Note-making is an advanced writing skill which is gaining importance due to knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills.

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Note Making Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is an advanced writing skill which is acquiring increasing importance due to the knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills. Note-making is useful as it saves time, energy and the space at the working place, while attending a lecture at school or in college, in a meeting etc. It enhances the confidence to revise the topic whenever we want.

Note-making basically involves noting the main points of whate

ver is read or heard, as one cannot be expected to remember all that one has read.

Types of Passages
The Note-making passage could be anyone of the following types
(i) Factual (550-600 words) A factual passage includes some facts about the physical aspects of a subject. It includes instructions, descriptions and reports. It helps the students to get a detailed view of the subject and develop a complete mental picture of a specific person, place, object or being.

(ii) Discursive (550-600 words) A discursive passage includes argumentative, interpretative and persuasive text. Such passages may include opinions or feedback. It allows students to arrive at a conclusion through reasoning and understanding rather than intuition. It presents a balanced and objective approach towards the subject being discussed.

Types of Questions
The Note-Making passage in the examination carries and is 550-600 words in length. It consists of two types of Questions
(i) Making Notes of the Given Passage This carries 5 marks split up into 3 marks for the actual notes, 1 mark for the title and 1 mark for the abbreviations listed (minimum 4 abbreviations). We can use title, heading, sub-headings and abbreviations while answer this question.

(ii) Write a Summary of the Given Passage The summary carries 3 marks. It should be grammatically correct and cover all the important points given in the notes. Word limit of the summary should be 80-100 words.

How To Make Good Notes And Summary Of The Given Passage
The following points will help you in making good notes

  • Read the passage quickly but carefully. Try to understand main points and supporting details.
    Underline the keywords as you read.
  • Notes should be in points and in an appropriate format.
  • Organise your ideas into main heading, sub-headings and sub-sub-headings (if possible).
  • Abbreviations and symbols are freely used.
  • Give title to your notes. Avoid a long sentence.
  • While making summary sure that your summary does not exceed 1/3 of the length of the original text.
  • The summary should contain only the main ideas and the supporting details.
  • Refer back to the original to ensure that your summary is a true reflection of the writer’s ideas.

Uses of Abbreviations in Note-Making
Abbreviation helps in writing the information briefly. The following are some of the ways in which you can use abbreviations.

First few letters of the word are enough to remember what the abbreviation stands.
For example:

  • imp for ‘important’
  • info for ‘information’
  • eval for ‘evaluation’

Remove all (or most of) the vowels from the word and use just the key consonants bunched together.
For example

  • mngmt for ‘management’
  • mkt for ‘market’
  • mktng for ‘marketing’
  • dvpt for ‘development’

Some Common Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words Abbreviations Words
+ Positive, Plus e.g. for example
Minus, Negative ie that is
= equals, is the same as, w/o without
* does not equal, is not the same as etc. etcetera
= is approximately equal to ♂♀ male / female
< is less than, is smaller than Viz namely
> is greater than, is larger than Asap as soon as possible
increase, rise, growth Mr. Mister
decrease, fall, shrinkage Mrs. Mistress
& and Dr. Doctor
special, important, notable Govt. Government
/ per, each

Note Making Solved Examples CBSE Class 11 Pdf

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 1

What actually is a robot? When different persons have different concepts of robots, the only way of deciding what really is a robot is to look for a definition of the term robot.

The dictionary meaning of a robot is that it is an automatic apparatus or device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings or operates with what appears to be almost-human intelligence. It is interesting to observe that this meaning does not give a human shape to the robot. In order to dramatise the fact that the robot does the work of a human being, a human shape is given to the robot in science-fiction stories and movies. The human shape is irrelevant as far as the functions of the robot are concerned.

The Robot Institute of America, which is an association of several robot manufacturers gives the following definition of an industrial robot.

“An industrial robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialised devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety oftasks. ”

The key word in this definition is ‘reprogrammable’. This means that a robot is capable of being reprogrammed. This feature is the one that distinguishes it from a fixed automation. A fixed automation is designed to do one, and only one, specific task. If the specifications of the tasks change even slightly, the fixed automation becomes incapable of performing the task it was designed to perform according to one fixed specification. However, a robot can be reprogrammed to perform even when the specifications are changed drastically. The original program is simply erased and the new program takes care of the changed tasks.

The characteristic that a robot can be reprogrammed to handle a variety of tasks makes the robot a flexible device. Because of the flexibility offered by robots, manufacturing systems which use robots are called Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS).

Karel Capek was responsible for introducing the word robot. Sir Isaac Asimov is the one who coined the word robotics. According to Asimov, robotics is the science of dealing with robots. Hence robotics involves a scientific study of robots. The study includes design, selection of materials of proper quality for the components, fabrication, study of various motors required for moving the components, design of electronic circuits, computers and computer programming, and control of robots. Since robots and robotics are still in the developing stages, a considerable amount of research is required and is being pursued. Robotics involves various disciplines-mechanical engineering, material science, electronics, computer science, computer engineering, and control systems, to name just a few. Depending on the area in which robots are to be used, robotics includes disciplines such as biology, medical science, psychology, agriculture, mining, outer space engineering etc.

Basically, there are two types of robots: fixed and mobile. A fixed robot is attached to a stationary platform. A fixed robot is analogous to a human standing or sitting in one fixed location while doing his work with his hands. A mobile robot moves from place to place. Mobility is given to robots by providing wheels or legs or other crawling mechanisms. A mobile robot can be given a human shape, but the actual shape has nothing to do with the functions of the robot. Wheeled locomotion is good for smooth terrains. For rugged terrain, legged locomotion is preferable. A mobile robot should have at least three wheels or legs for stability.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Robots and Robotics-Introduction Notes
I. Robot Definition
(i) Diet meaning
(a) auto apparatus
(b) performs funcs ascribed to humans
(c) human shape irrelevant for functioning
(ii) RIA defines robot
(a) reprogrammable – different from fixed automation
(b) Flexible – used in FMS

II. Robotics
(i) Karel Capek introduced word robot
(ii) Isaac Asimov defined Robotics – science dealing with robots
(iii) Study includes steps:
Design → Selection of mtrl → fabrication → motor selection → EC design → Computers and comp progmg Robot Ctrl

III. Disciplines involved in Robotics
(a) Electronics
(b) Material Science
(c) Computer Engineering
(d) Control Systems
(e) Mechanical Engineering
(f) Computer Science

IV. Robot Types
(i) Fixed
(a) stationary
(b) analogous to standing human
(ii) Mobile – mobility due to
(a) wheels – good for smooth terrain
(b) legs – good for rugged terrain
(c) another crawling mech

Key to Abbreviations

Abbrevations Words
diet dictionary
auto automatic
funcs functions
RIA Robot Institute of America
FMS Flexible Manufacturing Systems
mtrl material
EC electronic circuits
comp progmg computer programming
Ctrl control
mech mechanism

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
A robot is a flexible reprogrammable automatic device that works just like human beings and operates with almost man-like intelligence. Robotics is the scientific study of robots. It includes design, selection of proper materials, design of electronic circuits, computers and computer programming and controls.

Robotics is a combination of many disciplines – electronics, material science, computer engineering, computer science, mechanical engineering etc. Robots can be fixed or mobile. A mobile robot moves from place to place with the help of wheels or legs or other crawling mechanisms.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 1

Information is power. It is predictable, therefore, that those in authority will seek to manipulate others through the control of data. However, all information in a democratic society should be freely available unless there are specific, well-formulated reasons for withholding it in the interest of security.

The Freedom of Information (FOI) functions at a number of different levels: in itself, for the fulfilment of all other rights and as an underpinning of democracy.

Information held by public bodies is not only for the benefit of officials, politicians or other designated people associated with the organisation, but also for the public as a whole. Unless there are good reasons for withholding such information, all interested parties should be able to access it. More importandy, freedom of information is a key component of transparent and accountable government. It plays a key role in enabling citizens to see what is going on within government, and in exposing corruption and mismanagement. Transparent and open government is also essential if voters are to be able to assess the performance of elected officials and if individuals are to exercise their democratic rights effectively, for example, through timely protests against new policies, or by using their vote against candidates who have indulged in undemocratic activity.

Freedom of expression and access to information is a fundamental right and must be held as a cornerstone of democracy. In its absence, government can, and often does, behave with impunity. It is argued, however, that it is not an absolute right – the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) for instance, specifies certain permissible constraints. One of these is the right of the state to withhold information ‘for the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health and morals’. This is irascibly vague and provides many loopholes for governments to use this wording as a basis for restricting information that is inconsistent with their ambitions.

