CBSE Notes for Class 8 Computer in Action – Introduction to Microsoft Access 2013

CBSE Notes for Class 8 Computer in Action – Introduction to Microsoft Access 2013

Supermarkets use computers for storing lists of items, their prices, quantities available and quantities sold. Have you ever wondered how they store, manage and quickly retrieve data about so many products? Your elders can book railway tickets online. Where is the data about trains, their timings and seat allocation stored? How is it that when a person books a ticket, the reserved and the available seats are automatically shown?
If a person is asked to memorise such records, it will be an almost impossible task. To deal with such problems, data is stored and managed in a computer using databases. Thesedays, large amounts of data are required to be stored at all the places such as hotels, hospitals, supermarkets, railway stations, airports and offices. In this chapter, we will learn more about database and its related terminologies.

DATABASE AND DBMS
A database is an organised collection of related data so that it can be easily accessed, managed and updated. A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software program that enables us to create, modify and extract data from a database. DBMS can be based on different data models such as network, hierarchical and relational.
A DBMS based on the relational data model stores data in the form of tables and is called Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). In this chapter, we will learn about Microsoft Access, which is an example  of RDBMS. Some other examples of RDBMS Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server.

Advantages of a Database
Some of the advantages of storing data in a database as compared to files are listed here.

  • Reduced Data Redundancy: The duplication of data is referred to as data redundancy. In contrast to non-database systems, which maintain multiple copies of the same data at different locations, DBMS stores data at a central place.
    The user is not required to maintain multiple copies of the same data. Thus, DBMS prevents data duplication.
  • Reduced Update on Errors and Increased Consistency: When the data is stored at multiple locations, there are chances that modifications are not carried out at all the places. Multiple-mismatching copies of the same data are known as data inconsistency. DBMS ensures data consistency by storing data at one place and ensuring that there is no duplication of data.
  • Improved Data Access to Users: A DBMS stores data at a centralised location and facilitates sharing of data among multiple users according to their requirements. For example, users from all over the country access the database for booking railway tickets.
  • Improved Data Security: One of the most important advantages of DBMS is data security. In DBMS, user IDs can be created with various levels of security.
    Users have limited rights and permissions. Only authorised users can access the data. Some may have the privilege of changing the data while others can only view the data.
  • Maintaining Standards: A DBMS ensures that the stored data follows the organisation’s own standards or national/ international standards. This ensures greater data integrity. This also aids in sharing data between different systems.

MICROSOFT ACCESS 2013
Microsoft Access is the. most popular RDBMS that comes as a part of the Microsoft Office suite. Access provides a graphical user interface for managing data. The databases created in Access 2013 are saved with the extension .accdb. Databases in Access 2013 are composed of four main objects—tables, queries, forms and reports. These objects allow us to enter, store, analyse and compile the data.
Let us learn more about these objects.

Objects in Access
The main objects that can be created in Access are as follows.

  • Tables: They are used to store data in the form of rows (records) and columns (fields). A table is also referred to as a relation. We will learn more about tables in this chapter.
  • Queries: Query let us find and work on the data resulting from one or multiple tables based on specified conditions.
  • Forms: Forms provide a user interface that lets the users enter and change in the tables.
  • Reports: If forms are for input, then reports are for output. Reports are used to display the data stored in database tables in a professional format for printing purposes. Figure 2.1 illustrates the relationship between the objects in Access.

cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-1

Starting Access
To start Access, type Access 2013 in the Search box and click on Access 2013 option. The Microsoft Access start up window opens as shown in Figure 2.3.

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CREATING A DATABASE
Follow the given steps to create a blank database in Access.

Step 1: Click on the Blank desktop database option.
Step 2: Type a name for the database in the File Name textbox.
Step 3: Click on the Browse button next to the File Name textbox and choose a location for the database.
Step 4: Click on the Create button. A blank database gets created. Access creates the database with an empty table named Table1. We will learn about working with tables after familiarising ourselves with the various components of the Access window shown in Figure 2.6.

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COMPONENTS OF THE ACCESS WINDOW
Let us get familiar with the various components of the Access window (Fig. 2.7).

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  • Title Bar: The Title Bar appears on the top of the window and displays the name of the document on which you are currently working.
  • Quick Access Toolbar cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-6 : The Quick Access Toolbar is present on the top left corner of the Access window. It has buttons for commands that are used frequently. By default, the following buttons are present on it.
    1. Save button: to save your work
    2. Undo button: to undo the previous action/rollback the action done
    3. Redo button: to redo the action that was undone.

    We can customise the Toolbar and add more buttons to it by clicking on the arrow next to the Redo button.

  • Ribbon: The Ribbon contains multiple tabs, each with several groups of commands. Some tabs appear only when you work with certain objects such as Forms. These tabs are called contextual tabs.
  • Navigation pane: The Navigation pane displays the names of all the objects in the database. The objects are grouped on the basis of their type, for example, Tables, Queries and so on. We can double-click on an object name in the Navigation Pane to open it. We can right-click on an object in the Navigation pane to perform various operations such as renaming and deleting an object.

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  • Navigation Buttonscbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-8The Navigation buttons display the current record number in an object (in this example, Tables ► Employee) on which you are working. It has buttons to move back and forth between the various records.
  • Object Tabs: The objects that you have opened in a database appear in a tabbed form. When you click on an object tab, the contents of that object are displayed in the Work Area. Click on the cross button (X) on the right end of the bar to close the object displayed in the current tab.

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  • Status Bar: The Status bar appears at the bottom of the window. The view buttonscbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-10are present on the right side of the Status bar. Usually two common buttons that are present are Datasheet view and Design view.

TABLES IN ACCESS
The tables are the building blocks of a database and are used for storing data. A table is made up of rows and columns. A database can have one or more tables.
Consider the following table that stores data about the employees in an organisation.cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-11Components of a Table
The important components of a table are:
1. Field or Attribute: The columns in a table are known as fields or A field is a named unit of information. A field stores one type of information about all the objects or items. Every field has a data type that determines the type of values that can be stored under it. For example, the above table has four fields or attributes. The field Ename stores text values and the field Esalary stores numeric values. Let us learn more about field data types.
Field Data types
The various data types available in Access are given in Table 2.2.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-12After setting the data type for a field, we can set its properties. Let us learn more about field properties. 
Field Properties
After we have decided on the data type of the table, we can set field properties. The Field properties let us have more control on data that can be entered in a particular field. Some of the field properties are listed in Table 2.3.

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2. Record: The rows in a table are known as records A record stores complete information about an object or an item. For example, Table Employee (Table 2.1) has four records. Each record contains the complete information about an employee.
3. Primary key:A primary key is a field or combination of fields that uniquely identifies the records in a table. A primary key field cannot have repetitive values and cannot be left blank. In Table 2.1, Eno field can be made the primary key as every employee has a unique employee number.

Views of a Table
We can work on a table in two views—Design view and Datasheet view. Let us learn more about them.
Design view cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-14
In the Design view of the table, you can enter the field names, their data types and description. You can also set the field properties. The Design view window is divided into two panes—

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  1. Field Grid Pane: Field Grid
    Pane is used for entering field names and their data types. You can also give an optional description about each field in this pane.
  2. Field Properties Pane: Field Properties Pane is used to set properties for the fields in the table.

Datasheet viewcbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-16
You use the Datasheet view to enter data in the table. When you double-click the table name in the database window, the table opens in the Datasheet view.

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Switching between Views
You can quickly switch from one view to another by following either of the two options:
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  • Click on the View option in the Views group on the Home tab to change to the desired view.
    (OR) 
  • Click on the Design viewcbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-18-1or Datasheet viewcbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-18-2buttons at the bottom-right corner of the Status bar.

CREATING A TABLE
There are various ways to create tables in Access. In this chapter, you will be learning to create tables in the Design view. This view lets you design the structure of a table by specifying the field names, their data types and properties.
The steps to create a table in the Design view are:
Step 1: Click on the Create tab.
Step 2: Click on the Table Design option in the Tables group. A new table is inserted in the database and it opens in the Design View. A new tab named Design appears in the Ribbon.

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Step 3: Enter the name for the field in the Field Name column.
Step 4: 
Enter the name for the field in the Field Name column.
Step 5: 
Use the Field Properties pane to set the properties for the fields.
Repeat steps 3 to 5 for all the fields in the table.cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-20

Step 6: Place the cursor on the field to be set as the Primary key and click oncbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-21the Primary Key option in the Tools group on the Design tab. You will notice that a key symbolcbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-21-1appears next to the field.
Step 7: Click on the Save button on the Quick Access toolbar or Click on the File tab and choose the Save option. Save the table with an appropriate name.cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-22The table object is now added to the Navigation Pane.cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-23

ADDING RECORDS OR DATA IN A TABLE
After creating the table in the Design view, we can add records to it in the Datasheet view. The steps to enter records in a table are as follows:
Step 1: Open the table in the Datasheet view. (Double-click on the table in the Navigation Pane to open it in the Datasheet view)
Step 2: Click on the New option in Records group on the Home tab. A new record is inserted in the table.
Step 3: Type the values for various fields in a record. When you start entering data, a new record gets inserted automatically at the end of a table.

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DELETING RECORDS IN A TABLE
Step 1: Open the table in the Datasheet view and follow these steps to delete a record. Select the record that needs to be deleted.
Step 2: Click on the Delete optioncbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-25in the Records group on the Home tab.

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SORTING RECORD IN A TABLE
Open the table in the Datasheet view and follow these steps to sort records.
Step 1: Select the field on the basis of which you want to sort the records.
Step 2: Click on the Ascending or Descending option in the Sort & filter group on the Home tab. The records get sorted.

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MODIFYING THE TABLE DESIGN
We can make changes to the design of a table after it has been created. Let us learn how to insert and remove a field from a table.
Inserting a New Field
Open the table in Design view and follow the given steps to insert a field in the table.
Step 1: Place the cursor on the field before which you want to insert a new field.
Step 2: Click on the Insert Rows option in the Tools group on the Design tab. A new row is inserted. Enter the field name, data type and properties for the new field.cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-introduction-to-microsoft-access-2013-28

Deleting a Field
Open the table in Design view and follow the given steps to delete a field in the table.
Step 1: Click the field that has to be removed.
Step 2: Click on the Delete Rows option in the Tools group on the Design tab.
Step 3: Before permanently deleting a field, Access displays a warning box confirming whether you want to delete the field permanently. Click on the Yes button.
The field is deleted from the table.
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CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast

CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast

BASIC BUILDING CONCEPTS
Reproduction is the ability of an individual to produce new generation of individuals of same species.
It involves the transmission of genetic material from the parental generation to the next generation, thereby ensuring that characteristics, not only of the species but also the parental organisms, are perpetuated.

Types of Reproduction
Reproduction is of two types – Asexual and Sexual.

  1. Asexual reproduction – Production of offspring by a single parent without the involvement of gamete formation is called asexual reproduction. The off springs produced by asexual reproduction are identical to parents. Such identical off springs from a single parent are referred to as clone.
    Asexual reproduction is of various types which are listed in the following flow chart.
    CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 1
  2. Sexual reproduction – Sexual reproduction involves two parents. Male parent produces male gametes and female parent produces female gametes. Male and female gametes fuse together to form a zygote. Zygote is the first cell of next generation.

AIM
To study

  • binary fission in Amoeba, and
  • budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides.

MATERIALS REQUIRED
Compound microscope, permanent slides of binary fission in Amoeba and budding in yeast.

THEORY
Binary Fission – This is a type of asexual reproduction which takes place in Amoeba. In this type of reproduction, parent cell divides into two small, nearly equal sized identical daughter cells. The two daughter cells then grow into adult organism. In binary fission parental identity is lost.
Budding – This is also a type of asexual reproduction which is common in yeast. In this type of reproduction a small bud-like outgrowth develops at the parent cell. This bud enlarges in size. The nucleus also enlarges in size and divides to form two nuclei. Out of these two nuclei, one goes into developing bud. When the bud attains almost the same size as that of parent cell, a separating wall is laid down between the bud and parent cell. This bud may detach from the parent cell or may produce another bud over it.

PROCEDURE

  1. Select the slide of binary fission in Amoeba and budding in yeast.
  2. Set-up a compound microscope. While looking through the eye piece, adjust the mirror and diaphragm so that microscope is illuminated.
  3. Now, place the slide on stage and focus at low power. Observe it.
  4. Without removing the slide, now change the focus to high power. Observe it.

OBSERVATIONS
(a) Binary Fission in Amoeba

  • This is a type of asexual reproduction in which two daughter cells (or two individuals) are formed from a single parent.
  • Parent cell becomes elongated.
  • Nucleus divides first and then the cytoplasm divides.
  • At the point of fission, constriction appears and deepens to divide the cell into two daughter cells.
    CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 2

(b) Budding in Yeast

  • In this type of asexual reproduction, a small protuberance or outgrowth arises from the parent body called bud.
  • Nucleus divides to form two daughter nuclei, of which one passes into the bud.
  • The bud now detaches from the parent body and grows independently as a new individual or may remain attached to parent body, forming chain of cells.
  • Parental identity is not lost.
    CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 3

RESULT
The slides show reproduction by binary fission in Amoeba and budding in yeast.

PRECAUTIONS

  1. Always focus the slide, first at low power and then at high power.
  2. While focussing at high power, do not use coarse adjustment of microscope. Only use fine adjustment.

INTERACTIVE SESSION

Question 1.
What is reproduction?
Answer:
Reproduction is the process by which individuals produce offsprings of their own species.

Question 2.
What are the types of reproduction?
Answer:
Reproduction is of two types-

  1. Sexual reproduction
  2. Asexual reproduction.

Question 3.
Define sexual reproduction.
Answer:
Sexual reproduction is the production of offsprings by the fusion of two gametes to form a zygote which develops into a mature organism.

Question 4.
What is asexual reproduction?
Answer:
Asexual reproduction is the production of offsprings by a parent without fertilisation and formation of gametes.

Question 5.
Differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction.
Answer:
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 4

Question 6.
Out of sexual and asexual reproduction, which one leads to more variations among offsprings. Why?
Answer:
Sexual reproduction leads to variations as it involves fusion of gametes and crossing over of chromosomes during gamete formation.

Question 7.
What is binary fission?
Answer:
Binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction in which parent cell divides amitotically to form two daughter cells. In cell division, first the nucleus divides and then the cytoplasm.

Question 8.
How is binary fission different from multiple fission?
Answer:
In binary fission, one cell divides to form two daughter cells, whereas in multiple fission, one cell forms several daughter cells.

Question 9.
Why do we classify budding, fission or fragmentation as a type of asexual reproduction?
Answer:
All these are categorised as types of asexual reproduction as they all involve one single parent and no gamete formation takes place.

Question 10.
Give examples of organisms which show the following –

  1. Binary fission
  2. Budding.

Answer:
Examples of organisms which reproduce by binary fission are – Amoeba, Paramoecium, Euglena.
Examples of organisms which reproduce by budding are – Yeast, Hydra.

Question 11.
In Amoeba, which event occurs first; division of nucleus or division of cytoplasm?
Answer:
Division of nucleus followed by division of cytoplasm.

Question 12.
Define budding.
Answer:
Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a small outgrowth or protuberance called bud appears. Bud may or may not separate from parent body.

Question 13.
Distinguish between budding in yeast and budding in Hydra.
Answer:
Yeast is a unicellular fungi. The bud formed is unicellular and may remain attached to parent cell, whereas bud in Hydra is multicellular and appears as branch. This branch separates from parent body and grows as separate individual.

Question 14.
Name the most common method of reproduction in yeast.
Answer:
Budding.

Question 15.
Name the type of cell divisions involved in asexual reproduction.
Answer:
Amitosis and mitosis.

Question 16.
What is vegetative propagation?
Answer:
It is a method of asexual reproduction in which a vegetative part of plant is used to produce new individual.

Question 17.
Give one term for the division of nucleus.
Answer:
Karyokinesis.

Question 18.
Offsprings formed by asexual reproduction are called clones. What are clones?
Answer:
All individuals which are morphologically and genetically similar to each other and are derived from a single parent are called clone.

Question 19.
What are spores?
Answer:
A spore is a small unit involved in asexual reproduction. These are microscopic, unicellular structures which contain small amount of cytoplasm and nucleus.

Question 20.
Amoeba is immortal. Comment.
Answer:
Amoeba divides into two by binary fission, each grows to live and no dead body is left.

Question 21.
Which organisms have better survival value-asexually or sexually reproducing?
Answer:
Sexually reproducing organisms have better survival value as they show more variations.

Question 22.
What are the advantages of asexual reproduction?
Answer:
Advantages include

  • Offsprings are identical to the parents.
  • Rapid multiplication of organisms.
  • Vegetative propagation is the only method of reproduction for plants which does not produce viable seeds.

NCERT LAB MANUAL QUESTIONS

Question 1.
Which type of cell division is involved in binary fission?
Answer:
Mitosis

Question 2.
How many daughter cells are formed in binary fission?
Answer:
Two

Question 3.
Why are binary fission and budding included under asexual reproduction?
Answer:

  • Only one parent is involved.
  • Offsprings are genetically identical.

Question 4.
Are binary fission and budding faster process of reproduction when compared to sexual reproduction. Justify.
Answer:
Yes, as by simple cell division, daughter cells are formed. In sexual reproduction, formation and fertilisation of gametes are involved.

PRACTICAL BASED QUESTIONS

Multiple Choice Questions /VSA (1 Mark)

Question 1.
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 5
The figures given above are drawn from slides showing reproduction in yeast and Amoeba. The correct description of the above is [Delhi 2010]
(a) Amoeba undergoing binary fission is at a ; stage when nucleus is elongating, while yeast is undergone budding.
(b) Yeast is undergoing binary fission and ;
daughter nuclei have already formed, while a j newly formed daughter Amoeba is undergoing growth.
(c) The nucleus of a parent Amoeba is undergoing ; division to pass into its bud while yeast has j already divided into two daughter cells.
(d) Amoeba is undergoing cytokinesis and Yeast is undergoing budding.

Question 2.
After observing slides showing stages of j reproduction in Amoeba and yeast, students j reported the following observations. [Delhi 2012, AI 2010]
(i) Cytokinesis was seen in the yeast cell.
(ii) A chain of buds was seen due to reproduction in Amoeba.
(iii) In Amoeba, elongated nucleus was dividing to form two daughter nuclei.
(iv) Single cells of Amoeba and yeast were undergoing binary fission and budding respectively.
The correct observations are
(a) (i) and (ii) only
(b) (ii) only
(c) (iii) and (iv) only
(d) (i), (iii) and (iv) only

Question 3.
A chain of yeast cells are formed because [Foreign 2010]
(a) yeast cells do not separate after budding
(b) daughter cells are unable to survive without parent cells
(c) buds reproduce as soon as they are formed
(d) daughter cells stick together with the help of mucus

Question 4.
Out of the following diagrams which one depicts a stage in binary fission of Amoeba?
[Delhi 2012, CBSE Sample Paper 2009]
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 6
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

Question 5.
The following figures illustrate binary fission in Amoeba in an incorrect sequence. [Foreign 2012, AI 2012,11, CBSE Sample Paper 2009]
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 15
The correct sequence is :
(a) (i), (iii), (iv), (ii)
(b) (ii), (iii), (iv), (i)
(c) (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)
(d) (iii),(iv),(ii),(i)

Question 6.
Four stages of binary fission in Amoeba are shown below. The stage at which nuclear fission and cytokinesis both are observed is, the stage [Delhi 2009, 2008C, AI 2008, 2008 C]
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 7
(a) I
(b) II
(c) III
(d) IV

Question 7.
Out of the given diagrams, the correctly labelled diagram showing budding in yeast is [AI 2009]
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 8
(a) I
(b) II
(c) III
(d) IV

Question 8.
Name the type of asexual reproduction in which parental identity is maintained.
(a) Multiple fission
(b) Binary fission
(c) Budding
(d) All of these

Question 9.
During binary fission in Amoeba, which of the following occurs first?
(a) Cytokinesis
(b) Karyokinesis
(c) Both (a) and (b), simultaneously
(d) None of these

Question 10.
In the slides showing binary fission in Amoeba and budding in yeast, the correct observations are [Delhi 2007C]
(a) the daughter cells of Amoeba and the bud of yeast are smaller than their respective parental cells.
(b) the daughter cells of Amoeba and the bud of yeast are of the same size as their respective parental cells.
(c) the daughter cells of Amoeba are bigger than the parent but bud of yeast is smaller than the parent.
(d) the daughter cells of Amoeba are smaller than the parent but bud of yeast is larger than parent.

