not benefit in the way they had hoped or they benefitted too slowly.
  3.  Others, especially members of the communist party, and those who were served by this system, took exactly the opposite view. They felt that their power and privileges were eroding and that Gorbachev was moving too quickly.
  4.  Hence, in this tug-of-war Gorbachev lost support on all sides and divided public opinion. Even those who were with him became disillusioned as they felt that he did not adequately defend his own policies.

Question.23. Explain India – China’s relations since Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to China in 1988.
Despite the ethnic conflict, Sri Lanka has maintained a democratic political system and registered considerable economic growth and high levels of human development. Explain.
Answer. Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to China in December 1988 provided an opportunity for improvement in Indo-China relations.

  1.  After the visit both governments took mutual steps to curtail conflict and maintain peace and tranquility on the borders.
  2.  Agreements on cultural exchanges and cooperation in science and technology were signed between India and China.
  3. Four border posts were opened for trade by both the countries. This has led to an increase in the trade between the two countries, i.e., 30 per cent per year since 1999.
  4. Now in 21st century both countries have agreed to cooperate in areas of conflict between the two for instance bidding for energy at global level. Even at the Global level India and China have adopted similar policies in international economic institutions like the WTO.
  5. On the darker side, as well, the issues like China’s military relations with Bangladesh, Pakistan and Myanmar never lead to a conflict between the two.
    To conclude, we can say that increasing transportation and communication links, common economic interests and global concerns should help establish more positive and harmonious relations between China and India.

Despite the ongoing ethnic conflict, Sri Lanka has registered considerable economic growth and high levels of human development through :

  1.  Bilateral trade relations
  2. Liberalising economy
  3.  Controlling the rate of growth of population
    These factors led Sri Lanka to have highest per capita gross domestic product [GDP] for many years right through the civil war. It became the first country in the region to open the economy to cope up with globalisation.
    On the other hand, despite the ravages of internal conflict, Sri Lanka has maintained a democratic political system by introducing majoritarian concept of government.

Question.24. Explain as to why the first decade of electoral competition is known as Congress system.
After Independence what was the general agreement about development and what were the differences in approach to development ?
Answer. Factors for domination of political scene by the Congress :

  1. Congress is the oldest party in India. It started in 1885 and was the major party that struggled to get India independence. It produced many great leaders like Gandhi, Nehru, Rajaji, Vallabhbhai Patel, Subhas Chandra Bose. It provided strong leadership to the Indian masses.
  2.  Congress sacrificed in all possible forms to achieve independence. One can rightly say that Congress wholeheartedly fought for India’s independence.
  3.  Gandhi (the Father of the Nation) lived like an ordinary Indian and propagated ideologies of truth, non-violence, swaraj, trusteeship which the people of India thoroughly appreciated. He was the first man to launch a national movement as mass movement by bringing women, peasants and students to participate on a large scale.
  4.  Indian masses were totally impressed by the role of Congress party and having faith in the Congress they voted for it for more than four decades. The able leadership of Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi and Narashimha Rao led India on to the path of success even though some leaders fell victim to terrorism (Indira Gandhi and her son Rajiv Gandhi were assassinated, i.e., they sacrificed their lives).
  5. The Congress after India’s independence, not only tried to solve the problems but also faced the challenges before the nation. It is not that independence meant that we had achieved everything. There were many challenges such as poverty, unemployment, low production in agriculture, industry, problem of integration of states and very importantly the refugees. It was a tough time for Congress and it managed to overcome these problems slowly but steadily.
    (vi) There was no strong political party to replace the Congress and the policies of the Congress and our relations with the neighbours favour Congress to become the dominant political party.