The public’s right to know is an intrinsic part of informed public debate, which has traditionally been dependent on the freedom to receive and impart information without government interference. However, it may also be argued that this does not mean a right to receive any type of information from the government. It is of paramount importance that any restrictions on information or expression regarding security matters must designate in law only the specific and narrow categories of information absolutely necessary to protect a legitimate national security concern.

A threat to national security can be defined as ‘any expression or information that is intended to incite imminent violence, or is likely to incite violence’. In addition, there must be a direct and immediate connection between the expression and the likelihood or occurrence of such violence. The public interest in having information at all times must remain a priority consideration in any FOI Bill, and that any denial of this right should be subject to independent review.

Along these lines, in a seminal judgment in 1982, the Supreme Court held that, ‘The concept of an open Government is the direct emanation from the right to know, which seems to be implicit in the right of free speech and expression. disclosure of information in regard to the functioning of government must be the rule, and secrecy an exception, justified only where the strictest requirement of public interest so demands’.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Freedom of Information (FOI)

I. Information
(i) Pwr
(ii) Access: Officials, politicians, public
(iii) Should be freely avlbl

II. Importance
(i) Fulfil rights
(ii) Supports dmcrcy

III. Functions
(i) Transparent and accessible Govt
(ii) Citizens aware of the workings of Govt
(iii) Expsg crptn and msmng

IV. Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Information
(i) Infmddbt
(ii) Fndmntl but not abslt
(iii) In public interest
(iv) Withhold if
(a) NS affected
(b) Likely to incite violence
(v) SC judgement supports

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
pwr power
avlbl available
dmcrcy democracy
govt government
expsg exposing
crptn corruption
msmng mismanagement
infmd informed
dbt debate
fndmntl fundamental
abslt absolute
NS National Security
SC Supreme Court

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Freedom of Information (FOI) is essentially important for the fulfilment of public rights and as a support for democracy. Information is power and thus, its access must not be limited to officials or politicians but should include the public. Its function is to assure a transparent and accountable government, inform the public about the workings within the government and expose corruption and mismanagement. Freedom of expression and access to information are imperative for an informed public debate. They are fundamental but not absolute rights, with restrictions for information of national security or with potential to incite violence, as supported by a Supreme Court judgement.

Note Making Practice Factual Passages and Summary Writing Examples Pdf

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 1

The Mayan civilisation of Mexico and Central America is one of the ancient world’s most fascinating, prolific and mysterious civilisations. They left their mark on the region’s culture, architecture, cuisine, and language — and left an indelible impression on the imagination of the modern world. Who were they? How were they able to build such an impressive civilisation of towering temples and sophisticated artwork in the middle of the harsh rainforests of Meso-America? And why did they vanish?

The earliest Mayans lived along the Pacific coast of what is now Guatemala and can be dated to about 1800 BC; by 1000 BC they were also living in Guatemala’s southern lowlands. The period from about 1800 BC to about AD 250 is referred to as the Pre-classic, a time when the early Mayans lived as farmers in small villages along rivers and other bodies of water, hunting game, tending gardens and making use of the abundant natural foods found in the region’s marshes and seasonal swamps.

In time, strong rulers began wielding power over these communities and the Mayan culture grew in complexity. Cities rose from the forest floor, boasting of stone temples with stuccoed and painted facades created at the behest of elite rulers. People in the new power centres communicated over long distances and traders using the same routes carried luxury goods such as cacao beans, jade ornaments, quetzal feathers and jaguar pelts.

The Classic period, AD 250-900, is the time of the civilisation’s greatest glory and of the greatest depths of political intrigue between rival cities. During these centuries, the Mayans erected coundess stelae, stone monuments inscribed with portraits and hieroglyphs that recorded dynastic histories — the births, marriages and conquests of the ruling families. There were dozens of important regional capitals at the time, and among the most important were.

Tikal in Guatemala and its fierce rival Calakmul in Mexico, Palenque in southern Mexico, Caracol in Belize and Copan in Honduras. The Classic period is known for artistic and intellectual splendour. The Mayans developed a complex religious and ritual system that considered rulers divine beings and called for blood sacrifices. They also grasped the numerical notion of zero, created agricultural timetables and sophisticated calendars to track the heavens, and made beautiful polychrome pottery as well as exquisite ornaments, murals, and carved decorations.

But the Classic Mayans were also known for their rancorous political fighting and for being extremely bellicose — warfare was always on the horizon. One by one, the cities in the southern Mayan lowlands fell to each other, their downfall often recorded on stelae in the conquering city. By AD 900 most of the important Classic period cities had collapsed, and their remaining populations had scattered into the surrounding forests. The last date recorded on stelae that archaeologists have found so far is from AD 909 in Tonina, in southern Mexico.

Among the factors that help explain why the civilisation collapsed were the endemic warfare, overpopulation, degradation of the environment, and drastic climate change and drought. While the cities and ceremonial centres to the southern lowlands were being reclaimed by the jungle, the Mayans living to the North were gaining prominence, rising to amazing heights during the post-classic period (AD 900-1502), wonderful and wealthy cities in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula flourished, most famous among them being Chichen ltza. Yet it too fell victim to political infighting and by AD 1200 had collapsed.

The Mayans never truly disappeared. Centuries after the major cities were abandoned, small groups of Mayans continued to live in the area. It was they who met and resisted the Spanish conquistadors after the first contact in 1502. And today, more than six million Mayans live in Mexico, Guatemala and Belize, speaking 28 languages and blending ancient and modern ways.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub- headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.

(a) Title The Mystery Behind Mayan Civilisation

I. Questions Regarding Mysteries
(i) who were they?
(ii) how did they create impressive civilisation?
(iii) why disappeared?

II. The Pre-Classic Period (1800 BC – AD 250)
(i) 1800 -1000 BC used in Guatemala
(ii) farmers in small villages
(iii) ruled by strong rulers
(iv) complex culture – architecture, comn, trade dvlpd

III. The Classic Period (AD 250 – 900): Glory
(i) pltcl conspiracies
(ii) countless monuments
(a) recorded dynastic histories
(iii) many regional capitals came up
(iv) complex religious & ritual system
(v) excellence in maths
(vi) notion of zero
(vii) made agricultural timetables
(viii) beautiful art & craft

IV. The Post-Classic period (AD 900 -1502): Downfall
(i) most important cities collapsed
(ii) reasons
(a) endemic warfare
(b) overpopulation
(c) degradation of envrmt
(iii) northern Mayans survived
(vi) resisted Spanish conquistadors
(v) now live in Mexico, Guatemala 81 Belize

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
comn communication
dvlpd developed
pltcl political
& and
maths mathematics
envrmt environment

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The Mayan civilisations of Mexico and central. America is one of the mysteries civilisation. From the monuments discovered there, their history can be traced back to 1800 BC, when they lived in Guatemala. They reached the peak of their glory during the Classic period (AD 250 – 900), which saw magnificence in architecture, intellectual excellence including mathematics, along with a rise in complex religious systems and rituals. Subsequently their downfall occurred due to endemic warfare, overpopulation and environmental degradation. The remnant Mayans still live in Mexico, Guatemala & Belize.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 2

You may never want to fly kites to keep away evil spirits, as the Chinese have done for centuries, or to make rain, as the Tibetans did, but some more modern and western uses may tempt you to try experimenting yourself along similar lines. Ancient and medieval Chinese sources, describe kites being used for measuring distances, testing the wind, lifting men, signalling and communication for military operations.

The earliest known Chinese kites were flat (not bowed) and often rectangular. Later, tailless kites incorporated a stabilising bowline. Kites were decorated with mythological motifs and legendary figures; some were fitted with strings and whistles to make musical sounds while flying. From China, kites were introduced to Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea and the western world.

The most widespread use of kites in modern times has been for meteorological investigations. Everybody knows about how Benjamin Franklin, the great American scholar and statesman, sent a kite up in 1752 during a thunderstorm to prove that lightning was caused by electricity. He produced sparks at ground level from a key hung on the wet line as the current flowed down it.

A second investigator repeated Franklin’s experiment shortly afterwards and was killed. By sending up instruments on kites it has been possible to make readings of air pressure, temperature, speed, direction and humidity. Although thermometers had been sent up long before, it was not until 1894, that a self-reading thermometer, a thermograph, was sent up by a kite. The army, navy and air force have used kites in various ways for decades. Another Korean version of the invention of the kite tells how a general used one to carry a line across a stream. This line then formed the basis of a bridge.

Lines are still occasionally flown from point to point in this way using kites. At sea, kites have often been used to carry a line to distressed ships in rough weather. Kites, especially box and bow kites, have been used as gunnery targets. They are easy to make and cheap to use and will stand quite a lot of punishment before they cease to fly. Apart from their use as targets, kites have been used by the army to fly flags, for aerial photography over enemy trenches, for suspending flares over targets during night fighting, for carrying a man over enemy lines, for dragging torpedoes etc to a target area.