Question 11.
A student observed a slide of yeast under a microscope and saw collection of cells in different parts of the slide marked A, B, C and D as shown below. Which one of the following parts of the slide shows budding in yeast? [Foreign 2008]
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 9
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

Question 12.
Mention sequence of budding
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 10
Correct sequence is
(a) A, B, C, D
(b) A, D, B, C
(c) C, A, B, D
(d) D, A, B, C

Question 13.
What do F and E represent in the given diagram?
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 11
(a) Parent yeast cells
(b) Daughter Amoebae
(c) Yeast buds
(d) Parent Amoebae

Question 14.
Which of the following is not a feature of asexual reproduction?
(a) Two individuals of different sexes involved.
(b) No meiosis occurs.
(c) New individuals are genetically identical to the parents. .
(d) Offsprings are clones of parents.

Question 15.
From the following diagrams, select the correct ones showing stages of binary fission in Amoeba and budding in yeast in their proper sequence
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 12
(a) 5, 1, 4 and 2, 3, 6
(b) 3, 4, 7 and 2, 8, 6
(c) 7, 4, 1 and 3, 8, 6
(d) 8, 7, 4 and 3, 2, 6.

ANSWER KEY

  1. (a)
  2. (c)
  3. (a)
  4. (d)
  5. (b)
  6. (b)
  7. (b)
  8. (c)
  9. (b)
  10. (a)
  11. (b)
  12. (a)
  13. (b)
  14. (a)
  15. (c)

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is binary fission? Name any two organisms that reproduce by binary fission.
Answer:
Binary fission is a mode of asexual reproduction in which a parent cell divides to form two small, nearly equal sized daughter individuals. Amoeba and Paramecium reproduce by binary fission.

Question 2.
Give various steps of budding in yeast.
Answer:

  • A small bud-like outgrowth develops on the parent cell.
  • Bud enlarges in size.
  • Nucleus enlarges and divides into two.
  • One nucleus goes into developing bud.
  • Bud detaches from parent cell.

Question 3.
Differentiate between binary fission and multiple fission.
Answer:
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 13

Question 4.
Why are binary fission and budding included in asexual reproduction?
Answer:
As in both-binary fission and budding, only one parent is involved, so these two modes of reproduction are included in asexual reproduction.

Question 5.
Differentiate between binary fission and budding.
Answer:
CBSE Class 10 Science Practical Skills – Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast 14

Science Practical SkillsScience LabsMath LabsMath Labs with Activity

Reported Speech Exercises for Class 8 CBSE With Answers

Reported speech is when we express or say things that have already been said by somebody else.

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 8 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.

Reported Speech Exercises for Class 8 CBSE With Answers Pdf

When we say things that have been said, we use two ways of expressing it. The first is direct speech when we express what the speaker said as it is and the second is indirect speech where we express what was said in our words.

How do we use reported speech?

“I know quite a lot of people here.’ Robert said. Present Simple Simple Past He said that he knew quite a lot of people there
‘John is feeling much better ‘Paul said. Present continuous Past Continuous He said that John was feeling much better.
‘I enjoyed my holiday in the States’ David said. Simple Past Past Perfect He said that he had enjoyed his holiday in the States.
‘Jackie wasn’t feeling very well’ The teacher said. Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous He said that Jackie had been feeling very well.
‘They’ve seen the Eiffel Tower’ john Said Present Perfect Past Perfect He said that they had seen the Eiffel Tower.
‘I have been waiting for ages ‘My father said. Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous He said that he had been waiting for ages.
‘Nobody had warned them about the storm’ He said. Present Perfect Past Perfect He said that had warned about the storm.
‘She had been reading all ‘Brenda said. Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous She said that she had been reading all day.

Reporting Questions
We use a special form when we report questions:

WH – Questions :
Where is + Tom’s house? He asked where Tom’s house + was.
Where does Tom live? He asked where Tom lived,

Yes/No Questions:
Does Tom live in Miami? She asked if Tom lived in Miami.
Is Tom happy? She asked if Tom was happy.

Say vs. Tell
Say something
June : “I love English.”
June said (that) she loved English.

Tell someone something
June: “I love English.”
June told me (that) she loved English.

Modal Verbs and Reported Speech
Must, might, could, would, should, and ought to stay the same in reported speech. We usually change may to might.

Would
They said, “we would apply for a visa”
He said “I would start a business.
She said, “I would appear in exam”
They said that they would apply for visa.
He said that he would start a business.
She said that she would appear in the exam.
Could
She said, “she could play the piano”
They said, “we couldn’t learn the lesson”
He said, “I could run faster
She said that she could play a violin.
They said they couldn’t learn the lesson.
He said that he could run faster.
Might
He said, “guest might come”
She said, “it might rain”
John said, “I might meet him”
He said that guest might come.
She said that it might rain.
John said that he might meet him.
Should
He said, “I should avail the opportunity,”
She said, “I should help a him”
They said, “we said take the exam”
He said that he should avail the opportunity. She said that she should help him.
They said that they should take the exam.
Ought to
He said to me, “you ought to wait for him”
She said, “I ought to learn method of study”
They said, we ought to attend our classes”
He said to me that I ought to wait for him.
She said that she ought to learn method of study.
They said that they ought to attend their classes.

Reported Requests
There’s more! What if someone asks you to do something (in a polite way)?

For example:

  • Direct speech: close the window, please
  • Or: Could you close the window please?
  • Or: Would you mind closing the window please?

All of these requests mean the same thing, so we don’t need to report every word when we tell another person about it. We simply use ‘ask me + to + infinitive’:

  • Reported speech: She asked me to close the window.
  • Here are a few more examples:
Direct Request Reported Request
Please help me. She asked me to help her.

Reported Orders
And finally, how about if someone doesn’t ask so politely? We can call this an ‘order’ in English, when someone tells you very directly to do something.

For example:

  • Direct speech: Sit down!
    In fact, we make this into reported speech in the same way as a request. We just use ‘tell’ instead of ‘ask’:
  • Reported speech: She told me to sit down.
    Direct Order  Reported Order
    Go to bed!  He told the child to go to bed.
    Don’t worry!  He told her not to worry.
    Be on time!  He told me to be on time.
    Don’t smoke!  He told us not to smoke.

Changes in words showing proximity (time and place)
Study the list given below to revise the changes in words showing the proximity of place and time when converting direct speech to indirect speech.

this becomes that
these become those
here becomes there
now becomes then
before becomes earlier/previously
today becomes that day
tomorrow becomes the next day
yesterday becomes the previous day

Reported Speech Practice Exercises for Class 8 CBSE

A. Write the following sentences in indirect speech. The first one has been done for you.

1. He said, “I will meet you outside the post office at three tomorrow afternoon.”
He said that he would meet me outside the post office at there the following afternoon.

2. The teacher told us, “The freezing point of water is 0°c.”
_______________________________________
3. “When I dropped the jug, it smashed to pieces,” my little brother says.
_______________________________________
4. The man said, “I have seen you somewhere before.”
_______________________________________
5. The mechanic said, “Your car was ready last night, but you did not come to get it.”
_______________________________________
7. He said, “I shall return your magazines tomorrow.”
_______________________________________
8. “My car broke down, and I had to walk two kilometers to get to a phone-booth,” the man said.
_______________________________________
9. “An English play is being held in the school hall now,” she told us.
_______________________________________
10. “The building burnt down many years before we moved here,” my father told me.
_______________________________________

B. Write the following sentences into indirect speech.

1. “Don’t leave your bag out here, Tommy,” Kiren said.
_______________________________________
2. “Stand at attention!” the captain commanded his men.
_______________________________________
3. “Don’t touch it! Leave it alone!” I said
_______________________________________
4. “Please take me to the park, Father,” the little boy said.
_______________________________________
5. “Please tell me exactly what happened,” she said.
_______________________________________
6. “Speak up. I can’t hear you,” he said to the new boy.
_______________________________________
7. “Don’t shake the table while I am writing!” Pawan told his brother.
_______________________________________
8. “Please bring your own plates and spoons,” she told us.
_______________________________________
9. “Return to the ship immediately!” the officer ordered his men.
_______________________________________
10. “Open that drawer and bring me the scissors,” Deepak told his brother.
_______________________________________

C. Write the following sentences in indirect speech.

1. “The Prince and Princess lived happily ever after,” the storyteller told the children.
_______________________________________
2. “Don’t push!” the conductor said to the passengers who were boarding the bus.
_______________________________________
3. “I’m sorry but I can’t join you for lunch,” he told his friend.
_______________________________________
4. “Do the exercises from pages sixty to sixty-two,” Miss Malhotra told the pupils.
_______________________________________
5. “Do you know how to operate a computer?” asked the personnel officer.
_______________________________________
6. “Help! Help! Help!” I heard someone shout.
_______________________________________
7. “Are you mad at me?” asked the elder sister.
_______________________________________
8. The cheerleaders shouted, “Hurray! Fight them! Show them all your might!”
_______________________________________
9. “Keep the change,” the rich man said to the waitress.
_______________________________________
10. I said to myself, “I will definitely beat him in the next event.”
_______________________________________

D. Rewrite these sentences in direct speech. The first one has been done for you.

1. My mother asked me to buy a dozen eggs from the shop.
“Can you buy me a dozen eggs from the shop?” asked my mother.

2. I told myself that I would finish painting the gate by that afternoon.
_______________________________________
3. The judge asked the defendant to speak louder.
_______________________________________
4. The engineer wanted the workers to complete the project by the following day.
_______________________________________
5. Anu reported to the police about her purse being snatched.
_______________________________________

E. Use past tenses, present perfect or past perfect tenses to complete the sentences.

We _____________ in Bristol from January to March. (stay)
Where is my wine? Someone _____________ my wine! (drink)
When you _____________ you _____________ fast? (crash, drive)
I’m sorry. Dad isn’t here. He _____________ our neighbour’s flat since the morning. (decorate)
What a nice coat! Where _____________ you _____________ it? (buy)
At 6 o’clock he _____________ there for three hours! (sit)
I want to learn French. But I _____________ yet. (not start)
We didn’t want to spend our holiday in Strobl because _____________ already _____________ there. (be)
What _____________ ? You are so dirty! (do)
Oh, no! I _____________ my way. What shall I do? (lose)
Jim _____________ the dishes after dinner. The kitchen sink is full of plates. (not wash)
She _____________ three clients since the morning. (contact)
I couldn’t help you. I _____________ your problems. (not understand)
Does he know about it? _____________ him yet? (tell)
Bill admitted that he _____________ the catalogue to the agency. (not send)
As soon as I _____________ the message, I _____________ my house (get, leave)
While Maggie _____________ a new Jumper, Jill and I _____________ (knit, read)
Here he is! He _____________ for me all the time, he _____________ for Ann! (not look, wait)
_____________ you in your room at 5.30? Yes, I think I _____________ my suitcase. (be, pack) Nice to
meet you! I _____________ uyou for 10 years. What _____________ you _____________ all this time? (not see, do)
He _____________ but he’ll be back home today. The doctors ____________ to cure him. (die, manage)
After we _____________ to the top of hill we had a great view of the bay. (elimb)
The pigeon finally delivered the news after it _____________ for the whole day. (fly)

F. In the following sentences the speakers are all saying something different to what they told you before. Write replies to their statements as given in the example.
Example:

  • “I’m going out with Alisha.”
    But you said you weren’t going out with her.

1. “I haven’t finished my project.”
I thought you said ________________
2. “I’m better at tennis than golf.”
But you told me ________________
3. “I enjoy parties.”
I remember you saying ________________
4. “I’ve got a video recorder.”
But you said yesterday ________________
5. “I’m applying for the job.”
I thought you told me ________________
6. “I like Indian food more than Chinese.”
But you said ________________
7. “I prefer pop music to classical music.”
You told me ________________

G. Change the following sentence to indirect speech.

1. Our teacher said, “Time is precious, so spend your free time in the best possible way.”
________________________________________________
2. “Ugh! This toilet is so smelly,” Rita said.
________________________________________________
3. Chetan said, “Please buy me a bar of chocolate.”
________________________________________________
4. “Polish your boots,” the army officer said to his men.
________________________________________________
5. “Get me a glass of water,” he said to her.
________________________________________________
6. “What a beautiful car!” he remarked.
________________________________________________
7. “Please spare me some money,” the beggar said.
________________________________________________
8. “You must listen to me!” his mother cried.
________________________________________________
9. “Pass me that salt, please,” the man said to her.
________________________________________________
10. “Get out or I’ll call the police!” the lady said to him.
________________________________________________

H. Change the following to reported speech by completing the sentence.

1. She asked, “Have you been here before?”
She asked me if _________________
2. “Is your sister still asleep?” my mother asked.
My mother asked _________________
3. The policeman said, “Show me your license.”
The policeman demanded _________________
4. “Shall I open the windows for you?” he asked.
He asked me whether _________________
He offered to _________________
5. “Where will you be going for your holidays?” she asked.
She wanted to know _________________
6. “When will you be visiting the hospital? I want to come along,” she said.
She wanted to know _________________
7. “Is the ship leaving on Monday or Tuesday?” She inquired.
She inquired whether _________________
8. “What’s wrong with your cheek? Have you been fighting again?” my mother asked.
My mother asked what _________________
9. “Did you learn anything interesting at the seminar?” he inquired.
He inquired _________________
10. “The purpose of this project is to encourage teamwork and inculcate a sense of belonging,” he said.
He said that _________________

I. Change these sentences from Direct to Indirect Speech.
Example

  • “Oh!” she cried in fright on seeing him.
  • “Why did you suddenly appear like this?”

She exclaimed in fright when she saw him and asked him why he had suddenly appeared like that.

1. “I am sorry,” she said to me, “but my brother won’t be back until late tonight.”
___________________________________________________
2. The guard reported, “I heard some shots and ran out into the compound to investigate.”
___________________________________________________
3. “When will he be back?” Sheela said. “I have something important to tell him.”
___________________________________________________
4. “Did you go to the circus that’s performing here?” Jatin asked me. “It was a wonderful show.”
___________________________________________________
5. “Good morning!” she said when she saw me. “How are you today? I heard you had been quite ill.”
___________________________________________________
6. “Come here at once!” he ordered the frightened boy. “If you don’t, I shall give you a beating.”
___________________________________________________
7. “Don’t do too much heavy work now,” the doctor advised Mrs. Birla. “Get as much rest as possible.”
___________________________________________________
8. “Please come,” he said. “I want to show you my new fish. My father bought it yesterday.”
___________________________________________________
9. “Are you going out now? If you are, see that you are back by ten,” my mother said to! me.
___________________________________________________
10. “Yes, please do so,” I answered her. “I will wait here until you return.”
___________________________________________________

CBSE Class 12 Case Studies In Business Studies – Business Environment

CBSE Class 12 Case Studies In Business Studies – Business Environment

BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
Business Environment: Definition
The term ‘business environment’ means the sum total of all individuals, institutions and other forces that are outside the control of a business enterprise but that may affect its performance.

Importance of Business Environment

  1. It enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage instead of losing them to its competitors.
  2. It helps the firm to identify threats and early warning signals which are likely to hinder a firm’s performance and take timely actions.
  3. It helps in tapping useful resources as the enterprise designs policies that allow it to get the resources that it needs so that it can convert those resources into outputs that the environment desires.
  4. It helps in coping with rapid changes as the managers are able to understand and examine the environment and develop appropriate courses of action.
  5. It helps in assisting in planning and policy formulation as its understanding and analysis can be the basis for deciding the future course of action or decision making.
    It helps in improving performance of an enterprise through continuous monitoring of the environment and adopting suitable business practices which help to improve both their present and future performance
  6. It helps in improving performance of an enterprise through continuous monitoring of the environment and adopting suitable business practices which help to improve both their present and future performance

Features of Business Environment

  1. It is a sum total of all the forces external to business firms.
  2. It consists of both specific forces such as investors, customers, competitors and suppliers which affect individual enterprises directly and immediately in their day-to¬day working and general forces such as social, political, legal and technological conditions which have impact on all business enterprises and thus may affect an individual firm only indirectly.
  3. All the elements of business environment are closely interrelated.
  4. It is dynamic in nature and keeps on changing due to technological upgradations, shifts in consumer preferences or increase in competition in the market.
  5. It is highly uncertain as it is not always possible to predict future happenings, especially when environment changes are taking place too frequently as in the case of information technology or fashion industries.
  6. It is complex in nature as it is relatively easier to understand in parts but difficult to comprehend in its totality because it consists of numerous interrelated and dynamic conditions or forces which arise from different sources.
  7. It is a relative concept since it differs from country to country and even region to region

DIMENSIONS OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
Dimensions of the business environment include economic, social, technological, political and legal conditions which are considered relevant for decision-making and improving the performance of an enterprise.

Various Factors Constituting the General Environment of Business

  1. Economic Environment comprises of factors that can affect management practices ina business enterprise. It includes interest rates, inflation rates, changes in disposable income of people, stock market indices and the value of rupee etc.
  2. Social Environment includes the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends, society’s expectations from business, etc.
  3. Technological Environment includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating business.
  4. Political Environment includes political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes that elected government representatives hold towards business.
  5. Legal Environment includes various legislations passed by the Government administrative orders issued by government authorities, court judgments as well as the decisions rendered by various commissions and agencies at every level of the government— center, state or local.

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT IN INDIA 
Various Macro-level Factors of Economic Environment in India

  1. Stage of economic development of the country.
  2. The economic structure in the form of mixed economy which recognises the role of both public and private sectors.
  3. Economic policies of the Government, including industrial, monetary and fiscal policies.
  4. Economic planning, including five year plans, annual budgets, and so on.
  5. Economic indices, like national income, distribution of income, rate and growth of GNP, per capita income, disposal personal income, rate of savings and investments, value of exports and imports, balance of payments, etc.
  6. Infrastructural factors, such as, financial institutions, banks, modes of transportation communication facilities etc.

The Constituents of Economic Environment of Business in India at the time of Independence

  1. The Indian economy was mainly agricultural and rural in character.
  2. About 70% of the working population was employed in agriculture.
  3. About 85% of the population was living in the villages.
  4. Production was carried out using irrational, low productivity technology
  5. Communicable diseases were widespread, mortality rates were high and there was no good public health system.

Key Aspects of the Economic Planning in India After Independence

  1. Initiate rapid economic growth to raise the standard of living, reduce unemployment and poverty.
  2. Become self-reliant and set upa strong industrial base with emphasis on heavy and basic industries.
  3. Reduce inequalities of income and wealth.
  4. Adopt a socialist pattern of development— based on equality and prevent exploitation of man by man.

NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY OF 1991
Three Major Componenets of New Industrial Policy of 1991

  1. Liberalisation
  2. Privatisation
  3. Globalisation

Disinvestment definition
Disinvestments refers to transfer from public sector enterprises to the private sector through dilution of state of the Government in the public enterprise

The Broad Feature of New Industrial Policy, 1991

  1. The Government reduced the number of industries under compulsory licensing to six.
  2. Many of the industries reserved for the public sector under the earlier policy, were dereserved. The role of the public sector was limited only to four industries of strategic importance.
  3. Disinvestment was carried out in case of many public sector industrial enterprises.
  4. The share of foreign equity participation was increased and in many activities 100 per cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) was permitted.
  5. Automatic permission was now granted for technology agreements with foreign companies.
  6. Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) was set up to promote and channelise foreign investment in India.

Liberalisation 
These economic reforms signalled the The new set of economic Globalisation means the end of the licence-permit-quota raj reforms aimed at giving integration of the various and were aimed at liberalising the greater role to the private economies of the world Indian business and industry from all sector in the nation building leading towards the unnecessary controls and restrictions.
Simplifying procedures for imports and exports.
Key initiatives of the government:

  1. Abolishing licensing requirement in most of the industries except a short list .
  2. Freedom in deciding the scale of business activities
  3. Removal of restrictions on the movement of goods and services.
  4. Freedom in fixing the prices of goods and services.
  5. Reduction in tax rates and lifting of unnecessary controls over the economy.
  6. Making it easier to attract foreign capital and technology to India.

