Note Making Class 12 CBSE Format, ExamplesNote-making is an advanced writing skill which is gaining importance due to knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills.

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Note Making Class 12 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is a skill that helps you organize, categorise and recall information in a concise and tabulated form. It helps you in your academic life as note-making skills are needed when you go for higher education. Some of the advantages of note-making are as follows.

Advantages of Note Making :

  • helps ypu to remember the salient features of a text.
  • requires the retrieving of information from a larger and expanded text.
  • allows the reader to select what she or he wants to gather from a given text. .
  • helps you to summarise a larger text into a precise form for better retention and comprehension.
  • can be used for storing a large quantity of reading matter in a compact form.

Note Making Steps

Keep the following steps in mind while making the notes.

  • Step 1 : A thorough reading of the given passage is needed to follow what the subject matter of the given passage is.
  • Step 2 : Underline key words/phrases that you would like to note or recall from the passage. These should not include explanations or examples, but core ideas and facts.
  • Step 3 : Include subpoints to elaborate a main point. These will enlarge the knowledge base without being verbose.
  • Step 4 : Follow the format laid down for note-making so that the points remain legible and under¬standable at the end of the exercise.

Format for Note Making CBSE Class 12

While there are different formats used, such as flow charts, pie charts, graphic presentation of data among others, it is best to make use of the format given below:

Numbering and Indenting
Caution: Do not write complete sentences in note-making.
The following rules are followed with regard to abbreviations:
All standard abbreviations should be used (UN, &,…)
Use the first and last letters of words coined for abbreviations (wrtg for writing)

Contractions of words: can’t
Symbols used in mathematics and otherwise (e.g./p.m.)

Note Making Passages for Class 12 CBSE With Answers Pdf

Note Making Passages Pdf 1
Read the passage given below.

Getting enough sleep is as important as taking time out to relax. A good night’s sleep is essential for preserving the health of your brain and gives you the best chance to meet the coming day with a razor sharp mind. An average person needs about six to eight hour sleep a night—although it is also true that you need slightly less than this, as you grow older—another advantage of aging stress and sleep deprivation often feed on each other, since stress tends to make it harder for you to fall asleep at night and sleep deprivation in itself causes stress.

Eventually, too little sleep can dramatically interfere with the performance of your memory— something you obviously want to prevent. If you are not getting enough sleep, try going to bed 30 to 60 minutes earlier than your normal bed time for a few days. Lie down on the bed and try to relax by dissociating yourself from your daily routine work. This is normally enough to catch up on any sleep deprivation.

If, however, you suffer from insomnia you should seek the advice of your doctor. The chances are it is already affecting your ability to remember and recall information—and if you are struggling to improve your memory scores, this could be at the root of your problem. Prolonged periods of insufficient sleep can deplete your immune system, make you more accident prone and even cause depression—this can also reinforce a more negative outlook on life, which can contribute to your stress burden. The good news is that your memory and mood should automatically improve once you improve your sleep patterns.

Tackle your sleep issues and everything else should fall into place. Because stress management is so essential to maximize your brain power, if you are not in the habit of setting aside time to relax, make it a priority to do so. Even a minute or two of deep breathing can start to work wonders. Often the best ideas and memories can come to you when you are in a state of relaxation as it is during these moments that your brain stores, processes and plays with the information it has received.

Meditation has long been part of religious and spiritual life, specially in Asia. Today, more and more people are adopting it in Western countries also, for its value in developing peace of mind and lowering stress. There is some evidence that regular meditation can have real sleep gain and health benefits particularly in terms of protecting your brain against aging.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary—minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Problems of sleep deprivation
I. Lack of a good night’s sleep
(i) affects our health and mind
(ii) is a problem of aging stress
(iii) causes mental problem
(iv) intrfrs with performance of our memory

II. Good memory and mood
(i) need good sleep
(ii) can improve your immune system
(iii) help to have your +ve outlook on life
(iv) can save you from insomnia

III. Regular meditation
(a) has health benefits
(b) brings about good sleep
(c) helps reducing stress
(d) empowers your religious and sports life

Title: Meditation Cures Stress and Insomnia

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 100 words.
Stress and sleep deprivation is a major problem for sound health and sound mind. So, it interferes with the performance of our memory and immune system. It also reinforces our negative outlook and bad mood. So, our best ideas and memories can come to us only if we have good sleep and stress free life. In. fact, stress management can maximize opr brain power. Hence, the hour of need is to practise meditation in order to solve the issue of stress and sleep deprivation. Above all, meditation is a bliss to gain health benefits and religious and spiritual life.

Note Making Passages Pdf 2
Read the passage given below.

James Doohan, Scotty from the original ‘Star Trek’ series, died in 2005. Before his death he left instructions in his will that he wished to be buried in space. It took a long time, but Doohan’s ashes made it to space in 2012.

The first space burial took place 20 years before Doohan’s and it involved the ashes of another person involved in ‘Star Trek’, that of its series creator Gene Roddenberry. Since then, space burials have become big business. And believe it or not, with traditional funeral expenses going through the roof, the costs of space burials have actually become competitive. A company that specialises in space burials, Celestrix, offers a price list to potential customers. The launch of a single gram of a loved one’s ashes into the earth’s orbit starts at around $5,000. A launch of the same amount of ashes into deep space costs $12,500. The third option, of having one’s ashes scattered on the moon can cost $9,950.