They have been used by both military and civil authorities for raising, transmitting and receiving aerials to obtain improved wireless reception. As a matter of fact, the first long-distance short wave transmission of all made use of an aerial flown on a kite. When Marconi made the famous transatlantic transmission, he raised his receiving aerial some 400 feet on a kite. During World War II the RAF developed ‘a kite flare’ as part of survival equipment for airmen forced down at sea. When airborne, the kite was attached to a special shock absorber which was fixed to the dinghy.

It was stated that provided there was a 6 mph wind, the kite would stay aloft indefinitely. Some of these kites were brought to Australia and sent to the 6th Australian Division in 1944 for trials to determine whether they were of use in jungle warfare, especially in defining locations. After experiments, the authorities decided that they were of no value for this purpose.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Kites and Their History

I. History of Flying Kites
(i) Chinese in ancient times used them for various purposes
(ii) Tibetans used them for making rain
(iii) Intrdcd to rest of the world from China

II. Modern Uses of Flying Kites
(i) for mtrlgl invstgtns
(ii) started with Benjamin Franklin’s famous expt
(iii) used for
(a) msrg air pressure, temperature, humidity
(b) msrg wind speed and direction

(iv) civil and military purposes of kites
(a) aerial phtgy
(b) improving wireless rcptn
(c) carrying flares
(d) not useful in jungle warfare
(v) other uses
(a) gunnery targets
(b) carrying lines across streams

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
intrdcd introduced
mtrlgl meteorological
invstgtns investigations
expt experiment
msrg measuring
phtgy photography
rcptn reception

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
In ancient times, kites in China and Tibet were thought to bring rain and keep away evil spirits. The Chinese also used them for other purposes and introduced them to the rest of the world. Benjamin Franklin discovered that electricity produced lightning by flying a kite. Kites are presently used for measuring various atmospheric parameters like air pressure, temperature, wind speed, direction etc. Civil and military purposes of kites include aerial photography, improving wireless reception and carrying flares, but they are not useful in jungle warfare. Kites are also used as gunnery targets and for carrying lines.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 3

Cloud computing is a type of Internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is a model for enabling ubiquitous, on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. computer networks, servers, storage, applications and services) which can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort. Cloud computing and storage solutions provide users and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process their data in third-party data centres that may be located far from the user – ranging in distance from across a city to across the world. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economy of scale, similar to a utili ty (like the electricity grid) over an electricity network.

As a metaphor for the Internet, ‘the cloud’ is a familiar cliche, but when combined with ‘computing’, the meaning gets bigger and fuzzier. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription based or pay per use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends IT’s existing capabilities.

In a cloud computing system, there’s a significant workload shift. Local computers no longer have to do all the heavy lifting when it comes to running applications. The network of computers that make up the cloud handles them instead. Hardware and software demands on the user’s side decrease. The only thing the user’s computer needs to be able to run is the cloud computing system’s interface software, which can be as simple as a Web browser, and the cloud’s network takes care of the rest.

Advocates of cloud computing claim that cloud computing allows companies to avoid upfront infrastructure costs (e.g. purchasing servers). It also enables organisations to focus on their core businesses instead of spending time and money on computer infrastructure. Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and enables Information Technology (ii) teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.

The goal of cloud computing is to apply traditional supercomputing or high-performance computing power, normally used by military and research facilities, to perform tens of trillions of computations per second, in consumer-oriented applications such as financial portfolios, to deliver personalised information, to provide data storage or to power large, immersive computer games. As the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. Companies can scale up as computing needs increase and then scale down again as demands decrease. In 2013, it was reported that cloud computing had become a highly demanded service or utility due to the advantages of high computing power, cheap cost of services, high performance, scalability, accessibility as well as availability.

It’s only in recent years that companies have started renting servers and storage instead of purchasing hardware and running it at huge costs. And with more organisations especially those that rely on India’s outsourcing infrastructure – transferring some of their IT work onto the cloud, companies such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro have stepped up to facilitate that shift. They have positioned themselves as enablers between owners and renters.

A report published by IT research and advisory firm Gartner estimates that in India alone the market for cloud-based services will rise by a third to $557 million this year and more than triple by 2018. Cloud computing will become even more prominent in the coming years, with the predicted rapid, continued growth of major global cloud data centres.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Cloud Computing

I. Definition and Meaning of Cloud Computing
(i) servers ntwkd to centralise data storage, access computer services or rscs
(ii) sharing cmptg rscs
(iii) Internet-base cmptg

II. Goal of Cloud Computing
(i) apply tdnl supercomputing or high pfmc cmptg power to perform trillions of computations p/s
(ii) deliver prsnld info in consumer-oriented apps
(iii) provide data storage
(iv) power large, immersive computer games
(v) converge infra and shared services

III. Recent Developments
(i) cos rent servers and storage
(ii) more org relying on India’s outsourcing infra
(iii) TCS, Infosys, Wipro facilitate services
(iv) market expectations
(a) will rise by a third to $ 557 million this year
(b) more than triple by 2018
(v) cloud cmptg to grow steeply in future

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
ntwkd networked
rscs resources
cmptg computing
tdnl traditional
pfmc performance
p/s per second
prsnld personalised
info information
apps applications
infra infrastructure
COS companies
org organisations
TCS Tata Consultancy Services

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
In cloud computing, large groups of remote servers are networked to allow centralised data storage. It is basically internet-based computing and relies on sharing computing resources. Its goal is to apply traditional supercomputing or high performance computing power to perform trillions of computations per second. It can also power consumer-oriented applications. It is based on the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. In recent years major Indian companies like Wipro, TCS and Infosys have started renting servers and storage. More companies are relying on India’s outsourcing infrastructure. The market for India is expected to grow steeply in future.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 4

The effects of plastic bags on the environment are really quite devastating because there is no disposal method that will really help eliminate the problem. While reusing them is the first step, most people don’t do it, because most of them are not durable enough to survive multiple use.

The biggest problem with them is that once they have been soiled, they end up in the trash, which then ends up in the landfill or is burned. Either solution is very poor for the environment. Burning emits toxic gases that harm the atmosphere while landfills hold them indefinitely as part of the plastic waste problem throughout the globe.

One of the greatest problems is that an estimated 300 million plastic bags end up in the Atlantic Ocean alone. These bags are very dangerous for sea life, especially those of the mammal variety. Any hunting mammal can easily mistake the size, shape and texture of the plastic bag for a meal and find its airway cut off. Needless deaths from plastic bags are increasing every year.

The environmental balance of the waterways is being thrown off by the rate of plastic bags finding their way into the mouths and intestinal tracts of sea mammals. As one species begins to die off at an abnormal rate, every other living organism in the waterways is impacted.

The indefinite period of time that it takes for the average plastic bag to break down can be literally hundreds of years. Every bag that ends up in the woodlands of the country threatens the natural progression of wildlife. Because the breakdown rate is so slow, the chances that the bag will harmlessly go away are extremely slim. Throughout the world plastic bags are responsible for suffocation and deaths of woodland animals as well as inhibiting soil nutrients.

The land litter that is made up of plastic bags has the potential to kill over and over again. It has been estimated that one bag has the potential to unintentionally kill one animal per every three months due to unintentional digestion or inhalation.

While it’s a noble thought to place the plastic bags in the recycling bin every week, studies have proven that there are very few recycling plants that actually recycle them. Most municipalities either burn them or send them off to the landfill after sorting. This is because it can be expensive to recycle this type of plastic. It doesn’t melt down easily and is often not fit to be reused in its original form.

The premise of recycling these bags is nice. Yet funding for the upgrading of the recycling units just has not happened and thus less than one per cent of all bags are sent to recycling plants worldwide. Most are left to become a pollution problem in one way or another.

There are always alternatives to plastic bags and the search for more alternatives continues. Paper bags are a possible option but they also take their toll on the environment. The use of trees to increase the production of paper products will also have a negative environmental effect.

