Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 8
[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.] [Maximum Marks] : 100
- All Questions are compulsory.
- Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
- Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
Question.1.What is ‘Schengen Visa’ ?
Answer. The historical agreement that led to the formation of European Union (EU), which removed border restrictions, is known as “Schengen visa”.
Question.2.Partition of India was a result of which theory? Who advanced this theory ?
Answer. Two-nation theory and it was propounded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Question.3.Fill in the blanks in the following sentence with apropriate words:
Answer. The United Nations was founded as a………to the League of Nations. It was establised in………….
The United Nations was founded as a successor to the league of Nations. It was establised in 1945.
Question.4.After the dominance of the Congress party for more than 15 years, there was an upset in the 1967 General Election. What was this upset ?
Answer. The results of 1967 election jolted the Congress both at the national and the states levels. The political observers described the election result as a “Political Earthquake”.
Question.5.What was the movement against outsiders in Assam ?
Answer. In Assam, local communities started anti-foreigner movement against the people who were seen as “outsiders” (or) migrants (Illegal Bengali Muslim settlers from Bangladesh).
Question.6.Describe any two military features of the Cold War.
- Both USA and Soviet Union set up military blocs to show their supremacy.
USA formed NATO, SEATO and CENTO USSR WARSAW Part.
- They formed alliances and were expected to behave in a rational and responsible manner. It means the allied Rations understood the risks in fighting wars, where super powers are involved.
Question.7.When were the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation and European Economic Community established respectively ?
Answer. Organisation for European Economic Cooperation was established 1948.
European Economic Community was established 1957.
Question.8.What was Afro-Asian unity ?
Answer. The Bandung Conference was convened to strengthen the Afro-Asian unity. It was held in the Indonesian city of Bandung in 1955.
This convention led to the establishment of NAM and marked the zenith of India’s engagement with the new independent Asian and African nations.
Question.9.”Sardar Patel played a historic role in negotiations and solved the problems being faced by India after independence.” With whom did he negotiate and what was the outcome ?
Answer. Sardar Vallabbhai Patel was negotiating with the rulers of Princely States and merged most of them into the Indian Union.
For example, there were 26 small states in today’s Odisha and 14 big states and 119 small states in today’s Gujarat.
Question.10. Highlight any two environmental concerns of global politics.
Answer. There is a Great Global concern on environment in the following aspects:
- Agricultural land is losing fertility due to overuse of fertilizers and grasslands have been overgrazed. Food production has been severely affected because of polluted waterbodies.
- The ozone layer depletion becomes a danger to ecosystems and human health.
Question.11. Explain any four reasons why Super Powers encouraged alliances with smaller countries.
Answer. With their nuclear weapons and regular armies superpowers were so powerful that the combined power of most of the smaller states in Asia and Africa and even in Europe, was no match to them. Yet, the smaller states were helpful to the superpowers in gaining access to:
- Territory-from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops.
- Locations – from where the superpowers could spy on each other.
- Economic support – in that many small allies together could help pay for military
- Ideological reasons – They were also important for ideological reasons. Like the loyalty of allies suggested that the superpowers were winning the war of ideas as well.
Question.12. What role has been played by the European Union in solving the problems of the European countries ?
Answer. European Union is a group of European capitalist countries established in 1992. It was founded for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation injustice and home affairs.
- European Union functions as an important bloc in international organisations such as the World Trade Organisation. In this way, it is able to intervene in economic areas.
- The European Union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members especially from the erstwhile Soviet Bloc.
- At the same time European Union has a great influence in the world arena, and on some of the UN policies because its two members, Britain and France, hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council.
- European Union’s another important feature is its very effective influence in the arenas of diplomacy, economic investments and negotiations.
Question.13. Define globalisation. Describe any two of its characteristics.
Answer. The term globalisation means integration of our economy with world economy. It involves free flow of trade, capital, technology and human resources.
