Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Set 14
[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.] [Maximum Marks] : 100
- All Questions are compulsory.
- Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
- Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should not exceed 150 words.
Question.1. Mention any one problem created by protectionism.
Answer. The system of protectionism led by the two super powers threatened to divide the entire world into two camps. In a way the smaller states lost their identity and independence.
Question.2. What is Human Rights Watch ?
Answer. “Human Rights Watch” is an international NGO involved in research and advocacy of human rights. It is the largest international human rights organisation set up in US with the aim to draw the media’s attention to human rights abuses.
Question.3. What do you mean by charismatic leader-oriented party ?
Answer. ‘Charismatic leader-oriented party’ is the party in which a leader holds a very strong position and is the nucleus of the party. It is the leader’s personality and his charisma which holds the party together and leads to a great height, for example, Congress Party under the leadership of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
Question.4. What do you mean by seven sisters ?
Answer. The North-East region which consists of seven states is referred to as “seven sisters”. This region has only 4 per cent of the country’s population but about twice as much share of its area.
Question.5. Which two diametrically opposite political groups supported the National Front Government in 1989 ?
Answer. The two diametrically opposite political groups which supported the National Front Government in 1989 were RIP and the Left Front.”
Question.6. Suggest any two major changes to improve the functioning of the Security Council.
Answer. The following reforms are being suggested to improve the functioning of Security Council.
(i) Members states should be judged by their contribution to peace keeping as well as the other developmental activities of the UN.
(ii) The geographic distribution principle should also be taken into consideration.
The Security Council thus needs to be reconstructed and expanded. It must shed its static image.
Question.7. What was Marshall Plan ? How did it pave the way for the formation of OEEC (Organisation of European Economic Cooperation) ?
Answer. Marshall Plan was introduced by America to provide financial help for the revival ofEuropean Economy. To initiate the plan an Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) was established in 1948.
Question.8. Write any two steps taken by India to have cordial relations with China.
Answer. (i) India was one of the first countries to recognise the communist government after the Chinese revolution in 1949.
(ii) India and China signed The Panchsheel Agreement on 29th April, 1954 which was a step in the direction of strong relationship between the two.
Question.9. What is meant by the Bihar and Gujarat Movements of 1974-1975 ?
Answer. (i) Student protest in Gujarat and Bihar against the Congress governments in their respective states was against rising prices of food grains, cooking oil and other essential commodities.
(ii) The opposition parties supported their movement.
Question.10. Write few lines on “Instrument of Accession
Answer. “Instrument of Accession” was an agreement signed between the Maharaja of Kashmir and the “Government of India” in 1949.
This agreement was on the matter of India’s military help to Kashmir when Pakistan sent tribal infiltrators to capture Kashmir.
Under the accord it was also agreed that once the situation is normalised, the views of the people Of Jammu and Kashmir will be ascertained about their future,
Question.11. “Non-alignment and neutrality are different”. Explain.
Question.12. Describe any four reforms suggested in the Report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in 1972 entitled ‘Towards a New Trade Policy for Development.’
Answer. The idea of a “New International Economic Order” (NIEO) originated for the sustainable economic development of the “least developed countries of NAM”. The United Nations’ Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report in 1972 entitled “Towards a new Trade Policy for Development”.
The report proposed a reform of the global trading system to
- give the Least Developed Countries [LDCs] control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western countries.
- obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
- reduce the cost of technology from the western countries.
- provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic ‘”ctitutions.
Question.13. What does SAFTA stand for ? When was it signed ? What is the spirit behind it ?
Answer. The term SAFTA stands for South Asian Free Trade Area Agreement. It was signed in 2004 at the 12th SAARC summit in Islamabad to provide for a free trade zone for the whole of South Asia.
- It was SAPTA which gradually progressed to SAFTA. The leaders at the tenth SAARC summit in Colombo, decided to set up a committee of experts to conclude a treaty by 2001 on SAFTA.
- By this, items listed by the countries would be traded free from custom restrictions and duties.
- SAFTA would ensure free flow of items between the South Asian countries and promote and sustain mutual trade and economic co-operation in the region.
- The spirit behind SAFTA is that the peace and cooperation would evolve in South Asia if all the countries in the region allow free trade across the borders.
The agreement on SAFTA came into effect on 1st January, 2006. SAFTA aims at lowering trade tariffs by 20 per cent by 2007.
Question.14. Explain any four criticisms of globalisation.
Answer. Criticism of Globalisation :
- The contemporary globalisation referred to as ‘Global capitalism’ helps make the rich richer and the poor poorer.