Reusable plastic bags are being introduced into regions that want to outlaw the plastic bags altogether. These are stronger and more durable and can be used for three to five trips to the market. Of course, the reusable cloth bag is fast becoming a favourite among environment supporters. While, thus far, no bag is without its issues, these are the bags that are currently recommended for use to help protect environmental concerns.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Harmful Effects of Plastic Bags

I. Plastic bags harmful for Environment
(i) No effective disposal method
(a) trashed in Ifls and held indefinitely
(b) burned but emit harmful gases
(ii) Reuse not practical
(iii) Millions of plastic bags end in Atlantic Ocean
(a) harmful for sea life, particularly mammals -cuts off airway, causing death -adversely affects envtl balance
(b) burned but emit harmful gases
(iv) On land, breakdown period is centuries
(a) suffocate forest animals
(b) inhibit soil nutrients

II. Recycling Impractical
(i) Few rclg plants actually work because
(a) operation expensive
(b) products cannot be used as earlier
(ii) Most bags dumped in ifls
(iii) Cause land pltn

III. Options to Plastic Bags
(i) Paper bags
(a) negative envtl effect due to tree cutting
(ii) Reusable cloth bags
(a) preferred by env supporters
(iii) Redusable piste bags
(a) stronger and more durable

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
Ifls landfills
envtl environmental
rclg recycling
pltn pollution
piste plastic

(b) Write a summary of the given passage in 80-100 words.
Plastic bags are harmful for the environment because there is no effective disposal method for them and their reuse is impractical. A large number of plastic bags which ultimately land in the Atlantic Ocean become harmful for sea life, particularly mammals, causing their death and creating an environmental imbalance in the sea.

If dumped on land, they suffocate forest animals and inhibit soil nutrients. Their recycling is impractical because few recycling plants actually work as they are uneconomic. Dumped in landfills, they cause land pollution. Options available are paper bags or reusable plastic bags, the latter being preferred by environmentalists.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 5

The work of the heart can never be interrupted. The reason is that the heart’s job is to keep oxygen rich blood flowing through the body. All the body’s cells need a constant supply of oxygen, especially those in the brain. The brain cells live only for four to five minutes after their oxygen is cut off, and then brain death occurs, leading to the entire body dying.

The heart is a specialised muscle that serves as a pump. This pump is divided into four chambers, two called atria and two called ventricles, connected by tiny doors called valves. The chambers work to keep the blood flowing round the body in a circle with a detour to the lungs to purify the blood by removing carbon dioxide from it and adding oxygen to it.

At the end of each circuit, veins carry the blood to the right atrium, the first of the four chambers. Two-fifths of the oxygen by then is used up and it is on its way back to the lungs to pick up a fresh supply and to give up the carbon dioxide it has accumulated. From the right atrium the blood flows through the tricuspid valve into the second chamber, the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts when it is filled, pushing the blood through the pulmonary artery, which leads to the lungs. In the lungs the blood gives up its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen. Then it travels to the third chamber, the left atrium. When this chamber is filled, it forces the blood through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. From here it is pushed into a big blood vessel called aorta, the main artery, and sent round the body through the various arteries.

Fleart disease can result from any damage to the heart muscle, the valves or the ‘natural pacemaker’ of the heart. Electrical impulses from the heart muscle cause our heart to beat (contract). This electrical signal begins in the sino-atrial (SA) node, located at the top of the heart’s upper-right chamber (the right atrium). The SA node is sometimes called the heart’s ‘natural pacemaker’.

If the muscle is damaged, the heart is unable to pump properly. If the valves are damaged blood cannot flow normally and easily from one chamber to another, and if the pacemaker is defective, the contractions of the chambers will become un-coordinated.

Until the twentieth century, few doctors dared to touch the heart. In 1953 all this changed. After twenty years of work, Dr John Gibbon in the USA had developed a machine that could take over temporarily from the heart and lungs. Blood could be routed through the machine, bypassing the heart so that surgeons could work inside it and see what they were doing. The era of open heart surgery had begun.

In the operating theatre, it gives surgeons the chance to repair or replace a defective heart. Many parties have had plastic valves inserted in their hearts when their own was faulty. Many people are being kept alive with tiny battery operated pacemakers; none of these repairs could have been made without the heart-lung machine. But valuable as it is to the surgeons, the heart-lung machine has certain limitations. It can be used only for a few hours at a time because its pumping gradually damages the bloods cells.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title How the Heart Works

I. Functions of Heart
(i) vital for living
(a) never stop wrkg
(ii) supplies oxygen rich blood to diff parts of body

II. Structure of Heart
(i) divided into 4 chambers connected by vlvs
(ii) blood purified in lungs
(iii) arteries carry pure blood to diff parts of body

III. Causes of Heart Disease
(i) weak heart muscles
(ii) defective vlvs
(iii) defective ‘natural pacemaker’

IV. History of Open Heart Surgery
(i) 1953: Dr Gibbon invents Heart lung m/c
(a) blood could pass through m/c bypassing heart . and lungs
(ii) enabled open heart srgy
(iii) m/c limitations
(a) used only for few hrs at a time because it damages blood cells

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
wrkg working
diff different
vlvs valves
Dr Doctor
m/c machine
srgy surgery
hrs hours

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The heart is a vital organ of the body which never stops working. It supplies oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body. It is divided into four chambers inter-connected by valves. Blood is purified in the lungs and arteries carry it to different parts of the body.

Heart disease has various causes such as weak heart muscles, defective valves or a defective natural pacemaker. The era of open-heart surgery began in 1953 when Dr Gibbon developed the heart-lung machine. Replacement of valves and other areas of a damaged heart is now possible.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 6

The Maasai tribe live on the wide plains in southern and northern Kenya and northern Tanzania. They are among the best known local populations due to their residence near the many game parks of the African Great Lakes, as well as their distinctive customs and dress. The Maasai were famous fighters. They used to raid the neighbouring tribes and carry away their cattle. All the other tribes were afraid of them because of their skills in war.

The Maasai are handsome people, tall and slim with light brown skins, straight noses and long hair. They do not belong completely to the Negro race. They belong mosdy to the same race as the people of ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians probably looked like the Maasais of today.

The Maasais live in a very beautiful part of Africa. It consists of miles of rolling grassland, on which you can find thorny bushes and here and there a rocky hill. The people move from one place to another according to the seasons, looking for the grasses and other plants on which their cattle can graze. They have no permanent home. When they want to setde in a place for some time, they build a kind of camp called a ‘Manyatta’, where a few families live for a few weeks or months. Then they move on again, taking their few belongings with them, and burning the old ‘Manyatta’ to the ground.

To make a hut, they take a number of long thin wooden poles and plant them in a circle. Then each pole is bent into a shape of a ‘U* and its other end is also planted in the earth. Now the framework for the hut is ready.

Next, the space between the poles is filled with leaves, and small branches of tree and mud. Then the outside of earth hut is covered or plastered with cow-dung, which quickly becomes hard in the sun. An opening is left for the door but there are no windows. The hut is about 5 feet high, so that grown-up men cannot stand up straight inside his hut. There is no furniture, except perhaps a small wooden stool for the head of the family.

The huts are arranged in a big circle. Around the outside of the circle the Maasais build a thorn fence, about 7 feet high, with several openings so that the people can go in and out with their cattle. After dark, all the openings are closed. Then all the people and cattle in the ‘Manyatta’ are safe from wild animals.

Nowadays there are no wars between the tribes. So a Maasai warrior has very little to do now. But they sometimes go hunting. The Maasais like to kill lions with spears, and a lion-hunt is a great test of courage. The warrior who first kills a lion is given great honour, and he wears the lion’s mane round his neck to show that he is a lion-killer.

The Maasais are fairly well-to-do and intelligent and live comfortable lives. However, most of them are happy to live as their ancestors lived hundreds of years ago. The Tanzanian and Kenyan governments have instituted programmes to encourage the Maasai to abandon their traditional semi-nomadic lifestyle, but the people have continued their age-old customs. Many Maasai tribes throughout Tanzania and Kenya welcome visits to their village to experience their culture, traditions, and lifestyle.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title The Maasai Tribe – Life and History

I. Maasai Tribe-Famous Fighters
(i) live in Kenya & northern Tanzania
(ii) carried away cattle of nbrg tribes

II. Maasais Handsome People
(i) tall & slim with light brown skins
(ii) straight noses & long hair
(iii) don’t big to Negro groups
(iv) big to people of ancient Egypt

III. Maasais are Nomadic Cattle Herders
(i) move from place to place looking for grass for cattle
(ii) build ‘Manyatta’ – a camp
(iii) use wdn poles to build huts
(a) plant U shaped wdn poles in circle on earth
(b) fill frmwk with leaves, branches & mud
(c) plaster outside with cow-dung
(d) opening kept for door – no windows
(iv) no furniture- wdn stool for family head
(v) put thorn fence around ‘Manyatta’
(a) keeps them safe from wild animals

IV. Nowadays- No War Between Tribes
(i) Maasai warriors go hunting for lions
(a) Lion hunt- test of courage
(ii) lion killer wears lion’s mane as sign
(iii) Maasais live comfortable life
(iv) invite people to experience their lives

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
& and
nbrg neighbouring
big belong
wdn wooden
frmwk framework

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The Maasai tribe live in Kenya and northern Tanzania. They were famous fighters and attacked other tribes for cattle. They were handsome people and belong mostly to the same race as that of ancient Egypt, and not to the Negro race. They move from place to place looking for grass for their cattle. When they settle in a place they build a camp called ’Manyatta’ with dome shaped wood-frame huts in a big circle. They put a thorn fence around the ’Manyatta’ to save themselves from wild animals. Lion hunting is a test of courage for them. They are intelligent and live comfortable lives.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage 7

After creating the world’s fastest mode of transport, the French are now returning to something much more simple, the bicycle (veto in French). On July 15, 2007, 10000 public bicycles were made available to the residents of Paris, in a new experiment on urban transport.