Characteristic features of globalisation:
- Globalisation is a complex process: Globalisation involves economic, political and cultural dimensions. All the three aspects are co-related and depend on each other in making policies and programmes. For example, crisis in a country may affect the developmental process of other country.
- Globalisation is associated with other two processes: Globalisation is linked with two processes namely liberation and privatisation. These two processes ensure smooth flow of globalisation process.
Question.14. What is meant by environment ? Suggest any two steps for the environmental improvement.
Answer. The term “Environment” refers to surrounding circumstances or regions of an area. Steps to improve the Environment are :
- Afforestation : Planting more trees helps in maintaining ecological balance, prevent soil erosion and enhance oxygen and the water cycle.
Planting of trees should be encouraged in almost all festivals.
Schools and colleges should have compulsory projects to create awareness and to be role model to the society.
- Location of Industries : Industries should be located away from towns and cities. Proper disposal of air / water / solid materials with scientific methods should be strictly implemented. Eco-friendly industries showed be preferred.
Question.15. “The Congress party proved its dominance in comparison to a number of other political parties while contesting the first three General Elections.” Justify this statement.
Answer. In the first three General elections the Congress Party maintained its dominance. In the first election Indian National Congress was expected to win and when the final results were declared the extent of the victory of the Congress did surprise many. The party won 364 of the 489 seats in the first Lok Sabha and finished way ahead of any other challenger.
- The Communist Party of India that came next in terms of seats won only 16 seats.
- In the state elections also the Congress scored big victories. It won a majority of seats in all the states except Travancore Cochin (Kerala). Madras and Odisha.
- So the party ruled all over the country at the national and the state level and Jawaharlal Nehru became the Prime Minister.
- In the second and third General Election held in 1957 and 1962 respectively, the Congress Party maintained the same position in the Lok Sabha by winning three-fourth of seats.
- None of the opposition parties could win even one-tenth of the number of seats captured
by the Congress. *(Any four)
Question.16. Explain any four challenges faced by India at the time of independence.
Answer. Immediately after independence there were many challenges or problems in India that needed a solution. These challenges can be categorised as:
(i) A challenge to shape a nation.
(ii) A challenge to establish democracy and,
(iii) A challenge to ensure the development and well-being of the entire society.
(iv) A challenge to accommodate refugees.
(i) To Shape a Nation : The first and foremost challenge was the political unification and integration of the territory. India is a land of continental size and diversity. There were around 600 states of varying sizes and population. The partition of the country appeared to confirm every one’s worst fears. Hence, there was a serious question about the future of India, i.e., would India survive as a unified country? Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel took upon himself the task of integrating these princely states, which was sometimes completed in stages.
(ii) To Establish Democracy : Another challenge was to develop democratic practices in accordance with the Constitution, i.e., India opted for representative democracy, based on the parliamentary form of government.
(iii) To Ensure the Development and Well-being of the Society: The third challenge was to evolve effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty and unemployment. The Indian Constitution set out in the Directive Principles of State Policy the welfare goals that democratic polities must achieve.
All these challenges required a deliberate effort which India put in accommodating social differences, establishing a welfare state and by democratising political institutions.
(iv) To Accomodate Refugees : The migration of people took place in two forms.
- large number of people migrated from East and West Pakistan.
- Migration of people from the princely states.
Question.17. Some of the statements below are incorrect. Identify the incorrect statements and rewrite those with necessary correction :
(a) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India’s democracy.
(b) The main strength df social movements lies in their mass base across social sections.
(c) Social movements in India emerged because there were many issues that political parties did not address.
(a) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India’s democracy.
Rewritten with correction
- Social movements involve a gradual process of coming together of people with
- Social movements in India have been involved in educative task like making people aware of their rights.
(c) Social movements in India emerged because there were many issues that political parties did not address.
Rewritten with correction : Social Movements in India emerged to reduce the possibility of deep social conflict and disaffection of the groups from democracy.