Privatisation
The new set of economic Globalisation means the end of the licence-permit-quota raj reforms aimed at giving integration of the various and were aimed at liberalising the greater role to the private economies of the world Indian business and industry from all sector in the nation building leading towards the
unnecessary controls and restrictions. process and a reduced role emergence of a cohesive to the public sector.
Key initiatives of the government:

  1. Adopted the policy of planned disinvestments of the public sector.
  2. Decided to refer the loss making and sick enterprises to the Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction.

Globalisation
These economic reforms signalled the The new set of economic Globalisation means the end of the licence-permit-quota raj reforms aimed at giving integration of the various and were aimed at liberalising the greater role to the private economies of the world Indian business and industry from all sector in the nation building leading towards the unnecessary controls and restrictions. process and a reduced role emergence of a cohesive to the public sector. global economy.
Key initiatives of the government:

  1. Import liberalisation and export promotion through rationalisation of the tariff structure and reforms with respect to foreign exchange.
  2. Increased level of interaction and interdependence among the various nations of the global economy.

MIND MAP

cbse-class-12-case-studies-in-business-studies-business-environment-1

Impact of Government Policy Changes on Business and Industry/ Challenges faced by the
Indian Corporate Sector

  1. Increasing competition for Indian firms due to changes in the rules of industrial licensing and entry of foreign firms.
  2. More demanding customers as they are more aware and are offered wider choice in purchasing better quality of goods and services due to high competition.
  3. Repidly changing technological environment creates tough challenges before smaller firms.
  4. Necessity for change in the way of their operations.
  5. Need for developing human resource as the new market conditions require people with higher competence and greater commitment. Hence the need for developing human resources.
  6. Market orientation as the firms have to study and analyse the market first and produce goods accordingly.
  7. Loss of budgetary support to the public sector has declined over the years

Managerial Response to Changes in Business Environment

  1. Acquisitions and mergers
  2. Diversification
  3. Brand building
  4. Innovative distribution and selling techniques.
  5. Changes in capital structure
  6. Customer-oriented approach
  7. Technological developments
  8. Better labour relations

LATEST CBSE QUESTIONS

Question 1:
Metlapp Networks and Technologies Ltd. is a leader in technology innovation in the United States, creating products and solutions for connecting the world. It has,, a large research and development team which invented the first smart watch, named as W-7. The watch besides showing the time, also monitors few health parameters like heart beat, blood pressure etc.
While in search of markets abroad, the company found that in India, the reform process was underway with the aim of accelerating the pace of economic growth. The company decided to take advantage of simplified export procedure and removal of quantitative as well as tariff restrictions in India.
It set up its office in Jamnagar with a view to capture the Indian market. In a short span of time, the company emerged as a market leader. Success of the company attracted many other players to enter the market. Competition resulted in reduction in prices, thereby benefiting the customers.

  1. In the above paragraph, two major concepts related to government policy have been discussed. Identify and explain these concepts.
  2. Also, explain briefly any three impacts of these concepts on Indian business and industry.

Answer:

  1. Liberalisation and globalisation are the two major concepts related to government policy that have been discussed.
    • Liberalisation: These economic reforms signalled the end of the licence-pemit-quota raj and were aimed at liberalising the Indian business and industry from all unnecessary controls and restrictions.
    • Globalisation: Globalisation means the integration of the various economies of the world leading towards the emergence of a cohesive global economy.
  2. The three impacts of reforms on Indian business and industry are outlined below:
    • Increasing competition: The Indian firms are facing lot of competition due to changes in the rules of industrial licensing and entry of foreign firms. This change is more apparent in the sectors which were earlier reserved for private sector only like banking, insurance, telecommunications, etc.
    • More demanding customers: With the easy availability of wider choice in purchasing better quality of goods and services due to high competition consumers have become more aware and demanding. The growing expections of the consumers has increased the pressure on the business firms.
    • Rapidly changing technological environment: With the entry of new firms which are far more superior in terms of technology the small firms are facing a lot of challenges. Moreover, the firms are constantly involved in innovating new products and upgrading present products with the help of better technologies in order to satisfy the customers demands.

Question 2:
Naman and Govind after finishing their graduation under vocational stream decided to start their own travel agency which will book Rail Tickets and Air Tickets on commission basis. They also thought of providing tickets within ten minutes through the use of internet. They discussed the idea with their Professor Mr. Mehta who liked the idea and suggested them to first analyse the business environment which consists of investors’, competitors and other forces like social, political etc. that may affect their business directly or indirectly. He further told them about the technological improvements and shifts in consumer preferences that were taking place and hence they should be aware of the environmental trends and changes which may hinder their business performance. He emphasised on making plans keeping in mind the threat posed by the competitors, so that they can deal with the situation effectively. This alignment of business operations with the business environment will result in better performance.

  1. Identify and state the component of business environment highlighted in the above
    Para.
  2. State any two features of business environment as discussed by Professor Mehta with Naman and Govind.
  3. Also state two points of importance of business environment as stated by Professor Mehta in the above situation.

Answer:

  1. Technological Environment is the component of business environment highlighted in the above Para. Technological Environment includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.
  2. The two features of business environment as discussed by Professor Mehta with Naman and Govind are as follows:
    • Dynamic nature: It is dynamic in nature and keeps on changing due to technological upgradations, shifts in consumer preferences or increase in competition in the market.
    • Inter-relatedness: All the elements of business environment are closely interrelated. Therefore, any change is one element may necessitate corresponding changes in the other elements as well.
  3. The two points of importance of business environment as stated by Professor Mehta in the above situation are described below:
    • It enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage: The dynamic business environment provides numerous opportunities for a business to evolve as per the changing needs. Therefore, early identification of the forthcoming opportunities helps an enterprise to be the first to exploit them instead of losing them to the competitors.
    • It helps the firm to identify threats and early warning signals: Sometimes the changes in the external environment may pose as a threat and hinder a firm’s performance. An awareness about the business environment helps the managers to identify such threats on time and take necessary decisions and action.

Question 3:
With changes in the consumption habits of people, Neelesh, who was running a sweet shop, shifted to the chocolate business. On the eve of Diwali, he offered chocolates in attractive packages at reasonable prices. He anticipated huge demand and created a website chocolove. com for taking orders online. He got a lot of orders online and earned huge profits by selling the chocolate.
Identify and explain the dimensions of business environment discussed in the above case.
Answer:
The various dimensions of business environment being referred to in the above case are as follows:

  1. Social environment: Social Environment includes the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends, society’s expectations from business, etc.
  2. Technological environment: Technological Environment includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.

Question 4:
A recent rate cut in the interest on loans announced by the banks encouraged Amit, a science student of Progressive School, to take a loan from State Bank of India to experiment and develop cars to be powered by fuel produced from garbage. He developed such a car and
exhibited it in the Science Fair organised by the Directorate of Education. He was awarded the first prize for his invention.
Identify and explain the dimensions of business environment discussed in the above case.
Answer:
The various dimensions of business environment being referred to in the above case are as follows:

  1. Economic Environment: It comprises of factors that can affect management practices in a business enterprise includes interest rates, inflation rates, changes in disposable income of people, stock market indices and the value of rupee etc.
  2. Technological Environment: It includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.

Question 5:
‘Accent Electronics Ltd.’ was operating its business in Malaysia. The company started exporting its products to India when the Prime Minister announced relaxation in import duties on electronic items. The company appointed retailers in India who had direct online links with the suppliers to replenish stocks when needed.
Identify and explain the dimensions of business environment discussed in the above case.
Answer:
The various dimensions of business environment being referred to in the above case are as follows:

  1. Political Environment: Political Environment includes political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes that elected government representatives hold towards business.
  2. Technological Environment: Technological Environment includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.

Question 6:
After completing her MBA, Beni took up a job with a multinational company named Fortio. The company paid good salaries and perks to its employees. The wages were within the paying capacity of the company that provided the employees with a reasonable standard of living. The company also had a good work-culture and the behaviour of superiors was very good towards their subordinates. Beni was very happy in this organisation but due to long working hours, she did not have time to cook her meals. She had to depend upon outside food which was deteriorating her health.
She observed that this problem was faced by many of her colleagues, not only in her company but also in many other companies. This was because of increase in the number of working women and non-availability of hygienic home-cooked food. She identified this as a great opportunity and decided to give up her job to supply packaged home-cooked food to office-goers at a reasonable price. At the end of the day, she also distributed the leftover food to the nearby night-shelters.

  1. State the dimension of business environment being discussed above.
  2. State the principle of management being followed by Fortio.
  3. Identify any two values being communicated by the company to society in above case.

Answer:

  1. The dimension of business environment being discussed above is Social.
    Social Environment includes the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends, society’s expectations from business, etc.
  2. The principle of management being followed by Fortio is ‘Remuneration of employees’. Remuneration of employees: The overall pay and compensation should be fair to both employees and the organization. The employees should be paid fair wages, which should give them at least a reasonable standard of living. At the same time it should be within the paying capacity of the company i.e. remuneration should be just and equitable.
  3. The values being communicated by the company to the society are:
    • Justice
    • Ethical Behaviour

Question 7:
After completing his MBA from the USA, Mr. Ajay came to India to start a new business under the banner Ecom Creations Ltd. He launched a new product in e-learning for senior secondary school students in the commerce stream which already had an established market in the UK and the USA but not in India. His business started flourishing in India. As a result, more Indian companies entered into the market with other subjects also.
Identify and quote the lines from the above paragraph which highlight the significance of understanding business environment.
Answer:

  1. The understanding of business environment helps in assisting in planning and policy formulation as its understanding and analysis can be the basis for deciding the future course of action or decision making.
    It enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage instead of losing them to its competitors.
    ” After completing his MBA from USA, Mr. Ajay came to India .to start a new business under the banner Ecom Creations Ltd. He launched a new product in e-learning for senior secondary school students in the commerce stream which already had an established market in UK and the USA but not in India.”
  2. It helps in improving performance of an enterprise through continuous monitoring of the environment and adopting suitable business practices which help to improve both their present and future performance.
    “His business started flourishing in India.”
  3. It helps the firm to identify threats and early warning signals that is likely to hinder a firm’s performance and take timely actions.
    “As a result, more Indian companies entered into the market with other subjects.”

Question 8:
As per the directions issued by the Supreme Court, the government passed an order to ban the sale of tobacco products within the area of 200 meters of all educational institutions as:

  1. Its consumption is injurious to health.
  2. People are becoming more conscious about health and fitness. This indicates the government’s attitude towards this business.
    Identify the business environment under three different dimensions by quoting from above paragraph.

Answer:
The various dimensions of business environment being referred to the in the above case are as follows:

  1. Legal Environment: “As per the directions issued by the Supreme Court.’
  2. Political Environment: “The government passed an order to ban the sale of tobacco products within the area of 200 meters of all educational institutions.”
  3. Social Environment: “Its consumption is injurious to health and people are becoming more conscious about health and fitness.”

Question 9:
The court passed an order to ban polythene bags as:

  1. These bags create many environmental problems which affect the life of people.
  2. Society at large is more concerned about the quality of life.
    The government decided to give a subsidy to the jute industry in order to promote this business. As a result,—
    • Innovative techniques are being developed to manufacture jute bags at low rates.
    • Incomes are rising and people can afford to buy these bags.
      Identify the different dimensions of business environment by quoting lines from the above particulars.

Answer:
The various dimensions of business environment being referred to in the above case are as follows:

  1. Legal Environment: “The court passed an order to ban polythene bags.”
  2. Social Environment: “The bags create many environmental problems which affect the life of people and society at large is more concerned about the,,quality of life.”
  3. Political Environment: “The government decided to give a subsidy to the jute industry in order to promote this business.”
  4. Technological environment: “Innovative techniques are being developed to manufacture jute bags at low rate.”
  5. Economic Environment: “Incomes are rising and people can afford to buy these bags.”

Question 10:
The court passed an order that all schools must have water purifiers for the school children as:

  1. Society in general is more concerned about the quality of life. .
  2. Innovative techniques are being developed to manufacture water purifiers at competitive rates.
  3. Incomes are rising and children are drinking purified water at their homes as well.
  4. The Government is also showing a positive attitude towards the business of water purification.
    Identify the different dimensions of business environment by quoting from the above details.

Answer:
The various dimensions of business environment being referred to the in the above case are as follows:

  1. Legal Environment: “The court passed an order that all schools must have water purifiers for the school children.”
  2. Social Environment: “Society in general is more concerned about the quality of life.”
  3. Political Environment: “The government is also showing a positive attitude towards the business of water purifiers.”
  4. Technological environment: “Innovative techniques are being developed to manufacture water purifiers at competitive rate.”
  5. Economic Environment: “Incomes are rising and children are drinking purified water at their homes as well.”

Question 11:
Just after the declaration of the results of the Lok Sabha Elections, 2009, the Bombay Stock Exchange’s price index (Sensex) rose by 2100 points in a day. Identify the environmental factor which led to this rise.
Answer:
Political environment has led to the rise in the sensex.

Question 12:
The Government of India is seriously thinking of allowing the oil-marketing public sector undertaking to fix their own prices for petrol and diesel. Which economic reform is the reason for this change in the government’s policy?
Answer:
Privatisation as a reform is the reason for this change in the government policy.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS

Question 1:
On 8 November 2016, the Government of India announced the demonetisation making all Rs.500 and Rs. 1,000 banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi Series invalid past midnight. The government claimed that the action would curtail the use of illicit and counterfeit cash to fund illegal activity and terrorism. The BSE SENSEX and NIFTY 50 stock indices fell over 6 percent on the day after the announcement. The decision was heavily criticised by members of the opposition parties, leading to debates in both houses of parliament and triggering organised protests against the government in several places across India. People seeking to exchange their bank notes had to stand in lengthy queues, and several deaths were linked to the inconveniences caused due to the rush to exchange cash. After demonetisation the demand for point of sales (POS) or card swipe machines has increased. E-payment options like PayTM has also seen a rise.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify and explain the various dimensions of business environment which relate to the above mentioned case.
  2. List any through two values that the government seeks to promote through demonetisation.

Answer:

  1. The various dimensions of business environment which relate to the above mentioned case are outlined below:
    • Political Environment: Political Environment includes political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes that elected government representatives hold towards business.
    • Technological environment: Technological Environment includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.
    • Legal environment: Legal Environment includes various legislations passed by the Government administrative orders issued by government authorities, court judgments as well as the decisions rendered by various commissions and agencies at every level of the government— centre, state or local .
    • Social environment: Social Environment includes the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends, society’s expectations from business, etc.
    • Economic Environment: Economic Environment comprises of factors that can affect management practices in a business enterprise includes interest rates, inflation rates, changes in disposable income of people, stock market indices and the value of rupee etc.
  2. The two values that the government seeks to promote through demonitisation are:
    • Transparency in dealings
    • Promote well being of people

Question 2:
Post demonitisation in a further push to cashless economy, the Central cabinet has recently approved the ordinance for paying wages via electronic means. Accordingly, the government approved to Amend Section 6 of the Payment Of Wages Act 1936, to allow employers of certain industries to make payment through the electronic mode and cheques . The new ordinance will be applicable to the public sector. Identify the various dimensions of business environment which relate to the above mentioned case.
Answer:
The various dimensions of business environment which relate to the above mentioned case stated below:

  1. Political environment
  2. Legal environment
  3. Technology environment

Question 3:
Make in India is an initiative launched by the Government of India to encourage national and multinational companies to manufacture their products in India. It focuses on job creation and skill enhancement and is in twenty five sectors of the economy. Under the initiative, brochures on these sectors and a web portal were released. The initiative aims at high quality standards and minimising the impact on the environment. It also seeks to attract foreign capital investment in India.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify the various dimensions of business environment being referred to by quoting lines from the paragraph.
  2. List any two values which the Government of India wants to convey through this initiative.

Answer:

  1. The various dimensions of business environment being referred to in the above case are as follows:
    • Political Environment: “Make in India is an initiative launched by the Government of India to encourage national and multinational companies to manufacture their products in India.”
    • Technological Environment: “Under the initiative, brochures on the twenty five sectors and a web portal were released.”
    • Economic Environment: “It also seeks to attract foreign capital investment in India.”
  2. The two values which the Government of India wants to convey through this initiative are:
    • High quality standards
    • Concern for environment

Question 4:
India’s retail sector has been undergoing structural changes for the last two decades. On one hand, the ‘mall culture’ has gradually become a way of life, especially in the metros and mini¬metros. On the other hand, there is accelerated growth in e-business as customers also prefer to buy products and services via the Internet, telephone and television. However, operating in either of the segments is marked by the presence of strong competitors.
Identify the components of specific forces and general forces being discussed in the above paragraph.
Answer:
The components of specific forces discussed in the above paragraph are the customers and competitors.
The components of general forces discussed in the above paragraph is the social and technological conditions.

Question 5:
Kapil Sharma is working as the Country Head of a company which owns a chain of malls under the name of ‘Virtuoso’ in the various parts of India. Through an analysis report of the business environment, it has been brought to his notice that in the coming years, shopping at a mall will not be a necessity for the buyers as purchases can be made online from anywhere
and at any time with ease and at the consumer’s convenience. Hence, malls will have to provide much more than shopping to be able to attract customers. So, he recommends that ‘Virtuoso’ malls should to be restructured into recreation centres, offering more spaces to socialise, host events and concerts, and provide ample Food and Beverages options.
Consequently the share of entertainment segment and Food and Beverages segment in the overall mall space is increased by 20%. As a result, the company gains enormously by getting the first mover advantage.
In context of the above case :

  1. Define the term ‘Business Environment’.
  2. Explain the terms ‘Threats’ and ‘Opportunities’ by quoting lines from the paragraph.

Answer:

  1. The term ‘Business Environment’ means the sum total of all individuals, institutions and other forces that are outside the control of a business enterprise but that may affect its performance.
  2. The term ‘Threats’ refers to the external environment, trends and changes that will hinder a firm’s performance.
    “Through an analysis report of the business environment, it has been brought to his notice that in the coming years, shopping at a mall will not be a necessity for the buyers as purchases can be made online from anywhere and at any time with ease and at the consumer’s convenience. Hence, malls will have to provide much more than shopping to be able to attract customers.”
    The term ‘opportunities’ refers to the positive external trends or changes that will help a firm to improve its performance.
    “As a result, the company gains enormously by getting the first mover advantage.”

Question 6:
“Zero Defect Zero Effect” (ZED) is a slogan coined by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi with reference to the Make in India initiative launched by the government. The slogan reflects the efficiency of production processes, i.e. the products have no defects and the process through which the product is made has zero adverse environmental and ecological effects. The ZED model aims to make India the manufacturing hub of the world and prevent the products developed in India from being rejected by the global market. Moreover, before the initiative was launched, the limits of foreign direct investment in various sectors had been relaxed. The application for licences was made available online and the validity of licences was increased to three years. Various other norms and procedures were also relaxed by the government. In the light of the above paragraph, identify and explain the major component of New Economic Policy of 1991 that are being referred to by quoting lines from the paragraph.
Answer:
The major components of New Economic Policy of 1991 that are being referred to are as follows:

  1. Liberalisation: These economic reforms signalled the end of the licence-pemit-quota raj and were aimed at liberalising the Indian business and industry from all unnecessary controls and restrictions.
    “Moreover, before the initiative was launched, the limits of foreign direct investment in various sectors had been relaxed. The application for licences was made available
    online and the validity of licences was increased to three years. Various other norms and procedures were also relaxed by the government.”
  2. Globalisation: Globalisation means the integration of the various economies of the world leading towards the emergence of a cohesive global economy.
    “The ZED model aims to make India the manufacturing hub of the world and prevent the products developed in India from being rejected by the global market.”

