CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Delhi – 2012
Time Allowed: 3 Hours Maximum Marks: 100
- All questions are compulsory.
- Question Numbers 1 to 10 are of one mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Question Numbers 11 to 20 are of two marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Question Numbers 21 to 30 are of four marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question Numbers 31 to 35 are of six marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
- Question Number 35 is based on the map. Write the answer in your Answer-Book.
Question.1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
First Gulf War was fought against in which troops from countries fought.
Answer. First Gulf War was fought against Iraq in which troops from 34 Countries fought.
Question.2. What does the word ‘hegemony’ imply ?
Answer. Hegemony is the state of affairs which specifies an international system with only one centre of power. For example US is the supreme world power in the form of military domination, ecopomic power, political clout and cultural superiority.
Question.3. Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Eight temporary members of the UN Security Council are elected by the General Assembly for a period of three years.
Answer. Ten temporary members of the UN Security Council are elected by the General Assembly for a period of two years.
Question.4. What is the highest functionary of the UN called ?
Answer. The highest authority of UN is called the Secretary General.
Question.5. What was the basis of the report of the States Reorganisation Commission ?
Answer. The basis of the report of States Reorganisation Commission reflected the redrawing of the boundaries of the states on the basis of language.
Question.6. In which year did the Congress Party win 415 seats in the Lok Sabha ? Who became the Prime Minister then ?
Answer. In the 1984 Lok Sabha election, the Congress Party won 415 seats in the Lok Sabha. Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India. In the same year, the then prime minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated.
Question.7.Name the leaders who gave the following slogans :
(i) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan (ii) Garibi Hatao
Answer.Leaders (i) Jai Jawan Jai Kisan – Lai Bahadur Shastri in 1965
(ii) Garibi Hatao-Indira Gandhi in 1970.
Question.8.Which theoretical argument did Rammanohar Lohia give in defence of non-Congressism ?
Answer.Rammanohar Lohia gave a theoretical argument in defence of non-Congressism – “Congress rule was undemocratic and opposed to the interests of ordinary poor people.”; therefore, the coming together of the non-Congress parties was necessary for reclaiming democracy for the people.
Question.9.What was the Anti-Arrack Movement ?
Answer.Anti-Arrack movement was a movement of rural women in remote villages of the state of Andhra Pradesh to fight a battle against alcoholism, against the mafia and against the government of that period.
Question.10.Mention any two incidents of violence against the minority community which are a threat to democracy.
Answer.Ayodhya Dispute of 1992 and Gujarat Riots in 2002 saw large scale violence against the minority community which is a threat to democracy.
Question.11.Mention any two characteristics of the Soviet Political System.
Answer.Features of the Soviet society:
“Soviet society” gave primacy to the state and the institution of the party.
The Soviet political system centered around the communist party and no other political party or opposition was allowed.
In Soviet society, the economy was planned and controlled by the state.
Hence, Soviet society became a powerful society after the Second World War.
Question.12.For how many years did the Civil War continue in Tajikistan ? When did it come to an end ?
Answer.(i) Tajikstan witnessed a £ivil war that went on for 10 years till 2001.
(ii) The region as a whole has many divisions and sectarian conflicts.
(iii) The country and provinces were fighting over river waters. All these led to instability, making life difficult for the ordinary citizen.
Question.13.In the European Union Flag, what does the symbol of ‘twelve gold stars in a circle’ signify?
Answer.The European Union established in 1992 has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency. The flag signifies the objectives of the European Union.
(a) The circle of gold stars stands for solidarity and harmony between people of Europe.
(b) Its twelve stars symbolise perfection, completeness and unity.
(c) In the same way, the foundation of European Union was laid for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation injustice and home affairs.
(d) The European Union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc.
All these examples justify the statement that the peace and prosperity of countries lie in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisations.
Question.14. What was the “Operation Infinite Reach’ ordered by president Clinton ?
Answer. Although, the US President Jefferson Bill Clinton believed and focussed on soft issues like democracy, climate change, etc, the US on occasions did show its readiness to use military power during the Clinton years.
(i) The most important military action took place in 1999, in response to Yugoslavian action against the predominantly Albanian population in the province of Kosovo. The air forces of the NATO countries, led by the US, bombarded targets around Yugoslavia for well over two months.
(ii) Another significant military action during the Clinton years was in response to the bombing of the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in 1998. These bombings were attributed to Al-Qaeda, a terrorist organisation strongly influenced by extremist Islamist ideas. With in a few days of this bombing, President Clinton ordered “Operation Infinite Reach”- a series of cruise missile strikes on Al-Qaeda terrorist targets in Sudan and Afghanistan.
