A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate. It contains a verb and sometimes other components too. So, how do we distinguish what is a clause and how exactly is it different from a phrase?
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Clauses Exercises With Answers for Class 10 CBSE PDF
A clause is a collection of words that contains a subject and a predicate of its own. A clause has a meaning of its own and forms a part of a larger sentence.
- I despise cheats
- because she shouted at him
There are two kinds of clauses, subordinate clause and main clause. 1 A main clause can stand alone to make a sentence by itself.
- Brinda wrote a letter.
A subordinate clause also contains a subject and a predicate of its own, but it must be attached to another clause within a larger sentence.
- Amit worked while John played.
Kinds Of Clauses Worksheet Pdf
A subordinate (dependent) clause may function as a noun, an adjective or an adverb in a sentence.
Noun Clause Examples
Read the following sentences:
(a) I hope that I shall pass:.(noun clause)
(b) She knows what I want. (noun clause)
The underlined words are noun clauses and form parts of the sentences (a) and (b).
The noun clauses answer the question what?
The that-clause following the main clasue ‘I hope’ is also a noun clause just as ‘ What I want’ is a noun clause which follows the main clause ‘she knows’.
Adjective Clause Definition
An adjective clause works like an adjective in a sentence and modifies (describes) a noun or a pronoun.
The adjective clause begins with the relative pronoun that, who, whom, whose, which or whose and is also a relative clause.
Adjective Clause Example:
- He wears a shirt which looks nice.
- I met a boy who had helped me.
Relative Clauses Worksheet (Adjective Clauses)
These are related to people, things, places, possession, time and reason.
Relative Clauses Example:
- People: The person who/that entered the room is Mr. Vivek.
- Things: The notebooks which/that are lying on the floor are of Geography.
- Places: That’s the ground where the match took place.
- Possession: This is Mr. Sharma whose wallet was lost yesterday.
- Time: It was the year 1997 when my parents got married.
- Reason: The reason why she left the meeting all of a sudden is beyond my understanding.
- Defining Relative Clauses: These clauses give necessary information essential to the meaning of the sentence. We do not use commas in these clauses.
- Non–defining Relative Clauses: These clauses give extra information that is not essential to the meaning of the main sentence. We put them in commas.
- For example:
Radha, who is wearing a green shirt, is the monitor of the class.
Adverb Clause Definition
Adverbial clauses of time are used to say when something happens by referring to a period of time or to another event. The subordinating conjunctions after, before, since, when, while, whenever, till, as, etc. are used.
- I arrived after he had started.
The patient had died before the doctor arrived.
I have never seen her since she was ten years old.
His father died when he was young.
Someone called while you were out.
Whenever I smiled, she smiled back.
I shall wait here till you return.
As I was leaving, the phone rang.
- When we refer to the present or the past, the verb in a time clause has the same tense that it would have in a main clause:
She was standing by the door when I heard her speak.
I haven’t talked to him since he arrived.
He looks after the children while she goes to school.
- When we mention an event in a time clause which will happen before an event referred to in the main clause, we use the Present Perfect Tense in the time clause:
When you have taken your lunch, you come to me.
Inform us as soon as you have reached here.
- We use ‘when’, ‘while’, ‘as’ when we refer to circumstances in which something happens or happened:
The doors open when I press this button.
While he was in the house, there was a loud knock at the door.
I watched her as she combed her hair.
- We can use ‘when’, ‘after’, ‘once’ to talk about one event happening immediately after another:
When he died, his sons came to me for help.
The mother goes off in search of food after the eggs have hatched.
Once the damage is done, it takes many years for the system to recover.
- We use ‘as soon as’ when we want to refer to one event happening after a very short time:
They heard a loud explosion as soon as they entered their house.
- When we use ‘no sooner’, the time clause begins with ‘than’:
No sooner had he arrived than he had to leave again.
No sooner had he sat down than the phone rang.
No sooner had he asked the question than the answer came to him.
- When we use ‘hardly’, the time clause begins with ‘when’ or ‘before’-.
Hardly had he entered the house when the phone rang.
She had hardly arrived when she had to leave again.
He had hardly opened his eyes before she asked him to leave.
- If we want to say that a situation stopped when something happened, we use ‘till’ or ‘until
I waited for her till/until she came back.
Let’s wait till/until the rain stops.
- We use ‘since’ to refer to a situation that began to exist at a particular time and still exists. We use the Past Simple Tense in the time clause:
I have not met her since she was a child.
They have known each other since he lived there.