- In political terms, there is a fear, i.e., weakening of the state, which leads to a reduction in the capacity of the state to protect the interests of the poor.
- The left wing fears that economically it affects self-reliance.
- Culturally they are worried that traditional culture will be harmed and people will lose their age-old values.
Question.15. “The conduct of foreign affairs is an outcome of a two-way interaction between domestic compulsions and prevailing international climate.” Take one example from India’s external relations in the 1960s to substantiate your answer.
Answer. The above statement to a great extent is justified in the international forum. We can take the example of “Sino-Indian eonflict of 1962” which dented India’s image at home and abroad. India had to approach the Americans and the British for military assistance to tide over the crisis. The Soviet Union remained neutral during the conflict.
- It induced a sense of national humiliation and at the same time strengthened the spirit of nationalism.
- Nehru’s own stature suffered as he was severely criticised for his naive assessment of the Chinese intentions and lack of military preparedness.
- For the first time, a No-confidence motion against his government was moved and debated in the Lok Sabha. As a result soon thereafter, the Congress lost some key By-elections to the Lok Sabha. Thus, the political mood of the country had begun to change.
- The “Sino-Indian conflict” affected the opposition as well. This and the growing rift between China and Soviet Union created irreconciliabfe differences within the Communist Party of India [CPI], Ultimately, the party split in 1964 and the leaders of the latter faction formed Communist Party of India [CPI-M],
- Besides, the war with China alerted Indian leadership to the volatile situation in the Northeast region. Apart from being isolated and extremely underdeveloped, this region also presented India with the challenge of national integration and political unity.
Question.16. What is meant by popular movements ? Explain the party-based and non-party based movements.
Answer. Popular Movements:
When the people are not satisfied with the attitude of the government, (social groups such as women, students, farmers, dalits, etc.), they come together and voice their demands. They form a group or come under the banner of some social organisations.
There are two types of popular movements-party-based and non-party based movements. Party-based movements are those movements which are supported by the political parties e.g.: Trade Union Movement in Mumbai, Kolkata and Kanpur, etc.
The groups of people lose faith in existing democratic institutions and electoral politics. Students and young political activists from various sections of the society merge themselves as part of mass mobilisation. They also launch service organisations and constructive programmes. They are known as ‘Voluntary Organisations’.
Question.17. It is said that the nation is to a large extent an “imagined community” held together by common beliefs, history political aspirations and imaginations. Identify the features that make India a nation.
Answer. The above mentioned traits of a nation are very much applied to India as a nation. India also passed through all the stages in the way of its three challenges or problems at the time of nation building like
• Common Beliefs and History : India is the land of continental size and diversity. Its people speak different languages and follow different cultures and religions. In spite of these India is recognised as the nation of unity in diversity with common faith and beliefs for nation.
• Democratic set up as the political aspiration: India adopted representative democracy based on the parliamentary form of government. These features ensure that political competition would take place in a democratic framework.
• Imaginative nature, i.e., to ensure development and well being : India as a nation clearly laid down in its Constitution the principle of equality and special protection to socially disadvantaged groups and religions and cultural communities. India has tried all these to establish a ’welfare state’.-
On the basis of the above discussion we can safely say that India chose to shape it self into a nation, united by a shared history and common destiny which in turn reflect the aspirations of people across the different regions.
Question.18. Compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies required by states to save planet Earth. Substantiate the statement in the light of the ongoing negotiations between the north and south on environmental issues.
Answer. It is very significant that compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies” required by states to save planet Earth. But there is a difference in the approach to environment between the countries of the North and the South. We can throw light on the ongoing negotiations between the North and-South on environmental ‘cr in such a manner:
• The developed countries of the north want to discuss the environment issue as it stands now and want everyone to be equally responsible for ecological conservation.
• At the same time the developing countries of the South feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world is the product of industrial development undertaken by the developed countries.
• And to the most if developed countries have caused more degradation they must also take more responsibility for ongoing damage now.
On the other side the developing countries are in the process of industrialization and they must not be subjected to the same restrictions which apply to the developed countries. However, the special needs of the developing countries must be taken into account in the development, application and interpretation of rules of International Environmental Law. And this argument was accepted in the Rio Declaration at the “Earth Summit in 1992 under the principle of common but differentiated responsibility.
Question.19. “If big and resourceful states cannot resist the US hegemony, it is unrealistic to expect much smaller and weaker non-state actors to offer any resistance”. Examine this proposition and give your opinion.
Answer. The given proposition is to a large extent unrealistic from the theoretical point of view but very realistic from the practical point of view because non-state actors would challenge the US hegemony in a very active way.