The basic principle is that nobody owns the cycle, but everybody can borrow one. For €29 and a deposit of €150, one can subscribe to a year’s access to the cycles. Cycle-stands have been created outside every metro station in the city. With a magnetic card in hand, one can simply help oneself to a cycle, use it to ride up to one’s destination and park it at the nearest cycle-stand.

It took three years of negotiations before the experiment was put into place, but one week before the launch, nearly 8000 Parisians had signed up for a subscription. The city expects to have nearly 200000 by the end of the year. In the last seven years, Paris has doubled its cycle tracks to 371 km at present.

This emerging new trend has quite a serious impact on urban planning, as rules are changed to suit a growing population of cyclists. Instead of the motor-car, in some places the cyclists have priority, allowing them to use one-way streets and even ignore traffic lights.

Finally, it comes down to a personal choice that the French are making. Cycling is good for one’s health; according to some studies, half an hour of cycling per day can significandy elongate one’s lifespan, reducing stress and hypertension. It is also an efficient tool of weight control. On the other hand, a cycle is a non-polluting form of transport, using no fuel and creating no emissions. Until a few years ago, only 1-5% of Parisians used cycles on a regular basis. Now more of the urban French population is turning to a mode of transport very common in rural France.

The region of Arcachon, on the South-West coast of France, offers several landmarks for tourists but, most of all, it offers an excellent network of cycle routes. These routes, which run along the sea for almost the entire circumference of the basin, originally formed a railroad track used by Germans during World War to transport soldiers and men. However, after the war, the railroad served litde purpose and the path was converted into cycle tracks.

The cycle track that circles the basin is inaccessible to a motor vehicle, however small it may be. It covers a length of nearly 75 to 80 km and, on a sunny day, one can see people of all ages cycling.

Cycles are available in most towns on rent for as litde as €2 an hour. A variety of cycles, tandem bicycles, three-wheelers and cycles with baby carriages, makes it possible for older citizens, mothers with babies and even the physically challenged, to cycle. To make it easier for tourists, cycles rented in one town can be returned in another to the same chain of stores.

The enthusiasm to return to the cycle as a form of transport as well as a hobby is not limited to Arcachon. Gironde also boasts of a network of nearly 600 km of cycle tracks. Bordeaux, the capital of Gironde, is a university town that gives all students free use of bicycles that belong to the town. Further North, Nantes offers free raincoats and backpacks to state employees who cycle to work.

Note Making Class 11 Factual Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviation wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Revival of Cycling in France

I. French Experiment in Urban Transport
(i) Public bicycles hired to Parisians
(ii) can xchg bicycles at cycle stands at metro stations
(iii) popular
(a) 8000 signed up before launch
(b) 2 lakh expected by year end
(c) cycle tracks doubled

II. Impact of Experiment
(i) road rules changed
(ii) cycles given priority in some places
(iii) will improve health
(a) t lifespan
(b) + stress
(c) control weight
(d) non-pltg
(iv) reduces pltn

III. Popularity of Cycling in Rural Arcachon Region of France
(i) trsm popular here
(ii) old railway track converted for cycles
(iii) no motor vhcls allowed
(iv) cycles available at many places in rgn
(v) low rent
(vi) dfrt types of cycles available

IV. Similar Schemes in Other Areas of France
(i) Gironde-province has 600 km of cycle tracks
(a) uvrsty in Bordeaux, the capital, allows students fee use of cycles
(ii) Nantes offers govt employees incentives to cycle to work

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
xchg exchange
t increase
1 reduce
pitg polluting
pltn pollution
trsm tourism
vhcls vehicles
rgn region
dfrt different
uvrsty university
govt government

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Cycling has been revived as a mode of transport in France, Public bicycles are hired to Parisians, which can be exchanged at various cycle stands, making the experiment popular. Its impact is that road rules have been changed to give cycles priority in some places.

It will improve health, increase lifespan, reduce stress and control weight of people, besides reducing pollution. Cycling is also popular elsewhere in France like the Arcachon region, a popular tourism area, Gironde province and Nantes. All of these have exclusive cycle tracks with cycles of all types hired on low rent or for free.

Note Making Practice Discursive Passages and Summary Writing Examples Pdf

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 1

Fasting, in some form or the other, is part of every religion. In Islam, it is called ‘roza’. The Arabic equivalent of ‘roza’ is sawm. Sawm literally means abstinence, i.e. to refrain from doing something. The ninth month of the Hijri calendar, i.e. Ramzan, has been especially chosen for fasting. Fasting during the month of Ramzan is obligatory for every Muslim, except when he has a genuine reason not to do so.

In every human being there are two faculties to take into consideration: one is desire and the other is reason. In all matters, the individual has to decide whether to follow his desire or his reason. The great merit in fasting is that it trains us to refrain from following our desires and instead always to bow to reason. That is the spirit of sawm.

According to the Prophet of Islam, one who fasts should never stoop to using abusive language; if someone abuses him, he should simply say ‘I am fasting’. Islamic fasting, as far as formal practice is concerned, is to abstain from food and drink. But the actual spirit of fasting is to refrain from indulging in negative thinking and the use of negative language.

Self-control, far from being a negative or passive action, has great value in human behaviour. In life, there are more than 50 per cent of occasions when one should refrain from action and less than 50 per cent of occasions when one should take action. This is the formula for success for both individuals and society.

Self-control is integral to social ethics. If you live alone on an island, there is no need for any control, as the absence of others leaves you free to do whatever you want to do. However, when you are living in a society, you have to give leeway to others. This is what every person on the road does when he drives a car: he either keeps to the left (or to the right depending upon which country he is in) so that he gives way to other cars and can carry on his journey without accidents. This principle is applicable to the entire life of an individual. It entails giving others the chance to live their lives while living one’s own life.

Self-control is a kind of mutual adjustment. When a person adopts the way of self-control, it is far-reaching in effect.

In this way he promotes the culture of self-control in society and indicates to others through his actions that they should follow the path that he is following.

Thus, the way of self-control leads to a better society, while lack of self-control in individuals leads to the destruction of peace. As far as the individual is concerned, self-control serves as a means of personality development. This way of life, in turn, saves others from unnecessary problems.

There is a ‘pre-control’ for exercising self-control and it is thinking. When a person adopts a life of self-control, at all times he first thinks about what path he should tread. Only after considerable thought does he plan out his course of action. A life lived in this way will necessarily be marked by creative thinking. In addition, self-control contributes to one’s intellectual development and turns one into a man of wisdom.

In Islam, fasting is worship – for God. Fasting is the kind of worship which is simultaneously for the sake of God and man. Thus, if fasting is observed in the right spirit, in all sincerity, it will make an individual pious and responsible.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Tjte Traditional Culture of Self-restraint Notes

I. Fasting
(i) roza in Islam
(ii) refrain from doing smth
(iii) Ramzan, ninth month of Hijri clnd
(iv) oblgtry for every Muslim
(v) train to refrain from folwg our desires, howto reason
(vi) worship – for God
(vii) observed in right spirit – make individual pious and responsible

II. Teachings of Islam
(i) during fasting
(a) should not use abusive lang
(b) abstain from food and drink
(c) refrain from-ve thkg

III. Self-control: Need and Importance
(i) great value in human behaviour
(ii) formula for success for indvls and society
(iii) integral to social ethics
(iv) a kind of mutual adjsmt
(v) lack of it leads to destruction of peace
(vi) means of personality devpt

IV. Exercising Self-Control
(i) ‘pre-control’ i.e. thkg
(ii) thoughtful course of action
(iii) marked by creative thkg
(iv) cntrbs to intellectual devpt
(v) makes man wiser

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
smth something
clnd calendar
oblgtry obligatory
folwg following
lang language
-ve negative
thkg thinking
indvls individuals
adjsmt adjustment
devpt development
cntrbs contributes

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Fasting is known as ‘roza’ in Islam, which means to refrain from doing something. It is obligatory for every Muslim, wherein one should refrain from using abusive language, negative thinking, food and drink. It is worship for God. Fasting basically teaches self-control, which is observed as a formula for success for individuals and society. Self-control is a kind of mutual adjustment and leads to personality development. Exercising self-control requires ‘pre-control’, that is thinking. It contributes to intellectual development and a thoughtful course of action to lead a wiser life.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 2

Just a few years ago, we witnessed how a national project, the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO), which is to study fundamental particles called neutrinos, was subject to a barrage of Questions from environmentalists, politicians and others ever since it was cleared. The project, which involves the construction of an underground laboratory, was initially to be located in the Nilgiris but later, on grounds that it was too close to tiger habitat, was moved to a cavern under a rocky mountain in the Bodi West Hills region of Theni district, about 110 Kilometres West of Madurai in Tamil Nadu. The already much-delayed and important physics project needs to be explained.