Question 7:
It is interesting to know that the menu items of the multinational food chains are customised to suit the general palates of the local people in the region. When McDonald’s started its business in India in the year 1996, the company went through a complete localisation strategy. McDonald’s changed its product menu to accommodate the vegetable burger given the large vegetarian population. It also altered its store design and even reduced the product price by close to fifteen per cent. Also , the “McAloo Tikki burger” is not available anywhere but in the Indian outlets of McDonalds.
Identify the relevant feature of business environment being discussed above.
Answer:
Relativity is the relevant feature of business environment which is being discussed above.

Question 8:
Eco-friendly products are gaining power as the consumers’ awareness about environmental issues has increased over the years and they are conscious about choosing products that do not have adverse effects on the environment. They are now more conscious about the carbon emission and climate change effects, and want themselves to be ‘seen’ as a green advocate among their peers. In such a scenario, it has become a challenge for the companies as they have to not only meet the needs of the consumers but also ensure that their products are safe and environment friendly. As a result, there is growing need for better and advanced technologies to works as a catalyst in this regard.

  1. Identify the relevant feature of business environment being discussed above.
  2. Describe briefly any three points which highlight the importance of business environment and its understanding by managers.

Answer:

  1. Inter-relatedness is the relevant feature of business environment which is being discussed above.
  2. The three points which highlight the importance of business environment and its understanding by managers are described below:
    • It enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage: The dynamic business environment provides numerous opportunities for a business to evolve as per the changing needs. Therefore, early identification of the forthcoming opportunities helps an enterprise to be the first to exploit them instead of losing them to the competitors.
    • It helps the firm to identify threats and early warning signals: Sometimes the changes in the external environment may pose as a threat and hinder a firm’s performance. An awareness about the business environment helps the managers to identify such threats on time and take necessary decisions and action.
    • It helps in tapping useful resources: As the enterprise designs policies that allow it to get the resources that it needs so that it can convert those resources into outputs that the environment desires.

Question 9:
In the year 2016, the State Government of Kerala had made it mandatory for anganwadis hostels and canteens in educational institutions to secure the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) licence to ensure food safety. As the educational institutions also get categorised as food business operators in the event of the annual turnover of the hostels, they run exceeding Rs. 12 lakh per annum.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify and explain the various dimensions of business environment being referred to here.
  2.  List any two values which the State Government of Kerala wants to convey through this initiative.

Answer:

  1. The various dimensions of business environment being referred to in the above case are as follows:
    • Political Environment: Political environment includes political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes that elected government representatives hold towards business.
    • Legal Environment: Legal environment includes various legislations passed by the government administrative orders issued by government authorities, court judgments as well as the decisions rendered by various commissions and agencies at every level of the government -Center, State or Local .
  2. The two values which the State Government of Kerala wants to convey through this initiative are:
    • High quality standards
    • Good health

Question 10:
Postage stamps have been unveiled to commemorate 140 years of existence of the country’s first stock exchange the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). The setting up of BSE is considered to be the greatest revolution that took place in the financial markets in India as it acts as a key driver for economic growth of a country. This is due to the fact that there exists a strong corelation between economic growth and capital accumulation.
In the context of the above case:

  1. Identify the dimension of business environment of India being referred here.
  2. State any three factors which broadly affect the dimension of business environment of India as identified in part (a) of the question.

Answer:

  1. Economic environment is the dimension of business environment of India being referred here.
  2. The three factors which broadly affect the economic environment of India are stated below:
    • Stage of economic development of the country.
    • The economic structure in the form of mixed economy which recognises the role of both public and private sectors.
    • Economic planning, including five year plans, annual budgets, and so on.

Question 11:
The organic food market in India is growing at 25-30 per cent which reflects a clear shift in consumer tastes and preferences. The current growth in the organic food market is driven by multiplicity of factors like rising health consciousness, changing lifestyles, increase in disposable income and growing availability of organic food products in shopping malls, retail outlets and online.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify and explain the features of business environment being referred to here.
  2. By quoting phrases from the paragraph identify the various components of general forces which have led to a growth in the organic food market.

Answer:

  1. The features of business environment being referred to in the above case are as follows:
    • Dynamic nature: It is dynamic in nature and keeps on changing due to technological upgradations, shifts in consumer preferences or increase in competition in the market.
    • Inter-relatedness: All the elements of business environment are closely interrelated. Therefore, any change is one element may necessitate corresponding changes in the other elements as well.
  2. The various components of general forces which have led to a growth in the organic food market are as follows:
    • Social: “rising health consciousness, changing lifestyles”
    • Economic: “increase in disposable income”
    • Technological: “growing availability of organic food products in shopping malls, retail outlets and online.”

Question 12:
Anurag, aspires to work with a socially and environmentally committed company as he does not want to work just for monetary benefits but also the brand value of the company he works for in the society matters a lot to him. Therefore, he has joined Cerebra Integrated Technologies a Bengaluru-based Infotech company. The company has built India’s largest e-waste recycling plant. The company strives to be one of the leading players in this business which has huge potential not only in terms of generating huge revenues and profits but also wants to contribute to the environment issues that have become crucial worldwide. The company sees big business in the mountains of e-waste in Bengaluru which produces 200,000 tonnes of e-waste a year. The company plans to make its millions by extracting metals such as gold and platinum from the e-waste piling up in the city. As a mobile phone, for example, is made up of a combination of rare earth and precious metals: it contains 250 mg of silver, 24 mg of gold and nine mg of palladium while a laptop has 1,000 mg of silver, 220 mg of gold and 500 grams of copper.
To start the business, the company has obtained a licence from KSPCB ( Karnataka State Pollution Control Board) .
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify the various dimensions of business environment being referred to by quoting lines from the paragraph.
  2. List any two values which the company wants to convey to the society.

Answer:

  1. The various dimensions of business environment being referred to the in the above case are as follows:
    • Technological Environment: Technological environment includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.
    •  administrative orders issued by government authorities, court judgments as well as the decisions rendered by various commissions and agencies at every level of the government— center, state or local.
    • Social Environment: Social environment includes the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends, society’s expectations from business, etc.
  2. The two values which the Cerebra Integrated Technologies wants to convey through this initiative are:
    • Sustainable development
    • Concern for environment.

Question 13:
The government wants to raise Rs.56,500 crore from the sale of stakes in state-owned enterprises National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) in the financial year 2016-17.
Identify and explain the related concept.
Answer:
Disinvestment: Disinvestment refers to transfer in the public sector enterprises to the private sector through dilution of stake of the Government in the public enterprise.

Question 14:
Bharat is running an ice cream parlour in a local market. Keeping in mind the changing perceptions about health among the people, one of his employee Abhiraj suggests to him that they should introduce a range a flavoured yogurt. Bharat accepts his suggestion as a result both the image and the profitability of his business increases.
In the context of the above case:

  1. Identify the feature of management which is being highlighted.
  2. State the related dimension of the business environment.
  3. Name and explain the related principle of general management.

Answer:

  1. The feature of management which is being highlighted is Dynamic.
  2. The related dimension of the business environment is Social.
  3. The related principle of general management is Initiative.

Initiative means taking the first step with self-motivation. The workers should be encouraged to develop and carry out their plans for improvement. Suggestion system should be adopted in the organization.

Question 15:
As a result of the decision by Britian to exit to European Union the new trade agreements will come into force from the EU as it accounts for 35-40% of auto component exports from India. Tata Motors owned Britain’s largest carmaker Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has been in Britain for three decades and makes 4,75,000 cars a year in the country of which most of them are exported inside the European Union and beyond. JLR estimates that their annual profit could be cut by one billion pounds ($1.47 billion) by the year 2020.
In the context of the above case:

  1. Explain why are all the elements of business environment considered to be closely interrelated?
  2. Name any two related dimensions of the business environment.

Answer:

  1. All the elements of business environment are considered to be closely interrelated as any change in one of them may necessitate a series of changes in other dimensions as well.
  2. The related dimensions of the business environment are Political and Legal.

Question 16::
After competing his education, Arun joins his father in their family business of manufacturing cookware. As a businessman, his father is rigid in his approach and has fixed ideas about various issues. He tends to maintain a distance from the factory workers. However, Arun is more receptive to the needs of the workers and doesn’t seem to believe in any class- differences. He believes that the prosperity of their business greatly depends upon the prosperity of their workers and vice versa. At the same time, he has a good understanding of the business environment. Therefore, he introduces a new range of green pans that provide a healthy cooking surface, as they are manufactured with all ceramic or silicon coating and are considered safer than the traditional petroleum based nonstick surfaces which may contain toxic substances. Although, the new cookware range is highly priced/, he expects a ready market for it as both the purchasing power of people and their preference for better quality products has increased over the years.
In the context of the above case:

  1. Identify the nature of management which is being reflected in the different styles of management in practice adopted by Arun and his father.
  2. Name and explain the related principle of scientific management.
  3. State the related dimensions of business environment.

Answer:

  1. The different styles of management in practice adopted by Arun and his father reflect that management is an art.
  2.  ‘Harmony, Not Discord’ is the related principle of scientific management.
    Taylor emphasised that there should be complete harmony between the management
    and workers instead of a kind of class-conflict, the mangers versus workers. To achieve this state, Taylor called for complete mental revolution on the part of both management and workers. The prosperity for the employer cannot exist for a long time unless it is accompanied by prosperity for the employees and vice versa. He advocated paternalistic style of management should be in practice.
  3. The related dimensions of the business environment are :
    • Economic Environment: Economic environment comprises of factors that can affect management practices in a business enterprise includes interest rates, inflation rates, changes in disposable income of people, stock market indices and the value of rupee etc.
    • Social Environment: Social environment includes the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends, society’s expectations from business, etc.
    • Technological Environment: Technological environment includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.

Question 17:
‘Gallant’ is a well known FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) company in India. However, for the past few years its profitability is diminishing due to the presence of a new company ‘Prakritik’. ‘Prakritik’ has gradually acquired a reasonable share in a wide variety segments like soaps, shampoos, detergents, dish wash and oral care. One of the key reason is that ‘Prakritik’ has positioned itself as a natural/Ayurvedic brand and this approach has worked well with the Indian consumer. In order to compete with this threat ‘Gallant’ has acquired a premium Ayurvedic brand ‘Madhumita’ from another group. Moreover its likely to increase its advertising budget to counter the threat from ‘Prakritik’.
In the context of the above case:

  1. Identify the related component of the business environment which has contributed effectively towards the success of Prakritik.
  2. Also, state the two ways in which ‘Gallant’ has responded to the changes in its business environment.

Answer:

  1. Social aspect is the related component of the business environment which has contributed effectively towards the success of Prakritik.
  2. The two ways in which ‘Gallant’ has responded to the changes in its business environment are as follows:
    • Acquisition
    • Brand building

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Active And Passive Voice Exercises for Class 8 With Answers CBSE

For sentences in the active voice, the subject performs the action; for those in the passive voice, the subject receives the action. Most grammarians recommend using the active voice whenever possible. Here are some examples to help you distinguish between the voices:

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 8 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.

Active And Passive Voice Exercises for Class 8 With Answers CBSE Pdf

Active Voice
In active voice, the sentence begins with the performer (Subject) of the action and the object is at the end of the sentence as it is acted upon. This means ‘subject’ is of prime importance or is ‘active’ in the sentence. Hence, the structure is (Subject + Verb + Object).

Passive Voice
In passive voice, the sentence begins with the object and the ‘subject’ is at the end. Hence here object’ is given more importance and the subject’ is ‘passive’. e.g.,

  • Noorjahan is loved by Saleem.
  • The wounded woman were being helped by some girls.

The ‘verb’ should be in accordance with ‘object’ in passive voice.

Change of Tense in Active and Passive Voice

Tense of Modal + Tense Active Voice Passive Voice
1. Simple Tense
Present
Past
Future
beats
beat
shall/will beat
am/is/are beaten
was/were beaten
shall/will be beaten
2. Continuous Tense
Present
Past
Future
am/is/are beating was/were beating shall/will be beating am/is/are being beaten was/were being beaten
Not applicable
3. Perfect Tense
Present
Past
Future
has/have beaten
had beaten
shall/will have beaten
have/has been beaten
had been beaten
shall/will have been beaten
4. Perfect Continuous Tense
Present
Past
Future
Can/may/must etc + base
can/may/must etc beat Not applicable
can/may/must etc be beaten

Change of Person

Active voice Passive Voice
I me
We us
You you
She her
He him
They them
Any name Name remains as it is

Changing of Active Voice into Passive voice
Present Tense
Simple Present Tense
Active Passive e.g.

  1. She plucks flowers from the plant. (Active Voice)
    Flowers are plucked from the plant by her. (Passive Voice)
  2. Madhur offers her a flower. (Active Voice) .
    She is offered a flower by Madhur. (Passive Voice)
  3. Do they perform fine arts (Active Voice)
    Are fine arts performed by them? (Passive Voice)

Present Continuous Tense
Active + Subject + Present conc + object
Passive + object + is/am/are + being + subject

  1. Vaibhav is making a loud noise. (Active voice)
    A loud noise is being made by Vaibhav. (Passive voice)
  2. The jury are announcing the results in a few minutes. (Active Voice)
    The results are being announced by the jury in a few minutes. (Passive Voice).
  3. She is not heeding his instructions. (Active Voice)
    His instructions are not being heeded by her. (Passive Voice)

Present Perfect Tense
Active S + have/has + V2 + O
Passive O + have/has + been + V2 + by +S

  1. Arpita has forgotten’ his name. (Active voice)
    His name has been forgotten by Arpita. (Passive voice)
  2. The editor has strongly criticised his opinions. (Active Voice)
    His opinions have been strongly criticised by the editor. (Passive Voice).
  3. Have they won the match? (Active Voice)
    Has the match been won by them? (Passive Voice)

Past Tense
Simple Past Tense
Active S + V, + O
Passive O + was/were + V+ by + S
Too many cooks spoiled the broth. (Active Voice)
The broth was spoilt/spoiled by too many cooks. (Passive Voice)
Was my watch seen somewhere by you? (Passive Voice)
Which diary did Manpreet give you? (Active Voice)
Which diary was given you by Manpreet? (Passive Voice)

Past Continuous Tense
Active S + was/were + V, + ing+O
Passive O + was/were + being + V + by + S

  1. The strife torn Sri Lanka was facing a great trouble at that time. (Active Voice)
    A great trouble was being faced at that time by the strife torn Sri Lanka. (Passive Voice)
  2. She was reading a novel of Kate Thompson. (Active Voice)
    A novel of Kate Thompson was being read by her. (Passive Voice)

Change the following sentence into the active voice.
If in above sentences, ‘Please’ is added, they become ‘requests’.
The passive voice of such sentences is begun with You are requested to e.g.

  1. Please, open the door. (Active Voice)
    You are requested to open the door. (Passive Voice)
  2. Please, help me in my work. (Active Voice)
    You are requested to help me in my work. (Passive Voice)
  3. Please, stand in a queue. (Active Voice)
    You are requested to stand in a queue. (Passive Voice)
  4. Arjit will never forgive Rinnie for her blunder. (Active Voice)
    Ronnie will never be forgiven for her blunder by Arijit. (Passive Voice)
  5. Why will they allow you to enter? (Active Voice)
    Why will you be allowed to enter by them? (Passive Voice)

Advices
e.g.,

  • Help the poor.
  • Love children
  • Respect your elders

Changing Active into Passive Voice of Imperative Sentences
Imperative sentences are of three types Orders/Commands e.g.

  • Open the door
  • Follow my instructions.
  • Stop the car, at once.

I? Sentences ‘let’ is used to change into passive voice. It is followed by ‘object’ and ‘be + V as follows.

Past perfect Tense
Active S + had + V, + O
Passive + had been + V + by + S

  1. I had watched the movie earlier. (Active Voice)
    The movie had been watched earlier by me. (Passive Voice)
  2. Sofia had informed the police of the incident. (Active Voice)
    The police had been informed of the incident by Sofia. (Passive Voice)

Active And Passive Voice Practice Exercises for Class 8 CBSE

A. Rewrite the passive sentences into Active.

1. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
_______________________________________________
2. This book was written by an Irishman.
_______________________________________________
3. The president was elected by the people.
_______________________________________________
4. The bag was packed by his mother.
_______________________________________________
5. The child was hit by a car.
_______________________________________________
6. The exercise is completed by the teacher.
_______________________________________________
7. Google was founded by Larry and Sergey.
_______________________________________________
8. Football is played by the children.
_______________________________________________
9. The computer is used by Patrick.
_______________________________________________
10. Coffee is sold by Marie.
_______________________________________________

B. Change the following sentences into Active Voice. The first one has been done for you.

1. The ball was kicked by him. – He kicked the ball.
2. An orange is being eaten by her. – ____________________
3. The work was done by them. – ____________________
4. The money has been stolen by him. – ____________________
5. It will be done by us. – ____________________
6. They were given some food by her. – ____________________
7. He was written a letter by me. – ____________________
8. We were laughed at by them. – ____________________
9. A song was being sung by her. – ____________________
10. The story has been told by me. – ____________________

C. Complete the definitions. Put in an active or passive participle of these verbs.

a. add
b. arrive
c. block
d. own
e. play
f. smuggle
g. take
h. tell
i. watch
j. wear

1. Cricket is a game _________ in English-speaking countries.
2. A wrist watch is a watch _________ on your wrist.
3. A latecomer is a person _________ late.
4. An instruction is a statement _________ you what to do.
5. A spectator is someone _________ a game or a play.
6. An extension is a new part _________ to a building.
7. An obstacle is something _________ your way.
8. Contraband is something _________ into a country.
9. A competitor is someone _________ part in a competition.
10. Your property is everything _________ by you.

D. Rewrite these sentences in passive voice.

1. I have sold my old books. __________________
2. Someone has broken my ruler. __________________
3. Anybody can borrow books from this library. __________________
4. They seli books here. __________________
5. She told me to come early. __________________
6. People will soon forget that incident. __________________
7. The company will provide more buses. __________________
8. People will hate you. __________________
9. Somebody has bought that house. __________________
10. They opened the supermarket last week. __________________

E. Change the Voice in the following sentences. The first one has been done for you.

1. Who did the job? By whom was the iob done?
2. Can you break the door? __________________?
4. Is he speaking English? __________________?
5. Are you eating a banana? __________________?
6. Why are you washing the car? __________________?
7. When will he give the money? __________________?
8. Where will he meet you? __________________?
9. How do you make a cake? __________________?
10. Whom did you tell the story? __________________?

F. Rewrite the Active sentences into Passive.

(i) They understand Spanish.
_______________________________________________
(ii) My friend bought a new car.
_______________________________________________
(iii) Johnson cleaned the bathroom.
_______________________________________________
(iv) The teacher closes the window.
_______________________________________________
(v) The girls can play handball.
_______________________________________________
(vi) Our dog did not bite the cat.
_______________________________________________
(vii) The mechanic repairs cars.
_______________________________________________
(viii) The electricians test the fire alarm.
_______________________________________________
(ix) Levi Strauss invented blue jeans.
_______________________________________________
(x) Frank takes photos.
_______________________________________________

G. Change the following sentences into Passive Voice. Mention the agent only when necessary. The first one has been done for you.

1. A tourist guide showed us round the picturesque countryside.
We were shown sound the picturesque countryside by a tourist guide.

2. A lorry ran over the dog.
______________________________________________________
3. Someone switched off the lights.
______________________________________________________
4. The author will write the book at the end of the year.
______________________________________________________
5. Did someone find a solution to the problem?
______________________________________________________
6. The police gave the informer a reward of fifty thousand rupees.
______________________________________________________
7. The blind man has made the chair very well.
______________________________________________________
8. An unseen hand closed the window.
______________________________________________________
9. A. R. Rehman composed this lovely piece of music.
______________________________________________________
10. What have people done about this?
______________________________________________________
11. A good friend told me the news this morning.
______________________________________________________
12. William Blake wrote many outstanding poems.
______________________________________________________
13. Didn’t they tell you to be here by three o’clock?
______________________________________________________
14. Lightning knocked a tree down last night.
______________________________________________________
15. They tell me that somebody stole your pen. (two passives )
______________________________________________________

CBSE Notes for Class 8 Computer in Action – Sketchup

CBSE Notes for Class 8 Computer in Action – Sketchup

SKETCHUP is a computer program that lets you create simple as well as complex 3D models of  objects and buildings in a fast and easy way.
It can be used for creating models to learn architecture, design a car, house, furniture, playground and so on.
It was developed by @Last Software company of Boulder, Colorado, co-founded in 1999 by Brad Schell and Joe Esch.
It is presently owned by Trimble Navigation, a navigation equipment company. In this chapter, we will use SketchUp Make 2016 software.