The popularity of space burials is now changing funeral habits in the United States. More and more people are choosing cremation instead of burial so that their relatives have the option of sending their ashes into space. Since 1999, according to the Cremation Association, in Canada and the United States, the rate of cremations has almost doubled.

Companies like Celestrix take payment from the departed family, receive the ashes and even provide the container to carry the remains. The container in this case is a special one as it must be secure enough to get past thermal, vibration and vacuum tests, before it can be launched so as not to explode while orbiting in space.

The space urn then is taken to ride out to space. It needs a vessel in which it can escape Earth’s gravity. Thus it has to be launched into space with the help of rockets with satellites, scientific equipment, climate instrumentation and other payloads.

As there are yet no dedicated spacecraft to run exclusive burial services, the remains have to be in waiting till a suitable opportunity can be found in a craft which can find room to accommodate the urn. Some companies have begun to specialise in this operation. Ceveit is one company that offers customers ‘a dignified memorial spaceflight.’ The company takes the ‘remains’ up to join communication satellites, spy satellites and thousands of other satellites that circle the earth.

As a step further, there are companies that are looking at other options. One of them is planning to start a service to send a keepsake, such as a DNA sample, a wedding ring, a photograph, to the moon. Once the keepsake reaches its destination, the client will get a photograph on the social media or any other network of one’s choice, to cherish forever afterwards.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it. using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Lure of Space Burials
I. James Doohan’s last wish
(i) left as instructions in his will
(ii) wished to be buried in space
(iii) wish fulfilled in 2012, though died in 2005

II. Scenario 20 yrs before and now
(i) Gene Roddenberry’s ashes carried into space 20 yrs earlier
(ii) Rising cremation rate provides space burial options
(iii) space burials now competitive with ritual burials ill.

III. Offers made by Celetrix to customers
(i) price list available
(ii) $5000 for earth orbiting of ashes
(iii) $12,500 for space burial
(iv) ashes scattered on moon for $9950
(v) ashes collection by company .
(vi) provision of thermal, vibration and vacuum sealed container

IV. Process of ashes launch
(i) launched by rockets/satellites
(ii) carrying sc equip, climate instrumentation & other payloads.

V. Drawbacks of the system
(i) dedicated spacecraft for exclusive ash carrying
(ii) long wait for suitable launch
(iii) Ceveit’s services on commn satellites /spy satellites and others

VI. Future steps
(i) carrying keepsakes
A. DNA Sample
B. Wedding ring
C. photographs
D. facilitate posting on social networking sites.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Following Gene Roddenberry’s example, James Doohan’s ashes were taken into space. With cremations rising and space burials turning competitive, companies like Celestrix offer services of collecting ash, providing containers and earth orbiting, deep space carrying, or scattering ash on the moon. Despite a long gestation period, as there are no dedicated flights for ashs carriage, companies manage to dispatch their cargo ort satellites. Future plans include carrying keepsakes such as DNA samples, wedding rings and sending photographs for posting on social media networks.

Note Making Passages Pdf 3
Read the passage given below carefully:

How does one go about creating joy on a regular basis?

According to Meadow Linn, one should start small. Happiness can grow and blossom into a beautiful bouquet, but first it needs to start as a tiny seed. Thereafter it must be nurtured every day. One must begin by reveling in seemingly insignificant objects and moments. Perhaps it could be the perfume of a vibrant flower; the way the evening light dances across the sky before sunset. Once one starts seeing the beauty and magic in everyday life, one can begin to experience the same in all areas of one’s life.

Thereafter these ‘eureka’ moments begin to prompt the person into making big and small changes in life and help the person in mending broken relationships, help them find a new hobby and so on. The list is endless.

Sitar player Anoushka Shankar says that she would like to create her moments of happiness by staying connected with her inner core and then projecting her own unique light outwards. Greek mathematician Archimedes, when he uttered the words: ‘I’ve found it’, established the important principle of physics in that moment. Today we don’t need life-changing discoverers. We can find personal inspirations by discovering our own ‘eureka’ moments.

According to Katja Rusanen, a spiritual coach, the two most powerful words that can empower us are: I AM. According to him, whatever we attach to ‘I AM’ is what you will finally become. If you give yourself the power to be negative, negativity will be repeated and if you give the power to be positive, you will create eureka moments every day.

According to fashion designer Kir an Uttam Ghosh one should take time out to repeat one’s happy moments every day. During breaks through the day by doing new things, one indulges in an unknowable essence that exists. Her eureka moment comes when she creates a new outfit or drinks a cup of chai.

Another eureka moment comes in our lives when we suddenly start understanding a complicated problem. According to writers John Kounios and Mark Beeman, it is the moment when the fog clears and you have a rare insight into a problem which you didn’t have before.