Question.18. Read the passage the answer the questions below :
Indian democracy was never so dose-to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into two groups…………….. The Janata Party also went through major convulsions………………… David Butler, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system ?
(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata Parts ?
(a) The imposition of emergency in 1977 and The crises among political parties (ruling party) made the party system in India look like a two-party system.
(b) Two parties which existed in 1977 were
- Congress and
The authors are describing this period as close to a two-party system because this period saw the end of dominance of a single party in India and emergence of Janata Party.
(c) Causes for the splits in Congress and Janata Party were:
- For Congress—On the issue of candidate for the presidential election in 1969.
- For Janata Party—Tension among three leaders
Morarji Desai, Charan Singh, and Jagjivan Ram for the leadership in 1979.
Question.19. Read the following passage and answer the questions below :
“In the early years of Independence, two contradictory tendencies were already well advanced inside the Congress party. On the one hand, the national party executive endorsed socialist principles of state ownership, regulation and control over key sectors of the economy in order to improve productivity and at the same time curb economic concentration. On the other hand, the national Congress government pursued liberal economic policies and incentives to private investment that was justified in terms of the sole criterion of achieving maximum increase in production”.
(a) What is the contradiction that the author is talking about ? What would be the political implications of a contradiction like this ?
(b) If the author is’correct, why is it that the Congress was pursuing this policy ? Was it related to the nature of the opposition parties ?
(c) Was there also a contradiction between the central leadership of the Congress party and its State level leaders ?
(a) The author Francine Frankel was talking about the double-minded nature of the Congress that it advocated socialist policy on one hand and capitalist policy in some sectors where the government needed large investment in the industrial development.
(b) The government adopted ‘Mixed Economy’ where elements of both capitalist and socialist principles are included. This was criticised on the ground that the planners refused to provide the private sector with enough opportunities.
(c) As most of the states were ruled by the Congress, there was not much contradiction between the central leadership of the Congress and the state level leaders. The states of West Bengal and Kerala criticised the planning programme of the Congress.
Question.20. Identify the following six states created after 1956 marked as A, B, C, D, E and F on the given outline political map of India. Match the names of the states given below with the letter codes and write them in your Answer-Book.
Name of the states : Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
Also match the year of the creation of each state from amongst the years given below and write them against the names of the states in your Answer-Book.
Years of creation :
1987,1966, 2000,1960, 1972 and 2000.
A. Uttarakhand – 2000
B. Gujarat – 1960
C. Chhatisgarh – 2000
D. Himachal Pradesh – 1966
E. Mizoram – 1987
F. Maghalaya – 1972
Related to the end of the decade of 1960, study the cartoon given above and answer the following questions:
(a) The cartoon refefs to which event ?
(b) This event happened in which year ?
(c) Why is the lady in the cartoon so pleased ?
(d) Who is the man wearing the garland ?
(e) Who is the person on his knees ?
(f) Name the Congress leader lying on the ground.
(a) Presidential Election, 1969
(c) Because Indira Gandhi supporter V.V. Giri won the Presidential election.
(d) V.V. Giri
(e) S. Nijalingappa
(f) N. Sanjeeva Reddy
Question.22. What was ‘Shock-Therapy’c? Examine any four consequences of ‘Shock-Therapy’.
“It is said that Non-Aligned Movement in the present scenario, has become irrelevant.” Do you agree with this statement ? Support your answer with any three arguments.
Answer. Shock-Therapy: The term shock-therapy refers to transition of authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system.
- ‘Shock-Therapy brought ruin to the economies and disaster upon the people of the entire region.
Consequences of Shock-Therapy:
- In Russia, the large public controlled industrial complex almost collapsed because 90 per cent of its industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies. Many industries lost their value and it was called as “the largest garage sale in history”.
- The value of the Ruble (the Russian currency) declined very rapidly and the rate of inflation was so high that people lost all their savings.
- The old system of social welfare was also systematically destroyed. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty.
