Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 6
[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.] [Maximum Marks] : 100
- All Questions are compulsory.
- Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
- Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
Question.1. Write the full form of IMF.
Answer. IMF stands for International Monetary Fund.
Question.2. Highlight any two facts showing cordiality in the relationship between India and the United States.
Answer. (i) About 65 per cent of India’s total exports in the software sector, are to the US.
(ii) More than 3 lakh Indians work in the Silicon Valley.
Question.3. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
Ban Ki Moon is the 8th UN…………… He is the citizen of …………..
Answer. Ban ki Moon is the 8th UN Secretary-General. He is the citizen of South Korea.
Question.4. When and by whom was the ‘tryst with destiny’ speech delivered?
Answer. The ‘tryst with destiny’ speech was delivered by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1947 (midnight of 14-15 August).
Question.5. Who was Charu Mazumdar?
Answer. Charu Mazumdar was a communist revolutionary and the leader of the Naxalbari uprising. He founded the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist).
Question.6. List any two consequences of Shock-Therapy.
Answer. Consequences of Shock-Therapy are:
(i) In Russia, the large state-controlled industrial complex almost collapsed and about 90 per cent of its industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies.
(ii) The value of Russian currency (ruble) declined dramatically and the rate of inflation got so high that people lost all their savings.
Question.7. State any two objectives of the Human Rights Watch.
Answer. (i) It draws the global media’s attention to Human Rights abuses.
(ii) Organising campaigns to ban landmines, to stop the use of child soldiers and to establish an international criminal court.
Question.8. What is meant by ‘Coalition’ ? During which period did this type of government gain popularity for the first time at the centre in India?
Answer. When no party gains the necessary majority in the election, more than two parties join together and form a Government. It is known as ‘coalition’.
In 1989, the National Front, led by V.P. Singh, formed the coalition government at the centre for the first time.
Question.9. Identify the concept out of liberty, equality, democracy and fraternity to which India was deeply committed during our freedom struggle.
Answer. Here the terms liberty, equality, democracy and fraternity mean freedom from foreign rule and to achieve unity in diversity.
Question.10. List any two problems faced by the Government of India after 1971-72.
Answer. (i) The Banglaoigh crisis had put a heavy strain on India’s economy. About 8 million people migrated to India. The U.‘S. Government stopped all aid to India after the war.
(ii) In the International market, oil prices increased manifold and led to an increase in the prices of all other commodities.
Question.11. Why did the Super Powers have military alliances with the small countries? State any four reasons for it.
Answer. The two super powers (USA and The Soviet Union) needed smaller allies because:
- The smaller allies, like countries of newly independent states in Asia and Africa, possess vital natural resources such as oil, gas and minerals. They are the basic source for their fast development.
- The territories (Land and Sea) of smaller allies could be used for military bases.
For example: USA set up its military bloc in Iran and Afghanistan. Soviet Union set up its military bases in Poland and Cuba.
- These countries were also used for spying purposes which helped them to check others development.
- The economic support from these smaller nations could provide the basic support (food and other necessities) to their military bases (troops) in their locality.
Question.12. Name the countries included in South Asia. How can peace and co-operation be enhanced in this region ?
Answer. Countries included in South Asia are Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
- South Asia stands for diversity in every sense and is yet contiguous for geo-political space.
- Peace and cooperation can be enhanced in this region in the following ways:
(a) People in all these countries share the aspiration for democracy.
(b) In spite of many conflicts, the states of South Asia recognise the importance of cooperation ancMriendly relationship among themselves.
(c) SAARC is a major regional initiative by the South Asian states to evolve co-operation through multilateral means or programmes,
(d) SAARC members signed an agrement (SAFTA) which promised the formation of a free trade zone for the whole of South Asia.
Question.13. Explain India’s stand on environmental issues. What steps have been suggested by India in this respect ?
Answer. India has a very positive stand on environmental issues and plays a dominating role among the Asian countries.
- India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002, following the principle of common but differentiated responsibility. .
- India feels this contravenes the very spirit of UNFCCC. Neither does it seem fair to impose restrictions on India when the country’s rise in per capita carbon emissions by 2030 is likely to still represent less than half the world average.
- Besides, the Indian government is already participating in global efforts through a number of programmes. For example:
(a) India’s National Auto-fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles.
