Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 2
[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.] [Maximum Marks] : 100
- All Questions are compulsory.
- Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
- Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
Questions 1-5 (1 Mark), 6-10 (2 Marks), 11-16 (4 Marks), 17-21 (5 Marks), 22-27 (6 Marks)
Question .1. Fill in the blanks:
Cuban missiles crisis was on account of………placed in Cuba by………
Answer. Cuban missiles crisis was on account of nuclear missiles placed in Cuba by USSR.
Question .2. As a result of ‘shock-therapy’, to which economic system, each state of the Soviet bloc was gradually to be absorbed ?
Answer. As a result of ‘Shock-therapy’ each state of the Soviet bloc adopted the ‘Democratic capitalist system’. Shock-therapy was the model of transition from Authoritarian socialist system to a Democratic capitalist system.
Question .3. Correct the following statement and rewrite :
In the UN Security Council, the five permanent members are : China, USA, Russia, Australia, UK.
Answer. In the UN Security Council, the five permanent members are: USA, France, Britain, China and Russia.
Question .4. Give the names of two provinces which were also divided during the partition of India.
Answer. Punjab and Bengal were the two provinces which were also divided during the partition of India. This caused the deepest trauma of partition.
Question .5. Name one pact of eastern alliances and three pacts of western alliances during cold war era.
Answer. One pact of eastern alliances was – Warsaw Pact. It was led by the Soviet Union and was created in 1955.
Three pacts of western alliances are :
- SEATO – South East Asian Treaty Organisation, signed in 1954.
- CENTO – Central Treaty Organisation, signed in 1955.
- NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, formed in 1949.
Question .6. How did the election of sixteenth Lok Sabha 2014 show the landmark to the Indian Electoral Politics?
Answer. The sixteenth Lok Sabha Election of 2014 showed a historic landmark as the BJP led NDA claimed a landslide victory making huge gains across the country. Out of 543 seats NDA took to win 336 seats and incredibly the BJP crossed 282 seats on its own without any allies.
This is the biggest victory since 1984 elections when Rajiv Gandhi won with 415 Lok Sabha seats. Even it is also the first time ever in the 67 years history of independent India that a non-congress party had won a simple majority of its own.
Question .7. What do ASEAN and FTA stand for ?
- ASEAN stands for Association.of South East Asian Nations. It was established in 1967 by five countries of this region— Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, with the objective of accelerating economic growth followed by social progress and cultural development.
- FTA stands for Free Trade Area for investment, labour, and services. It was created by ASEAN.
Question .8. Define cultural heterogenisation.
Answer. Cultural Heterogenisation is a concept which signifies cultural differences and distinctive nature of culture. This phenomenon is generated by the process of globalisation.
This is the negative cultural implication of globalisation which leads to fear and poses a threat to cultures in the world.
Question .9. Mahatma Gandhi said on 14th August, 1947, “Tomorrow will be a day of rejoicing as well as mourning”.
According to Mahatma Gandhi, why would 15th August, 1947 (tomorrow) be a day of rejoicing as well as mourning ?
Answer. According to Mahatma Gandhi 15th August, 1947 would be a day of rejoicing as well as mourning because the much awaited freedom, /.e., the matter of rejoicing came with the partition of the country, a cause for mourning.
The year 1947 was a year of unprecedented violence and trauma of displacement. All these signified mourning at the time of independence.
Question .10. State any two Directive Principles of State Policy relating to foreign affairs.
Answer. In the Indian Constitution Article 51 deals with the Directive Principles of State Policy on
promotion of international peace and security. The two principles are as follows:
- Maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
- Foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.
Question .11. Why were most of the non-aligned countries categorised as LDC-Least Developed Countries?
Answer. Most of the non-aligned countries were categorised as Least Developed Countries because of the following reasons :
Low Economic Development: The economic development of these countries was very low and poverty level was very high. So their main challenge was to develop economically and lift the people out of poverty.