Privatisation led to the new disparities.
Russia was divided between rich and poor regions and there was great economic inequality between people.
Non-alignment as a strategy evolved in the Cold War context, but the end of Cold War and a Unipolar world did not see the end of the non-alignment.
Non-alignment still contains some core values and end-using ideas.
- Its emphasis has shifted from “political issues to economic issues”.
Liberalisation of third world economies for rapid development of the countries of south now remains the main concern of NAM.
- Issues like democracy, disarmament, human rights and neo-colonialism are as relevant today as earlier.
With the disintegration of the erstwhile USSR, there is only one super power therefore, it is very essential for NAM to make sincere efforts to check USA from taking unilateral decisions.
- Now its emphasis has also shifted towards poverty alleviation, New International Economic Order based on equality, equity and justice and promotion of industrialisation.
Question.23. Examine the role played by India in the implementation of the UN policies and programmes.
What is cooperative security ? Explain India’s security strategy.
Answer. Role played by India in the implementation of UN Policies and Programmes :
- India believes that a strengthened and revitalised UN is desirable in the changing world.
- It also supports an enhanced role for the UN in promoting development and cooperation among states.
- India believes that development should be central to the UN’s agenda as it is a vital precondition for the maintenance of international peace and security.
- One of India’s major concerns has been the composition of the Security Council which has remained largely static. India considers that this has harmed the representative character of the Security Council.
- It also argues that an expanded council, with more representatives, will enjoy greater support in the world community.
- India also supports that developing countries as the members of the General Assembly
should also have a role in shaping the decisions in the Security Council which affect them. ‘
Cooperative Security : The term cooperative security refers to international cooperation between the countries or organisations to protect the people from any kind of threats like terrorism, poverty, etc. –
India’s Security Strategy : In India both traditional and non-traditional notions of security have been given equal priority because India has faced traditional (military) and non- traditional threats to its security which have emerged from within as well as outside its borders.
Its security strategy has four broad components which have been used in a varying combinations from time to time like :
(a) Strengthening military capabilities : India tried to strengthen its military capabilities because it has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours and has fulfledged wars like with Pakistan in 1947-48,1965,1971 and 1999 and with China in 1962.
Apart from this, since it is surrounded by nuclear armed countries in the south Asian region India’s decision to conduct Nuclear tests in 1998 was justified in terms of safeguarding national security.
(b) Strengthening international Norms and institutions : The second area of India’s security strategy has been to strengthen international norms and institutions to protect its security interests.
We have some examples to prove the above statement:
- India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru supported the cause of Asian solidarity, declonisation, disarmament and the UN as a fora in which international conflicts could be settled.
- It argued for an equitable New International Economic Order (NIEO).
- India also joined Kyoto Protocol to check global warming. Besides, as a followup to cooperative security, India sends its troops abroad on UN peace keeping missions.
(c) Strengthening internal security: Indian security strategy is also geared towards meeting security challenges within the country.
In order to accommodate several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab and Kashmir among others, India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system which allows different communities and groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power.
(d) Developing India’s economy : In order to uplift its citizens out of poverty, misery, and huge economic inequality, India strategically planned to develop its economy.
Question.24. “The political competition between the Congress and the Muslim League and the British role led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan.” In the light of the above statement, assess any six consequences of the partition of India.
The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings.
Answer. The partition year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfers of population that human history has known.
- Communal Riots: In the name of religion people of one community ruthlessly killed and maimed people of the other community. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border. Cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata became divided into “communal zones”.
- Social Sufferings : People went through immense sufferings. They were forced to abandon their homes and move across borders. Minorities on both sides of the border fled their homes and often secured temporary shelter in “refugee camps”. Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border.
- In many cases women were killed by their own family members to preserve the “family honour”.
- Many children were separated from their parents. Those who did manage to cross the border found that they had no home. Hence, for lakhs of these “refugees” the country’s freedom meant life in ‘refugee camps’.