STARTING SKETCHUP
To start SketchUp, type SketchUp in the Search box on the Taskbar and choose the SketchUp option.
The welcome screen appears as shown in Figure 9.1.
This is the first screen that appears when we first run SketchUp. The Welcome dialog box is the starting point for creating a model.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(153-1)

SELECTING A TEMPLATE
A template has a predefined setting of a model’s background and measurement units.
Let us learn how to select a template in the Welcome Screen dialog box.
Step 1: By default, the template ‘Simple Template – Meters? is selected. To change the template, click the Choose Template button in the upper- right corner of the screen.
Step 2: Scroll down the list of given templates and select your desired template.
Step 3: Click on Start using SketchUp for opening the selected template. The SketchUp Window as shown in Figure 9.4 appears.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(154-1)

SKETCHUP INTERFACE
The following are the main components present in SketchUp Window.
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Menu Bar: This bar consists of commands and settings such as File, Edit, View, Window and so on.
Tool Bar: This bar consists of basic tools required for creating 3D models.
DrawingArea: This is the area where models are created. The 3D space is recognized by the axes.
Dialog Boxes: There are eight dialog boxes in SketchUp such as Components, Materials, Instructor and so on.
Status Bar: There are two important parts of the Status bar. It provides you with the tips in the middle and the Measurement box on the right.

cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(155-1)
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(156-1)
Practice Zone
Fill in the blanks.

  1. _____________is a computer program that lets you create simple as well as complex 3D models of objects and buildings in a fast and easy way.
  2. ___________ is the area where models are created.
  3. Status bar has two important parts, they are _____________ and ____________.
  4. ____________tool measures distances and guidelines.
  5. A_______________has a predefined setting with the model’s background and measurement units.

EXPLORING MORE ABOUT THE TOOLS
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(156-2)
Line Tool is used to draw edges. Follow the given steps to draw a line.
Step 1: Select the Line Tool. You will notice the cursor will change to a pencil. As you move around the drawing
area, a line follows the cursor. The length of the line is displayed in the Measurement box.
Step 2: Click to set the start and end points of the line.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(157-1)
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(157-2)
Rectangle Tool is used for drawing rectangular entities. Follow the given steps to draw a rectangle.
Step 1: Select the Rectangle Tool. The cursor will change to a rectangle with a pencil.
Step 2: Click to set the first corner of the rectangle and then move the cursor diagonally to shape your rectangle. The output of these two steps is shown in Figure 9.8.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(157-3)
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cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(158-2)
This tool is used to pull or push any flat surface to give it a 3D shape. Follow the given steps to use Push/Pull Tool.
Step 1: Select the Push/Pull Tool. The
cursor will change to a 3D rectangle with an up arrow.
Step 2: With the Push/Pull selected, click on any face that you wish to expand. The selected face becomes shaded.
Step 3: Move the cursor so that selection expands.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(158-3)
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(159-1)
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It is used to copy or move different objects or entities. Follow the given steps to use Move Tool.
Step 1: Click on the Select Tool, and select the object you want to move.
Step 2: Select the Move Tool.
Step 3: Click the object you want to move and place it at the desired position.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(159-3)
It is used to create a slightly bigger or smaller version of shape that can be placed at equal distance from the original shape. Follow the given steps to use the Offset Tool.
Step 1: Select the Offset Tool.
Step 2: Click the selected line or face you want to offset.
Step 3: Move the cursor inwards or outwards to set the offset dimension and click to finish the offset.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(160-1)
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(160-2)
It is used to measure distances between two points. Follow the given steps to use Tape Measure Tool.
Step 1: Select the Tape Measure Tool. Notice that the cursor changes to a tape measure.
Step 2: To measure the distance between the two lines, follow the steps given below.

  • Click one end of the line segment to mark it as the starting point of the measurement.
  • Move the cursor to the end point of the same line segment. As the cursor is moved over the line, it will draw a temporary measuring tape line.
  • Click the other end of the line segment as shown in the figure below. The distance from the start point appears in the Measurement box.

cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(161-1)
CREATING 3D MODELS
Let us create a 3D model of a hut using the tools discussed above. Follow the steps given below.
Step 1: Select the Rectangle Tool and drag it on the drawing area.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(162-1)
Step 2: Using the Push/Pull Tool, drag it upwards.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(162-2)
Step 3: Using the Line Tool, draw a line splitting the rectangle into two halves.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(163-1)
Step 4: Using the Move Tool, drag it upwards to make a roof.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(163-2)
Step 5: Now add windows and a door using the Rectangle Tool.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(164-1)
Step 6: Using the Offset Tool, add frames to the door and windows.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(164-2)
Now, let us improve the appearance of the hut using Materials.
Step 7: Choose Materials from the dialog boxes on the right side of the window.
Step 8: Select a color/pattern/ texture of your choice for the faces of the hut.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(165-1)
Step 9: Use the Paint Bucket Tool for painting different faces of the hut. Repeat these steps for adding a different material to the roof of the hut.

cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(165-2)
TIPs and TRICKs

  • To activate the Material dialog box, follow the steps:
    Windows →Default Tray→Materials
  • To copy materials from one surface to another, use the Paint Bucket Tool and click on the surface from where the materials is to be copied. This will sample the pattern/texture/colour. Now use the Paint Bucket Tool on the surface where the same meterials is required.
    Use the Paint Bucket Tool for painting different faces of the hut. Repeat these steps for adding a different material to the roof of the hut.

Practices Zone
Fill in the blanks

  1. ___________tool will push/pull on any flat surface.
  2. ___________tool is used to creating copies of lines and objects at an identical distance from
    the originals.
  3. The shortcut key is used to select Line tool ________________.
  4. ___________are surfaces in an object.
  5. ____________ tool is used for copying an object.

Inserting 3D Text
You can use the 3D text command to give title/messages for your shapes in SketchUp. Let us give an address to the hut created earlier. Follow the steps given below.
Step 1: Select the 3D text option from the Tools menu. The Place 3D text dialog box will appear on the screen.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(166-1)
Step 2: Type the text you wish to enter and select the settings given below, like Font, Align and so on.
Step 3: Click on the Place button to close the dialog box.
Step 4: Use the Move/ScaleTool to place the text on the hut and click outside the textbox to complete the text entry.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(166-2)
Navigation Tools
Navigation Tools help us to view the model in a better manner. Let us learn to use some of the Navigation Tools.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(167-1)
This tool is used to view the model from all sides. Follow the given steps to use Orbit Tool.
Step 1: Select the Orbit Tool.
Step 2: Click in the drawing area and move the cursor in different directions to rotate and view different angles of the model.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(167-2)
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(167-3)
This tool is used for moving the camera vertically or horizontally. Follow the given steps to use Pan Tool.
Step 1: Select the Pan Tool.
Step 2: In the drawing area, click and drag the cursor to view the model from different angles.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(168-1)
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(168-2)
You can use the Zoom Tool to zoom in (increase the magnification) or zoom out (decrease the magnification) of the model. Follow the given steps to use Zoom Tool.
Step 1: Select the Zoom Tool.
Step 2: Click and drag up to zoom in.
Step 3: Click and drag down to zoom out.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(168-3)

CREATING A 3D MODEL OF A TABLE
Let us learn to use the tools to create 3D model of table. Follow the steps given below for designing a table.
Step 1: Draw a rectangle using the Rectangle Tool.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(169-1)
Step 2: Use the Push/Pull Tool to lift the surface of the rectangle to make the table top.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(169-2)
Step 3: Create a group to isolate the table top from the rest of the model. For this, click thrice on the object using the Select Tool. You will notice that the object gets highlighted in blue. Now, right-click and choose the Make Group option.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(170-1)
Step 4: Double-click on the table to activate it for editing. Use the Offset Tool for creating another rectangle. Hover over the face you want to draw on.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(170-2)
Step 5: Use the Push/Pull Toll on the second rectangle as shown in Figure 9.33

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Step 6: Let us now create the legs of the table. For this, we will create a leg component. (A component will help you to copy each leg of the table). Use the Rectangle Tool for creating a leg of the table (Fig. 9.34).
Step 7: Double-click the rectangle using the Select Tool and then right-click and choose the Make Component option.
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cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(172-1)
Step 8: Use the Push/Pull Tool to pull the rectangle to create a leg of the table.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(172-2)
Step 9: Select the leg created and choose the Move Tool for creating a copy of it. Press the Ctrl key from the keyboard; this will let SketchUp know that you want to copy the leg component.
cbse-notes-for-class-8-computer-in-action-sketchup-(173-1)
Step 10: Follow the above step for creating the remaining legs of the table.
Step 11: To rotate the table, you will first have to make a group out of the table.
Step 12: Now, using the Orbit Tool, turn the table upside down to have a complete look of the table created.
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The Hack Driver Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet

In this article, we are providing The Hack Driver Extra Questions and Answers PDF Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet CBSE, Extra Questions for Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet was designed by subject expert teachers.

The Hack Driver Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet

Extract Based Questions [3 Marks each]

Read the following extracts carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Question 1.
I was sent, not to prepare legal briefs, but to serve summons, like a cheap detective.
(a) At what post was T working?
(b) Why was he not given legal briefs to prepare?
(c) Find a word meaning ‘court order’ from the given extract.
(d) What is the present tense of ‘sent’?*
Answer:
(a) T was working as a junior assistant clerk.
(b) Probably because he was inexperienced, he was not given legal briefs to prepare.
(c) ‘Summons’ from the extract means ‘court order’.
(d) ‘Send’ is its present tense.

Question 2.
He was so open and friendly that I glowed with the warmth of his affection. I knew, of course, that he wanted the business, but his kindness was real.
(a) Who is ‘he’ in these lines?
(b) Give an instance of his kindness.
(c) Find a word from the extract which means ‘a gentle feeling of fordness’.
(d) What is the opposite of kindness?
Answer:
(a) ‘He’ in these lines is Bill Magnuson, the hack driver.
(b) He offered to take the narrator through the village and find Lutkins.
(c) ‘Affection’ from the extract means ‘a gentle feeling of fondness’.
(d) Cruelty’ is the opposite of ‘kindness’.

Question 3.
So we pursued him, just behind him, but never catching him, for an hour till it was past one o’ clock,
(a) Who was pursuing whom?
(b) Why were they pursuing him?
(c) Which word in the extract is a synonym of ‘followed’?
(d) What is the opposite of ‘behind’?
Answer:
(a) The narrator and Bill were pursuing Lutkins.
(b) They were pursuing him because the lawyer had to serve him a summons.
(c) ‘pursued’ in the extract, is the synonym of‘followed’.
(d) ‘ahead’ is its opposite.

Question 4.
What really hurt me was that when I served the summons, Lutkins and his mother laughed at me as though I were a bright boy of seven.
(a) What hurt the narrator?
(b) Why did the two laugh?
(c) Which word in the extract is a synonym of ‘delivered1?
(d) What is the opposite of ‘bright’?
Answer:
(a) The laughter of Lutkins and his mother hurt the narrator.
(b) The two laughed because they had been successful in fooling him.
(c) ‘served’ from the extract is the synonym of ‘delivered’.
(d) Its opposite is ‘dull’.

Question 5.
I had to go to dirty and shadowy comers of the city to seek out my victims. Some of the larger and more self-confident ones even beat me up. [CBSE 2013]
(a) Who is ‘I’?
(b) What was the nature of Ts job?
(c) Find a word from the extract which means find’.
(d) What is the opposite of ‘dirty’?
Answer:
(a) ‘I’ is the young lawyer who is the narrator of the story.
(b) The nature of his job was to serve summons on people who were required to present themselves in the court.
(c) ‘Seek out’ from the extract means ‘find’.
(d) Its opposite is ‘dean’.

Question 6.
When I got to New Mullion, my eager expectations of a sweet and simple country village were severely disappointed. Its streets were rivers of mud, with rows of wooden shops, either painted a sour brown, or bare of any paint at all. [CBSE 2015]
(a) Who is T?
(b) Why was T disappointed?
(c) What does the word ‘expectations’ mean?
(d) What is the opposite of ‘disappointed’?
Answer:
(a) ‘I’ is the young lawyer who is the narrator of the story.
(b) T was disappointed because he did not like the muddy streets and unpainted looks of the shops.
(c) It means ‘a brief about how good something will be’.
(d) Its opposite is’‘pleased’.

Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks each]

Question 1.
Why did the narrator call his work unpleasant?
Answer:
The narrator was sent to serve summons. He had to go to all sorts of dirty and dangerous places. At times, he was also beaten by those very people. That is why he called his work unpleasant.

Question 2.
Describe the hack driver’s appearance in your own words.
Answer:
The hack driver looked to be about forty years in age. His face was red. He wore dirty and worn out clothes but he was cheerful.

Question 3.
Why does the hack driver offer to ask about Oliver Lutkins? [CBSE 2012]
Answer:
The hack driver was none other than Oliver Lutkins himself. He did not wish to take the summons and go as a witness. So, he pretended to be a hack driver. He offered to help the lawyer so that the lawyer could not come to know about him from someone else.

Question 4.
‘But he was no more dishonest than I’. Explain.
Answer:
The narrator meant to say that the hack driver was as dishonest as him because he was getting paid for riding the narrator on his cart on the pretence of helping him.

Question 5.
The narrator was happy though he had not found Lutkins. Why?
Answer:
The narrator had hated city life. This ride through the village made him very happy. He was overjoyed to meet the hack driver. So he was happy though he had not found Lutkins.

Question 6.
What impressed the narrator most about Bill? Mention any two things.
Answer:
The first quality that struck the narrator was that Bill was a cheerful, friendly and helpful man. Secondly, he loved Bill for his simple and philosophical wisdom.

Question 7.
How did the chief react when the narrator returned to his town?
Answer:
The chief was furious at the narrator’s failure to serve summons on Lutkins. He decided to send a man who knew Ltutkins with the narrator the next day to serve summons on Lutkins.

Question 8.
How does the narrator find Lutkins eventually?
Answer:
The narrator’s companion had seen Lutkins. When the narrator pointed opt the hack driver to him, he told him that the hack driver was Lutkins himself. In this way, the narrator found Lutkins eventually.

Question 9.
Why did Lutkins pretend to be Bill Magnuson? [CBSE 2015]
Answer:
Lutkins pretended to be Bill Magnuson as he did not want to accept the summons and be a witness in the case.

Question 10.
What did the hack driver tell the narrator about Lutkins’mother? [CBSE 2014]
Answer:
The hack driver told the narrator that Lutkins’ mother was a real terror. He described her as a large and hefty lady with a fierce temper. He also said that she was quick as a cat.

Question 11.
How did the hack driver befool the lawyer?
Answer:
The hack driver was able to befool him as he had not seen Lutkins before. He took him around the village on the protect of searching for Lutkins.

Long Answer (Volue Based) Type Questions [8 Marks each]

Question 1.
The narrator strikes us as a romantic idealist, Do you agree? Support your answer from the text.
Answer:
The narrator is definitely a romantic idealist. He is fresh out of law school. He wants to have a real case. But, as a part of training, he is sent to serve summons. He finds it difficult to understand. He simply dislikes his job as he has to go to all dirty places. Further, he has a very romantic | view of the country. He believes that villages are all pure and peaceful. There is no ugliness of the city in them. He I also thinks that villagers are very honest and decent people. He has a habit of trusting people blindly. He believes in whatever someone says. In fact, he is very gullible. Later on, he realises that a village can also be ugly. He also experiences that villagers are not always simple and honest.

Question 2.
Describe ‘Bill’ as seen through the eyes of the narrator.
Answer:
The narrator was much impressed with Bill. He first meets him at the station. He finds him to be friendly and cheerful. Bill is very helpful in his eyes as he offers to take him around in search of Lutkins. The narrator admires him when he goes looking for Lutkins on his behalf. Bill is full of a wonderful village charm. The narrator finds Bill to have a unique country wisdom. He admires him as a story teller. He appreciates him a lot when Bill even goes to Lutkins’ mother’s place to find him. For the narrator, Bill is a friendly man who helps others generously. He is so impressed by Bill that he decides to settle down in the village.

Question 3.
‘Appearances are often deceptive’. Comment on the statement in the light of your reading of the story.
Answer:
Things are not always what they seem to be. Appearances are often deceptive. The narrator reaches a village in the search of Oliver Lutkins. He meets a hack driver at the station. The driver warns him about Lutkins. He takes him on a tour of the entire village in search of Lutkins. He tells the narrator about his experiences and about the village and its people. The narrator likes him for his helpful and kind nature.
He even forgets all about Lutkins. But, the next day he finds out that the hack driver was Oliver Lutkins himself. He realises that a simple and kind person was a trickster in reality.

Question 4.
Do you think Lutkins was right in befooling the lawyer and earning money by using unfair means? What precautions should one take to avoid a situation like the one in which the lawyer was placed? [CBSE 2014]
Answer:
Lutkins was not right in befooling the lawyer and earning money by using unfair means. This shows that Lutkins did not care for the law at all. If we are in the lawyer’s place, we should not believe in things as they are seen. We should judge every action taken by the other person carefully before accepting it. Instead of depending on others, we should carry out our enquiries ourselves. The lawyer was befooled because he let Lutkins do the finding and questioning and did not do anything himself. This resulted in his failure to serve the summons on Lutkins.

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Non-Finite Verbs Exercises With Answers for Class 8 CBSE

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary english grammar and composition for class 8 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.

Non-Finite Verbs Exercises With Answers for Class 8 CBSE PDF

In English, verbs can be divided into two basic types—finite and non-finite. Verbs that show tense and agreement with a subject are called finite verbs. They change their forms according to the subject, person and tense of the sentence.
Examples:

  • Pluto eats biscuits. (present)
  • Pluto ate biscuits. (past)

Verbs that do not show a distinct tense and cannot stand alone as a verb in a sentence are called non-finite verbs.

Non-finite verbs do not change their forms according to the subject or the tense.
Examples: to eat and eating in the following sentences:

  • Pluto loves to eat biscuits. (present)
  • Pluto loved to eat biscuits as a puppy. (past)
  • Eating biscuits was Pluto’s favourite activity as a puppy. (past)

Non-finite verbs can be further divided into infinitives, participles, and gerunds.

Infinitives

There are two kinds of infinitives—to-infinitives and bare infinitives.

To-infinitives These infinitives are made by the base form of the verbs preceded by the preposition—to.
Examples:

  • to be, to go, to talk, to receive, to run

They are never the main verbs of sentences. If the sentence were to change tense, the infinitive verbs would remain the same. Examples:

  • I wish to meet him. She wishes to meet him. (present)
  • They wished to meet him. (past)
  • He is the first person to arrive at the site. (present)
  • They were the first ones to arrive at the site. (past)

The verbs to meet and to arrive do not change when the subjects or the tense change, whereas the finite verbs wish and be (were) change according to person, number and tense.

Bare Infinitives

Sometimes, infinitives are used without to. When an infinitive hasn’t got the preposition to before it, it is called a bare infinitive. They are the base forms of the verbs.

Bare infinitives appear:

  • after objects following verbs such as feel, see, watch, hear, etc.
  • after objects following verbs like let, help, bid, make, overheard, etc.
  • after modals and other auxiliary verbs like can, could, must. (ought is always followed by a to-infinitive)
  • with expressions, like had better, would rather, sooner than, rather than.

Examples:

  • Mother heard the baby cry. (cry is a bare infinitive)
  • Who can make the baby laugh? (make and laugh are bare infinitives)
  • We let him visit his friends. (visit is a bare infinitive)
  • You had better leave now if you still want to catch that train.
  • I would rather see an animated movie than a romantic one.
  • Arnav would sooner run to a school than miss his first day as class prefect.
  • He would rather lose than cheat.

When we use need and dare in a sentence, we use to-infinitive, and when we use need not (needn’t) or dare not we use a bare infinitive.
Examples:

  1. We need to move to another room.
    We need not move to another room.
  2. We dared him to go into the darkroom.
    We dared not go with him.