Yoga coach Mini Thapar says that for her there need not be something extraordinary to find her eureka moment. One can get one’s eureka moment from the complacency that sets in while living an everyday routine. The ecstatic moment comes when one least expects it. Researchers have seen that much of what is seen as creativity folklore actually has foundations in rock-hard fact. There are firm reasons why we get our best ideas at times when we are simply gazing at the ceiling.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Search for Happiness

I. Meadow Linn’s idea
(i) start small
(ii) happiness will blossom into bouquet
(iii) happiness lies in seemingly small objects
(iv) find happiness in everyday life

II. Eureka moments begin to change life
(i) help mend broken re’la’ips
(ii) find new hobby, etc.

III. When they found their eureka moment.
(i) Anoushka Shankar
(ii) Staying connected with her inner core and proj’g own light
(iii) Greek mathematician Archimedes:
(iv) A.his defining moment in physics
(v) Kiran Uttam Ghosh: fashion designer
(vi) A. taking breaks by doing new things

B. an indulgent cup of chai
C. creating a new outfit
(vii) personal inspiration key to individual eureka moments individual

IV. Views of Rusanen, spiritual coach
(i) take time out to repeat happy moments
(ii) Empower yourself with the words: I AM
(iii) do not indulge in negative thoughts

V. Writers John Kounios and Mark Beeman’s eureka moment
(i) understanding a complicated problem
(ii) getting insight into problems which one didn’t have earlier

VI. Mini Thaar’s emphasis
(i) happiness is in everyday moments
(ii) folkloric creativity rests on rock-hard facts
(iii) firm reasons behind best ideas while gazing at ceiling

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Meadow Linn advises that to gain happiness, start small, collect a happiness bouquet subsequently. Eureka moments can change life, build broken relationships, start new hobbies.

According to Anoushka Shankar, it comes from inner connectivity. For Archimedes it was his defining moment in physics while Kiran Uttam Ghosh gets her after creating a new outfit and drinking chai. Writers state eureka moments are linked with solving niggling problems but Mini Thapar claims that happiness lies in everyday things as there are solid reasons why some sources yield happiness.

Note Making Passages Pdf 4
Read the passage given below.

As healthcare turns costlier in developed countries, the availability of accredited facilities are drawing hundreds to India. As a result, the Indian medical tourism market is expected to grow from $3 billion at present to around $8 billion by 2020. Witness an annual growth of 30% in medical tourism, India is set to become the number one destination for patients requiring medical attention. Cashing in on this demand, players in this space are making a medical trip for a visitor as convenient as a vacation.

A Pune-based medical company has about 1500 partnerships with hospitals and doctors in India and Turkey. The company has provided services to about 1000 patients. They describe themselves as an online marketplace for medical tourism and not a discovery platform. In this company all details are provided on the website and on payment of a token amount one can immediately buy a package/treatment with a hospital. The company also provides concierge medical services, such as visas, hotel and accommodation and sight-seeing, as value-added services.

Another medical centre which gets about 15 patients a month, provides a list of various treatments, with categories like cancer treatment packages, and cosmetic surgery packages, among others, along with their pricing details. Walking clients through every step, right from when they plan to leave their home country till they are back home after the surgery, the company provides medical opinion and evaluations, suggestions with details of fees and stay, besides post-operative care.

While lower costs have always buoyed India’s position as a favoured medical tourist §pot, cost is not the only reason for drawing people to these facilities. It is also the quality of care and a personalized experience that these places are providing and which counts. The international patient care teams at these places are the key. Realising that India is more individual oriented, unlike the West which is more process-driven, the staff at these places are trained to understand the culture of various countries, starting with the basic etiquette of greeting a person, to their festivals. The idea is to create a personalized interaction with the patient. Thus India has adopted a system that has a more holistic approach.

As the non-metropolitan cities offer a lower rate for the same level of medical quality, substantial growth is foreseen in these places. However, the availability of direct flights has a significant bearing in the choice of locations. But with new opportunities come new challenges. For India, it is staying up on the curve to appease the international audience.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Rise of Medical Tourism in India
I. The current status of medi tourism in. India
(i) costlier healthcare in the West
(ii) estimated rise from $3 million to $8 million by 2020
(iii) players making medi trips like vacations

II. Profile of Pune-based Co
(i) 1500 partnerships with hospitals and patients from Turkey
(ii) online marketplace for med tourism
(iii) token fee for package treatment info
(iv) provision for concierge services
A. visas
B. hotel and accom’n
C. sight-seeing

III. Other medi centre facilities
(i) separate treatment packages with prices
(ii) controlling door-to-door care
(iii) medi opinion and evaluation
(iv) post-operative care

IV. Reasons for India’s growth
(i) quality care and attention given
(ii) more individual oriented
(iii) staff trained to be culture-sensitive
(iv) overall holistic approach

V. growth in non-metro cities
(i) same level of medí quality
(ii) drawback: connectivity to metro poor
(iii) challenge: to maintain present status

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Rising costs have driven medical tourism growth in India, from $3 million to an expected $8 million by 2020 as medical trips turn vacation-like. A Pune-based company has a 1500 partnership data with hospitals and Turkish patients. Online information and package treatment information on nominal payment is available. The concierge services include visa facilitation, hotel accommodation and post-operative care. Others offer staff trained to be culture-sensitive. Growth has fanned to non-metro cities because of pricing advantages, but is hampered by poor connectivity and challenges to keep up standards.

Note Making Passages Pdf 5
Read the passage given below.