These challenges to American hegemony will emerge in the economic and cultural realms and will come from a combination of Non-governmental organisations [NGOS], social movements, and public opinion.
The challenge may arise from sections of the media and intellectuals, artists and writers. These various actors may well form links across national boundaries, including Americans, to criticise and resist US policies.
(i) What does the cartoon indicate ?
(ii) Which struggle forced the appointment of states reorganisation commission explain.
(iii) How many states and union territories were created ?
Answer. (i) The above cartoon indicates the struggle for survival regarding the demand for linguistic states.
(ii) • The struggle for linguistic state forced the central government to appoint a State Reorganisation Commission in 1953.
• The commission in its report accepted that the boundaries of the state should relfceet the boundaries of different states.
(iii) 14 states and 6 union territories were created.
Question.21. Identify the five countries as the WARSAW members.
• Poland • Czechoslovakia
• Germany • Romania
Question.22. Write an essay for or against the following proposition- “With the disintegration of the second world, India should change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with the US rather than with traditional friends like Russia.”
What are the constraints on American hegemony today ? Which one of these do you expect to get more important in the future ?
Answer. No, India should not change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with the US, but, India should maintain a healthy relation with Russia because, Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions.
• Common view on the multipolar world order : Russia and India share a vision of multipolar world order. For both these countries, multipolar world order is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater regionalism, negotiated settlements of international conflicts, an independent foreign policy for all countries and decision making through bodies like the UN that should be strengthened, democratised and empowered.
• India’s stand towards Russia: India gets meaningful benefits for having healthy relations with Russia on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to central Asia and balancing its relation with China.
• Russia’s stand towards India : Like India Russia stands to benefit from this relationship because India is the second largest arms market for Russia.
• Besides, Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. Since India is an oil importing nation, so Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its oil crisis.
• In order to meet the demands of energy, India is trying to increase its energy imports from Russia and the republics of Kazakihstan and Turkmenistan. This also broadened the scope for partnership and investment in oilfields.
• India has also strengthened its relationship with Russia for her nuclear energy plans and space industry. India gets the cryogenic rocket from Russia whenever it needed it.
• Thus, we may safely conclude that India has maintained good relations with all the post-communist countries. But the strongest relations are still those between Russia and India.
As history reveals, every empire declines because of its weaknesses inherent in itself, so the biggest constraints to American hegemony lie within the heart of hegemony itself. Moreover, we can identify “three constraints on American power”, which were actually not in operation in the years following 9/11. All these constraints are slowly beginning to operate. Institutional Architecture : The very first constraint lies in the institutional architecture of the American state. A system of division of powers between the three branches of government places significant brakes upon the unrestrained and immoderate exercise of America’s military power by the executive.
Open Nature of American Society Possesses Constraint : The second constraint on American hegemony is also domestic in nature and stems from the open nature of American society. In spite of mass media’s promotion or imposition of a particular perspective on domestic opinion in the US, there is nevertheless a deep scepticism regarding the purposes and methods of government in American political culture. And this factor, in the long run, is a huge constraint on US military action overseas, i.e. towards the “Invasion Policy of America.” NATO as a Constraint on American hegemony: The most important constraint on American hegemony is NATO. It is the only organisation in the international system that could possibly moderate the exercise of American Hegemony today. Actually the US has an enormous interest in keeping the alliance of democracies, that follow the market economies, alive and therefore it is possible that its allies in the NATO will be able to moderate the exercise of US hegemony through their liberal economic policy.
Question.23. What important lessons can be drawn for Indian Democracy from the declaration of the Emergency of June 25,1975 ?
What is meant by ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’ ? Mention its main objective as well as the hidden objectives. Explain any two consequences of this operation.
Answer. The emergency at. once brought out both the weaknesses and the strengths of India’s democracy. Many observers think that India ceased to be democratic during the emergency.
It is noteworthy that normal democratic functioning resumed within a short span of time. Hence, we learnt some lessons*:
- The very first lesson we learnt is that it is extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.
- Secondly, it brought out some ambiguities regarding the emergency provision in the constitution that have been rectified since 1975. Now, internal emergency can be proclaimed only on the grounds of “armed rebellion” and it is necessary that the advice to the president to proclaim emergency must be given in writing by the council of ministers.
- The third lesson we learnt is that the emergency made every one more aware of the value of civil liberties.
Operation Iraqi Freedom was the codename given by the US when it launched invasion of Iraq on 19th March, 2003. More than forty countries joined in the US-led ‘Coalition of the Willing’ after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion.