Limited Role in International Economic Institutions: The non-aligned countries had a very minimal role in International Economic Institutions which also became a factor responsible for being Least Developed Countries.
Absence of Sustained Economic Development: Most of the newly independent non-aligned countries remained dependent on the richer countries including the colonial powers from which political freedom had been achieved. Thus, without sustained development, a country could not be truly free.
Exploitation of Natural Resources by Developed Countries: Natural resources of most of the Non-aligned countries were exploited by the developed western countries. Thus, NAM countries remained the Least Developed Countries.
Question .12. Mention any four common features of European Union.
Answer. European Union is a group of European capitalist countries established in 1992. It was founded for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation injustice and home affairs.
- European Union functions as an important bloc in international organisations such as the World Trade Organisation. In this way, it is able to intervene in economic areas.
- The European Union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members especially from the erstwhile Soviet Bloc.
- At the same time European Union has a great influence in the world arena, and on some of the UN policies because its two members, Britain and France, hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council.
- European Union’s another important feature is its very effective influence in the areas of diplomacy, economic investments and negotiations.
Question .13. Describe any four criteria that have been proposed for new permanent and non¬permanent members of the Security Council.
Answer. After the 1992 resolution over the reform in UN the following are some of the criteria that have been proposed for new permanent and non-permanent members of the Security Council. A new member should be :
- A major economic and military power. It must also be a big nation in terms of population.
- A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
- A promoter of democracy and human rights.
- Above all, a country that would help the council to become more representative of the world’s diversity in terms of geography, economic systems and culture.
Question .14. Describe briefly any four problems faced in the process of partition of India.
Answer. In the Indian context the word ‘partition’ signifies the division of British India and creation of
Pakistan. The process of partition started in 1940 when the Muslim League propounded the
Two Nation Theory. Various problems and difficulties were involved in the process of partition.
- Problem of Religious Majority : Principle of religious majority was followed for the division, i.e., the arias where the Muslims were in majority would make up the territory of Pakistan and the rest was to stay with India. This created the feeling of communalism.
- Problem of East and West: There was no single belt of Muslim majority areas in British
India. There were two areas of concentration, one in the East and other in the West. These regions were the Muslim majority provinces but there was no way to join these two parts. So it was decided that the new country, Pakistan, will comprise two territories, west and east Pakistan separated by a long expanse of Indian territory.
- Merger of NWFP : On the partition move not all Muslim majority areas wanted to be
in Pakistan. Even Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the undisputed leader of the North Western Frontier Province staunchly opposed the Two Nation Theory. But ultimately the NWFP was made to merge with Pakistan.
- Problem of Minorities : Another difference was the problem of minorities on both sides of border (East and West). Lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs in the areas that were now in Pakistan and an equally large number of Muslims on the Indian side of Punjab and Bengal found themselves trapped. The minorities on both sides of the border were left with no option except to leave their homes.
Question .15. What do the following relate to ?
(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kissan (b) Garibi Hatao
(c) Indira Hatao (d) Grand Alliance
(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kissan : This slogan was given by the then Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri in 1965. .
This slogan symbolised the country’s resolve to face the challenges of food crisis and external threat.
(b) Garibi Hatao : This slogan was given by the then Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi in 1970. It symbolized removal of poverty.
Through ‘Garibi Hatao’ Mrs. Gandhi tried to generate a support base among the disadvantaged, especially the landless labourers, dalits and adivasis, minorities, women and the unemployed youth.
(c) Indira Hatao: This slogan was given by the Grand Alliance which had only one common programme, i.e., Remove Indira Gandhi from the political arena.
(d) Grand Alliance: The grand alliance was formed by Non-Communist and Non-Congress parties. It was an electoral alliance formed against the Congress (R).
It did not have a coherent political programme rather it had only one common programme, i.e., Indira Hatao.
Question .16. Who were Dalit Panthers ? What did they stand for ?
Answer. Dalit Panthers were the Dalit communities who had experienced caste injustices for a long time. They formed a militant organisation by the name, Dalit Panthers in 1972 in Maharashtra.