The presence of a pollutant in air is not necessarily life threatening. It becomes a killer only after its concentration breaches safety limits. As many as 4000 Londoners died of air pollution when the Great Smog hit the UK capital in 1952. This was mainly due to PM 2.5 and S02 levels crossing all limits of safety. What makes matters scarier is a new found pollutant ultra fine particulate matter (PMI). Experts haven’t yet defined a safety limit for this.

Natural air consists of different gases, including PM 2.5 and PMI. The problem arises when the levels of some of the more dangerous gases elements breaches safety levels. Human activity is usually to blame for such a rise, although weather can also play a role.

The more lethal PMI penetrates the lungs and enfers the blood stream. A study on it clarifies that CO, ozone, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide, and volatile compounds are just as life threatening if their concentration jumps alarmingly.

Toxic air pollutants such as dioxins, benzene, arsenic, beryllium, mercury and vinyl chloride are also strongly linked to cancer and birth defects. Air toxins are found in trace amounts and are extremely toxic even in very small quantities. That is why they are measured in nanograms, not micrograms. Thus measures to check air pollution, according to the experts, should be measured based on which pollutants are dominant in an area and how toxic they are.

Historically, it has been found that S02 and C02 levels are not rising as significantgly as PM 2.5 and N02 in the capital which has serious cardiovascular and respiratory impactgs. Similarly, pollutants generated from combustion are more toxic than those from natural sources such as road, or wind blown dust. While ambient air data may be easier to measure but they do not always represent human exposure. Dose, a measure to measure change in the body due to exposure to pollutants, can be an accurate measure of impact, but is not available for many important pollutants. Ambiet monitoring is especially useful for providing a long-term record of the overall level of pollution and how that changes with respect to policies. But people don’t breathe ambient air. They breathe the air wherever they happen to be. Exposure assessment takes the process of measuring air pollution to where people spend most of their time.

Fine particulate components have recently been classified as a cause of lung cancer along with diesel combustion and the burning of coal, the two main causes of household and ambient pollution as – sources of carcinogenic. Around 30% of all lung cancer deaths can be attributed to the combined effects of household and ambient air pollution.

In order to quantify air exposures one can measure air quality in indoor and outdoot environments in which people spend time.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary’ — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Life threatening levels of air pollutants
I. Air pollutants become killers
(i) when concentration breaches safety levels
(ii) At Great Smog (London) death from dangerous levels
(iii) PM level 2.5 and S02 levels beyond safety norms
(iv) newest threat from PMI-extra fine particulate matter
(v) dahger levels of it not calculated

II. Dangers to natural air
(i) comp of natural air, including PM and PMI
(ii) breach in safety7 levels, particularly
(iii) A. CO
B. sulphur dioxide
C. nitrogen oxide
D. volatile compounds
(iv) domestic activity, besides weather

III. Links bet toxic air and diseases
(i) PMI enters lungs and penetrates bid stream
(ii) trace elements for
(iii) dioxins, benzene, arsenic, beryllium, mercury, vinyl chloride cause cancer and birth defects
(iv) pollutant check based on which pollutants are present in an area

IV. Findings about pollutants
(i) PM 2.5 and N02 causing cardiovascular and respiratory complaints in the capital
(ii) combustion more toxic that road dust
(iii) Ambient monitoring for assessing long-term, overall record of pollutants
(iv) measuring air where people abound
(v) coal fire and diesel cause for carcinogens
(vi) 30% of lung cancer from ambient air pollution

V. Ways to quantify air exposure
(i) measuring quality of air both indoors and outdoors
(ii) measuring where people spend time

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Air pollutants become dangerous when safety levels are breached. The effects of pollutant PMI, is not ascertained. Besides, dangers to natural air arises from breach in natural levels of CO, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Findings show that PM 2.5 is causing cardiovascular and respiratory complaints while coal fires and deisel cause carcinogens. Ambient air pollution caused 30% lung cancer cases. Measuring air quality includes checks of both indoor and outdoor places where people spend time.

Note Making Passages Pdf 6
Read the passage given below carefully:

To most of us the most fascinating thing about spiders is the webs they spin. But actually a spider is the most amazing creature in many other respects. First of all, spiders are not insects. They belong to a group known as ‘arachnids’ and differ from insects in that they have eight legs, usually eight eyes, no wings and only two parts to their bodies.

They can live on any type of climate and are found in every part of the world. They can live in the air, on the water, on the ground, depending on their species. They vary in size from 8 centimeters to some that are so small that they are barely visible. Some spiders can go a whole year without water. One type of spider, the large tarantula, eats birds and can live for as long as 15 years. Yet most spiders live for just one year.

The silk in a spider’s web is manufactured in certain abdominal glands. The silk is forced through many tiny holes from the spinning organs at the tip of the abdomen. It comes out as a liquid which becomes solid on contact with the air.

There are many kinds of silk that a spider can spin. The sticky silk which the spider uses in its web to catch its prey is the sticky one. The strong supporting spokes which are non-sticky and the silks in its cocoon in which the eggs are laid are actually soft and fluffy. Other silks that it weaves are hard and even fibrous.

