Clauses Exercises for Class 11 CBSE With AnswersA clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate. It contains a verb and sometimes other components too. So, how do we distinguish what is a clause and how exactly is it different from a phrase?

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A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb. A clause is a larger word group than a phrase and includes a litde more information.

Types of Clauses
There are two types of clauses

1. Independent Clause (Main/Principal Clause)
Independent clause is the main/principal clause in a sentence. It can stand alone and can be called a sentence. It does not start with subordinate words such as when, which or if.
The main properties of an independent clause are
It contains a subject.
It contains an action.
It expresses a complete thought, e.g.

  • Let’s start the play.
    (Here ‘play’ is the subject and ‘Let’s start’ is the action.)
  • The mobile is defective.
    (Here ‘mobile’ is the subject and ‘is defective’ is the action.)
  • I will tell her about the paper pattern.
    (Here T is the subject and ‘will tell her about the paper pattern’ is the action.)

2. Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause)
A dependent clause is a subordinate clause, it starts with subordinate words. It cannot stand alone as a sentence and is labelled according to its function in the sentence.
Dependent clauses are further divided into three kinds

(i) Noun Clause
Noun Clauses function as nouns in relation to the main clause, e.g.

  1. I believe that he knows the secret.
  2. Listen to what the teacher says.
  3. I do not know why he is angry.
  4. What you said is true.

(ii) Relative Clause
Relative clauses are dependent clauses introduced by a relative pronoun (that, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose and of which). Relative clauses add extra information to a sentence by defining a noun. Relative clauses are also called adjective clauses. The introductory words used for various categories of nouns are

  • For people – who, whose or what
  • For things – which or that
  • For places – where
  • For times – when
  • For possession – whose


  • Rohan visited the office where his mother works.
    (where his mother works is a relative clause. It contains the relative adverb where, the subject mother, and the verb works. The clause modifies the noun office.)
  • We’re going to see a band whose lead singer is a friend of ours.
    (whose lead singer is a friend of ours is a relative clause. It contains the relative pronoun whose, the subject singer, and the verb is. The clause modifies the noun band.)
  • The university where my brother goes to school is in Canada.
    (where my brother goes to school is a relative clause. It contains the relative adverb where, the subject brother, and the verb goes. The clause modifies the noun university.)

Clauses Exercises for Class 11 CBSE With Answers

1. Complete each sentence with a properly formed norm clause by selecting from the options given.
(a) Ravi asked me (where was his wallet/where his wallet was).
(b) I don’t know (how many children he has/how many children does he have).
(c) (How close we are/How close are we) is not important.
(d) (What did she say/What she said) was sad.
(e) We are not responsible for (what our children say/what do our children say).

2. Complete each sentence with what or that. In this question, what is used for norm clauses and that is used for relative clauses.
(a) he said is not important.
(b) The book I’m reading is very interesting.
(c) The world needs more people help animals to survive.
(d) Many of the people saw that movie were disappointed.
(e) Do you believe he told us? Yes, I think he was telling the truth.

(iii) Adverb Clause
An adverb clause (also called adverbial clause) is a word or expression in a sentence that functions as an adverb; it tells you something about how the action in the verb was done. It adds extra information about the time, place, manner, etc to a sentence and modifies the verb.

As a dependent clause, it cannot stand on its own and must connect to the main clause or an independent clause with conjunction to form a complete sentence. The adverbial clause may come before or after the main clause. When it comes to the main clause, a comma is used to separate the two clauses. When it comes to the main clause, no comma is necessary.


  • I am sad, although you did a good job of trying to cheer me up. (tells us under what conditions I am sad)
  • You must go to bed after we watch the fireworks tonight, (tells us when you must go to bed)
  • He shook my hand before he died, (tells us when he shook my hand)
  • I will give you chocolate if you clean your plate. (tells us under what conditions the chocolate will be given)
  • I have to leave while Raman was playing football. (tells us when the person had to leave)

Types of Adverb Clause

(a) Adverb Clause of Time We use the adverb clause of time to modify a verb in the main clause and to tell the time when an action takes place. Subordinating Conjunctions used is when, whenever, anytime, before, after, till, until, while, since, just as, as soon as, as often as, now that, as long as, etc. e.g.

  • Will you wait here until I am ready?
  • I was not at home when he came to see me.
  • I always take a bath before I go to bed.
  • As soon as Teena finished that project, she started working on the next.

(b) Adverb Clause of Condition We use the adverb clause of condition to modify a verb in the main clause and to tell the condition under which an action takes place or someone does something. Subordinating Conjunctions used is if, even if, whether, if…..not, unless, supposing that, provided that, in the condition that, as long as that, etc. e.g.