- It is estimated that the partition forced about 80 lakh people to migrate across the new border. Between five to ten lakh people were killed in partition related violence.
- Besides, the partition had also Created severe conflict between the two communities, i.e., Hindu and Muslims, keeping in view all these trauma, writers, poets and film makers in India and Pakistan have expressed the ruthlessness of the killings and the sufferings of displacement and violence in their novels, short stories, poems and films. They coined a phrase to describe partition – as a “division of hearts”.
The Shah Commission was appointed in May 1977 by the Janata Party government. It was a commission of inquiry headed by Justice J.C. Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India to inquire into :
- Several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices committed and action taken in the wake of emergency, proclaimed on 25th June 1975.
- The commission examined various kinds of evidences and called scores of witnesses to give testimonies. This included Indira Gandhi who appeared before the commission but refused to answer any questions.
Findings of Shah Commission
The findings of Shah Commission in the form of reports were tabled in the two houses of parliament.
- The investigations by Shah Commission after the Emergency found out that there were many ‘excesses’ committed during the emergency.
- It estimated that nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested under preventive detention laws.
- Several restrictions were put on the press sometimes without proper legal sanctions.
- The Shah Commission report also mentions that the general manager of the Delhi Power Supply Coorporation received verbal orders from the offices of the Lt. Governor of Delhi to cut electricity to all newspaper presses at 2 a.m. on 26 June 1975.
Question.25. What is meant by Emergency ? Was the Emergency declared on 25th June, 1975 on the request of the Prime Minister,Indira Gandhi, necessary ? Support your answer with any four arguments.
Answer. Emergency : It is an extraordinary condition in which normal democratic politics can not function and special powers are granted to the government.
Indira Gandhi had no option except to impose/declare emergency in 1975 :
- Indira Gandhi argued that in a democracy, the opposition parties should allow the elected ruling party to govern according to its policies.
- She felt that the opposition parties and their frequent agitations, protests and collective action led to political instability.
- She also held that opposition cannot continuously have extra-parliamentary politics targeting the government.
- She alleged that subversive forces were not allowing her government to implement her progressive programmes (including 20-Point Programme).
- She also felt that Judiciary was acting as a hurdle to her government.
- She believed that to control such subversive forces including some newspapers and leading businessmen emergency was necessary.
No need to impose emergency:
- Popular struggle occurs when there was a need and the opposition and others considered
that it is a legacy of national struggle for freedom.
- The movements that occurred before emergency period in Bihar and Gujarat were non¬violent.
- Law and order situation was mostly normal and Emergency during such condition ‘reflected the overreaction’, on the part of the government.
- Indira Gandhi did not get the approval of the cabinet while declaring Emergency.
- It was also believed that she misused the extraordinary constitutional provisions to remain in power in the name of saving the nation.
- The Government should obey the Judiciary’s verdict. (Any four)
Question.26. How was the ‘one party dominant system’ in India different from similar systems elsewhere? Did the dominance of one party mean that India was not really a democracy? Give reasons to support your answer.
What was the green revolution? Which areas did it affect most? Mention two positive and two negative Consequences of the green revolution.
(a) One party dominant system means that a single party enjoys monopoly of power over a long period of time and exclusion of other parties to reach power.
(b) No. The dominance of one party did not mean that India was really not a democracy. Even though Congress had dominated the political scene for two decades, the Indian political system is still democratic for the following reasons:
- Open nature of the Indian political system, i.e., existence of multi-party system.
- At the time of independence, there was no strong political party except the Congress.
- The role of Congress during our freedom struggle could be remembered and people cast votes as their tribute to the Congress leaders.
- The regional parties gained importance at national levels and multi-party system had come into the picture since 1989.
- The advancement in the electoral system (electronic voting machine, common platform for political agenda) strengthened the democratic pattern.
- Active participation of women and improvement in Panchayat Raj system and its success testify the Indian political system to be democratic.