Even the shapes of spiders’ webs differ. Some make webs that are shaped like wheels arid are commonly used for catching its prey. It is made by first forming a rectangle with heavy outer lines which form the foundation lines of the web. The spokes of the wheel are constructed next. Then comes a scaffolding of three to four spiels. The close, sticky silk spiral is built last.

Other webs that a spider spins are ‘sheet webs’. They are flat and are funnel-shaped. Sometimes, they are even dome-shaped masses of silk. The spider uses one side of the web to live in it. ‘Trap’ door spiders make a burrow with a lid at the top. It is disguised by sticks and dirt. A ‘Wolf’ spider builds a tunnel into the ground and lines the area with silk.

The European water spider builds a home in the shape of a bell. This is done entirely under water! The spider then fills it with air brought from the surface in the hairs of its abdomen. Then she lays eggs’and rears the young in this enclosure until they are old enough to build webs for themselves. Yet not all spiders build nests for themselves. Some of them just make a ‘home’ in a leaf, or a slice of tree bark instead.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Characteristics Of Spiders
I. Amazing facts about spiders
(i) spiders, not insects
(ii) family of arachnids: 8 legs/8 eyes/2 bodies/no wings
(iii) can survive in any climate
(iv) live on air, water, ground as per species
(v) size variations: 8 cm minuscule
(vi) tarantula preys on birds and lives 15 yrs
(vii) can survive without water

II. Silk in a spider’s web
(i) manfd in abdominal glands
(ii) spinning organs at tip of abdominal glands
(iii) emits as liquid and solidifies on contact with air

III. Types of silk made
(i) sticky silk to catch prey
(ii) spp’ting spokes: non sticky
(iii) scaffolding of 3-4 spiels
(iv) sticky silk spiral, built last

IV. Varieties of spider webs
(i) sheet webs
A. flat and funnel-shaped
B. also tunnel-shaped

(ii) trap door
A. burrow shaped
B. having lid on top

(iii) wolf spiders burrow underground
(iv) wheel-shaped for catching prey

V. The European water spider
(i) builds bell-shaped home under water
(ii) fills with air
(iii) brought from surfaced in hairs of abdomen
(iv) rears eggs
(v) nurses them till maturity
(vi) leaves when young can build nests indep

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Spiders are arachnids, survive in all climates and range from 8cm to minuscule sizes. Tarantulas can eat birds and live 15 years. The silk in a web is manufactured in abdominal glands and emit as liquid before solidifying under air contact. The sticky silk helps in trapping prey. Non-sticky scaffolding and spokes support the web. Varieties of webs include sheet webs, trap door webs wolf spider burrows, and wheel-shaped webs. The European water spider burrows under water, hatches eggs, rears young, nurses till maturity, all under water.

Note Making Passages Pdf 7
Read the passage given below.

Hundreds of thousands of years ago giant mammoths still roamed the earth and the surface of the earth was covered by dense forests. Men took shelter in caves and covered their bodies with animal skins. At that time, dogs became man’s best friend. At first they followed man on his hunting trips and waited to get whatever scraps he could get, from the kill his master made. Then the instinct for companionship made him adopt man as his leader. Soon man began to train dogs to help him during the hunt, to carry his burdens and to give him companionship as he sat by the fireside in the evenings. These changes took place much before recorded history came into practice.

These findings can only be confirmed by the study of the bones of primitive dogs which lay beside the bones of primitive men in caves. As the history of the dog goes back to a time when records were not maintained, it is impossible to be sure of these happenings.

Some scientists believe that dogs are the result of mating between wolves and jackals. Other scientists say that some species of dogs descended from wolves while others descended from jackals. Some even go on to say that dogs descended from coyotes and from foxes. A widely held theory is that our modern dogs that we keep as pets descended from a remote common ancestor.

This last theory substantiates the difference in size and appearance between various breeds of dogs. Other evidence of the wild ancestry of dogs is the built of their bodies, which is very distinctly adopted for speed and strength. Together with their keen sense of small, quick hearing qualities, it becomes obvious thatjhey have wild hunters in their genes.

From the time when recorded history began, there have been references to dogs in them. Here are images of dogs on Egyptian tombs that are 5000 years old. The Egyptians considered their dog as sacred and the whole family would go into mourning if the dog in an Egyptian home died. Today, the dog is an indispensable part of our lives. For hundreds of young, healthy blind people, the dog is their seeing eye.

A seeing-eye dog is usually a German shepherd dog. It takes three months to train a guide dog. First-come the obedience exercises repeated daily as ‘setting up exercises’. Then a U-shaped leather harness is buckled on and the dog learns to walk at the left of the trainer. He is taught to stop and wait at the curb, watch traffic and let cats pass. Before the dog is passed on to a blind master a final check is made. Then the blind master and his dog train together for four weeks before they go home to work smoothly as a team.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Companionship Of Dog And Man
I. Conditions on earth in prehistoric times
(i) giant mammoths roamed about
(ii) dense forests
(iii) men were cave-dwellers & wore animal skins
(iv) time when dogs became man’s best friend

II. Companionship between man and dog between
(i) instinct for companionship led to friendship
(ii) followed man on hunting trips
(iii) ate scraps from hunts
(iv) man trained dogs & became fireside companion
(v) dog bones recovered around caves