  • If it rains, we shall stay at home.
  • She will take this medicine whether she likes it or not.
  • You won’t pass unless you work hard.
  • As long as you have the time, why don’t you come for dinner?

Uses of Clauses
By using clauses correctly, you can quickly and easily improve the quality of your writing and your ability to communicate with the reader. With the help of a clause, you can direct the attention of the reader so that your sentence is understood.

You will also avoid incorrect dependent clauses as sentence fragments.

Phrases and Clauses Exercises for Class 11 CBSE with Answers

1. Complete each adverb clause below with the correct conjunctions by selecting them from the options given.
(a) (So that/After) ………….. he saw the way the animals were treated, he stopped eating meat.
(b) (After/Although) ………….. he worked very hard, his boss did not give him a raise.
(c) (So that/Because) ………….. you have no money, I’ll pay for you.
(d) I said goodbye to all my local friends (because/before) ………….. I moved to Mumbai.
(e) I will show you how to prepare this sweet dish (so that/because) ………….. you can prepare it for your family.
(f) (Before/Since) ………….. he discovered this website, he couldn’t speak English.
(g) I’m going to ask someone else (before/since) ………….. you obviously don’t know the answer.
(h) (Unless/After) ………….. they saw him turning the comer, they knew that he was going to win the race.

2. Complete the combined single sentence given below the two sentences by choosing the correct reduced adverb clause from the options given in brackets.
(a) They played basketball for two hours. Later, they went home (After playing basketball/Playing basketball) for two hours, they went home.
(b) I was reading your essay. I noticed a lot of mistakes ………….. (Before reading your essay/While reading your essay), I noticed a lot of mistakes.
(c) I didn’t want to miss my train. I set my alarm clock for 6 AM ………….. (Not wanting to miss my train/While not wanting to miss my train), I set my alarm clock for 6 AM.
(d) You came here. Before that, you were sad ………….. (Before coming here/While coming here), you were sad.
(e) She returned from work. She noticed that the front door was open ………….. (Upon returning from work/While returning from work), she noticed that the front door was open.
(f) He is a perfectionist. He noticed all the flaws ………….. (Being a perfectionist/Since being a perfectionist), he noticed all the flaws.

Clauses at a Glance

Error Correction
Each of the following sentences in this exercise has an underlined word/phrase and three words/phrases are given after the sentence. If one of the given words/phrases makes the sentence grammatically correct, select the word/phrase as your answer.

If the sentence is:

Question 1.
When KKR wins tomorrow they will be champions.
(a) If
(b) Whenever
(c) Unless
(d) No correction

Question 2.
The fact is that we are getting late.
(a) what
(b) but
(c) when
(d) No correction

Question 3.
I wouldn’t mind have some chips and cake.
(a) to having
(b) having
(c) to having
(d) No correction

Question 4.
You are pardoned that you have confessed your crime.
(a) because
(b) so
(c) when
(d) No correction

Question 5.
Wait while the train stops at the station.
(a) when
(b) till
(c) as
(d) No correction

Question 6.
He told me who he had passed the final examination.
(a) so
(b) why
(c) that
(d) No correction

Question 7.
He rested why evening came.
(a) what
(b) when
(c) where
(d) No correction

Question 8.
We love those who love us.
(a) why
(b) that
(c) whom
(d) No correction

Question 9.
They study in a school whose principal is very old.
(a) where
(b) which
(c) whom
(d) No correction

Question 10.
The company which my brother works is in Canada.
(a) where
(b) that
(c) why
(d) No correction

Question 11.
I do not know as he came to meet me.
(a) why
(b) if
(c) what
(d) No correction

Question 12.
When the teacher is not in class we can go wherever we want.
(a) whomever
(b) whenever
(c) whatever
(d) No correction

Question 13.
You can give the gift to whoever you want.
(a) whenever
(b) whomever
(c) whenever
(d) No correction

Question 14.
Because I studied hard, I could not pass the exam.
(a) When
(b) If
(c) Although
(d) No correction

Question 15.
I always pray before I go to bed.
(a) after
(b) that
(c) till
(d) No correction

Question 16.
The match will be postponed when it rains.
(a) whenever
(b) if
(c) as
(d) No correction

Question 17.
The girl who I met at the party is my cousin.
(a) whose
(b) when
(c) whom
(d) No correction

Question 18.
Until you practice hard you cannot get good marks in Maths,
(a) Till
(b) Unless
(c) As
(d) No correction

Question 19.
As soon he saw his mother, he got up from the chair.
(a) As soon as
(b) While
(c) Whenever
(d) No correction

Question 20.
The match is not over unless the last ball is bowled.
(a) when
(b) where
(c) until
(d) No correction