The term ‘Green Revolution’ refers to the new methods adopted by the government in agriculture to increase foodgrain production during 1960s.
The modern method includes the use of high yielding variety of seeds, use of fertilisers and pesticides, better irrigation methods, use of modern tools and highly subsidised prices, etc. Positive aspects of Green Revolution :
- The region where it was introduced like Punjab, Haryana and Western UP became
- Most of middle class peasants benefited from the Green Revolution.
- The use of modern technology made peasants skilled and they were able to use it in maximum areas for cultivation.
- It led to easy availability of latest technology, good equipments, loans and other facilities like Crop Insurance Scheme, etc.
- The food grain increased manifold and food security was ensured.
- Many new varieties of food grains, adaptable to our climatic conditions, increased the
net sown area.
Negative aspects of Green Revolution :
- It increased polarisation between classes and regions. Some regions of North and Northwestern India like Punjab and Haryana became prosperous while rest of India remained backward.
- For small farmers it is still a dream because it requires large areas and investment for cultivation.
- Some of the traditional varieties of food grains lost their importance.
- There was a sharp contrast between the rich and the poor farmers.
- The left wing organisations used the poor peasants as their vote banks.
- The illiterate peasants could not undei stand the system behind the Green Revolution.
Question.27. Explain the increase and decrease in the role of the state activities in the developing countries due to globalisation.
“Pursuing economic’development without causing further damage to the global environment is a major challenge before the States.” Suggest any three measures to overcome this problem.
Answer. The term globalisation refers to the interaction of our economy with foreign economy. It will generate greater economic growth and well being for larger sections of population. The impact of globalisation could be seen in India when the Congress government introduced new economic policy in 1991. It resulted in foreign investment through multi-national companies (MNC) which not only strengthened the economic growth but also changed the lifestyle of the people. It is a boost for the developing countries.
“Power of the state has increased due to enhanced technology. From India’s point of view this is an important impact because modern technology (computer and internet services) has brought many changes and increased our market contacts.
Globalisation led to flow of ideas across the world. We can say that global culture is due to the imposition of western culture on the rest of the world. It affects us at our home, in what we eat, drink, wear and indeed-in what we think. It shapes, what we think, are our preferences.
Events taking place in one part of the world leave an impact on other parts. Natural calamities like Tsunami, bird flue, etc. are no longer confined to any particular nation. The idea of transparency has left a mark on the developing countries.
The cultural impact of globalisation can be seen in the following examples. The ‘McDonaldisation’ of the world, with cultures seeking to buy into the dominant American dream.
Pursuing economic development without damaging global environment:
In recent times the concept of sustainable development is widely spoken of. It means that the development should be at a faster rate without affecting environment and also the needs of future generations. It is to be kept in mind that pursuing economic development should not affect global environment.
Some of these measures can be as follows :
- Use of non-conventional resources such as water, wind, solar, natural gas could help to have clean environment. All public vehicles should use such fuels and the private
individuals should also try to use clean fuels.
- Conventional sources like coal and petroleum are limited and cause damage to environment in the form of air pollution. This can be replaced by renewable resources, e.g.: CNG has reduced the level of pollution in Delhi.
- We should use environmentally sound technology which would help both development as well as to have clean environment, e.g., the new construction of buildings should be accompanied by natural parks and rainwater harvesting system.
- The harmful gases (Greenhouse Emissions) should be reduced because these increase the temperature which leads to global warming. It is believed that the developed nations should take the responsibility of increasing greenhouse gases (due to their large scale industrial activities).
- Afforestation should be increased because it helps to grow more trees at all possible levels. The forest policy should cover this as the main plank which would help both economic and environmental aspects.
- The government laws should be very strict in handling environment issues, e.g., there should be a ban on forest clearing and any activity which is related to deforestation. There should be a well planned system for the location of industries and the industrial waste should be disposed off through a safe process/method.