- Dalit Panthers were mainly fighting against the perpetual caste-based inequalities and material injustices that the Dalits faced in spite of constitutional guarantees of equality and justice.
- The Dalits faced atrocities over minor symbolic issues of caste pride. So effective
implementation of reservations and other such policies of social justice was their main demand.
- The Dalit Panthers resorted to mass action and their activities were mostly centred around fighting increasing atrocities on Dajits in various parts of the state. Legal mechanisms proved inadequate to stop the economic and social oppression of the Dalits.
Question .17. ‘Although India-Pakistan relations seem to be a of endemic conflict and violence both countries are trying to improve the relations, in a better way. “Analyse the passage.
Answer. In spite of sharing a bitter past based on endemic conflict and violence both India and Pakistan are trying to normalize the situation in the following ways:
- The two countries have agreed to undertake confidence building measures (C8M) to reduce
- Socialist/Social activists and prominent personalities have collaborated to create an atmosphere of friendship among the people of both countries.
- Bus routes have been opened up between the two countries trade between the two parts of Punjab has increased substantially in the last five years.
Thus the above passage justifies that there have been a series of efforts to manage tension and build peace, between the two countries.
Question .18. “The independent country must consist fundamentally and basically of foreign relation that is the test of independence. All else is local autonomy. Once foreign relations go out of you hands into the charge of somebody else to that extent and in that measure you are not independent”.
Read the passage and answer the following questions;
- Who gave the following statement and in what context ?
- What does the extract reveal ?
- The above statement given by Pt. Jawarharlal Nehru in the context of Independent India and its foreign policy.
- The above extract of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru reveals the significance of non-alignment policy of India. It focusses on the power politics initiated by the two power blocs.
- When India achieved its freedom and started forming its foreign policy, it followed non-aligned policy to pursue its national interest within the prevailing international context.
Question .19. Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
“Patel, the organisational man of the Congress, wanted to purge the Congress of other political groups and sought to make of it a cohesive and disciplined political party. He… sought to take the Congress away form its all-embracing character and turn it into a close-knit party of disciplined cadres. Being a ‘realist’ he looked more for discipline than for comprehension. While Gandhi took too romantic a view of “Carrying on the movement,” Patel’s idea of transforming the Congress into strictly political party with a single ideology and tight discipline showed an equal lack of understanding of the eclectic role that the Congress, as a government, was to be called upon to perform in the decades to follow.”
(a) Why does the author think that Congress should not have been a cohesive and disciplined party ?
(b) Give some examples of the eclectic role of the Congress party in the early years.
(c) Why does the author say that Gandhi’s view about Congress futures was romantic ?
(a) The author thinks that Congress should not have been a cohesive and disciplined party
because he wanted to take the Congress away from its all embracing character and turn it into a close knit party of disciplined cadres.
(b) There are some examples of the “Electic role” of the Congress party in the early years.
(i) The congress party provided a ‘Platform’ for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
(ii)The Congress party also presented a “Rainbow-like social coalition” broadly representing India’s diversity in terms of class and castes, religions and languages and various interests.
(c) The author says that Gandhiji’s view about Congress future was romantic because Gandhiji’s believed in the inclusive character of the National Movement led by the Congress which in turn enabled it to attract different sections, groups and interests.
And all these made the Congress a “broad based social and ideological coalition”.
Question .20. Identify the four princely states marked in the map given below as A, B, C and D. Mention
the major problem faced in the integration of any one of these states into the Indian Union.
A : Hyderabad B : Manipur
C : Junagarh D : Jammu and Kashmir
A. Hyderabad: It was the largest princely state. The Nizam signed a ‘Standstill Agreement’ with India in Nov. 1947.
A movement was started against the Nizam supported by the communists and Hyderabad Congress but Nizam ordered a para-military force (Razakars) to suppress the people. The atrocities and brutal nature of Razakars led to the intervention of the Indian Army to control and liberate the people from Nizam’s control.