India has been among the pioneers in neutrino research, the first of such laboratories having been established in the 1960s. We led neutrino research when our physicists used a gold mine at Kolar in Karnataka to set-up what was then the world’s deepest underground laboratory. This was called the Kolar Gold Field Lab. In 1965, it enabled researchers to detect atmospheric neutrinos. In 1992, when the mine became uneconomical, the laboratory was shut down. With that, we lost our advantage in understanding the most mysterious particle in the universe. INO may now reclaim this advantage and our global leadership.

Most of the advanced countries are already working vigorously in neutrino science with dedicated labs. These include the United States, Russia, France, Italy, China, Japan and South Korea. India is set to not only join this league, but also become a key player in global efforts in neutrino science. The Magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) being set-up at INO will be among the largest ever in the world, weighing over 50000 tonnes.

Neutrinos, first proposed by Swiss Scientist Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, are the second most widely occurring particle in the universe, only second to photons, the particles which make up light. In fact, neutrinos are so abundant among us that every second, there are more than 100 trillion of them passing right through each of us – we never even notice them.

This is the reason why INO needs to be built deep into the earth – 1300 metres into the earth. At this depth, it would be able to keep itself away from all the trillions of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere and which would otherwise choke an over-the-ground neutrino detector. Neutrinos have been in the universe literally since forever, being almost 14 billion years old – as much as the universe itself.

From experiments so far, we know that neutrinos have a tiny mass, but the ordering of the neutrino mass states is not known and is one of the key Questions that remain unanswered till today. This is a major challenge INO will set to resolve, thus completing our picture of the neutrino.

Neutrinos are very important for our scientific progress and technological growth for three reasons. First, they are abundant. Second, they have very feeble mass and no charge and hence can travel through planets, stars, rocks and human bodies without any interaction.

In fact, a beam of trillions of neutrinos can travel thousands of kilometres through a rock before an interaction with a single atom of the rock and the neutrino occurs. Third, they hide within them a vast pool of knowledge and could open up new vistas in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics, communication and even in medical imaging, through the detector spin-offs.

While this should be a moment of joy, there is also some scepticism, partly arising due to the fact that the neutrino, though so abundant, is a silent stranger to most people.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Race for the Neutrino

I. India-based Neutrino Observatory
(i) subject of Questions from envlsts & others
(ii) involves cnstrn of underground lab
(iii) initially to be located in Nilgiris
(iv) later moved to Bodi West Hills in Tamil Nadu

II. India’s Position in Research
(i) pioneer
(ii) 1st lab estd in 1960s
(iii) Kolar in Karnataka: world’s deepest underground lab
(a) anabled detection of atmospheric neutrinos
(b) lab shut down in 1992
(iv) magnetized Iron Calorimeter
(a) set up at INO
(b) among largest ever in world

III. Understanding Neutrinos
(i) 1 st proposed by Swiss Scientist Wolfgang Pauli
(ii) 2nd most widely occurring particle
(iii) labs to be built deep into earth
(iv) in atmosphere, detector would Choke
(v) have tiny mass & no charge
(vi) mass states ordering unknown

IV. Importance of Neutrinos
(i) scientific progress & tchgl growth
(a) abundant
(b) can travel w/o interaction

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
envlsts environmentalists
& and
cnstrn construction
lab laboratory
1st first
estd established
INO India-Based Neutrino Observatory
2nd second
tchgl technological
w/o without

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) was subject to Questions from many groups. It involved construction of an underground laboratory, which was supposed to be located in the Nilgiris, but was later moved to Bodi West Hills in Tamil Nadu.

India had been among the pioneers in neutrino research and the first lab was set up in 1960, but was shut down in 1992. Understanding neutrinos has become essential due to their wide occurrence.

They have been found to have tiny mass with unknown order and no charge. They are important for scientific progress and technological growth.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 3

Fashion is a force – a powerful force of constantly altering patterns of change and growth. Its constant movement affects the fate of the designers and manufacturers who distribute it, and of course, the lives of the consumers, who follow what it dictates. All of its facts taken together add up to a multimillion dollar industry. Fashion today means mega bucks.

Fashion is also a science. Surprising, isn’t it? However, it is well known that it involves known facts and basic principles, and its actions and reactions can be predicted, as these are based on those facts and principles. Fashion is one of those distinct and unique trades that is highly dependent on the environment and the changes that are continuously taking place in it. These have to be understood by the designers if they want to become successful.

For one to make it to the top in the fashion business and stay there, one has to continue to discover and innovate to fulfil the needs and wants of the customers. For this, most of the top designers such as Yves Saint Laurent, Karl Lagerfeld, Liz Claiborne, etc all rely upon their creativity backed by years of invaluable experience. In this line of work, instinct and intuition play a very major role besides the knowledge of past successes and failures.

As the power of fashion to influence our lives grows, a number of misconceptions about it continue to abound. The most common of these is that the designers and retailers dictate what the fashion will be, by accepting or rejecting the styles and trends that are offered. They are truly, as one ‘fashion guru’ once said, “Variety vultures”. However, it is not so – actually customers dictate the trends.

The second misconception is that fashion acts as an influence on women only. However, actually, men today are as much influenced by, and responsive to, fashion, as women. In point of fact, the male fashion industry has been growing at a dizzying rate. Yes, there was a time when menswear was not exacdy worth talking about. It was staid and unimaginative. But that does not mean that men did not dress up according to the latest trends of the day.

There were changes in Western dressing that followed the dictates of the designers and the fashionable elite trend-setters. These were the fashion world’s drainpipes in the 60s, the popular safaris in the 70s, the denims in the 80s and the ethnic wear that has caught on these days.

Fashion today is more lifestyle oriented and quite practical. The modern male and female want to dress differently for office and leisure. Designers are becoming more daring so that the women as well as the men have a wide choice. There are different designs for every moment of a busy social schedule – from work, lunch to afternoon tea, cocktails, dinner and gala banquets.

Lastly, fashion is the force that causes women to raise and lower their skirt length, straighten or fizz their hair and change from sportswear to dressy clothes. Fashion is also that force which influences men to grow or shave off their moustaches and beards, choose wide or narrow ties and lapels, and change from casual jeans into three piece suits and tuxedos. It is indeed this dynamic and varied force that adds spice and colour to our lives.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Fashion – A Life Force

I. Constantly Altering Patterns Affect
(i) dsnrs
(ii) mfrs
(iii) lives of consumers

II. Fashion means Multimillion Dollar Industry
III. Fashion-A Science
(i) Facts & basic principles
(ii) Action & reaction predicted
(iii) Dependent on envt

IV. Fashion – Discover and Innovate
(i) Continue to fulfil needs and wants
(ii) Instinct & intuition play major role

V. Misconception that Designers and Retailers Dictate Fashion
(i) it is consumers who dictate
(ii) influences both women & men equally

VI. Fashion-Western Dressing
(i) Trend setters
(a) Drainpipes in 60s
(b) Safaris in 70s
(c) Denims in 80s
(d) Ethnic wears today

VII. Fashion-Changes
(i) Life-style oriented and practical
(ii) Every ocsn diff dress
(iii) Adds spice and clr to our lives

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
dsnrs designers
mfrs manufacturers
envt environment
ocsn occasion
diff different
clr colour
& and

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Fashion is a force which keeps changing and affecting all related people. It is a science as it is based on facts and principles. To remain on top in this business, designers have to continually innovate and discover to fulfil people’s needs. Fashion is not dictated by designers and retailers but by consumers. Both women and men are equally influenced by it. Western dressing gave us drainpipes, safaris and denims but now ethnic wears are fashionable. Fashion has become more practical, as people want to change dresses for every occasion. Fashion adds spice, flavour and colour to our lives.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 4

The problem of unemployment is a serious problem in our country. If millions of people are without any jobs, its effect is very bad. A man without any employment is a burden on others. If he has got to maintain a family, the situation is worse. Such unemployed persons are reduced to poverty. It demoralises them and they are forced to do undesirable things. They may commit crimes. They may create trouble and spread discontent. In fact, they are a source of danger to society and the state.