(b) The Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy.
- Indian government is also keen to launch a National Mission on Biodiesel. In this way, India has one of the largest renewable energy programmes in the world.
Question.14. What is meant by opposition in a democratic system? Describe any two activities of the opposition during the first two Parliaments of 1952 and 1957.
Answer. Opposition, in a democratic system, means members other than that of the ruling party in the Government. In general, the second largest party in terms of number of seats in the Assembly Election or the Lok Sabha election plays the role of opposition in a democracy.
- Two activities of the opposition during the first two parliaments of 19S2 and 1957 were: The roots of almost all the non-Congress parties emerged during these periods.
- They maintained the democratic order of the system.
- They offered a sustained and often principled criticism of the policies and practices of the Congress party.
- They kept the ruling party under check and often changed the balance of power within
the Congress. (Any two)
Question.15. Explain any four characteristics of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Answer. Non-Aligned Movement is a movement about keeping equi-distance from the power blocs. Characteristics of NAM:
- Independent foreign policy: It is a policy of assertion of independence in foreign affairs. NAM believes in the policy of coexistence at the national and international levels.
- International peace and security: Non-aligned movement advocates peaceful measures for a peaceful and prosperous world.
- Five challenges: It is a movement aimed at meeting five challenges of D’s.
(a) Decolonization (b) Democratization of International Relations
(c) Detente (d) Development
- Considers merits and justice: NAM considers every international issue on its merits and works for justice in international affairs.
All these features show that “NAM is not sitting on the fence or follow the policy of neutrality but it is international in character, believes in democratization of international politics.
Question.16. Match the names of the founders given below with the political parties they founded:
Question.17. Answer the following questions based upon the Presidential address of Mohammad Ali Jinnah at Karachi on August, 11,1947:
“We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities, the Hindu community and the Muslim community — because even as regards Muslims you have Pathans, Punjabis, Shias, Sunnis and so on and among the Hindus you have Brahmins, Vaishnavas, Khatris, also Bengalees, Madrasis and so on — will vanish…. You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed that has nothing to do with the business of the State.”
(a) Do you think that Jinnah’s statement contradicts the theory which was the basis of the creation of Pakistan? Justify your answer.
(b) What is the essence of Jinnah’s statement in this passage ?
(c) To what extent did Pakistan live up to Jinnah’s expectations in this passage ?
Answer. (a) Jinnah’s statement does not contradict the two nation theory. His does not mean the interference in between other communities like Pathans, Punjabis, Shias and Sunnis.
His aim was the creation of separate state for Muslims but not to interfere in other communities.
(b) The essence of Jinnah’s statement in this passage is his secular outlook regarding the protection and promotion of every community’s identity. For example, he said that, “You are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any place of worship in this state of Pakistan.”
(c) Pakistan did not live up to Jinnah’s expectations because after independence Pakistan became a ‘Theocratic State’ and did not respect the interest of other communities.
Question.18. “Indian policy makers made a mistake by emphasizing the role of state in the economy. India could have developed much better if private sector was allowed a free play right from the beginning”. Give arguments for or against this proposition.
Answer. No, the above mentioned statement is not fully true and proved the mistake of our policy makers because the role of state in the Indian economy was very much required to regulate our economy immediately after independence. Later on, when our economy got stabilized and regulated, the Indian policy makers introduced New Economic Policy as well in 1991 to liberalise our economy.
In the beginning India did not follow any of the two known paths. It did not accept the capitalist model of development in which development was left entirely to the private sector, nor did it follow the socialist model in which private property was abolished and all the production was controlled by the state.
But the elements from both these models were taken together in India which came to be known as “Mixed Economy”.
This concept of Mixed Economy was open to criticism both from the left and the right.
- Critics argued that planners refused to provide the private sector with enough space and stimulus to grow.
- According to them, the enlarged public sector created enough hurdles for private capital in the way of installing systerris of licenses and permits for investment.
- The state controlled more things than were necessary and this led to inefficiency and corruption.
Arguments in favour of state control:
- There were critics who thought that the state did not do enough. It intervened only in those areas where the private sector was not prepared to go. Thus, the state helped the private sector to make profit.
- Also, instead of helping the poor, the state intervention ended up creating a new middle class that enjoyed the privileges of high salaries without much accountability.