B. Manipur : The Maharaja of Manipur (Bodhachandra Singh) signed ‘The Instrument of Accession’ with the Government on the assurance that the internal autonomy of Manipur would be maintained.
The Manipur Congress wanted merger of Manipur with India but there were sharp differences in the legislative Assembly of Manipur.
C. Junagarh : It was a small state in Maharashtra (presently in Gujarat territory) where the ruler demanded an independent state but the people desired to join India.
D. Kashmir :
- It was ruled.by a Hindu ruler ‘Hari Singh’ who did not want to merge with
India and tried to negotiate with both India and Pakistan to recognize Kashmir as an Independent State,
- Pakistan claimed Kashmir based on ‘Muslim’ majority and sent tribal infiltrators to capture Kashmir in 1947. This forced the Maharaja to ask/seek help from India. (Any one)
Question .21. What according to you is the message of the following cartoon? What do the two wheels in this bicycle represent ?
Answer. The cartoon shows the economic transformation of communist China, i.e., before and after 1978.
China earlier restricted foreign trade and investment but now China extended her role in this aspect also. For example, China exports a large number of low-cost products to the capitalists (Western countries and Japan).
China is the largest user of bicycles which symbolise the dual economic policies of China. The front wheel represents the symbol of hammer and sickle adopted by Mao (Socialist policy) and the rear wheel represents the capitalist symbol of dollar (adopted by HU). Both the socialists and the capitalists co-exist in China now.
Question .22. What was India’s response to on-going cold war? What interest of India did non-alignment serve ?
India’s relations with Russia are an important aspect of India’s foreign policy. How was it of great benefit to India ?
Answer. As a leader of Non-aligned Movement, India’s response to the ongoing cold war was two fold.
- At one level, it took particular care in staying away from two alliances.
- Secondly, it raised its voice against the newly decolonised countries becoming part of these alliances.
Non-alignment emerged from India’s initiative for formulating an independent foreign policy which was non-partisan.
So, non-alignment served India’s interest directly in two ways :
- Firstly, non-alignment allowed India to take international decisions and stances that served its interests. .
- Secondly, India was often able to balance one super power against the other. If India felt ignored or unduly pressurized by one super power, it could tilt towards the other. Neither alliance system could take India for granted or bully it.
Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions.
Common view on the multipolar world order: Russia and India share a vision of multipolar world order. For both these countries a multipolar world order is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater regionalism, negotiated settlements of international conflicts, an independent foreign policy for all countries and decision making through bodies like the UN that should be strengthened, democratised and empowered.
India’s stand towards Russia : India gets meaningful benefits for having healthy relations with Russia on the issu.es like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to central Asia, and balancing its relations with China.
Russia’s stand towards India : Like India, Russia stands to benefit from this relationship because India is the second largest arms market for Russia.
Besides, Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. Since India is an oil importing nation, so Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its oil crisis.
In order to meet the demands of energy, India is trying to increase its energy imports from Russia and the republics of Kazakhistan and Turkmenistan. This also broadened the scope for partnership and investment in oilfields.
India has also strengthened its relations with Russia for her nuclear energy plans and space industry. India gets the cryogenic rocket from Russia whenever needed.
Thus, we may safely conclude that India has maintained good relations with all the post-communist countries. But the strongest relations are still those between Russia and India.
Question .23. Examine India-U.S. relations.
Analyse the basis of projection of China to overtake the US as the world’s largest economy by 2040.
Answer. In the Post-Cold War Era, India and US share very harmonious relations based on mutual cooperation and understanding. During the cold war years India’s closest friendship was with the Soviet Union. But after the collapse of the Soviet Union India suddenly found itself friendless in an increasing hostile international environment.
During these years, India introduced a New Economic Policy to liberate its economy and integrate it with the global economy. The liberal economic policy and India’s impressive economic growth rate in recent years have made the country an attractive economic partner for a number of countries including the US. Other features of Indo-US relationship are :
- Technological dimension and role of Indo-American Diaspora is so interrelated that it gives interdependency in Indo-US relations.