The causes of unemployment are mainly the rapid growth of population, the prevailing system and under¬development of industry and trade. The population of India is growing very rapidly. It is very difficult to get jobs for all who are in need of it. The British Government had introduced a system of education in this country for carrying on administration only. It is being continued in free India also with very slight changes. The system of education prepares most young men to be clerks. But neither the Government nor private firms can absorb all the educated unemployed persons in their offices for clerical work. Industry and trade have not yet properly developed.

Cottage industries in the villages have been ruined owing to the establishment of large mills and factories in towns. Consequently, many artisans have been thrown out of employment. There has been great pressure on agricultural land because of the growth of population; consequently, many cultivators have got no land for cultivation. All these are mainly responsible for this acute problem of unemployment.

The acute problem of unemployment is a cause of unrest in the country. So the Government is seriously thinking over the matter and trying to find out a remedy. The remedy is to find work for the people. The Government had earlier undertaken five-year plans for the material prosperity of the country. For carrying out these plans many mills and factories had been set up both by the Government and by industrialists. Many new offices had been started. Many educated young men were absorbed in offices as clerks and in mills and factories as skilled workers. Uneducated and unskilled men were being absorbed in mills and factories as labourers. But these measures have been proved inadequate.

Our government is now encouraging the revival of cottage industries in the villages. This will help many villagers to earn a living. Our Government is also trying to develop agriculture. But as yet, it has not been able to cope with the situation fully. The number of unemployed persons is increasing. So our Government should allow establishment of a large number of large and small technical and vocational institutions in the country. Only a limited number of bright young men should try to get higher education in the universities. Most young men try to enter technical or vocational institutions.

After coming out of these, they may find jobs in factories and commercial firms. For this, of course, more factories must be set up throughout the country. Unskilled labourers should be taught various traits in technical institutes. They may find jobs in factories as skilled labourers. They may also set up cottage industries in their villages. Government will have to help them with loans to start their work. It is heartening to find that our Government has already taken some steps in this direction. Nationalised banks are now giving lump sum loans to intending young persons under self employment schemes.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Unemployment: A Serious Problem

I. Consequence of Unemployment
(i) poverty
(ii) low morale
(iii) high crime rate
(iv) discontent

II. Causes of Unemployment
(i) rapid growth of ppltn
(ii) prevailing system of edu
(a) prepares young people to be clerks
(iii) underdevelopment of indty & trade

III. Remedy: Role of Government
(i) follow up 5-yr plans
(a) set up many factories
(b) create more job optnts
(ii) allow vocational & technical institutions to open
(iii) help unskilled to become skilled
(iv) revive cottage industries
(v) give loans for self-employment

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
ppltn population
edu education
Indty industry
yr year
& and
optnts opportunities

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
The consequences of unemployment, a serious problem in India, are poverty, low morale, high crime rate and discontent in the population. The causes of unemployment are rapid growth of population, the prevailing system of education which prepares young people to be clerks, and underdevelopment of industry and trade. The remedy is that ‘ the role of Government should change: it should follow up the 5-yr plans by setting up many factories to create more job opportunities. It should allow vocational and technical institutions to open to help the unskilled become skilled. Government should revive cottage industries by giving loans for self-employment.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 5

Depression is a common problem of modern times. Both the rich and poor suffer from it. According to the World Health Organisation, by the year 2020, depression will become the second leading cause of disease in the world. Many solutions have been prescribed for the problem of depression but most have proved to be ineffective as a complete cure. They may offer temporary relief but fail to resolve the problem permanently.

Meditation is often advised to treat this problem of depression. But meditation focuses on the heart and modern science has established that the heart is merely an organ that pumps blood, whereas many kinds of depression stem from the mind. It is the mind that controls the heart and not vice-versa. In many cases, depression is non-physical and the heart is physical. How can a physical organ resolve a non-physical problem?

We also often hear about physical techniques to counter depression. But the reach of physical techniques is confined to the body and does not extend to the mind.

Many kinds of depression are the result of non-acceptance of reality. The real solution to this problem is the acceptance of reality. While non-acceptance creates the problem, acceptance of reality will solve it.

Our world is one of freedom, competition, challenge and clash of interests. This nature of human life is bound to create problems. No one is exempt from this process. This being so, to de-stress, learn the art of stress management rather than trying to eliminate the stress.

A person may become sad upon facing a loss in business or feeling discriminated against at work. He may give in to anxiety and frustration if he suffers a loss in an election, his love marriage turns into a problem or if he is offended by criticism. In all such cases, a person becomes negative because of being unaware of the real cause. He attributes the cause to another person and holds this person responsible for his difficulties. He fails to realise that all these are due to the law of nature.

If you attribute the cause of the problem to the divine law of nature, it will arouse no negativity, but when you attribute it to a person, it brings on negative thinking. This is because the law of nature is not your rival, whereas you see a person as your competitor. When you attribute the cause of your problem to a rival, it will invariably arouse negative thoughts and cause anger. But when you attribute the cause to the law of nature, because it is not your rival and is equal in its treatment of all, it will lead to introspection.

When you follow nature-based thinking instead of man-based thinking, you will try to discover its wisdom and will realise that whatever has happened is for your betterment. It was to activate your mind and enhance its creativity. It was a means of developing a realistic approach, fostering incentive, making you realise your mistake and helping you to re-plan practically.

When this thought comes to you, your mind will automatically change from negative to positive. You will be grateful towards the law of nature for bestowing this blessing in disguise. This thought will eliminate your stress and you will be able to live normally. This is a good way to help de-stress the mind.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Depression: Accept It, Tackle It

I. Depression
(i) common prblm of modern times
(ii) acc to WFIO, will soon become second leading disease,
(iii) prescribed soln
(a) offer temporary relief
(iv) no permanent cure

II. Kinds of Depression and its Cure
(i) non-acceptance of reality
(a) soln – acceptance of reality
(ii) Clash of interests
(a) soln – learn stress mgmt

III. Causes of Stress/Depression
(i) atrbt to another person cause of prblm
(ii) fail to realise law of nature

IV. Ways to De-Stress
(i) atrbt prblm to the divine law of nature
(ii) don’t atrbt cause of problem to a person
(iii) follow nature-based thinking
(iv) this causes realisation that
(a) whatever hpnd is for betterment
(b) means of dvlpg a realistic approach
(c) fostering incentive
(d) helping you to re-plan
(e) understanding mistake
(v) realisation eliminates stress

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
prblm problem
acc according
WHO World Health Organisation
soln solution
mgmt management
atrbt attribute
hpnd happened
dvlpg developing

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
According to the World Health Organisation, depression is expected to become the second leading cause of disease in the world. Prescribed solutions offer temporary relief but offer no permanent solution. The cause is non-acceptance of reality or clash of interests.

Solutions are acceptance of reality and learning to manage stress. Stress is caused by attributing problems to other persons instead of understanding the law of nature. One should realise that whatever has happened is for the betterment. This enables development of a realistic approach to the problem and helps in re-planning. This realisation eliminates stress.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 6

In Indian homes, the floor of the house is always the best maintained element, cleaned twice a day and wiped down to a sparkling state. In front of the threshold of the home the floor often is decorated with Rangoli and other ritual diagrams. This is true in rural as well as in many urban homes in metropolitan cities. When building a new home, people spend as much money per square foot for a beautiful floor as they would spend on the entire structure. Yet, this pride and obsession for a clean floor suddenly vanish as we step out into the street: the floor of the city.

In Delhi, where 80 percent of the people are pedestrians in some stage of their commuting, least attention is paid to pedestrian paths. Delhi’s sidewalks are too narrow, very poorly maintained and full of potholes, poles, junction boxes and dangerous electrical installations, not to speak of the garbage dumps that stink and stare at the pedestrian. Ashram Chowk is a good case in point where thousands of pedestrians change direction from the Mathura Road radial to the Ring Road. A flyover facilitates the automobiles while the pedestrian is orphaned by the investment-hungry authorities.

One corner of Ashram Chowk has a ridiculous imitation wood sculpture with an apology of a fountain, and across the same chowk, you have the open mouthed, massive garbage dump right on the pedestrian path, in full exhibition for the benefit of the public. These symbols of poor taste and abject apathy are then connected by narrow, dangerous and often waterlogged footpaths for the hapless pedestrians to negotiate. In the night, street lighting in the central median lights up the carriageway for cars and leaves the pedestrian areas in darkness.

Delhi’s citizens leave home and want to get to their destination as fast as they can. No one wants to linger on the road; no leisure walks; no one looks a stranger in the eye. It is on the pedestrian path that the citizen encounters head-on the poor public management and the excuse called ‘multiplicity of authorities’. One agency makes the road, another digs it up to lay cables, a third one comes after months to clear up the mess and the cycle of unaccountability goes on.