Participles

The most commonly used participles are present participles and past participles. Sometimes we also use perfect participles.

The present participle form of a verb ends in -ing and the past participle form of a verb usually ends in -ed, -d, -t, -en or -n.

  • A participle is used with other verbs to make continuous (present participle) and perfect (past participle) tenses.
  • Participles can also be used as adjectives. Like all adjectives, they modify a noun.

Examples:

  • Virat would be a good opening batsman for our team. (opening modifies batsman)
  • The newly constructed house on this road belongs to Mr Das. (constructed modifies house)

Joining Sentences

Participles can also be used to join pairs of sentences.
When two sentences state facts, we convert the verb of the less important sentence into a participle.
Examples:

  • Sameer spent three hours in the library. He was writing his essay.
  • Sameer spent three hours in the library writing his essay.

If the two sentences talk about two actions happening one after the other in succession, we change the verb of the first action into a present participle.
Examples:

  1. He opened the window. He looked out.
    Opening the window, he looked out.
  2. Nina ran to the nearest store. She bought the medicine.
    Running to the nearest store, Nina bought the medicine.

If one action was completed sometime before the other, we use having + past participle form of the verb of the first action. This is called a perfect participle. We use a comma to separate the two parts of the sentences.
Examples:

  1. Arnav took a bath. He sat down to study.
    Having taken a bath, Arnav sat down to study.
  2. Maria finished reading the book. She wrote a review of it.
    Having finished reading the book, Maria wrote a review of it.

Gerunds

A gerund has the same form as a present participle. It is a verb ending in -ing. But unlike a present participle, gerunds are used as nouns or as part of a noun phrase. It does not act as an adjective. In a sentence, a gerund can be:

a subject of a verb Reading should be a daily habit.
an object of a transitive verb Raina enjoys reading novels.
an object of a preposition She is good at writing poems.
a complement Her favourite pastime is reading.

Presentation
Read the picture story.
A crow while sitting on an electric pole slipped and got trapped in the wires. Its screaming cries attracted at least fifty crows.

They began to cry very loudly. Hundreds of people working in different buildings came out and saw the crow struggling (struggle) for its freedom.
Non-Finite Verbs Exercises With Answers for Class 8 CBSE 1

A young man from the crowd climbed the pole and freed the bird.
Non-Finite Verbs Exercises With Answers for Class 8 CBSE 2A. Answer the following questions.

  1. Who slipped and got trapped in the electric wires?
  2. Why did the fifty crows cry loudly?
  3. How did the young man save crow’s life?

B. Combine the following sentences using participles. The first one has been done for you.

1. The thief saw the policeman. He ran away.
Seeing the policeman the thief ran away.

2. I saw a boat. It was floating in the river.
…………………………………………………………………..
3. He took his bag. He went to school.
…………………………………………………………………..
4. She got scared. She saw a crocodile in the river.
…………………………………………………………………..
5. He took a pen. He started writing.
…………………………………………………………………..
6. He saw two men fighting. He jumped in to stop them.
…………………………………………………………………..
7. She was tired. She sat to take a break.
…………………………………………………………………..
8. Sonia worked hard. She passed the exam.
…………………………………………………………………..
9. He sat in his car. He drove away.
…………………………………………………………………..
10. I saw Aishwarya Rai. I took her autograph.
…………………………………………………………………..

Non-Finite Verbs Practice Exercises for Class 8 CBSE

A. Change Infinitives into Gerunds in the following sentences.

1. He likes to study at night.
…………………………………………………………………..
2. To play cricket is not easy.
…………………………………………………………………..
3. To gamble is a bad habit.
…………………………………………………………………..
4. She doesn’t like to tell a lie.
…………………………………………………………………..
5. Harshit loves to dance with friends.
…………………………………………………………………..
6. To do exercise everyday is good for health.
…………………………………………………………………..
7. To write poems is my hobby.
…………………………………………………………………..
8. They didn’t like to talk.
…………………………………………………………………..
9. I prefer to have coffee in the evening.
…………………………………………………………………..
10. She loves to cook food.
…………………………………………………………………..

B. Remove the words given in italics and rewrite the sentences using infinitives. The first one has been done for you.

1. I would be lucky if I succeed in an interview.
I would be lucky to succeed the interview.

2. She was amazed when she saw a lion at the zoo.
…………………………………………………………………..
3. I went to New York so that I could see my uncle.
…………………………………………………………………..
4. He is not a man who will help you with money.
…………………………………………………………………..
5. Is it the time when we should move?
…………………………………………………………………..
6. Are you the one who will complete the task?
…………………………………………………………………..
7. Amit is the man who can help you in this matter.
…………………………………………………………………..
8. I am planning that I should give him a gift.
…………………………………………………………………..
9. Children were happy when they saw a clown.
…………………………………………………………………..
10. It is unsafe that you ride a bike without helmet.
…………………………………………………………………..

C. Rewrite the sentences by placing the infinitive in italics in the beginning of the sentences. The first one has been done for you.

1. It was so nice of you to help him.
To help him was so nice of you.

2. It is not easy to meet the demand in one month.
…………………………………………………………………..
3. It is not good to take all the credit for this work.
…………………………………………………………………..
4. It is impossible to reach there in six hours.
…………………………………………………………………..
5. It was useless to pay so much for this.
…………………………………………………………………..
6. It is my aim to be an entrepreneur.
…………………………………………………………………..
7. It is risky to jump the red light.
…………………………………………………………………..
8. It is not easy to stand for the truth.
…………………………………………………………………..
9. It is not safe to leave the gas open.
…………………………………………………………………..
10. It is your right to get justice.
…………………………………………………………………..

D. Combine the following sentences using participles.

1. She knew the answer. She raised her hand.
…………………………………………………………………..
2. He worked hard. He won the competition.
…………………………………………………………………..
3. John ran fast. He won the race.
…………………………………………………………………..
4. I heard the news of her death. I went to her house.
…………………………………………………………………..
5. He dropped her at her home. He went to his own home.
…………………………………………………………………..
6. It was hot today. He did not go out.
…………………………………………………………………..
7. I woke up. I went to take bath.
…………………………………………………………………..
8. We were tired. We sat under a tree.
…………………………………………………………………..
9. We skipped the class. We went to the canteen.
…………………………………………………………………..
10. The policeman saw the thief. He ran after him.
…………………………………………………………………..

CBSE Class 12 Case Studies In Business Studies – Planning

CBSE Class 12 Case Studies In Business Studies – Planning

PLANNING
Planning: Definition
Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do, when to do and who has to do it. Thus, it involves setting objectives and developing an appropriate course of action to achieve those objectives.

Features of Planning

  • Planning focuses on achieving objectives by deciding upon the activities to be undertaken.
  • Planning is a primary function as it precedes all functions of management i.e. organising, staffing, directing& controlling.
  • Planning is pervasive as it is required at all the levels of management but its scope may vary.
  • Planning is continuous as plans need to be made on a continuous basis till an organisation exists.
  • Planning is futuristic as it seeks to meet future events effectively to the best advantage of an organisation. Planning is, therefore, called a forward looking function.
  • Planning involves decision-making as it involves rational thinking to choose the best alternative among the various available alternatives in order to achieve the desired goals efficiently and effectively.
  • Planning is a mental exercise as it is based on intellectual thinking involving foresight, visualisation and judgement rather than guess work.

Importance of Planning

  • Planning provides direction as it acts as a guide for deciding what course of action should be taken to attain the organisational goals.
  • Planning reduces the risk of uncertainty arising due to the dynamic nature of business environment as it enables a manager to anticipate and meet changes effectively.
  • Planning reduces overlapping & wasteful activities as it serves as the basis for coordinating the activities and efforts of different divisions and individuals.
  • Planning promotes innovation as it encourages new ideas that can take shape of concrete plans.
  • Planning facilitates decision making as it enables a manager to choose the best alternative course ‘of action among the various available alternatives in light of present and future conditions.
  • Planning establishes standards for controlling. Planning provides standards against which the actual performance is measured and timely corrective actions the taken.

TYPES OF PLANNING
On the basis of use and duration

  • Single use plans are the ones that are formulated to deal with new or non-repetitive situations that may arise in an organisation from time-to-time. For example- programmes, budgets and projects.
  • Standing plans refer to the another type of plans which once formulated may be used for a long period of time in similar or repetitive situations that may prevail in an organisation. For example—objectives, strategies, policies, methods, procedures and rules.

On th basis of what a plan seeks to achieve

  • Objectives are the end results of the activities that an organisation seeks to achieve through its existence.
  • A strategy is a comprehensive plan for achieving the objectives of the organisation.
  • Policy is a set of general guidelines that help in managerial decision making and action.
  • Method refers to the prescribed ways or manner in which a task has to be performed considering the objective.
  • Procedure refers to a series of specific steps to be performed in a chronological order to carry out the routine activities.
  • Budget refers to a financial plan that is expressed in numerical terms.
  • Rule is a specific statement relating to the general norms in terms of Do’s and Don’ts that guide the behaviour of people. It commands strict obedience and a penalty is likely to be imposed on its violation.
  • Programme is a comprehensive plan that contains detailed statements about a project which outlines the objectives, policies, procedures, rules and method and the budget to implement any course of action.

Steps Involved in the Planning Process

  • Setting clear, specific and measurable objectives for the entire organisation and each department or unit within the organisation.
  • Developing Premises which reflect the assumptions about the future that the manager is
    required to make since the future is uncertain.
  • Identifying alternative courses of action through which the desired goals can be achieved.
  • Evaluating alternative courses to analyse the relative pros and cons of each alternative in light of their feasibility and consequences.
  • Selecting an alternative or a combination of plans which appears to be most feasible.
  • Implement the plan with the help of a strategy.
  • Follow up action in order to monitor the plans to ensure that the desired objectives are achieved efficiently and effectively.

Limitations of Planning

  • Planning leads to rigidity as plans are drawn in advance and managers may not be in a position to change them in the light of changed conditions.
  • Planning may not work ina dynamic environment as through planning, everything cannot be foreseen.
  • Planning reduces creativity as the top management undertakes planning of various activities whereas the middle managers are neither allowed to deviate from plans nor are they permitted to act on their own.
  • Planning involves huge costs in terms of time and money required to undertake scientific calculations and sometimes it may not justify the benefits derived from it.
  • Planning is a time consuming process and sometimes there is not much time left for implementation of the plans.
  • Planning does not guarantee success because it is not always essential that if a plan has worked before, it will work again, as things may change. This kind of complacency and false sense of security may actually lead to failure instead of success of a business.

MIND MAP
cbse-class-12-case-studies-in-business-studies-planning-1

LATEST CBSE QUESTIONS

Question 1.
State any three points of importance of planning function of management. (CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Answer:
The three points indicating the importance of planning is described below:

  1. Reduces the risk of uncertainty: Planning relates to deciding in advance about the tasks to be performed in future. This enables a manager to anticipate changes and devise the way to deal with changes and uncertain events effectively.
  2. Planning promotes innovative ideas: Planning is one of the basic managerial functions. Before doing something, the manager must formulate an idea of how to work on a particular task. Thus, planning is closely connected with creativity and innovation. It is the most challenging activity for the management as it guides all future actions leading to growth and prosperity of the business.
  3. Avoiding overlapping and wasteful activities: Planning ensures clarity in thought and action and serves as the basis of coordinating the activities and efforts of different individuals and departments. Therefore, by curtailing useless and redundant activities it helps in smooth working of the organisations work is without interruptions. Moreover, it makes detection of inefficiencies easier so that timely corrective measures may be taken to avoid them in future.

Question 2.
Give the meaning of ‘objectives’ and ‘budget’ as types of plans. (CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Answer:

  1. Objectives: Objectives are the end results of the activities that an organisation seeks to achieve through its existence. All other activities within the organisation are directed towards achieving these objectives. Objectives are based on the mission or philosophy of the organisation. Objectives are determined by top level management. For example, the objectives of a newly started business is to earn 30% profit gn the amount invested in the first year.
  2. Budget: A budget refers to a financial plan that is expressed in numerical terms. For example, the marketing manager prepared an area wise sales target for different products for the forthcoming quarter. It is a type of single use plan.

Question 3.
State any three limitation of planning. (CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Answer:
The three limitations of planning are described below:

  1. Planning may not work in a dynamic environment: The business environment is dynamic in nature. Every organisation has to constantly adapt itself to changes in its environment in order to survive and grow. However, it difficult to anticipate all the likely future changes in the environment with utmost accuracy. Hence, even with planning everything cannot be foreseen.
  2. Planning reduces creativity: The top management undertakes planning of various activities whereas the other members are expected to merely implements these plans. This restricts the creativity of the middle managers as they are neither allowed to deviate from plans nor are they permitted to act on their own.
  3. Planning involves huge costs: The process of planning involves huge cost in terms of time and money as detailed planning is based on a series of scientific calculations. Moreover it may include a number of related costs as well, like expenses on boardroom meetings, discussions with professional experts and preliminary investigations to find out the viability of the plan. As a result the expenses on planning may turn out to be much more than benefits derived from it.

Question 4.
Give the meaning of ‘procedure’ and ‘rule’ as types of plans. (CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Answer:

  1. Procedure: A procedure contains a series of specific steps to be performed in a chronological order to carry out the routine activities. It is determined by lower and middle level management. It is a specific statement. There is no scope for managerial discretion. Procedure is framed to implement a policy. It is a type of standing plan.
  2. Rule: A rule is a specific statement relating to the general norms in terms of Do’s and Don’ts that guide the behaviour of people. It commands strict obedience and a penalty is likely to be imposed on its violation. Rules help to maintain discipline. Rules are both specific and rigid. For example, No smoking, No Parking. It is a type of standing plan.

Question 5.
State any three features of planning. (CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Answer:
The three features of planning are described below:

  1. Planning is pervasive: Planning is not an special function, is equally essential at all levels of management. But the scope of planning varies at different levels and among different departments.
  2. Planning involves decision-making: Planning essentially involves*-application of rational thinking to choose the best alternative among the various available alternatives in order to achieve the desired goals efficiently and effectively.
  3. Planning is a primary function: Planning precedes all the functions of management i.e. organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. This refers to primacy of planning. Planning provides basis of all other functions.

Question 6.
Give the meaning of ‘policy’ and ‘strategy’ as type of plans. (CBSE, Delhi 2017)
Answer:

  1. Policy: Policy are general statements that guide managerial decision making. If is determined by top level management. It is a general statement. It provides scope for managerial discretion. Policies are framed to achieve the objectives of an organisation. They all guides in implementing the strategy. It is a type of standing plan.
  2. Strategy: A strategy is a comprehensive plan prepared for winning over the given challenge or problem. A strategy is based on the objectives of the organisation. A strategy may be determined by top level or middle level management.

Question 7.
Give the meaning of ‘Objective’ and ‘Procedure’ as types of plans. (CBSE, OD 2017)
Answer:

  1. Objectives: Objectives are the end results of the activities that an organisation seeks to achieve through its existence. All other activities within the organisation are directed towards achieving these objectives. Objectives are based on the mission or philosophy of the organisation. Objectives are determined by top level management. For example, the objectives of a newly started business is to earn 30% profit on the amount invested in the first year.
  2. Procedure: A procedure contains a series of specific steps to be performed in a chronological order to carry out the routine activities. It is determined by lower and middle level management. It is a specific statement. There is no scope for managerial discretion. Procedure is framed to implement a policy. It is a type of standing plan.

Question 8.
Give the meaning of ‘Strategy’ and ‘Rule’ as types of plans. (CBSE, OD 2017)
Answer:

  1. Strategy: A strategy is a comprehensive plan prepared for winning over the given challenge or problem. It is based on the objectives of the organisation. It may be determined by top level or middle level management.
  2. Rule: Rules are specific statements that tell people what should or should not be done. Violation of Rules may lead to imposition of penalties. Rules help to maintain discipline. Rules are both specific and rigid. For example, No smoking, No Parking. It is a type of standing plan.

Question 9.
Super Fine Rice Ltd. has the largest share of 55% in the market. The company’s policy is to sell only for cash. In 2015, for the first time company’s number one position in the industry has been threatened because other companies started selling rice on credit* also. But the managers of Super Fine Rice Ltd. continued to rely on it’s previously tried and tested successful plans which didn”t work because the environment is not static. This led to decline in sales of Super Fine Rice Ltd. The above situation is indicating two limitations of planning which led to decline in it sales.
Identify these limitations. (CBSE, Sample Paper, 2017)
Answer:
The two limitations of planning which led to decline in it sales are:

  • Planning does not guarantee success.
  • Planning may not work in dynamic environment.

Question 10.
State the main aspects in the concept of planning. (CBSE, Sample Paper, 2017)
Answer:
The concept of planning primarily involves three aspects namely;

  • Setting objectives in clear specific and measurable terms for a given period of time.
  • Identifying the various alternative courses of action which may be adopted to achieve the objectives.
  • Selecting the best possible alternative course of action from among the various courses of action available.

Question 11.
Laxmi Chemicals Ltd., a soap manufacturing company, wanted to increase its market share from 30% to 55% in the long-run. A recent report submitted by the Research & Development Department of the company had predicted a growing trend of herbal and organic products. On the basis of this report, the company decided to diversify into new variety of soaps with natural ingredients having benefits and fragrances of Jasmine, Rose, Lavender, Mogra, Lemon Grass, Green Apple, Strawberry etc. The Unique Selling Proposition (USP) was to promote eco-friendly living in the contemporary life style. The company decided to allocate t 30 crores to achieve the objective.
Identify the type of one of the functions of management mentioned above which will help the company to acquire dominant position in the market. (CBSE, Sample Paper 2016)
Answer:
Strategy is the type of plan which will help the company to acquire dominant position in the market.

Question 12.
Suhasini, a home science graduate from a reputed college, has recently done a cookery course. She wished to start her own venture with a goal to provide ‘health food’ at reasonable prices. She discussed her idea with her teacher (mentor) who encouraged her. After analysing various options for starting her business venture, they short listed the option to sell ready made and ‘ready to make’ vegetable shakes and sattu milk shakes. Then, they weighed the pros and cons of both the short listed options.

  1. Name the function of management being discussed above and give any one of its characteristics.
  2. Also briefly discuss any three limitations of the function discussed in the case. (CBSE, Sample Paper 2016)

Answer:

  1. Planning is the function of management which is being discussed above.
    Planning involves decision-making: Planning essentially involves application of rational thinking to choose the best alternative among the various available alternatives in order to achieve the desired goals efficiently and effectively.
  2. The limitations of planning are described below:
    • Planning may not work in a dynamic environment: The business environment is dy¬namic in nature. Every organisation has to constantly adapt itself to changes in its environment in order to survive and grow. However, it is difficult to anticipate all the likely future changes in the environment with utmost accuracy. Hence, even with planning, everything cannot be foreseen.
    • Planning reduces creativity: The top management undertakes planning of various activities whereas the other members are expected to merely implement these plans. This restricts the creativity of the middle level managers as they are neither allowed to deviate from plans nor are they permitted to act on their own.
    • Planning involves huge costs: The process of planning involves huge cost in terms of time and money as detailed planning is based on a series of scientific calculations. Moreover, it may include a number of related costs as well, like expenses on boardroom meetings, discussions with professional experts and preliminary investigations to find out the viability of the plan. As a result, the expenses on planning may turn out to be much more than benefits derived from it.