- The US absorbs about 65 per cent of India’s total exports in the software sector.
- On the other side 35 per cent of the technical staff of Boeing is estimated to be Indian.
- More than 3,00,000 Indians work in Silicon Valley.
But in the phase of global hegemony India has yet to decide exactly what type of relationship it should have with the US. Three possible strategies have been suggested through debates by Indian analysts.
- Aloofness from US.
- Take advantage of US Hegemony.
- India should join hands to challenge US hegemony.
By observing the above strategies we can conclude that Indo-US relations are perhaps too complex to be managed by a single strategy. Actually India needs to develop a mixed strategy in its foreign policy to deal with the US by maintaining its own identity in the global hegemony.
China emerged as the third alternative since its Economic Reforms of 1978. China introduced an open door policy and economic reforms in 1978. The open door policy, thus tried to generate higher productivity by investments in capital and technology from abroad. Hence, China has been the fastest growing economy since the reforms.
Now, it is projected to overtake the US as the world’s largest economy by 2040 on the following grounds:
- China’s economic integration into the region makes it the driver of East Asian growth, thereby giving it enormous influence in regional affairs.
- Besides, the strength of its economy, together with other factors such as population, land, mass resources, regional location and political influence have added to its power in significant ways and made it the third alternative power in the world.
- In this way, integration of China’s economy and the inter-dependencies have enabled it to have considerable influence with its trade partners. China is now moving towards global economy.
Question .24. What were the main considerations for bringing princely states with Indian Union? Who played the historic role in this task ?
What was Green Revolution ? Examine any two positive and two negative consequences of Green Revolution.
Answer. The main considerations for bringing princely states with Indian Union were as follows:
- To shape India as a nation. India is a land of continental size. Hence, the first and the foremost consideration was the political unification and integration of the territory.
- The people of most of the princely states wanted to become a part of the Indian Union.
- The government was prepared to accommodate plurality and adopt a flexible approach in dealing with the demands of the regions.
- Another consideration was the concern towards the integration and consolidation of the territorial boundaries of the Indian nation.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was India’s Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the integration of Indian States. It was a very complicated task which required skilful persuasion.
For example, there were 26 small states in today’s Odisha, Saurashtra region of Gujarat had 14 big states, 119 small states and numerous other administrations. He played a very firm and diplomatic role in bringing rrjost of them into Indian Union.
The term ‘Green Revolution’ refers to the new method adopted by the government in Agriculture in order to increase food grains production during 1960s.
The modern method includes the use of high yielding variety of seeds, use of fertilisers and pesticides, better irrigation methods, use of modern tools and highly subsidised prices.
- The region where Green Revolution was introduced like Punjab, Haryana and Western U.P. became prosperous. The use of modern technology made peasants skilled to operate in maximum areas of cultivation.
- Green Revolution led to easy availability of latest technology, good equipment, loans and other facilities like Crop Insurance Scheme, etc. Thus, the food grains production increased manifold and food security was ensured.
- Green Revolution increased polarisation between classes and regions. Some regions of North and Northwestern India like Punjab and Haryana became prosperous while rest of India remained backward.
- Green Revolution also created a sharp contrast between the rich and poor farmers. The illiterate peasants could not understand the system behind the Green Revolution.
Question .25. What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress Party of the sixties ? What role did the syndicate play in the Congress Party ?
‘Governments that are perceived to be anti-democratic are severely punished by the voters’. Explain this statement with reference to emergency period 1975-77.
Answer. Syndicate was the informal name given to a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the Congress.
- It was led by K. Kamraj, fdtmer Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and the then President of the Congress Party. It included powerful leaders like S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, N. Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulaya Ghosh.
Role of Syndicate in the Congress Party :
- In the sixties, Syndicate played a decisive role in the installation of both Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi as the Prime Ministers.
- This group had a decisive say in Indira Gandhi’s first Council of Ministers and also in policy formulation and implementation.