Thus, we can safely say the role of state in Indian Economy was beneficial in the early years for both public and private sector. This led India towards development.
Question.19. Read the passage and answer the following:
“The Indian government is already participating in global efforts through a number of programmes. For example, India’s National Auto-fuel policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles. The Energy Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency. Similarly, the Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy. Recent trends in importing SAARC countries should adopt a common position on global environment issues”?
(a) What does ‘cleaner fuel’ mean ?
(b) What are the initiatives suggested in Energy Conservation Act, 2001 ?
(c) To which resource does recent trend of importing refer ?
(d) Write two point abouts Kyoto Protocol.
Answer. (a) Cleaner fuel means the use of CNG and other non-polluting fuels.
(b) Use of renewable sources of energy like solar energy, Hydroelectricity, etc.
(c) Natural gas
(d) (i) Setting targets for industrialized countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions.
(ii) Certain gases, like C02, methane, Hydro-Fluocarbons, etc. are considered partly responsible for global warming.
(iii) The developed countries are responsible for the most historical and current greenhouse emissions.
(iv) The economic and social development are the first priorities of the developing ‘ countries.
(v) India, China and other developing countries are exempt from the requirements of Kyoto Protocol (any two points)
Question.20. On the given political map of India, five states of tension related to integration from 1947 to 2006 have been marked as A, B, C, D and E. Identify any four states and write their names in your Answer-Book against A, B, C, D and E respectively.
Answer. A. Arunachal Predesh B. Mizoram C. Panjab
D. Andhra Pradesh E. Jharkhand
Question.21. Observe the picture given below and answer the questions that follow :
(i) What does the picture indicate ?
(ii) Write one aspect of the changing nature of China’s foreign policy.
(iii) What does the above cartoon reveal?
Answer. (i) The cartoon/picture indicates China’s alliance with USA for the economic development and for the promotion of trade.
(ii) The given cartoon also express the end of China’s political and economic isolation with the establishment of relation^ with the United States.
(iii) The cartoon depicts political spring where China makes overtimes to the USA.
It reveals that US entered into a secret understanding with China keeping the USSR in the dark.
Question.22. Evaluate any six consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union.
Analyse any three points of criticism and any three core values and enduring ideas related to the Non-Aligned Movement.
Answer. The disintegration of the Soviet Union as the second world power and the collapse of socialist systems in Eastern Europe had profound consequences for world politics in general and Asian countries like India in particular. The consequences of the disintegration can be analysed by way of six kinds of enduring changes like:
- The disintegration of the Soviet Union meant the end of the cold war confrontation. The end of the cold war signifies the collapse of the ideological conflict between the socialists and the capitalists. Now there was no alliance system based on ideology. As the alliance system led to the formation of military blocs, the end of confrontations demanded the end of the arms race and restoration of possible peace.
- The disintegration of the USSR and the end of the cold war left open only two possibilities like either the remaining superpower would dominate and create a “unipolar system” or different countries or groups of countries could become important players in the international system, thereby bringing in a ‘multipolar system’, where no one power could dominate.
- As it turned out, the US became the sole super power. Backed by the power and prestige of the US, the ‘capitalist economy’ was now the dominant economic system internationally.
- Institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund became powerful advisors to all these countries since they gave them loans for their transition to capitalism. Politically, the notion of liberal democracy emerged as the best way to organise political life.
- The end of the Soviet Bloc meant the emergence of many new countries because at the dawn of the disintegration of USSR, Soviet Union was divided into 15 independent countries. All these countries had their own independent aspirations and choices.
- The central Asian countries wanted to take advantage of their geographical location and continue their close ties with Russia and also to establish ties with the US, China and others.
Criticism of Non-Aligned Movement:
- India’s non-alignment was described ‘unprincipled’ because India often refused to take a firm stand on crucial international issues.
- It is suggested that India was “inconsistent” and involved in contradictory matters, e.g., India signed a treaty of friendship in August 1971 with USSR for 20 years and some observers considered that India had virtually joined the Soviet alliance system.
- NAM failed to prevent the US Invasion of democratic countries like Iraq and Afghanistan, where civilians were also killed, in search of weapons or militants.
Core Values of Non-Aligned Movement:
- NAM laid a strong platform for small countries to join it and not be with the big powers underpressure.