As the concept of “development has varied scope and complex nature” so any discussion on development is bound to generate contradictions, conflicts and debates.
The first decade after independence witnessed a lot of debate around this question of development. It was common then, as it is even now, for people to refer to the “west” as the standard for measuring development.
Development was about becoming more modern and moreJike the industrialised countries of the West. It was believed that every country would go through the process of “modernisation of the West” which involved the breakdown of traditional social structures and the rise of capitalism and liberalism.
Modernisation was also associated with the ideas of growth, material progress and scientific rationality.
On the eve of independence, India had two models of modern development
Hence, there was a debate on the selection of a model for our economy. There were some communist leaders, members of the socialist party and leaders like Nehru who supported the “Socialist model”. This reflected a broad consensus that had developed during the national movement.
All these made it clear that the task of poverty alleviation and social and economic redistribution was being seen primarily as the responsibility of the government. But at the same time there were debates among them like :

  1. For some Industrialisation seemed to be the preferred path.
  2.  For others, the development of agriculture and, in particular, alleviation of rural poverty was the priority.

Question.25. What does the term Syndicate mean in the context of the Congress Party of the sixties ? What role did the syndicate play in the Congress party ?
Discuss the nature of the contest in 1971. How was the Congress (O) different from Congress (R) ?
Answer. Syndicate was the informal name given to a group of Congress leaders who were in control of the party’s organisation i.e. within the Congress.

  1.  It was led by K. Kamraj, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and the then President of the Congress Party. It included powerful state leaders like S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, N. Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulaya Ghosh.
  2.  In the sixties, syndicate played a decisive role in the installation of both Lai Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi as the Prime Minister.
  3.  This group had a decisive say in Indira Gandhi’s first Council of Ministers and also in policy formulation and implementation.
  4.  But after the Congress split the leaders of the syndicate and those owing allegiance to them stayed with Congress (O) and a group led by Indira Gandhi formed Congress (R).
    (v) Since, it was Indira Gandhi’s Congress (R) that won the test of popularity, all these big and powerful men of Indian politics lost their power and prestige after 1971.

The electoral contest of 1971 was a landmark in Indian politics. It was the restoration of Congress (R).

  1. Actually this electoral contest appeared to be loaded against Congress (R). After all the new Congress was just a faction of an already weak party. Every one believed that the real organisational strength of the Congress party was’ under the command of Congress (O).
  2.  To make matters worse for Indira Gandhi, all the major non-communist, non-Congress opposition parties formed an electoral alliance known as the “Grand Alliance”.
  3. Under the umbrella of this Grand Alliance the parties like SSP, PSP, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Swantantra Party and the Bharatiya Kranti Dal came together to form a united front.
    Comparative Analysis between Congress (R) and Congress (O).
    The new Congress under Indira Gandhi had something that its big opponents lacked—it had an issue, an agenda, and a positive slogan.

But, the Grand Alliance did not have a coherent political programme rather it had only one common programme i.e. “Indira Hatao” (Remove Indira).

  1. In contrast to this she put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan: Garibi Hatao. i.e. Remove poverty.
  2.  Through the slogan of Garibi Hatao, Indira Gandhi tried to generate a support base among disadvantaged especially landless labourers, dalits, and adivasis, minorities, women and the unemployed youth.
  3.  Besides, Congress (R) focussed on the growth of the public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparity etc.
    Thus, the slogan of Garibi Hatao and the programmes that followed it were part of Indira Gandhi’s political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base during the electoral contest of 1971.

Question.26. What were the main provisions of the Punjab Accord of 1985 ? How has peace been restored on secular lines in Punjab ?
Explain how in the coalition era a consensus seems to have emerged among most political parties. Explain its elements also.
Answer. The Punjab Accord was an agreement signed between the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Harchand Singh Longowal, the then President of the Akali Dal in 1985.
This agreement is known as the “Rajiv Qandhi-Longowal Accord” or the Punjab Accord. It was a step towards bringing normalcy in Punjab.
Main provisions of the Accord :

  1.  Under this accord, it was agreed that Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
  2. A separate commission would be appointed to resolve the border dispute between Punjab and Haryana.
  3. A tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing of Ravi-Beas river waters among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
  4. The agreement also provided for compensation to and better treatment of those affected by militancy in Punjab and the withdrawal of the application of Armed Forces Special Powers Act in Punjab.
    However, peace did not come easily or immediately. The cycle of violence continued nearly for a decade.
    (a) Militancy and counter insurgency violence led to excesses by the police and violation of the human rights.
    (b) Politically it led to fragmentation of the Akali Dal.
    (c) Thus, the central government had to impose President’s rule in the state and the normal electoral and political process was suspended.
    (d) It was not easy to restore the political process in the atmosphere of suspicion and violence. For example when elections were held in Punjab in 1992, only 24 per cent of the electors turned out to vote.
    All this in turn added to tension between Punjab and its neighbouring states.