III. Ancestry of dogs
(i) offspring bom of wolves & jackals
(ii) other theory: sep offspring from them
(iii) descended from coyotes and foxes
(iv) mod dogs descended from remote common ancestor
(v) size & agility indicates wild dog genes

IV. Dog references in recorded hist
(i) dog images on Egyptian tombs
(ii) family member in Egyptian households
(iii) seeing eye for blind

V. Character of seeing-eye dog
(i) usually a German shepherd dog
(ii) training methodology
(iii) A. initial ‘setting up ex’

B. fitted with U-shaped harness
C. walks left of man
1. 4-week man-and-dog training
2. back home as a team

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
When mammoth creatures roamed the densely forested earth, dogs became man’s best companion. They sought companionship with man, was fed on scraps after the hunt and trained to hunt on becoming man’s fireside companion. Dogs are believed to be the offspring of jackal and wolf parents or separate offspring from them. Others believe all modern dogs have a common ancestor. Dogs were loved by ancient Egyptians and seeing-eye dogs are German Shepherds trained to work smoothly as a team with his owner.

Note Making Passages Pdf 8
Read the passage given below.

The great Sphinx sits in the desert of Egypt, about eight miles from the capital city of Cairo. It is besides three other pyramids and is said to be guarding the three large pyramids of Giza. It is a monster structure made of rock with the head of a man and the body of a crouching lion with its forepaws extended in front.

While the body is roughly sculptured, the head of the Sphinx is carved with care. The eyes look mysterious and has a look which nobody has been able to explain. It seems to be gazing out into the desert with a look of mystical superiority.

The figure of the Sphinx measures above 18 metres in height and is 57 metres long. It is believed that the Sphinx was made 5000 years ago. Archeologists are also able to tell us why the Sphinx was built. The one piece of evidence that points to its being built is to be found in a little chapel that is found between the paws of the large figure. This chapel has inscriptions put there by two ancient Egyptian kings. According to these writings, the Sphinx represents one of the forms of the Sun god Harmarchis. Thus the purpose of the Sphinx is to keep away all evil from the cemetery around the Pyramids.

Contrary to our belief, there are many sphinxes in Egypt besides the great Sphinx of Giza. They are different from this mammoth structure because their heads represent different kings of Egypt. This explains why these structures are called ‘sphinx’ for the word means lord’ according to the sacred writings of the EgyptiAnswer: In ancient religions the king was believed to have the strength and cunning of various beasts. These kings acquired the strengths of various beasts by putting on the animal’s head or by wearing their skins. So the carvers of Egypt made their kings in shapes that were half-human and half-beast.

The idea of making sphinxes in ancient times was not confined to Egypt alone. They were also built by the kings of Assyria and Greece. In these regions the sphinxes were slightly different from their Egyptian counterparts in that they had wings. In Assyria these figures were usually that of male kings but in Greece they had heads of women. The word ‘sphinx’ comes from a Greek word.

For the Egyptians, the Sphinx held a special place just like the idea we have, of dragons. We think of dragons as huge creatures capable of much destruction but no one really believes that there are real dragons on earth.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) The Mystery of the Great Sphinx
I. Location of the Great Sphinx
(i) In the desert of Egypt & 8 miles from Cairo
(ii) alongside three other sphinxes
(iii) guarding the pyramids of Giza
(iv) 18 m high and 57 m long

II. Physical dimensions of the Sphinx
(i) monster structure made of rock
(ii) head of a man (MI) body of a lion
(iv) forepaws extended in front
(v) mysterious look in eyes, gazing into desert

III. Details of its structure
(i) built 5000 years ago
(ii) reason for its building inside its chapel .
(iii) rep one of the forms of the sun god Harmarchis
(iv) keeps off evil from the Pyramids

IV. Differences from other sphinxes
(i) heads rep diff kings of Egypt
(ii) reason behind name
A. sphinx means lord or ruler
B. derived from sacred writings
C. Greek origin of the word ‘sphinx
(iii) reason behind name
A. kings protect their subjects
B. kings acqd strengths by wearing a part animal’s skin & clothes

V. Sphinx making not exclusive to Egypt
(i) built by kings of Assyria and Greece
(ii) These had sphinx
(iii) Assyrian sphinxes with male heads
(iv) Greek sphinxes female heads
(v) Egyptian sphinx half beast and half man

VI. Compared to other ages
(i) can be equated to dragons from other cultures
(ii) like sphinxes, no one believes in their existence

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
The Grealt Sphinx (18 m x 57 m) located 8 miles in the desert from Cairo, alongside 3 other sphinxes, supposedly guards the Pyramids. The monster structure has a finely carved man’s head, a lion’s body, forepaws stretched forward, and mysterious eyes. Built 5000 years ago to represent the sun god Harmarchis it differs from other Egyptian sphinxes that have heads of kings representing their protective power over subjects. Sphinxes in Assyria and Greece are winged, bearing male heads in Assyria and female ones in Greece.

Note Making Passages Pdf 9
Read the passage given below carefully:

Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, Spenser, Dr Johnson are among the literary masters who contributed greatly to the growth, enrichment and development of the English language. Among them Shakespeare has no equal with regard to extent and profundity of his influence on the language. Critics conclude that his mind is not shown by the fact that he was acquainted with around 20,000 words but by the fact that since he wrote about it in a great variety of subjects and touched upon several human facts and relationships that he needed his number of words in his writings.