Aims and Objectives:
- The main purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction [WMD].
- But this was an eyewash, because no evidence of WMD has been unearthed in Iraq, so it is being speculated all over the world that the invasion was motivated by other objectives such as controlling Iraqi oil fields and installing a regime friendly to the US.
The outcome of Iraqi invasion was very complex and contradictory.
- Although the government of Saddam Hussien fell swiftly, the US has not been able to pacify Iraq.
- A full-fledged insurgency against US occupation was ignited in Iraq.
- Iraqi casualties are much higher than that of the US. The US has lost over 3,000 military personnel in the war.
- It is conservatively estimated that 50,000 Iraqi civilians have been killed since the US led invasion.
On the whole it is now widely recognised that the US invasion of Iraq was, in some crucial respects, both a military and political failure. (Any two)
Question.24. Discuss the consequences of Partition of India.
State the main arguments in the debate that ensued between industrialisation and agricultural development at the time of the second five year plan.
Answer. The partition year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt,unplanned and tragic transfers of population that human history has known.
- Communal Riots: In the name of religion, people of one community ruthlessly killed and maimed people of the other community. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border. Cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata became divided into “communal zones”.
- Social Sufferings : People went through immense sufferings. They were forced to abandon their homes and move across borders. Minorities on both sides of the border fled their homes and often secured temporary shelter in “refugee camps”. Thousands of woman were abducted on both sides of the border.
(a) In many cases women were killed by their own family members to preserve the “family honour”.
(b) Many children were separated from their parents. Those who did manage to cross the border found that they had no home. Hence, for lakhs of these “refugees”, the country’s freedom meant life in ‘refugee camps’.
- Administrative concerns and Financial strains : The partition saw not merely a division of properties, liabilities and assets or a political division of the country and the administrative apparatus. What also got divided were the financial assets and things like tables, chairs, typewriters, paper-clips, books and also musical instruments of police band.
(a) The employees of government and the railways were also divided.
(b) Above all, it was a violent separation of communities who had hitherto lived together as neighbours. It is estimated that the partition forced about 80 lakh to migrate across the new border. Between five to ten lakh people were killed in partition related violence.
The strategy of development followed after independence raised some key controversies regarding the relevance of agriculture over industry at the time of the second five year plan.
- At the time of the commencement of second five year plan, many thought that the second plan lacked an agrarian strategy for development and emphasis on industry caused agriculture and rural India to suffer.
- J.C. Kumarappa, a Gandhian economist, proposed an alternative blueprint that put greater emphasis on rural industrialisation.
- Chaudhary Charan Singh, the Bharatiya Lok Dal leader, said that planning was leading to the creation of prosperity in urban and industrial sections at the cost of rural welfare.
Whereas, others thought that without a drastic increase in industrial production there could be no escape from the cycle of poverty.
- They argued that Indian Planning did not have an agrarian strategy to boost the production of foodgrains.
- It also proposed programmes of community development and spent large sums on irrigation projects. And the failure was not that of policy but of its non- implementation because of the politics of land owning classes.
- Besides, they also argued that even if the government hand spent more money on agriculture it would not have solved the massive problem of rural poverty.
Question.25. Examine the legacy of the Emergency of 1975.
In what way did the imposition of emergency affect the party system in India ? Elaborate your answer with example.
Answer. The legacy of the emergency of 1975 was felt in every sphere of people’s life and the politics of the nation as well.
- Between the elections of 1977 and 1980, the party system had changed dramatically. Now the Congress Party identified itself with a particular ideology, claiming to be the only socialist and pro-poor party.
- With the change in the nature of the Congress Party, other opposition parties relied more and more on what is known in Indian politics as non-Congressism.
- In an indirect manner the issue of welfare of the backward castes also began to dominate politics since 1977. For instance the Northern states elected non-Congress governments in which the leaders of the backward castes played an important role.
- Besides, the emergency and the period around it can be described as a period of constitutional crises because it had its origins in the constitutional battle over the jurisdiction of the Parliament and the judiciary.
- On the other hand, it was also a period of political crisis. The party in power had absolute majority, yet, its leadership decided to suspend the democratic process.
- Another critical issue was the role and extent of mass protests in a Parliamentary democracy. The emergency period saw a clear tension between institution-based democracy and democracy based on spontaneous popular participation for which the party system was to be blamed.
During emergency the political situation became very quiet though tense. It was a period of political crisis with some changes in the party system such as :
- The party in power had absolute majority and yet, its leadership decided to suspend the democratic process.