- Countries who were under colonial powers had some kind of historical affiliation and they came together to become a powerful body.
- NAM was also committed to a democratic International system and become an alternative power to find solutions to existing inequalities.
Question.23. Assess any six steps suggested since 2005 to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context.
What is meant by security? Evaluate the role of any new sources of threat to security.
Answer. With the completion of 60 years of its existence the members of the UN met in September 2005 to review the situation and suggested some significant steps to make the UN more relevant in the changing context. Some of the suggestions given were:
- Creation of a Peace Building Commission.
- Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failure of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
- Establishment of a Human Rights Council [operational since 19 June 2006.
- Agreement to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
- Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
- Creation of a Democracy Fund and an agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council. But in practical sense, it is hard to see that these are equally contentious issues for the UN which raise following questions. What should a Peace Building Commission do? There are number of conflicts all over the world. Which one should it intervene in? Can there be agreement on a definition of terrorism? How shall the UN use funds to promote democracy and so on?
The term “security” refers to freedom from threats. It also relates to extremely dangerous threats to core values.
- The new sources of threats could be traced to non-traditional conceptions (both human and global security).
- The following terms are relevant to such threats: terrorism, global poverty, ensuring human rights and the health epidemics.
- Terrorism refers to political violence that targets the civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
International terrorism involves the citizens or territories of more than one country.
Civilian targets are usually chosen to terrorise the public and to use the unhappiness of the public as a weapon against the national Governments.
The cases of terrorism include hijacking of planes or planting of bombs in trains, cafes, markets and other crowded places. Attack on World Trade Center on 11th September 20C1 in America and the recent attacks on Taj Hotel and Railway Station in Mumbai in 2009, are new challenges of terrorism.
Human Rights: Political, economic and social rights are guaranteed by the countries across the world but there in no agreement on which of these rights are considered as Universal Human Rights.
Human Rights abuses are common in recent events such as Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, the genocide in Rwanda and Indooesian military’s killing of people in East Timor have led to ‘ serious debates on UN role in preventing such Human Rights abuses.
Global Poverty: It is another source of insecurity. In General, High Per Capita Income and low population growth make rich social groups richer and low income groups and high population growth make poor states and poor groups poorer. Globally, this type of disparity contributes to the gap between the Northern and Southern countries of the world.
For example, most of the world’s armed conflicts now take place in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is also the poorest region of the world. ‘
Health Epidemics: Certain diseases like HIV-AIDS, bird flu, swine flu and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome have rapidly spread across the countries through various means like migration, tourism, business and military operations.
For example, in 2003 about forty Million people were infected with HIV-AIDS worldwide.
Apart from these some new diseases such as Ebola virus, hanta virus, and hepatitis have emerged as a new challenge to the Health and Medical World.
Some old diseases liketuberdosis, malaria, dengue fever, cholera have assumed drug resistant and become difficult to treat.
Question.24. Explain any three challenges that India faced at the time of her independence.
Why did India and China, both, view themselves as rising powers in global politics in spite of tension between them? Substantiate your answer by giving any four events that have brought cordiality in their relationship.
Answer. Immediately after independence there were many challenges or problems in Independent
India that needed a solution. These challenges can be categorized as:
(1) The challenge to shape a nation
(2) The challenge to establish democracy
(3) The challenge to ensure the development and well-being of the entire society
- To Shape a Nation: The first and foremost challenge was the political unification and integration of the territory. India is a land of continental size and diversity. There were around 565 states of varying sizes and population. The partition of the country appeared to prove everyone’s worst fear. Hence, there was a serious question about the future of India, i.e., would India survive as a unified country ? Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel took upon himself the task of integrating these princely states, which was sometimes completed in stages.
- To Establish Democracy: Another challenge was to develop democratic practices in accordance with the Constitution, i.e., India adopted representative democracy, based on the parliamentary form of government.
- To Ensure the Development and Wellbeing of the Society: The third challenge to evolve effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty and unemployment. The main objective of the Directive Principles of State Policy is to make a welfare state where democratic principles are followed.
All these challenges required a deliberate effort which India put in accommodating social differences, establishing a welfare state and by democratizing political institutions.
India’s relation with China after independence started off very well due to a number of friendly gestures on part of Ihdia. In 1954, India signed the famous Panchsheel, which started a new era of Sino-Indian friendship.