He also had a remarkable familiarity with technical expressions. He also used language to individualise the characters in his plays. The every day of the artisans in A Midsummer Night’s Dream’ is comic and different from the diction or the other superior characters. A great many words used by Shakespeare have another value than they had then. For instance, the word ‘bonnet’ was a man’s cap and not a woman’s headgear. To charm a person was in his time associated with witchcraft while notorious was used for someone well known in a good sense.

Chaucer’s writings too had a powerful influence on the English language although it is difficult to prove this fact by definite examples. He was regarded as a poet of new thought. He not only imported hundreds of words from other languages but also created hundreds of them. Like him, Milton contributed about 7000 words to English vocabulary. Words like ‘pandemonium’ are examples of his coinage, and phrases such as ‘the human face divine’ are examples of his phrases. Another poet of our time, Spenser, left his mark on the English poetic style. Though many of his expressions have now become obsolete, in the middle of the 18th century writers and poets were eager to adopt his romantic style when they wanted to move away from everyday realities.

By far the greatest influence on English has come from the Bible and many of its words have become household words today. The best judges of English style recommend a constant study of the Bible as a training ground in English. The scriptural ‘holy of holies’ which contains the Hebrew manner of expressing the superlative, has given rise to phrases such as ‘horror of horrors’. Some scriptural proper nouns such a Jehu, are mentioned when a driver is driving furiously in context with Jehu’s driving mentioned in the Bible. In poetry it is due to the Biblical influence that the ‘th’ forms began to be used by poets in words such as ‘loveth’ ‘hath, etc. Besides giving us words, the Bible had a tremendous influence on the technical grammar of modern poetry, particularly in the works of Milton, Tennyson and Shakespeare.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Enriching Of English
I. The enrichment of English is through the writings of Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, Spenser
II. The contribution of Shakespeare include
(i) knew more than 20K words
(ii) used them to express a vast number of subjects
(iii) to express human relationships and facts
(iv) to individualise characters
(v) the artisans in ‘A midsummer Night’s Dream’

III. Changes in usage of words since Shakespeare’s time
(i) bonnet a man’s cap
(ii) charm: associated with witchcraft
(iii) notorious: used in a good sense

IV. The contributions of other greats
(i) Chaucer: poet of new thought
(ii) Milton: added 7000 words to Eng vocabulary
(iii) Spenser: popular for the romantic style in poetry

V. The greatest infl from the Bible
(i) for bettering English style
(ii) use of the super’ve rooted in Hebrew
(iii) holy of holies
(iv) scriptural proper nouns now common usage
(v) influence of the ‘th’ form in Eng poetry
(vi) contribution to technical grammar of poetry writing

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
The English language has been enriched through the writings of Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, Spenser. Shakespeare’s contribution of 20,000 words was used to express varied subjects, and individualise characters. Chaucer’s poetry provided new thought and Milton increased vocabulary with 7000 more words. Spenser introduced the romantic style of poetry writing and the Bible exerted the greatest influence of all times with bringing scriptural proper nouns into common usage, bettering style, and contributing to the technical grammar of poetry writing.

Note Making Passages Pdf 10
Read the passage given below.

One of the disheartening sights at a wedding venue is the kilos of food scraped off plates and thrown into bins. While there are groups of volunteers working towards food waste management, in weddings, there is an increasing number of couples coming forward to reduce food wastage when they get married. Wedding planners and caterers in the capital say that it has now become an important part of their checklist and that they are being asked by clients to include food management as a service and even a mandatory part of the pack. If the wedding planners fail to take care of the leftover food, couples themselves reach out to NGOs that come to the wedding venture, collect the excess food and distribute it among the needy and homeless.

Other couples say that as part of the money spent on the wedding, a part is kept aside on clearing out the trash. Hence while researching out the best caterers, wedding planners and makeup artists, these couples also keep looking out for volunteers and NGOs who could clear up the extra food. Such NGOs exist in Delhi, Hyderabad and Chennai. When the wedding guests have left, they arrive at the buffet area to collect the leftover food and distribute it among the homeless. Not confined to the main wedding function, they also arrive for the minor ceremonies such as the sangeet and the mehendi and even the post-wedding functions. Also, they put up posters at the wedding site telling people not to waste food.

According to one of the caterers, in around 40%of the weddings, clients are more than happy to come on board when the concept of disposal of extra food is explained to them. Clients also prefer this food disposal system as the venue remains clean and the clients do not have to pay extra to have the food thrown away.

With increasing demand for such facilities some caterers are also arranging storage facilities for their clients to be used after the wedding. Caterers concede that such an arrangement means an extra effort on their part as they have to learn new techniques of food preservation, be it summer, winter or the monsoon. Thus even if the caterers do not come across needy people at night the food can be stored and distributed conveniently later. Clients, on their part, do not just want a distribution of the extra food but also demand quality-wise 100% fitness of the food distributed.