Question 13.
Two years ago, Madhu completed her degree in food technology. She worked for sometime in a company that manufactured chutneys, pickles and murabbas. She was not happy in the company and decided to have her own organic food processing unit for the same. She set the objectives and the targets and formulated an action plan to achieve the same.
One of her objectives was to earn 10% profit on the amount invested in the first year. It was decided that raw materials like fruits, vegetables, spices, etc. will be purchased on three months credit from farmers cultivating only organic crops. She also decided to follow the steps required for marketing of the products through her own outlets. She appointed Mohan as the Production Manager who decided the exact manner in which the production activities were to be carried out. Mohan also prepared a statement showing the number of workers that will be required in the factory throughout the year. Madhu informed Mohan about her area wise sales target for different products for the forthcoming quarter. While working on the production table, a penalty of ? 100 per day for not wearing caps, gloves and apron was announced.
Quoting lines from the above paragraph, identify and explain the different types of plans discussed. (CBSE, Delhi 2016)
Answer:
The different types of plans discussed above are listed below:

  1. Objectives: Objectives are the end results of the activities that-an organisation seeks to achieve through its existence. All other activities within the organisation are directed towards achieving these objectives.
    “One of her objectives was to earn 10% profit on the amount invested in the first year.”
  2. Policy: A policy is a set of general guidelines that helps in managerial decision making and action.
    “It was decided that the raw materials like fruits, vegetables, spices, etc. will be purchased on three months credit from farmers cultivating only organic crops.”
  3. Procedure: A procedure contains a series of specific steps to be performed in a chronological order to carry out the routine activities.
    “She also decided to follow the steps required for marketing of the products through her own outlets.”
    “The exact manner in which the production activities are to be carried out.”
  4. Rule: A rule is a specific statement relating to the general norms in terms of Do’s and Dont’s that guide the behaviour of people. It commands strict obedience and a penalty is likely to be imposed on its violation.
    “While working on the production table, a penalty of ? 100 per day for not wearing caps, gloves and aprons was announced.”
  5. Budget: A budget refes to a financial plan that is expressed in numerical terms.
    “Mohan also prepared a statement showing the number of workers different products for the forthcoming quater.”

Question 14.
Two years ago, Mayank obtained a degree in food technology. For some time, he worked in a company that manufactured bread and biscuits. He was not happy in the company and decided to have his own bread and biscuits manufacturing unit. For this, he decided the objectives and the targets, and formulated an action plan to achieve the same.
One of his objectives was to earn 50% profits on the amount invested in the first year. It was decided that raw materials like flour, sugar, salt, etc. will be purchased on two months credit. He also decided to follow the steps required for marketing the products through his own outlets. He appointed Harsh as the Production Manager who decided the exact manner in which the production activities were to be carried out. Harsh also prepared a statement showing the requirement of workers in the factory throughout the year. Mayank informed Harsh about his are a wise sales target for different products, for the forthcoming quarter. While working on the production table, a penalty of ?150 per day was announced for not wearing the helmet, gloves and apron by the workers.
Quoting lines from the above paragraph, identify and explain the different types of plans discussed. (CBSE, OD 2016)
Answer:
The different types of plans discussed above are listed below:

  1. Objectives: Objectives are the end results of the activities that an organisation seeks to achieve through its existence. All other activities within the organisation are directed towards achieving these objectives.
    “One of her objectives was to earn 50% profit on the amount invested in the first year.”
  2. Policy: A policy is a set of general guidelines that help in managerial decision making and action.
    “It was decided that the raw materials like flour, wheat, sugar, etc. will be purchased on two months credit.”
  3. Method: A method refers to the prescribed ways or manner in which a task has to be performed considering the objective.
    “..decided the exact manner in which production activities were to be carried out.”
  4. Procedure: A procedure contains a series of specific steps to be performed in a chronological order to carry out the routine activities.
    “He also decided to follow the steps required for marketing of the products through his own outlets.”
  5. Rule: A rule is a specific statement relating to the general norms in terms of Do’s and Dont’s that guide the behaviour of people. It commands strict obedience and a penalty is likely to be imposed on its violation.
    “While working on the production table, a penalty of Rs. 150 per day was announced for not wearing helmets, gloves and aprons by the workers.”

Question 15.
Rahul, a worker, is given a target of assembling two computers per day. Due to his habit of doing things differently, an idea struck him which would not only reduce the assembling time of computers but would also reduce the cost of production of the computers. Instead of appreciating him, Rahul’s supervisor ordered him to complete the work as per the methods and techniques decided earlier as nothing could be changed at that stage. The above paragraph describes one of the limitations of the planning function of management. Name and explain that limitation. (CBSE, Delhi Comptt. 2011)
Answer:
The limitation of the planning function of management described in the above paragraph is that ‘planning reduces creativity.’ The top management undertakes planning of various policies and procedures whereas the other members are expected to merely implement these plans. This restricts the creativity of the middle level managers as they are neither allowed to deviate from plans, nor permitted to act on their own.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS

Question 1.
Josh Ltd. is a one of the largest two-wheeler manufacturer in India. It has a market share of about 42% in the two-wheeler category. The company had witnessed almost a 35% drop in the booking as the currency crunch was prompting people to withhold new purchases due to demonetisation. Therefore, the production manager of the company had decided to align production to factor in slower sales in the market.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify and explain the function of management being discussed in the above lines.
  2. Which limitations of the function of management as identified in part (a) of the question was the production manager trying to overcome due to demonetisation?

Answer:

  1. Planning is the function of management which is being discussed in the above lines.
    Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do, when to do and who has to do it. Thus, it involves setting objectives and developing an appropriate course of action to achieve these objectives.
  2. The production manager is trying to overcome the following limitations of planning:
    • Rigidity
    • Planning may not work in dynamic environment

Question 2.
The term demonetisation has become a household name since the government pulled the old Rs. 500 and Rs. 1,000 notes out of circulation in November 2016. Prior to the year 2016, the Indian government had demonetised bank notes on two prior occasions—once in the year 1946 and then again in the year 1978. In both cases, the purpose was to combat tax evasion by ‘black money’. Identify the types of one of the functions of management being discussed in the above lines.
Answer:
Objective and Strategy

Question 3.
The arrangement to demonetise the ? 500 and ?1000 bank notes began six to ten months prior to the public announcement and was kept highly confidential. The cabinet was informed about the demonetisation on 8th November 2016 in a meeting called by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi. This was followed by Modi’s public announcement about the demonetisation in a televised address where he announced that currency notes with the denomination of ? 500 and ? 1000 would cease to be the legal tender from 9th of November 2016. The most interesting thing regarding the demonetisation is that people were devising various unique ways for transforming their black money in to white one by depositing money in the accounts of their poor relatives and friends, converting black money in to gold, paying a few months salaries in advance and so on.
In context of the above case:
Identify and explain the types of plans being discussed in the above lines with regard to demonetisation.
Answer:
The various types of plans being discussed in the above lines with regard to demonetisation are detailed below:

  • Procedure: It is a series of chronological steps which are performed to do a particular activity.
  • Rule: A rule is a specific statement relating to the general norms in terms of Do’s and Don’ts that guide the behaviour of people.

Question 4.
Flipkart is an e-commerce company founded in the year 2007 by Sachin Bansal and Binny Bansal. The company is registered in Singapore, but has its headquarters in Bangaluru, India. The company seeks to increase traffic (more clicks on their products) and boost sales and revenue through integration of Mobile Apps, Display, Pay Per Click and Search Engine Optimization. In order to dispel the fear of people related to shopping online, Flipkart was the first company to implement the popular ‘Cash on Delivery’ facility. All the products sold by the company under a particular category may have different return/replacement period. Flipkart allows multiple payment options such as cash on delivery, credit or debit card transactions, net banking, e-gift voucher and card swipe on delivery. The company operates both ways when an order is received. The products for which it holds inventory are dispatched by it directly. For the products they do not store in inventory, they just send the order received by them to the supplier who ships it. The company plans to spend about ? 75 crores on e-Commerce advertising in the year 2016. Flipkart reserves the right to terminate your membership and/or refuse to provide you with access to the website if it is brought to Flipkart’s notice or if it is discovered that you are under the age of 18 years. This is because as per the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the minors, un-discharged insolvents, etc. are not eligible to use the website.
In context of the above case, identify and explain the different types of plans being used by Flipkart by quoting lines from the paragraph.
Answer:
The different types of plans being used by Flipkart are listed below:

  1. Objectives: Objectives are the end results of the activities that an organisation seeks to achieve through its existence. All other activities within the organisation are directed towards achieving these objectives.
    “The company seeks to increase traffic (more clicks on their products) and boost sales and revenue through integration of Mobile Apps, Display, Pay Per Click and Search Engine Optimization.”
  2. Strategy: A strategy is a comprehensive plan for achieving the objectives of the organisation. This comprehensive plan involves:
    • determining long term objectives
    • adopting a particular course of action
    • allocating resources necessary to achieve the objective.
      “In order to dispel the fear of people related to shopping online, Flipkart was the first company to implement the popular ‘Cash On Delivery’ facility.”
  3. Policy: A policy is a siet of general guidelines that help in managerial decision making and action.
    “All the products sold by the company under a particular category may have different return/replacement period.”
  4. Method: A method refers to the prescribed ways or manner in which a task has to be performed considering the objective.
    “Flipkart allows multiple payment options such as cash on delivery, credit or debit card transactions, net banking, e-gift voucher and card swipe on delivery.”
  5. Procedure: A procedure contains a series of specific steps to be performed in a chronological order to carry out the routine activities.
    “The company operates both ways when an order is received. The products for which it holds inventory are dispatched by it directly. For the products they do not store in inventory, they just send the order received by them to the supplier who ships it.”
  6. Budget: A budget refers to a financial plan that is expressed in -numerical terms.
    “The company plans to spend about ? 75 crores on e-commerce advertising in the year 2016.”
  7. Rule: A rule is a specific statement relating to the general norms in terms of Do’s and Don’ts that guide the behaviour of people. It commands strict obedience and a penalty is likely to be imposed on its violation.
    “Flipkart reserves the right to terminate your membership and/or refuse to provide you with access to the Website if it is brought to Flipkart’s notice or if it is discovered that you are under the age of 18 years. This is because as per the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the minors, un-discharged insolvents etc. are not eligible to use the Website.”

Question 5.
Rajender has been running a successful business of manufacturing traditional wedding wear for women including sarees and lehengas. His friend Surinder who is engaged in the business of providing web designing solutions to his clients, suggests him to explore the option of selling his products online. Rajender agrees to his suggestion and decides to venture into online business, keeping in view the various e-commerce regulations in order to avoid imposition of any penalty. In order to facilitate the sale of his products, Rajender decides to offer multiple payment options such as cash on delivery, credit or debit card transactions, net banking to the buyers etc.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify the two different types of plans mentioned in the above paragraph that relate to the online portal that Rajinder intends to startby quoting lines from the paragraph.
  2.  Distinguish between the two types of plans as identified in part (a).

Answer:

  1. Rule and Method are the two different types of plans that relate to the online portal that Rajender intends to start.
    • Rule: “Rajender agrees to his suggestion and decides to venture into online business keeping in view the various e-commerce regulations in order to avoid imposition of any penalty.”
    • Method: “However, he decides to offer multiple payment options such as cash on delivery, credit or debit card transactions, net banking to the buyers etc.”
  2. The difference between rule and method is as follows:
    Basis Rule Method
    Meaning Rules are specific statements that tell people what should or should not be done. Methods define the way of doing routine or respective job.
    Violation Violation of rules may lead to imposition of penalties. Method does not involve any penalties on violation.
    Purpose Rules help to maintain discipline. Methods help in carrying out the job efficiently.
    Nature Rules are both specific and rigid. Methods are specific (well defined) but flexible.
    Example No smoking, No Parking etc. Method of payment of fee-cheque, cash, online etc.

Question 6.
Wazir Ahmed joins ‘Ashiyana Ltd.’ a company dealing in real estate, as a human resource manager. Through a series of interactions with his team during lunch breaks, he comes to know that quite a few managers at middle and senior levels have recently left the organisation as their promotions were overdue. Therefore, in order to reinstate the confidence of the staff, he lays out a clear cut plan consisting of a set of general guidelines for both time bound and performance related appraisals of the mangers at all levels. Moreover, he develops standardized processes containing a series of steps specified in a chronological order for its implementation.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify the two different types of plans that Wazir Ahmed proposes to implement in order to reinstate the confidence of the staff by quoting lines from the paragraph.
  2. Distinguish between the two types of plans as identified in part (a).

Answer:

  1. Policy and Procedure are the two different types of plans that Wazir Ahmed proposes to implement in order to reinstate the confidence of the staff.
    Policy: “… he lays out a clear cut plan consisting of a set of general guidelines for both time bound and performance related appraisals of the mangers at all levels.”
    Procedure: “Moreover, he develops standardized processes containing a series of steps specified in a chronological order for its implementation.”
  2. The difference between Policy and Procedure is outlined below:
Basis Policy Procedure
Meaning Policies are general statements that guide managerial decision making. It is a series of chronological steps which are performed to do a particular activity.
Level of management It is determined by top level management. It is determined by lower and middle level management.
Expression It is a general statement. It is a specific statement.

Manager’s
Discretion

It provides scope for managerial discretion. There is no scope for managerial discretion.
Purpose Policies are framed to achieve the objectives of an organisation. They all guide in implementing the strategy. A procedure is framed to implement a policy.

Question 7.
‘Apna Ghar/ a company dealing in consumer durables, plans to increase the sale of its products by 25% around Diwali this year. Moreover, in order to cash on the implementation of the seventh pay commission by that time, which is likely to raise the income of 47 lakh serving employees of the Central government and 52 lakh pensioners, the company has created 30 advertisement films which will be aired across 85 national and regional channels until Diwali.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify the two different types of plans that ‘Apna Ghar’ proposes to implement by quoting lines from the paragraph.
  2. Distinguish between the two types of plans as identified in part(i).

Answer:

  1. Objective and Strategy are the two different types of plans that ‘Apna Ghar’ proposes to implement.
    Objective: “Apna Ghar’, a company dealing in consumer durables, plans to increase the sale of its products by 25% around Diwali this year.”
    Strategy: “Moreover, in order to cash on the implementation of the seventh pay commission by that time which is likely to raise the income of 47 lakh serving employees of the Central government and 52 lakh pensioners, the company has created 30 advertisement films which will be aired across 85 national and regional channels until Diwali.”
  2. The difference between objectives and strategy is outlined below:
S. No. Basis Objectives Strategy
1. Meaning Objectives are the end results of the activities that an organisation seeks to achieve through its existence. A strategy is a comprehensive plan prepared for winning over the given challenge or problem.
2. Source Objectives are based on the mission or philosophy of the organisation. A strategy is based on the objectives of the organisation.
3. Level of persons involved Objectives are determined by top level management. A strategy may be determined by top level or middle level management.

Question 8.
After completing a diploma in Bakery and Patisserie, Payai sets up a small outlet at Goa Airport to provide a healthy food option to the travellers. To begin with, she has decided to sell five types of patties, three types of pizzas and low sugar muffins in four flavours. Thus, by deciding in advance what to do and how to do, she is able to reduce the risk of uncertainty and avoid overlapping and wasteful activities. But sometimes her planning does not work due to some unavoidable circumstances like cancellation of flights due to bad weather conditions, government alert etc. which adversely affects her clientele.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify and explain the points highlighting the importance of planning mentioned in the above paragraph.
  2. Describe briefly the limitation of planning which adversely affects Payal’s business

Answer:

  1. The points highlighting the importance of planning mentioned in the above paragraph are described below:
    • Reduces the risk of uncertainty: Planning relates to deciding in advance about the tasks to be performed in future. This enables a manager to anticipate changes and devise the ways to deal with changes and uncertain events effectively.
    • Avoiding overlapping and wasteful activities: Planning ensures clarity in thought and action and serves as the basis of coordinating the activities and efforts of different individuals and departments. Therefore, by curtailing useless and redundant activities, it helps in the smooth working of the organisation’s work without interruptions. Moreover, it makes detection of inefficiencies easier so that timely corrective measures may be taken to avoid them in future.
  2. The limitation of planning which adversely affects Payal’s business is:
    • Planning may not work in a dynamic environment: The business environment is dynamic in nature. Every organisation has to constantly adapt itself to changes in its environment in order to survive and grow. However, it difficult to anticipate all the likely future changes in the environment with utmost accuracy. Hence, even with planning, everything cannot be foreseen.

Question 9.
‘Agile Ltd.’ is a well-known automobile manufacturing company in India. The company plans to increase the sale of its sedan cars by 20% in the next quarter. In order to achieve the desired target, the marketing team of the company considers the impact of policy of the government towards diesel vehicles and the level of competition in this segment of cars. They explore the various available options like offering more discount to dealers and customers, providing more customer friendly finance options, lucky draws on test drives, increasing advertising, offering more of free accessories on the purchase of the car, etc. A thorough analysis of the various available options is done keeping in view the relative viability of each option. The company decides to pursue the option of offering more discount to dealers and customers in order to boost the sale of sedan cars. In order to implement the plan, they determine the various discount packages and communicate the same to their product dealers. To make the prospective consumers aware about the new available benefits, advertisements are made through various sources of print and electronic media. The market analysts of the company keep a close watch on the revenue from the sedan cars to study the effect of new initiatives by the company to promote its sales.
In context of the above case:

  1. Name the function of management described in the above paragraph.
  2. Identify and explain the various steps involved in process the function of management as identified in part (a) by quoting lines from the paragraph.

Answer:

  1. Planning is the function of management which is being described in the above paragraph.
  2. The various steps involved in the planning process are explained below:
    • Setting objectives: The planning process is initiated by setting the objectives in clear, specific and measurable terms. The objectives may be set for the organization as a whole and for each department or unit within the organization.
      “The company plans to increase the sale of its sedan cars by 20% in next quarter.”
    • Developing Premises: Planning process is carried out keeping in view the assumptions related to the future, which is uncertain. These assumptions are called premises and may relate to government policy, interest rate, inflation, etc. Accurate forecasts are therefore essential for successful planning.
      “In order to achieve the desired target the marketing team of the company considers the impact of policy of the government towards diesel vehicles and level of competition in this segment of cars.” .
    • Identifying alternative courses of action: The next step in the planning process involves identification of the various ways in which the goals can be achieved.
      “They explore the various available options like offering more discount to dealers and customers, providing more customer friendly finance options, lucky draws on test drives, increasing advertising, offering more of free accessories on the purchase of the car, etc.”
    • Evaluating alternative courses: In order to select the best option, the relative positive and negative aspects of each alternative should be evaluated in the light of their feasibility and consequences.
      “A thorough analysis of the various available options is done keeping in view the relative viability of each option.”
    • Selecting an alternative: The best plan is adopted to achieve the desired goals. Sometimes, a combination of plans may be selected instead of one best course of action.
      “The company decides to pursue the option of offering more discount to dealers and customers in order to boost the sale of sedan cars.”
    • Implement the plan: This step is concerned with putting plans into action.
      “In order to implement the plan, they determine the various discount packages and communicate the same to their product dealers. To make the prospective consumers aware about the new available benefits, advertisements are made through various sources of print and electronic media.”
    • Follow up action: Monitoring of plans is equally important to ensure that objectives are achieved efficiently and effectively.
      “The market analysts of the company keep a close watch on the revenue from the sedan cars to study the effect of new initiatives by the company to promote its sales.”

Question 10.
Arush joins as a sales manager of a company dealing in naturotherapy products. Being proficient in his work, he knew that without good planning he will not be able to organise, direct, control or perform any of the other managerial functions efficiently and effectively. Only on the basis of sales forecasting, he would assist in the preparation of the annual plans for its production and sales. Besides, he will have to prepare sales plans regularly on weekly, monthly, quarterly and half yearly basis. While preparing the sales forecasts, he undertakes intellectual thinking involving foresight, visualization and issued judgement rather than wishful thinking or guess work. Most importantly, all these planning activities will be meaningful only if they will coincide with the purpose fob which the business is being carried out.
In context of the above case, identify the various features of planning highlighted in the above paragraph by quoting lines from it.
Answer:
The features of planning highlighted in the above paragraph are explained below:

  1. Planning is a primary function: Planning precedes all the functions of management i.e. organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. This refers to primacy of planning. Planning provides the basis of all other functions.
    “… without good planning he will not be able to organise, direct, control or perform any of the other managerial functions efficiently and effectively. “
  2. Planning is futuristic: Planning is called a forward looking function as it enables an organization to meet future events effectively.
    “Only on the basis of sales forecasting, he would assist in the preparation of the annual plans for its production and sales.”
  3. Planning is continuous: Plans need to be continuously made, implemented and followed by another plan and so on till an organization exists
    “Besides, he will have to prepare sales plans regularly on weekly, monthly, quarterly and half yearly basis.”
  4. Planning is a mental exercise: Planning is done on the basis of rational thinking involving foresight, visualization and issued judgement rather than wishful thinking or guess work.
    “While preparing the sales forecasts, he undertakes intellectual thinking involving foresight, visualisation and issued judgement rather than wishful thinking or guess work.”
  5. Planning focuses on achieving objectives: Planning is a purposeful activity as it contributes to the achievement of predetermined goals of the organisation both efficiently and effectively.
    “Most importantly, all these planning activities will be meaningful only if they will coincide with the purpose for which the business is being carried out.”