But after 1957 various “contentious issues” arose in Sino-Indian relations like:
(i) Tibet Problem (ii) Sikkim Issue
(iii) Border Issue (iv) Chinese Attack in 1962
(v) Chinese assistance to Pakistan (vi) Nuclear Test Issue
From 1958 to 1975, China saw India as its major geostrategic rival and wanted to keep it down.
- Attempts at normalisation of relations between the two were taken at the Indian initiative in 1976. Due to this, Sino-Indian diplomatic relations were restored with the exchange of ambassadors,
- JWG [Joint Working Group] was set up by two countries to find a solution to the border dispute.
- Both countries also decided to reduce forces along the Sino-Indian frontier and both pledged notio use or threaten the use of force against the other.
- The process of mending forces and emphasis on “friendly competition” has started. This could be done through mutual understanding and bilateral agreements. Both countries should come together to fight global challenges like terrorism, economic disparity and nuclear arms race.
Question.25. Examine the grave economic crisis prior to the fourth general election of 1967. Assess the verdict of the electorate based on the election.
Analyse any three reasons for imposing emergency on 25th June, 1975. Did the government misuse its emergency powers ? Give any three arguments in support of your answer.
Answer. The government of Indira Gandhi decided to devalue the Indian rupee in order to check the economic crisis of 1967. Earlier one US dollar could be purchased for less than ? 5; but after devalution, it cost more than ? 7.
- Consequently, the economic situation triggered a price rise.
- People started protesting against the increase in prices of essential commodities, unemployment, etc.
- The communist and the socialist parties launched struggles for greater equality.
The fourth general election was held in 1967 in the context of heightened popular discontent and the polarisation of political forces.
The Congress was facing the electorate for the first time without Nehru.
- The election verdict was not in favour of the Congress. The results jolted the Congress
both at the national and state levels. .
- Half the ministers in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet were defeated. The political leaders, who lost in their constituencies, included Kamraj in Tamil Nadu, S.K. Patil in Maharashtra, Atulya Ghosh in West Bengal and K.B. Sahay in Bihar.
- Not only this, the Congress party lost its majority in as many as seven states and in two other states, defections prevented it from forming a government.
- However, this was the first time that in the other eight states coalition governments consisting of different non-Congress parties, were formed.
The Congress government proclaimed emergency in response to the petition filed by Raj Narain to declare Indira Gandhi’s election invalid.
- On 25 June 1975, the government declared that there was a threat of internal disturbances and therefore, it invoked Article 352 of the constitution.
- Under the provision of this article the government could declare a state of emergency on grounds of external threat or threat of internal disturbances.
- However, the government decided that a grave crisis had arisen which made the proclamation of a state of emergency necessary. Technically speaking this was within the powers of the government, for our constitution provides for some special powers to the government once an emergency is declared. Besides, the government said that it wanted to use emergency to ensure law and order, restore efficiency and above all, implement the pro-poor welfare programmes.
Findings of Shah Commission reported the misuse of Emergency powers by the government. The findings of Shah Commission in the form of reports were tabled in the two houses of Parliament.
The investigations by Shah Commission after the Emergency revealed that there were many ‘excesses’ committed during the emergency.
- It estimated that nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested under preventive detention laws.
- Several restrictions were put on the press sometimes without proper legal sanctions.
- The Shah Commission report also mentioned that the general manager of the Delhi Power Supply Coorporation received verbal orders from the offices of the Lt. Governor of Delhi to cut electricity to all newspaper presses at 2 a.m. on 26 June 1975.
Question.26. From 1989 to 2004, there have been nine coalition governments in India. Analyse the rise and fall of any two such coalition governments.
“The end of eighties of the 20th century witnessed developments which made a long lasting impact on Indian poHtics.” Assess any three such developments.
Answer. The Era of coalitions could also be seen in 1989 elections. The Congress was the largest party in the Lok Sabha but did not have a clear majority. It also decided to act as opposition party. This led to the National Front (Alliance of Janta Dal and many regional parties). It received two major supports (not expected as such) from BJP and the Left Front. Though BJP and the Left Front did not join the government but gave support from outside. The Coalition Era had many Prime Ministers and some of them held office for short durations. Some of them were:
The coalition era saw that no single party could enjoy the majority on its own as in the past decades and also the strengthening of Regional Parties.