- But, the Syndicate lost its importance and prestige in 1971 after the Congress split. After the split the leaders of the syndicate and those owing allegiance to them stayed with the Congress (O) and other members joined Congress (R) led by Mrs. Indira Gandhi.
The given statement is justified because the emergency of 1975 at once brought out both weaknesses and the strength of India’s democracy. Many observers think that India ceased to be democratic during the emergency.
- It was a period of political crisis with changes in the party system. The party in power had absolute majority and yet its leadership decided to suspend the democratic process.
- And, the result of the 1977 election took everyone by surprise. For the first time since independence the Corfgress Party was defeated. It brought to end the one-party dominance. It opened the way for the opposition and the coalition type of governments.
- Basically, the most valid reasons for the defeat of the Congress Party was the people’s verdict which was decisively against Emergency. The opposition fought the election on the slogan of ‘Save Democracy’.
- The Janta Party made this election a referendum on the Emergency. Its campaign was focussed on the non-democratic character of the rule and on the various excesses that took place during this period.
- Thus, the 1977 elections turned into a referendum on the experience of the emergency and proved that ‘Governments that are perceived to be anti-democratic are severely punished by the voters.
Question .26. How do public or social movements in India strengthen democracy ? What are their limitations ?
‘Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness.’ Justify the statement.
Answer. To some extent public movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy. The history of movements and prbtests help us to understand better the nature of democratic politics.
- We have observed that these non-party movements like Anti-arrack Movement, Chipko Movement, NBA are neither sporadic in nature nor are these a problem.
- These movements came to rectify some problems in the functioning of party politics and should be seen as an integral part of our democratic politics.
- Popular Movements ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands. This reduced the possibility of deep social conflict and disaffection of these groups from democracy.
- Besides, popular movements suggested new forms of active participation in Indian democracy, for example, Anti-Arrack Movement and Dalit Panthers Movement.
- Yet the real impact of these movements on the nature of public policies seems to be very limited. This is partly because most of the contemporary movements focus on a single issue and represent the interest of one section of society, thus it is possible to ignore their demands.
- The collective actions of the movement like strikes, sit-ins, and rallies disrupt the functioning of the government, delay decision-making and destabilise democracy.
Conclusion : Keeping in view both limitations and importance, we can safely conclude that public movements are not only rallies or protests, they involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations. Social or public movements are also about making people aware of their rights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions.
The Assam Movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness because it was against outsiders to maintain the cultural integration of Assam. The issue of – outsiders continues to be a live issue in the politics in Assam and many other places in the North-East.
Side by side, there was widespread poverty and unemployment in Assam, despite the existence of natural resources like oil, tea and coal. It was felt that these were drained out of the state without any commensurate benefit to the people.
Ultimately an Accord was signed between Rajiv Gandhi led government and AASU leaders over the issue of outsiders in 1985. According to this agreement those foreigners who migrated to Assam during and after Bangladesh war and since, were to be identified and deported.
Question .27. Bring out briefly the stages of major developments in international politics which prepared and shaped the non-aligned movement.
‘Trace the growth and promotion of NAM through various conferences.
Answer. Following major developments in international politics shaped the non-aligned movement.
- Termination of second World War (1945-53): The first stage witnessed the termination of the war time alliances and blocs were formed by entering into military alliances and later Cold War politics started.
- ” Principles of Panchsheel” (1953-61): The second staged found the world polarised, increase in nuclear arms race and increased possibility of mutually assured destruction. It was the beginning of the non-aligend movement and Non-Aligned countries were guided by the principles of “Panchsheel”.
- Liberation Movement (1961-65) : The third stage was a crucial period. There were Sino-Indian, Sino-Soviet differences, regional wars in Asia, rise of military regimes in the developing world, liberation of African colonies, tremendous increase in the membership of the UN. All these promoted a conducive environment for the existence of NAM.
