Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 8 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.
Coherence is the product of many different factors, which combine to make every paragraph, every sentence, and every phrase contributes to the meaning of the whole piece.
Cohesion And Coherence Exercises for Class 8 Examples PDF
Coherence in writing is much more difficult to sustain than coherent speech simply because writers have no nonverbal clues to inform them if their message is clear or not.
Therefore, writers must make their patterns of coherence much more explicit and much more carefully planned. Coherence itself is the product of two factors – paragraph unity and sentence cohesion.
To achieve paragraph unity, a writer must ensure two things only. First, the paragraph must have a single argument that serves as the focus of attention, that is, a topic sentence. Secondly, a writer must control the content of every other sentence in the paragraph’s body such that (a) it contains more specific information than the topic sentence and (b) it maintains the same focus of attention as the topic sentence.
This generalisation about paragraph structure holds true for the essay in particular. The two major exceptions to this formula for paragraph unity are found in fiction (where paragraph boundaries serve other functions, such as indicating when a new speaker is talking in a story) and in journalism (where paragraphs are especially short to promote ‘visual’ ease by creating white space).
To achieve cohesion, and link one sentence to the next, consider the following techniques:
|1.||Repetition: In sentence B (the second of any two sentences), repeat a word from sentence A.|
|2.||Synonym: If direct repetition is too obvious, use a synonym of the word you wish to . repeat. This strategy is call ‘elegant variation.’|
|3.||Antonym: Using the ‘opposite’ word, an antonym, can also create sentence cohesion, since in language antonyms actually share more elements of meaning than you might imagine.|
|4.||Pro-forms: Use a pronoun, pro-verb, or another pro-form to make explicit reference back to a form mentioned earlier.|
|5.||Collocation: Use a commonly paired or a highly probable word to connect one sentence to another.|
|6.||Enumeration: Use overt markers of sequence to highlight the connection between ideas.|
This system has many advantages:
(a) it can link ideas that are otherwise completely unconnected,
(b) it looks formal and distinctive, and
(c) it promotes a second method of sentence cohesion, discussed in point (7) below.
|7.||Parallelism: Repeat a sentence structure. This technique is the oldest, most overlooked, but probably the most elegant method of creating cohesion.|
|8.||Transitions: Use a conjunction or conjunctive adverb to link sentences with particular logical relationships.|
|9.||Identity: It indicates similarity words that indicate similarity are that is, that is to say, in other words, etc.|
|10.||Opposition: It indicates contrast words that indicate contrast are but, yet, however, nevertheless, still, though, although, whereas, in contrast, rather, etc|
|11.||Addition: It indicates continuation words that indicate continuation are and, too, also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides, in the same way, again, another, similarly, a similar, the same, etc.|
|12.||Cause and effect: It describes missing words that indicate are therefore, so, consequently, as a consequence, thus, as a result, hence, it follows that, because, since, for, etc.|
|13.||Indefinites. It indicates a logical connection of an unspecified type. Words that indicate a logical connection are in fact, indeed, now, etc.|
|14.||Concession. It indicates a willingness to consider the other side. Words that perform this function are admittedly, I admit, true, I grant, of course, naturally, some believe, some people believe, it has been claimed that, once it was believed, there are those who would say, etc.|
|15.||Exemplification. It indicates a shift from a more general or abstract idea to a more specific or concrete idea. Words that perform this function are for example, for instance, after all, an illustration of, even, indeed, in fact, it is true, of course, specifically, to be specific, that is, to illustrate, truly, etc.|
Cohesion And Coherence Exercises Solved Example With Answer for Class 8 CBSE
Combine the sentences in each set into two clear and concise sentences, eliminating any needless repetition. As you do so, add a transitional word or phrase (in italics at the head of each set) to the beginning of the second sentence to show how it relates to the first. The first one has been done for you.
Retirement should be the reward for a lifetime of work.
It is widely viewed as a sort of punishment.
|Retirement should be the reward for a lifetime of work. Instead, it is widely viewed as a sort of punishment for the old.|
It is a punishment for the old.
Cohesion And Coherence Exercises Practice Example for Class 8 CBSE
In recent years viruses have been shown to cause cancer in chickens.
Viruses have also been shown to cause cancer in mice, cats, and even in some primates. Viruses might cause cancer in humans.
This is a reasonable hypothesis.
3. In fact
We do not seek solitude.
If we find ourselves alone for once, we flick a switch.
We invite the whole world in.
The world comes in through the television screen.
4. On the contrary
We were not irresponsible.
Each of us should do something.
This thing would be of genuine usefulness to the world.
We were trained to think that.
Little girls, of course, don’t take toy guns out of their hip pockets.
They do not say “Pow, pow” to their neighbours and friends.
The average well-adjusted little boys do this.
If we gave little girls the six-shooters, we would soon have double the pretend body count.
We drove the wagon close to a corner post.
We twisted the end of the wire around it.
We stapled it fast.
We drove along the line of posts.
We drove for about 200 yards.
We unreeled the wire on the ground behind us.
‘We know very little about pain.
What we don’t know makes it hurt all the more.
There is ignorance about pain.
No form of illiteracy in the United States is so widespread.
No form of illiteracy in the United States is so costly.
Many of our street girls can be as vicious as any corporation president.
Many of our street girls can be as money-mad as any corporation president.
They can be less emotional than men.
They can be less emotional in conducting acts of personal violence.
9. For this reason
The historical sciences have made us very conscious of our past. They have made us conscious of the world as a machine.
The machine generates successive events out of foregoing ones.
Some scholars tend to look totally backward.
They look backward in their interpretation of the human future.
Rewriting is something that most writers find they have to do.
They rewrite to discover what they have to say.
They rewrite to discover how to say it.
There are a few writers who do little formal rewriting.
They have capacity and experience.
They create and review a large number of invisible drafts.