Rise and fail of two coalition governments:
- The first coalition government in late 1980s was that of the National Front under the leadership of V.P. Singh.
Both BJP and Left Front supported V.P. Singh became wanted to keep the Congress out of power. But The Mandal Commision Report and implementation of its recommendations forced BJP to reconsider its support and finally withdraw it. Thus in November 1990, the rule of National Front came to an end.
- BJP came to power for the first time in May 1996 as a minority government but it was just for a month. In June 1996, BJP failed to get majority support in the vote of confidence and thus, Mr. Vajpayee had to quit.
- Mandal Issue: The year 1989 marked the end of ‘Congress System’ and the National Front led by V.P. Singh witnessed the rise of ‘Mandal Issue’ in national politics.
The decision National Front to implement the recommendation of the Mandal Commission led to violent ‘Anti-Mandal’ protests in different parts of the country.
- New Economic Policy: In 1991, the Congress, led by Narasimha Rao, introduced the ‘New Economic Policy’ with liberalization and globalization. Even though it was criticised by various movements and organisations it was followed by the later governments,
- Changes in the Political System: The era of coalitions in 1989 symbolically indicated the decline of Congress, i.e., the end of Congress dominance over the Indian party system. The decade of 1990s saw an era of multi-party system. It also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the dalits and backward castes.
The role of left parties changed with time regarding alliances. For example, in 1996 it supported BJP and now the Congress government. The left parties are opposed to the UPA government led by Mr. Manmohan Singh of the Congress.
Since 1990, a long ffhase of coalition politics began in India. There have been nine governments at the centre, all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties. This could be seen as National Front (1989), the United Front (1996) and (1997), the NDA (1999) and the UPA (2004 and 2009).
Question.27. Mention any three social movements of India. Explain their main objectives.
Explain how the General Elections of 1952 in India were a landmark in the history of democracy all over the world.
Answer. Issues addressed by BKU
- Activities conducted by the BKU to pressurise the state for accepting its demands included rallies, demonstrations, sit-ins and jail bharo agitations.
- These protests involved tens of thousands of farmers-sometimes over a lakh-from various villages in western UP and adjoining regions.
- The demands of BKU
(a) higher government floor prices for sugar cane and wheat
(b) abolition of restrictions on the inter-state movement of farm produce
(c) guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates
(d) waiving of repayments due on loans to farmers
(e) the provision of a government pension for farmers
- The Anti-Arrack Movement: The Anti-Arrack movement was the movement of rural women from the state of Andhra Pradesh. They fought a battle against alcoholism, against mafias and against the government during this period.
It was a spontaneous mobilisation of women demanding a ban on the sale of alcohol in their neighbourhoods.
- The Anti-Arrack movement had its roots in the “adult literacy drive” wherewomen complained of increased consumption of a locally brewed alcohol arrack-by men in their families. It affected the rural economy as well,
- Thus, women in Nellore came together in spontaneous local initiatives to protest against arrack and forced the closure of the wine shop. This movement in Nellore District slowly spread all over the state.
- The slogan ofthe Anti-Arrack Movement was simple i.e. prohibition on the sale of arrack.
But this simple demand touched upon larger social, economic and political issues of the region that affected women’s life. A close nexus between crime and politics was established around the business of arrack.
- Thus, the Anti-Arrack movement provided a platform to discuss private issues of domestic violence.
The general elections of 1952 became a landmark in the history of democracy because of the following reasons :
- Big Test of Democracy— The first general election was the first big test of democracy in a poor and illiterate country. Till then democracy had existed only in prosperous countries like in Europe-end North America where everyone was literate.
- India experimented with Universal Adult Franchise— India experimented with Universal Adult Franchise which by that time had not been given in some European countries. It was restricted for women. This appeared as India’s bold and risky step.
- Elections were competitive— Not only this, the elections were competitive. There were on an average more than four candidates for every seat.
- Level of participation was encouraging and fair— Even the level of participation in’ elections was encouraging and more than half the eligible voters turned out to vote on the day of elections. And when results were declared, these were accepted as fair even by the losers.
Thus, observers outside India were very much impressed. Undoubtedly India’s general elections of 1952 became a landmark in the history of democracy all over the world.