- The makers of India’s constitution trusted that all political parties would basically abide by the democratic norms. This expectation led to the wide and open-ended powers given to the government in times of emergency.
- Another critical issue related to the party system during emergency was clear tension between institution-based democracy and democracy based on spontaneous popular participation.
- And this tension may be attributed to the inability of the party system to incorporate the aspirations of the people.
Besides, for the first time, opposition parties came together and formed a new party known as the Janata Party. The formation of the Janata Party ensured that Non-Congress votes would not be divided.
Thus, the 1977 elections turned into a referendum on the experience of the emergency and brought to an end the one party dominance and opened the way for the coalition type of government.
Question.26. ‘Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness.’ Do you agree with this statement ? Substantiate your answer with any three arguments.
State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to ?
- Assam Movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness.
The regional aspirations reached a climax in 1980’s. The North-Eastern states are called as “Seven Sisters”. Nagaland was created in 1963, Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura in 1972 and Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became separate states in 1986. Demands for political autonomy arose when Non-Assamese felt that the Assam Government was imposing Assamese language on them. Leaders of major tribal communities wanted to separate from Assam. They formed the Eastern Tribal Union which later transformed into All Party Hill Leaders Conference in 1960.
- In Assam, communities like Bodos, Karbis and Dimasas wanted separate states. After Independence, the Mizo hill area was made autonomous district within Assam. Some Mizos believed that they were never a part of British India and therefore did not belong to Indian Union. The Mizo’s started Mizo National Front under the leadership of Laldenga. The story of Nagaland is similar to Mizoram and here the movement was led by Angami Zapu Phizo.
- To preserve their economic and social identify, the local communities considered migrants as outsiders” and movements started against them from 1979 to 1985. The All Assam Students Union (AASU) started Anti-Foreigner Movement against illegal migrants, against domination of Bengalis and other outsiders. Assam Gana Parishad came to power in 1985 with the promise of resolving the foreign national problem and to build a “Golden Assam”.
As the decade of the eighties came to a close, the country witnessed five main issues that were to make a long-lasting impact on our politics.
(i) End of the Congress system (ii) Mandal Issue
(iii) New economic reforms (iv) Babri Masjid Issue
(v) Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi
Elections in 1989 led to the defeat of the Congress party but did not result in a majority for any other party. Thus, began an era of “Multi-party system”. What happened after 1989 was the emergence of several parties in such a way that one or two parties did not get most of the votes or seats. This also meant that no single party secured a clear majority of seats in any Lok Sabha election held since 1989. This development initiated an era of coalition governments at the centre in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming a ruling alliance.
The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the Dalit and backward castes. Many of these parties represented powerful regional assertions as well.
Thus, with the election of 1989 a long phase of coalition parties began in India. Since then there have been nine governments at the centre all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties, which did not join the government. In this new phase, any government could be formed only with the participation or support of many regional parties.
Question.27. How was non-alignment neither an isolation nor neutrality towards international affairs ?
Assess any four principles of India’s foreign policy.
Answer. ‘Non-alignment’ is not isolationism since isolationism means remaining aloof from the world affairs, but it is a neutral policy of remaining aloof from the military alliances with other countries.
- Sometimes the non-aligned countries play an active role in mediating between the two rival alliances in the cause of peace and stability.
- Hence, the aim of staying away from alliance should not be considered isolationism or neutrality.
Non-alignment cannot be referred to as neutrality because neutrality refers principally to a policy of staying out of war.
- It is a concept opposed to belligerency.
- States practising neutrality are not required to help end a war. They do not get involved in wars and do not take position on the appropriateness or morality of a war.
- On the other hand, non-alignment is a concept aiming at an independent foreign policy and peaceful co-existence. Non-aligned countries also worked to prevent war between others and tried to end wars that had broken out.
Neutrality has relevance only in wars whereas, non-alignment has relevance during wars as well as at the time of peace.
India’s foreign policy is basically based on the principles of Panchsheel. Panchsheel is a Sanskrit word derived from two words; Panch means five and Sheel means rule of conduct. India defined these principles as the rule of conduct of peaceful co-existence which are as follows:
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-aggression
- Non-intervention in each other’s internal affairs
- Mutual benefits and equality, and
- Peaceful co-existence.
Besides, India’s foreign policy has some outstanding features, which are as follows :
- Non-alignment, i.e., not to align with any military blocs of the super powers. It is an impartial approach towards world issues.
- Opposition to colonialism, imperialism and racialism
- International peace and understanding. In this way, India helps UN in its peace making efforts.