In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most parties on many’crucial issues. This consensus consists of four elements.

  1.  Agreement on new economic policies : While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, most political parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.
  2. Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes: Political parties have recognised that the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result all political parties now support reservation of seats for the backward classes in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
  3.  Acceptance of the role of state level parties in the governance of the country: The distinction between state level and national level parties is fast becoming less important.
  4.  Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement: Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements. Thus most parties of the NDA did not agree with the Hindutva ideology of the BJP, yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.
    To sum up, all these are momentous changes and are going to shape politics in the near

Question.27. ‘Explain any two aspects of India’s nuclear policy.
Was the Congress split in 1969 avoidable? If the split had not taken place, how could it have influenced the course of events in the 1970s?
Answer. India’s Nuclear Policy:

  1.  For a country’s development, the role of science and technology is very significant. Our
    first Prime Minister Nehru had full faith in Science and Technology for rapidly building a modern India.
  2. The Nuclear Programme was initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of H.J. Bhabha. Former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam had written about our Nuclear strategy in his book “India’s Vision-2020”.
  3.  When China conducted her Nuclear Test in 1964, India realised its strategic importance.
  4.  In 1968, the UN permanent members (Security Council) tried to impose Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty on the rest of the World.
  5.  India’s first nuclear explosion was conducted in 1974. India declared that it was only for peaceful purposes.
  6.  Although there are some differences among political parties regarding external relations but they agreed on national integration, protection of national boundaries, etc. This could be clearly seen when we faced three wars during the decade (1962-1972).
  7. India refused to sign the CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) in 1995.
  8.  India also conducted a series of nuclear tests in May 1998, demonstrating its capacity to use nuclear energy for military purposes.

The political events which followed the elections of 1967 indicated that the split in the Congress was not avoidable.
The Congress retained power at the centre but with a reduced majority.
The Congress lost power in many states and non-Congress governments were formed as coalitions.
It should be noted that the results proved that the” Congress could be defeated at the elections. The political events could be analysed under the following headings

  1. Indira vs. the ‘Syndicate’.
  2.  Presidential Election, 1969.
  1.  Indira vs. the Syndicate : Indira Gandhi faced a serious problem not from outside but from her own party. ‘Syndicate’ was a group of Congress leaders who were in control of the party’s organisation. Some of the prominent leaders were K. Kamaraj, S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, etc. They wanted to make Indira Gandhi the Prime Minister and expected her to follow their advice. Indira Gandhi wanted to be independent of the ‘Syndicate’ and to regain the power for Congress which was lost in the 1967 elections. She launched a 10-Point Programme and a government policy with left orientation.
  2.  Presidential Election 1969: The factional rivalry between the Syndicate and Indira Gandhi came in the open in 1969 when the President Zakir Hussain died.
    The Syndicate leaders proposed Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy as their official candidate without even consulting Mrs Indira Gandhi. She supported the then Vice President V.V. Giri to file his nomination as an independent candidate.
    The syndicate leader S. Nijalingappa issued a ‘whip’ asking all the Congress MPs and MLAs to vote in favour of Sanjeeva Reddy but ultimately V.V. Giri emerged victorious. She also announced many popular policy measures like nationalisation of 14 banks and the abolition of the privy purses (special privileges) given to the former princes. She raised the slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’ and returned to power with a solid majority in 1971 elections. In case the split did not take place the progressive measures might not be achieved. The split was not avoidable and the events after 1969 proved to be beneficial to the people of India.