Usually, the margin of excess in weddings is huge. Thus some caterers are now keeping a separate section where, whatever amount of food is left, is stored. Others coordinate with a few orphanages in advance where the food can be distributed. Clients even ask volunteer organizations to refer them to caterers who have facilities for storage and who will undertake distribution of the leftdver food after the feast.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Checking Food Wastage At Weddings
I. Food wastage at weddings
(i) disheartening sight of kilos scraped into bins
(ii) couples coming fwd to check food wastage
(iii) important agenda for wedding planners
(iv) sometimes mandatory part of pack
(v) NGOs coming fwd to carry out the task

II. Couples keep aside part of wedding expenditure
(i) for clearing away trash
(ii) search for volunteers for collecting extra food
(iii) services avail’le at Chennai, Hyd, Del
(iv) volunteers arrive post-wedding .
(v) nature of services extended
(vi) A. bring their own volunteers
B. even cover mehndi, sangeet & post-wedding
C. hang posters about not wasting food at venue

III. Initiatives by caterers include
(i) services for food storage to use after wedding
(ii) welcomed by clients
(iii) area remains clean .

IV. Pressure on caterers
(i) forcing them to learn food preservation techniques
(ii) clients demand 100% fitness of food distributed
(iii) caterers allocate sep section for food storage
(iv) coord with orphanages for taking away extra food
(v) client preference for such service providers

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
With couples coming forward to check food wastage at weddings, this is becoming an important part of the planning agenda. NGOs are pitching in and collecting leftover food for distribution to the needy, homeless and orphanages. Couples are setting aside a part of wedding expenditure for trash clearance and availing volunteer services for food collection. Initiatives by caterers include storage of leftover food ensuring quality preservation, scheduled for later use and orphanage distribution, as client preference increases for such facilities.

Note Making Passages Pdf 11
Read the following passage carefully.

Over 60% of doctors in the country now prefer, one out of three times, digital interaction with their patients as against the traditional face-to-face interaction, indicating a trend where WhatsApp, text messages and emails are increasingly being used for consultations. This is slightly lower, but in keeping with the trend in the United States, Japan and China, where a greater number of healthcare professionals (HCPs) — in certain markets, over 90% — have switched to the digital medium, using WeChat, blogs, email and text messaging to engage with patients for follow-up.

Also, a majority of doctors — globally 60% — demand drug companies combine the use of digital tablets and iPads along with direct interaction when medical representatives (MRs) are detailing the portfolio of medicines. These findings are part of the Digital Savvy HCP (Healthcare Practitioner)

2015, an annual global survey on the digital habits of doctors across the United States, Japan, China and India, by healthcare solutions firm Indegeiie, shared exclusively with TOI.

The survey involved more than 1,600 healthcare professionals across the globe, with 67% speciality doctors, and the remaining 33% general practitioners. In India, over 300 doctors were part of the survey with more than 10 years of experience, practising in tier 1 and tier 2 places across the country.

The survey found that 76% doctors in the US prefer personal interaction (of field force) along with detailing with the tablet, while the corresponding figure in India is 90%.

As against this, doctors in India prefer a face-to-face detailing with their digital tablets, wherein they meet MRs in their clinics and the latter are equipped with detailing on their tablets/iPads.

Globally, drug companies are increasingly switching to digital channels like emails, websites, webinars, apps and text messages due to compliance requirements, the survey says, adding 34% of physicians globally value the smartphone as a key resource in seeking-medical information. Other devices used by doctors are laptops, PCs and tablets. India sees less than half the global usage of smartphones (by doctors), while the most preferred device for doctors here is laptops (34%).

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Doctors and the Digital Interaction
I. The growing preference for digital interaction
(i) preferred by 60% of doctors
(ii) choosing above face-to-face interaction with patients
(iii) choice of WhatsApp, text msg and emails messaging
(iv) used for consultancy
(v) figures at a par with trend in China, Japan, US ‘& China

II. Usage in other countries ,
(i) 90% of HCP use method health care professionals
(ii) choice of WeChat, blogs, email, text msg
(iii) engaging with patients for follow-up

III. Usage among doctors globally
(i) 60% global demand to drug companies
(ii) use of digital tablets and iPads along with direct consultancy
(iii) used by MRs when detailing portfolio of medicines
(iv) demand by HCPs of 2015

IV. The findings of Indegene company
(i) survey conducted on 16 HCPs globally
(ii) included 67% specialists 33% GPs
(iii) 300 Indian doctors with 10 years experience
(iv) ranged across tier I and tier II cities in India

V. Findings of the team
(i) 76% US doctors prefer personal interaction-! tablet usage
(ii) Indian doctors
(iii) A. prefer face-to-face detailing with tablet
B. prefer meeting in clinics
(iv) prefer smartphone for keeping medical info

VI. Findings about drug companies
(i) inc switching to emails, websites, webinars, apps, msg
(ii) Indian doctors use half of the world usage
(iii) most preferred device: laptops

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 100 words.
Indian doctors, like those in the US, Japan and China, prefer digital usage during patient interaction. Among HCPs, 90% showed preference for digital usage, while engaging with patients for follow-up. Also, 60% doctors demand digital usage by medical representatives of drug companies. The Indegene company’s survey of 300 Indian doctors with decade-long experience, in tier I & II cities, showed preference for tablets during patient contact and smartphones for keeping information. Drug companies found that half of digital users were Indian doctors and their preferred gadget was laptops.