Meanwhile crores are spent in repairing the carriageway for vehicles and in construction of flyovers without a care for the pedestrians below. The solution offered is to make an expensive underpass or an ugly foot over bridge, ostensibly for facilitating the pedestrian, while in reality it only facilitates the cars to move faster at the expense of the pedestrians. Take Kashmiri Gate, ITO, Ashram Chowk, AIIMS or Dhaula Kuan. At all these important pedestrian cross-over points the story is the same: they have pulled the sidewalk from under the pedestrians’ feet.

In modern cities across the world, the pedestrian is king. The floor of the city is designed and maintained as an inclusive environment, helping the physically challenged, the old and the infirm, children and the ordinary citizen to move joyfully across the city. Delhi aspires to be a ‘world class city’. Hopefully the authorities would look once again at the floor of Delhi. The pleasure of strolling on the sidewalks is deeply connected to our sense of citizenship and sense of belonging. Pride in the city grows only on a well designed floor of the city.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Delhi’s Neglected Pedestrians

I. Floors in Indian homes
(i) well mntnd
(ii) clnd twice a day
(iii) decorated
(iv) home buyers invest on good floors
(v) streets neglected in cmprsn

II. Delhi’s Pedestrian Sidewalks
(i) most people use them for some time
(ii) sdwks poorly made and cltrd due to
(a) potholes
(b) dangerous electrical installations
(c) garbage dumps
(d) being too narrow
(e) waterlogging
(f) dug up due to ‘multiplicity of authorities’
(iii) crossings facilitate vehicles, not pdstns
(iv) lighting on roads, not on sdwks
(v) spending more on road users than pdstns

III. Roads in Other Modern Cities
(i) roads designed for all categories of pdstns
(ii) give them a sense of belonging
(iii) Delhi authorities should improve the situation

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
mntnd maintained
clnd cleaned
cmprsn comparison
sdwks sidewalks
cltrd cluttered
pdstns pedestrians

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Floors in Indian homes are well maintained and decorated. Home buyers invest on good floors, but in comparison, the streets are neglected. Delhi’s pedestrian sidewalks, used by most people, are poorly made and cluttered due to various installations or remaining dug up due to a ‘multiplicity of authorities’.

Road crossings facilitate vehicles, not pedestrians, with lighting on roads, not on sidewalks and spending more on road users than on pedestrians. In contrast, modern cities worldwide are better, with roads designed for all categories of pedestrians, . which give them a sense of belonging. Delhi authorities should thus work on improving the situation.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 7

India is surrounded by water bodies on three sides, yet we face water shortage every year! Consider this – the per capita water availability in India was 3450 cu m in 1951. By 2025, the annual per capita availability of water is expected to fall drastically from the current 1800 cu m per person to between 1200 and 1500 cu m.

Mumbai’s demand for water was 7950 MLD (million litres per day) in 2011. The supply was only around 3100 MLD – a substantial shortfall, but the city receives only 2500 MLD, the balance being lost on account of leakages and pilferage. Delhi Jal Board is able to supply only around 650 million gallons of water per day against the demand of 750 million gallons. According to a World Bank study of 27 Asian cities with population of over one million, Kolkata is the fourth worst performing metro in terms of hours of water availability per day.

The quality of available water is also fast deteriorating. In 1982 it was reported that 70 percent of all available water in India was polluted. The situation is much worse today. Over-extraction of ground water has led to salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers. It has also resulted in problems of excessive fluoride, iron, arsenic and salinity in water, which is currently affecting about 44 million people in India. Ground water is facing an equally serious threat from contamination by industrial effluents and faecal matter, as well as pesticides and fertilisers from farm run-offs.

Unless priority is given quickly to creating an infrastructure to assure availability of water, there may soon be no water to meet the agricultural, domestic and industrial needs of a population that will has tripled in 50 years to one and a quarter billion.

Water management is therefore a major challenge for town planners, builders and architects today, not just in terms of availability of water, but most importantly its quality.

As water shortage increases, alternate sources of water supply are gaining importance. These include sewage recycling, rainwater harvesting, generating water from humidity in the atmosphere etc. Water recycling is a simple, effective and economical solution to conserve water so that more fresh water is available for uses such as drinking, bathing, cooking and laundry.

Rajesh Sharma, Managing Director, Ion Exchange (India) Ltd, opines, “Population, industrialisation and pollution are putting pressure on our limited fresh water resources. There is a limit to increasing water supply because we are running out of sources and the cost of additional facilities is prohibitive. Moreover as industry, which pays heavily for the water it uses, recycles more and more of it, it will be increasingly difficult for municipalities to find the money for subsidy.

Sewage recycle would help reduce infrastructural costs on public water supply systems as well as avoid heavy losses of water through leakages during distribution through public supply pipelines. The best way to solve water scarcity, therefore, is by conserving water and recycling it wherever possible. Recycling must be made mandatory for all new projects – industrial or domestic. It should be promoted for existing buildings also. Apart from priority to watershed development, rainwater harvesting and water recycling, another area we need to address is optimising use of water in agriculture (which uses 70% of the fresh water available) through drip irrigation etc.”

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Tackling Water Scarcity

I. Water Availability Status
(i) per capita in India: 3450 cu m 951) reduced to1800 cum (today) and will reduce to 1200-1500 cu m (2025)
(ii) Mumbai’s dmd more than triple of supply
(iii) Delhi’s dmd is 15% more than supply
(iv) Kolkata 4th worst performing metro in Asia for water supply

II. Quality of Available Water
(i) groundwater constantly dtrtg
(a) salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers
(b) excessive fluoride, arsenic, iron and salinity
(c) polluted by
– industrial effluents
– faecal matter
– pesticides and fertilisers from farm run-offs

III. Howto Handle the Problems
(i) water mgmt major problem
(ii) promote alternate sources
(a) sewage recycling
(b) rainwater harvesting
(c) water gnrtn from atmospheric humidity
(iii) effective and economical solution to conserve water

IV. Opinion of MD, Ion Exchange (India)
(i) prsr on fresh water resources due to
(a) t population
(b) industrialisation
(c) water pollution
(ii) additional facilities cost prohibitive
(iii) cannot subsidise
(iv) solns suggested
(a) conserve & recycle water
(b) watershed development
(c) optimise use in agriculture

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
dmd demand
dtrtg deteriorating
mgmt management
gnrtn generation
MD Managing Director
prsr pressure
T increasing
solns solutions
& and

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
Water availability in India is falling steadily, particularly in the metros. The quality of available water is also deteriorating, with 70 per cent of water being polluted due to salinity and excessive presence of fluorides, iron and arsenic. Groundwater is contaminated by industrial effluents, faecal matter and agricultural run-offs.

According to the Managing Director, Ion Exchange (India), we need to prioritise water availability through sewage recycling, rainwater harvesting, water generation from atmospheric humidity etc. In addition watershed development should be done and water use in agriculture must be optimised.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage 8

There is nothing more frustrating than when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand, you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Samuel Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various facts of your physical and internal environment,” she adds.

To begin with, one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focused thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours, identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library. In case you are living in a market area, you may want to study at a time when the market is not open.

She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh. “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books.

Also do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one should try and provide as litde stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh.

The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of time. The human mind recognises fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more th^n random thoughts. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focused system will follow.

She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to.

For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.

Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build ’ your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects.

More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life.

Note Making Class 11 Discursive Passage Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title to it.
(a) Title Concentration Techniques

I. Enhance your Concentration
(i) avoid wdrg thoughts
(ii) idfy phsl & int env
(iii) create focus
(iv) plan study hrs time and Ictn

II. Avoid
(i) distractive env
(ii) divide schedule
(iii) actvtg two senses

III. Setting Goals
(i) fix goals & targets
(ii) study near window
(iii) attempt dfclt tasks first

IV. Discipline your Mind
(i) avoid working long at a stretch
(ii) take very short breaks
(iii) don’t relax too long
(iv) practice & patience help

Key to Abbreviations

Abbreviations Words
wdrg wandering
idfy identify
phsl physical
& and
int internal
env environment
hrs hours
Ictn location
actvtg activating
> more than
dfclt difficult

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80-100 words.
It is very frustrating to lose concentration while working. Certain techniques will definitely help to build up concentration. Firstly, the physical and internal environment should be conducive for focused thinking. Avoid noisy areas and other distractions such that not more than two of your senses are active at any time. Secondly, establish definite goals and accomplish them, thus establishing a focused system. Plan, divide and prioritise your schedule. Avoid working long stretches, taking only short breaks to improve your concentration. With patience and practice, concentration will become a lifelong habit.