Question 11.
Holistic Education Public School in Bahadurgarh decides to implement the literacy programme of the government in the school. It is decided that within the year, the forty five support staff employees of the school will be made literate by the school counsellors and social workers. In order to enhance the learning process, the school decides to use audio-visual aids. To start the programme, the school has to first procure the literacy books from State Resource Centre at Jamia. Besides the curriculum, each literacy book contains a series of nine tests which the volunteers have to get completed by the learners during the programme. Moreover, by implementing the plan of ‘each one teach one’, each student of the school from classes fifth to tenth will be encouraged to make one person literate. The student volunteers may select a learner by adopting any one of the two ways; either from the slum areas adopted by the school or on their own within the vicinity of their residence. As per the norms of the Delhi Government, it is mandatory for the volunteers to send back the filled copy of only the ninth test paper in the series to the authorities as a conclusive proof of the completion of the course, else the certificate of commendation will not be awarded to them. Considering the implementation of the programme to be a part of its corporate social responsibility initiative, the school has decided to spend around Rs. 50,000 on the distribution of free stationery items, refreshments of the learners, etc.
In context of the above case:

  1. Identify the various types of plans being used by Holistic Education Public School in order to implement the literacy programme in their school by quoting the lines from the paragraph.
  2. Categorise the various types of plans as identified in part (a) into single use plans and standing plans.

Answer:

  1. The various types of plans being used by the school to implement the literacy programme in the school are:
    • Objectives: “It is decided that within the year, all the forty five support staff employees of the school will be made literate by the school counsellors and social workers.”
    • Strategy: “In order to enhance the learning process, the school decides to use audio visual aids.”
    • Policy: “Moreover, by implementing the plan of ‘each one teach one,’ each student of the school from classes fifth to tenth will be encouraged to make one person literate.”
    • Procedure: “To start the programme the school has to first procure the literacy books from State Resource Centre at Jamia. Besides the curriculum, each literacy book contains a series of nine tests which the volunteers have to get completed by the learners during the programme.”
    • Method: “The student volunteers may select a learner by adopting any one of the two ways; either from the slum areas adopted by the school or on their own within the vicinity of their residence.”
    • Rule: “As per the norms of the Delhi Government, it is mandatory for the volunteers to send back the filled copy of only the ninth test paper in the series to the authorities as a conclusive proof of the completion of the course, else the certificate of commendation will not be awarded to them.”
    • Budget: “Considering the implementation of the programme to be a part of its corporate social responsibility initiative, the school has decided to spend around ? 50,000 on the distribution of free stationery items, refreshments of the learners, etc.”
  2. Single use plans are the ones that are formulated to deal with new or non-repetitive situations that may arise in an organisation from time to time. This includes programmes, budgets and projects.
    Standing plans refer to the types of plans which once formulated may be used for a long period of time in similar or repetitive situations that may prevail in an organisation. These include objectives, strategies, policies, procedures methods and rules.

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The Thief’s Story Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet

In this article, we are providing The Thief’s Story Extra Questions and Answers PDF Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet CBSE, Extra Questions for Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet was designed by subject expert teachers.

The Thief’s Story Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet

Extract Based Questions [3 Marks each]

Read the following extracts carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Question 1.
“You look a bit of a wrestler yourself”. I said A little flattery helps in making friends.
(a) Who was the speaker? Who was he trying to flatter?
(b) Why did the speaker want to be friends with the listener?
(c) Find the antonym of ‘criticism’ in the extract.
(d) What is the opposite of ‘friends’?
Answer:
(a) Hari Singh was the speaker and he was trying to flatter Anil.
(b) The speaker wanted to be friends with the listener because he wanted to rob him after gaining his trust.
(c) The antonym is ‘flattery’.
(d) ‘Enemies’ is its opposite.

Question 2.
Well, it’s time I did some real work, I told myself; I’m out of practice. [CBSE 2013]
(a) What ‘real work’ is the speaker talking about?
(b) Why does the speaker say ‘I’m out of practice’?
(c) Give a synonym of ‘practice’.
(d) What part of speech is the word ‘real’ in the extract?
Answer:
(a) The ‘real work’ in the extract refers to stealing.
(b) The speaker says so because he is a thief and he has not robbed anyone recently.
(c) Here, habit is a synonym of‘practice’.
(d) It is an adjective

Question 3.
When the train had gone, I found myself standing alone on the deserted platform. I had no idea where to spend the night. I had no friends. [CBSE 2014]
(a) Why was the speaker standing alone on the platform?
(b) Why did he not have any friends?
(c) Which word in the extract is an antonym of the word ‘crowded’?
(d) What does ‘deserted’ mean?
Answer:
(a) The speaker was standing alone on the platform because a train had just left.
(b) The speaker did not have any friends because he thought that friends were more trouble than help.
(c) The word is ‘deserted’.
(d) It means empty.

Question 4.
He knew. But neither his lips nor his eyes showed anything.
(a) Who is ‘he’ in the extract? What did he know?
(b) Why did he not show anything?
(c) Which word in the extract means the same as ‘reveal’.
(d) What is the antonym of ‘showed’?
Answer:
(a) ‘He’ refers to Anil in the extract. He knew about the theft of his money.
(b) Anil did not show anything because he was understanding and Hari’s return gave him the hope of a change in him.
(c) ‘Showed’ means the same as ‘reveal’.
(d) ‘Hide’ is its antonym.

Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks each]

Question 1.
Why did Hari Singh approach Anil?
Answer:
Hari Singh was a thief who had not much luck in his work recently. So he approached Anil with the intention of robbing him, as he seemed to be an easygoing and simple man. According to Hari, winning Anil’s confidence was an easy task.

Question 2.
Anil walked away. I followed casually’. Why do you think the narrator followed Anil?
Answer:
The narrator’s purpose of robbing Anil had not yet been served. He followed Anil to gain his trust and look for an opportunity that may help him give shape to his plans.

Question 3.
Was Hari Singh successful in robbing Anil? Was Anil the only one who was robbed or did Hari also rob himself of something?
Answer:
Yes, Hari Singh was successful in robbing Anil. But Anil was not the only one who was robbed at that time. Hari had robbed himself as well. He had lost the chance of receiving education and being literate. He had robbed Anil monetarily but he had robbed himself of the chance for a better and brighter future, which was much more valuable.

Question 4.
What did Anil and Hari agree upon to be the mode of payment? [CBSE 2015]
Answer:
When Anil stated his inability to pay Hari, Anil questioned Hari if he could feed Hari. Hari realised that he had misjudged his target and moulded the situation for his benefit. Anil then agreed to feed him if he knew how to cook.

Question 5.
What made Hari Singh go back to Anil’s house?
Answer:
Hari Singh realised the importance of education he was receiving from Anil. He knew that learning how to read and write and being a literate person would open doors to many opportunities. He was sure that he would then be able to earn more than a few hundred rupees he had in hand at that time. This made him go back to Anil.

Question 6.
Did Hari like working for Anil? Give reasons in support of your answer. [CBSE 2014]
Answer:
Yes, Hari liked working for Anil. He was happy to carry on the chores for him and was grateful for the education he was receiving. He used to make profit of about a rupee a day as well, which was a decent amount besides being fed.

Question 7.
Why was it difficult for Hari to rob Anil?
Answer:
It was difficult for Hari to rob Anil because Anil was the most trusting person Hari had ever met. He was really simple and kind. Hari knew that loss of money will not affect Anil but the loss of trust will make him sad.

Question 8.
State the events that took place on the night of the theft. [CBSE 2016]
Answer:
The night of robbery vitas quite eventful for Hari Singh. After stealing Anil’s money and leaving Anil’s house, Hari went to the railway station but didn’t board the train to Lucknow. He walked slowly through the bazaar as he did i ot know anyone who would provide him shelter except Anil, for he didn’t have any friends. He was forced to take shelter under the clock tower later when it started raining heavily. That is where he realised the importance of education and decided to go back to Anil.

Question 9.
How was the morning after the night of the theft?
Answer:
The morning after the night of the theft was just like a normal one. Hari woke up late and Anil had made tea by then. Anil gave a fifty rupee note to Hari and told him that he will now be paid regularly. Hari was aware that Anil knew about the theft but he didn’t show anything.

Question 10.
How do you think Anil may have come to know about the theft?
Answer:
Anil may have come to know about the theft because of the dampness of the notes because of rain. He was a kind but wise .man. It wouldn’t haye been difficult for Anil to make out the series of events that would have taken place in the night.

Question 11.
Had Anil really forgiven Hari Singh? Support your answer with evidence. [CBSE 2012]
Answer:
Yes, Anil had forgiven Hari Singh. It is evident because Anil handed over to Hari a fifty rupee note as soon as Hari woke up. Though he knew that Hari had robbed the money at first but his subsequent actions gave him hope of change in Hari’s character.

Long Answer (Value Based) Type Questions [8 Marks each]

Question 1.
Money can’t make a man as much as education can. Elucidate the statement. [CBSE 2013]
Answer:
The statement stands true in almost all the aspects of life. Money may buy us all the luxuries and fulfil our needs but it cannot buy us knowledge, civilised thinking, skills and abilities to achieve our dreams. Education lays the platform for all to act upon our goals according to our abilities. Education enables us to keep up with the fast moving world. It opens the door to opportunities we do not know even exist. Money, on the other hand, can assist us to a certain level. It can buy us a plan but education gives us the knowledge of its execution. Just as in the story ‘A Thief s Story’, Hari Singh prioritised the chance of being literate over a few hundred rupees, we must understand that education can help us to achieve whatever we desire.

Question 2.
Hari Singh didn’t board the express and returned to Amil. Why did he return? On what values does this incidence put light on?
Answer:
Hari Singh was a thief and he had stolen Anil’s money. After the theft, he realised that he had robbed not only Anil but also himself of the chance of being literate and having a bright future. His conscience pricked him to think what all he could have got had he not done this. It was difficult for him to rob Anil but it was tougher for him not to back. He realised that he could not make tea, buy daily supplies and learn how to read and write then. His inner self did not agree to bypass this and forced him to return.
Hari’s return to Anil shows that despite indulging in criminal acts, he still had a practical and positive attitude towards life. It is the awakening of Hari’s conscience and Anil’s love and care that reformed Hari’s character. It teaches us that love alone can change a person. Anil’s understanding nature and care changed Hari’s thinking to mend his ways for good.

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CBSE Previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Computer Science Delhi 2014

CBSE Previous Year Solved  Papers  Class 12 Computer Science Delhi 2014

Time allowed : 3 hours                                                                                           Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions :

  1.  There are a total of 26 questions and five sections in the question paper, All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A contains question number 1 to 5, Very Short Answer type questions of one mark each.
  3.  Section B contains question number 6 to 10, Short Answer type I questions of two marks each.
  4.  Section C contains question number 11 to 22, Short Answer type II questions of three marks each.
  5.  Section D contains question number 23, Value Based Question of four marks.
  6. Section E contains question number 24 to 26, Long Answer type questions of five marks each.
  7. There is no overall choice in the question paper, however, an internal choice is provided in one question of two marks, one question of three marks and all three questions of five marks. An examined is to attempt any one of the questions out of two given in the question paper with the same question number.

SET I

Question.1. (a) What is the difference between actual parameter and formal parameter ? Give a suitable example to illustrate using a C++ code.
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-1

(b) Observe the following C++ code and write the name(s) of the header file(s), which will be essentially required to run it in a C++ compiler:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-2

(c) Rewrite the following C++ code after removing all the r syntax error (s), if present in the code. Make sure that you underline each correction done by you in the code.
Important Note:
— Assume that all the required header files are already included, which are essential to run this code.
— The corrections made by you do not change the logic of the program.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-3
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-4

(d) Obtain the output of the following C++ program as . expected to appear on the screen after its execution.
Important Note:
—All the desired header files are already included in the code, which are required to run the code.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-5

(e) Obtain the output of the following C++ program, which will appear on the screen after its execution.
Important Note:
— All the desired header files are already included in the code, which are required to run the code.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-6
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-7
Answer:
OUTPUT:
A@ 1
0
A@2
75
A @ 3 120

(f) Read the following C++ code carefully and find out, which out of the given option (i) to (iv) are the expected correct output(s) of it. Also, write the maximum and minimum value that can be assigned to the variable Start used in the code:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-8
Answer: (i) 200 #150# Maximum value=3 Minimum value=2

Question.2. (a) Write 4 characteristics of a constructor function used in a class.
Answer: 4 characteristics of a constructor class are:-

  1. It is a function of a class.
  2. It has the name same that of its class name.
  3. It does not have any return type.
  4. It is called automatically whenever an object is created.

(b) Answer the question (i) and (ii) after going through the following class:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-9
(i) Which of the function out of Function 1,2,3,4 or 5 will get executed when the Statement 1 is executed in the above code?
(ii) Write a statement to declare a new object G with reference to already existing object H using Function 3.
Answer:
(i) Function 1 will be executed when the Statement 1 is executed
(ii) Health G(H);

(c) Define a class CABS in C++ with the following g specification:
Data Members

  •  CNo — to store Cab No
  • Type — to store a character ‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘C’ as City Type
  • PKM – to store per kilo metre charges
  • Dist – to store Distance travelled (in km)

Member Functions

  • A constructor function to initialize Type as ‘A’ and CNo as‘1111’
  • A function ChargesO to assign PKM as per the 0 following table:
    cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-10
  • A function Register() to allow administration to enter the values for CNo and Type. Also, this function should call Charges!) to assign PKM Charges.
  • A function ShowCab() to allow user to enter the value of Distance and display CNo, Type, PKM, PKM * Distance (as Amount) on screen.

cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-11
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-12

(d) Consider the following C++ code and answer the question from (i) to (iv):
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-13
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-14
(i) Which type of Inheritance is shown in the above example?
(ii) Write the names of those member functions, which are directly accessed from the objects of class Applicant.
(iii) Write the name of those data members, which can be directly accessible from the member functions of class Applicant.
(iv) Is it possible to directly call function Display O of class Campus
from an object of class Dept? (Answer as YES or NO).
Answer:
(i) Multilevel inheritance is shown in the above example.
(ii) Member functions: void Enroll ();
void View();
void Enter();’
void Show();
(iii) Data Members :
long RegNo;
char Name [20];
double Bugdget;
(iv) No, it is not possible because Display () function of Campus becomes private for the object of Dept class.

Question.3. (a) Write code for a function odd Even(in ts[], int N) in C++, to add 5 in all the odd values and 10 in all the even values of the array S.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-15

(b) An array T[25] [20] is stored along the row in the memory with each element requiring 2 bytes of storage. If the base address of array is 42000, find out the location of T [10] [15]. Also, find the total number of elements present in this array.
Answer:
B=42000
W=2
T[I] [J] = B + W [ N (I -1,) + (J + J,) ]
T[10] [15] = 42000 + 2[ 20 (10) + (15) ]
= 42000 + 2[ 200 +15]
= 42000 + 2[ 215]
= 42000 + 430 = 42430
Location ofT[10][15] = 42430
Total number of elements present in this array = 25 * 20 = 500

(c) Write user-defined function Sum Last 3(int A[] [4], int N, int M) in C++ to to find and display the sum of all the values, which are ending with 3 (ie., units place is 3). For example if the content of array is:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-16
The output should be 49.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-17

(d) Evaluate the following post fix expression. Show the status of Stack after execution of each operation separately: F, T, NOT, AND, F, OR, T, AND
Answer:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-18

(e) Write a function POPBOOKO in C++ to perform delete operation from a Dynamic Stack, which contains Bno and Tide. Consider the following definition of NODE, while writing your C++code.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-19
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-20

Question.4. (a) Fill in the blanks marked as as the Statement 1 and the Statement 2, in be program segment given below the appropriate functions for the required task.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-21
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-22
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-23

(b) Write the function EU Count() in C++, which should read character of a text file IMP.TXT, should count and display the occurrence of alphabets E and U (including small case e and u too)
EXAMPLE:
If the file content is as follows :
Updated information is simplified by official websites.
The EU Count () function should display the output as E: 4 U: 1
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-24

(c) Assume the class GAMES as declared below, write a functions in C++ to read the objects GAMES from binary file GAMES.DAT and display those details of those GAMES, which are meant for children of Age Range “8 to 13”.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-25
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-26

Question.5. (a) Explain the concept of Union between two tables, with the help of appropriate example.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-27
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-28
NOTE
Answer the question (b) and (c) on the basis of the following tables STORE and ITEM
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-29

(b) Write the SQL query (1 to 4)
1. To display I Name and Price of all the Items in ascending
order of their Price.
2. To display SNo and S Name of all Stores located in Cp.
3. To display Minimum and Maximum price of each I Name ’ from the table Item.
4. To display I Name, Price of all the Items and their respective S Name where they are available.
Answer:
(1) select I Name, Price from ITEM order by Price
(2) select SNo, S Name from STORE where Area=’CP’;
(3) select MIN(Price), MAX(Price) from ITEM group by I Name;
(4) select I Name, Price, S Name from STORE, ITEM where STORE. SNo= ITEM. SNo;

(c) Write the output of the following SQL command (1 to 4)
1. SELECT DISTINCT I NAME FROM ITEM WHERE , PRICE>=5000;
2. SELECT AREA, COUNT(*), FROM STORE GROUP BY AREA;
3. SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT AREA) FROM STORE;
4. SELECT I NAME, PRICE * 0.05 DISCOUNT FROM ITEM WHERE SNO IN (‘S02’, ‘S03’);
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-30

Question.6 (a) Name the law shown below and verify it using a truth table.
A+B.C=(A+B).(A+C)
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-31

(b) Obtain the Boolean Expression for the logic shown below:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-32

(c) Write the Sum of Product form of the function F.(P,Q,R) for the following truth representation F :
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-33

(d) Obtain the minimal form for the following Boolean expression using Karnaugh’s Map.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-34

Question.7. (a) Write one characteristic each for 2G and 3G Mobile Technologies.
Answer:
Characteristic of 2G mobile technologies is that it is used to make only voice calls.
Characteristic of 3G mobile technologies is that it is used for voice calls as well as video calls.

(b) What is the difference between Video Conferencing and Chat ?
Answer: In Video Conferencing, both the communicators can see each other while talking, whereas, in Chat, we can not see each other.

(c) Expand the following:

  • GPRS
  • CDMA

Answer:
GPRS—General Packet Radio Service
CDMA—Code Division Multiple Access

(d) Which type of network (out of LAN, PAN and MAN) is formed, when you connect two mobiles using Bluetooth to transfer a picture file. 
Answer: PAN (Personal Area Network)

(e) Trine Tech Corporation (TTC) is a professional consultancy company. The company is planning to set up their new offices in India with its hub at Hyderabad. As a network adviser, you have to understand their requirement and suggest them the best available solutions. Their queries are mentioned as (i) to (iv) below.
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-35
(i) What will be the most appropriate block, where TTC should plan to install their services?
(ii) Draw a block to block cable layout to connect all the buildings in the most appropriate manner far efficient communication.
(iii) What will be the possible connectivity out of the following, you will suggest to connect the new set up of offices in Hyderabad with its London based office.

  • Satellite
  • Infrared
  • Ethernet Cable

(iv) Which of the following device will be suggested by you to connect each computer in each of the buildings ?

  • Switch
  • Modem
  • Gateway

Answer:
(i) Finance block is appropriate to install server.
(ii) CABLE LAYOUT:
cbse-previous-year-solved-papers-class-12-computer-science-delhi-2014-36
(iii) Satellite Link ” .
(iv) Switch

(f) Write the name of any two popular Open Source Software, which are used as operating system.
Answer: Linux and Unix are two Open Source operating system.

(g) Write any two important characteristics of Cloud Computing.
Answer: Two characteristic of Cloud Computing are:-

  1. It is controlled by entity and restricted to their authorized user.
  2. It is delivered through internet 24 x 7.