- Conflict among Power Blocs (1965-71) : The fourth stage saw the rise of conflict among the bloc member and the decline of NATO, rise in the European community. The socialist world became more consolidated and there was increase in the role of the NAM.
- Beginning of Detente (1971-76) : Next stage saw the beginning of detente, Soviet rapprochement with the western world, normalisation of the Sino-US ties.
- Helsinki Accord: The sixth stage (1976-84) saw the alternative process of cooperation and confrontation between the east and the west, arms race and efforts at disarmament e.g. Helsinki accord.
- Process of Liberalisation and Democratisation (1985-89) : The seventh stage
signifies the start of peaceful co-existence among the countries. The NAM at this time became more and more popular. Also, the USSR started the process of liberalisation and democratisation.
- Disintegration of USSR and end of the Cold War (since 1989): The eighth stage saw a new world scenario. The USSR was dismantled and 15 new republics were formed; both the parts of Germany were unified, Nambia became independent, aparthied ended in South Africa, peace efforts in west Asia increased, North south Dialogue started, and European Union was established, ALI these developments shaped the NAM in a every dignified manner.
Answer. Although the non-aligned movement formally come into being in 1961, its beginning can be traced back to the early post-World War II years. The important conferences through which the growth and promotion of NAM can be traced are as follows:
- Asian Relations Conference— Asian Relations Conference was held in 1947 in Delhi. It was presided our by Jawahalal Nehru and was attended by 250 delegates from 25 countries.
• They talked about the linkage between peace, freedom, and development.
• This conference laid two foundation stone for NAM.
- The Bandung Conference—The Bandung Conference was the conference of Afro-Asian leaders held at Bandung in 1955. This conference gave an opportunity for common understanding of international problems.
- The Belgrade Conference— The Belgrade Summit was the first summit of Non-aligned movement which was held at Belgrade (Yugoslavia) in 1961. Twenty five countries participated in it. They discussed about disarmament, decolonisation and national liberation movements in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
- UN Declaration— In 1960, the UN adopted the historical Declaration on granting Independence to colonial countries and peoples. This session was attended by the our founder member/leaders of the NAM in which Jawaharlal Nehru said that the coming together of the leader of Asian and african states was an event of great importance.
In this declaration the leaders subscribed to the five principles of coexistence i.e., Panchsheel which was first enumerated in 1954 by Indian and china in their agreement. Henceforth of the non-aligend movement.
Other important Summits/Conferences
- The Conference held at Colombo in 1976 confronted with the problem of new applications for membership. It also emphasised that all nations should have full control over their national resources. It called for declaration of Indian Ocean as Zone of peace.
- Another important conference was held at New Delhi in 1983 which was attended by a lot members. This conference stressed the need for a New international Economic order based on equity and sovereignty.
- The eighth summit was held at Harare in 1986. In this summit Africa fund for frontline states was established.
- The conference held at Belgrade in 1989 was equally important. ‘
- In this conference emphasis was on a new international political order based on equality and justice.
- Three more NAM summits Were held in the post-Cold War period. These were held at
- Jakarta (Indonesia) 1992
- Cartagena (Colombia) 1995
- Durban (South Africa) 1998
- Kuala Lumpur 2003
In all these conferences and summits emphasis has shifted form political issues to economic questions such as poverty alleviation, New International Economic Order based on equality, equity and justice.
- Asian Relations Conference— Asian Relations Conference was held in 1947 in Delhi. It was presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru and was attended by 250 delegates from 25
• They talked about the linkage between peace, freedom, and development.
• This conference laid two foundation stone for NAM.
- Bandung Conference— The Bandung Conference was the conference of Afro-Asian leaders held at Bandung in 1955. This conference gave an opportunity for common understanding of international problems.
- Belgrade Summit— The Belgrade Summit was the first summit of Non-aligned movement which was held at Belgrade (Yugoslavia) in 1961. Twenty five countries participated in it. They discussed about disarmament, decolonisation and national liberation movements in Asia africa and Latin America.