As a matter of fact, the US did not bother about the UN sanction or provisions of International Law in this regard.
Question.15. Mention any two political consequences of globalization.
Answer. As far as cultural consequences are concerned, it would be a mistake to assume that cultural consequences of globalisation are only negative. Actually culture is not a static thing. All cultures accept outside influences all the time, some external influences are negative because they reduce our choices.
But some times external influences simply enlarge our choices and sometimes they modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional norms. For example the burger is no substitute for a masala dosa and therefore does not pose any real challenge.
In the same way, blue jeans can go well with a homespun khadi kurta. Here the outcome of outside influences is a new combination, that is unique. This clashing combination has been exported back to the country.
So we can safely say that globalisation broadens our cultural outlook and promotes cultural homogenisation.
The cultural globalisation leads to a fear that this process poses a threat to cultures in the world. The rise of a uniform culture is not the emergence of globalisation or a global culture. What we have in the name of a global culture is the imposition of western culture on the rest of the world.
- The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves its imprint on a less powerful society, and the world begins to look more like a dominant power wishes it to be.
- This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.
Question.16. Mention any two challenges that India faced just after independence.
Answer. Immediately after independence there were many challenges or problems in Independent India that needed a solution. These challenges can be categorised as :
(i) A challenge to shape a nation.
(ii) A challenge to establish democracy and,
(iii) A challenge to ensure the development and well-being of the entire society.
(i) To Shape a Nation : The first and foremost challenge was the political unification and integration of the territory. India is a land of continental size and diversity. There were around 600 states of varying size and population. The partition of the country appeared to prove every one’s worst fears. Hence there was a serious question about the future of India, i.e., would India survive as a unified country? Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel took upon himself the task of integrating these princely states, which was sometimes completed in stages.
(ii) To Establish Democracy : Another challenge was to develop democratic practices in accordance with the Constitution, i.e., India opted for representative democracy, based on the parliamentary form of government.
(iii) To Ensure the Development and Well being of the Society: The third challenge was to evolve effectivepolicies for economic development and eradication of poverty and unemployment. The Indian constitution set out in the Directive Principles of state policy the welfare goals that democratic polities must achieve.
All these challenges required a deliberate effort which India put in by accommodating social differences, establishing a welfare state and democratising political institutions.
Question.17. What were the fears of tribal population of Orissa and environmentalists about setting up industries in the tribal districts ?
Answer. The key points of conflict in Odisha are as follows :
As the iron ore resources lie in some of the most underdeveloped and predominantly tribal districts, so, the tribal population fears that the setting up of industries would mean displacement from their home and livelihood.
The environmentalists fear that mining and industry would pollute the environment.
Question.18. Why did India not join either of the two camps during the Cold War ?
Answer. India did not join either of the two camps during the cold war because of the following reasons;
(a) Being the founder member of NAM, India always kept away from military alliances and helped to maintain international peace and harmony.
(b) India believes in the policy of coexistence at the national and international levels which prompted India to keep away from the two power blocs.
Question.19. List any four activities conducted by Bharatiya Kisan Union to pressurize the state for accepting its demands.
Answer. The BKU movement became one of the most successful social movements of the eighties. It sustained for a long time because it was based on clan networks among its members. Funds, resources and activities of BKU were mobilised through these networks.
Thus, the success of the movement was an outcome of political bargaining powers that its members possessed.
Like BKU, farmers organisations across states recruited their members from communities that dominated regional electoral politics.
Question.20. What was the change in the electoral performance of the Congress Party and BJP from 1984-2004 ?
Answer. There was a classic change irvthe electoral performance of the Congress Party and the BJP from 1984 to 2004;
- Congress Party got a massive victory in the Lok Sabha elections held in 1984 by winning 415 seats.
- But the 1989 elections was the period of defeat in which the Congress won only 197 seats. This marked the end of the “Congress system”. Although the Congress improved its performance in 1991 Lok Sabha it lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.
- Thus the elections of 1989 marked the beginning of coalition era. In 1989 both the left and the BJP supported the National Front Government because they wanted to keep the Congress out of power.
- This did not succeed for long as the BJP continued to consolidate its position in the elections of 1991 and 1996. It emerged as the largest party in the 1996 election.
- In 1998, the BJP came to power by leading a coalition government from 1998 to June 1999 and later completed the full term under the leadership of Atal Behari Vajpayee.
- The trend of coalition continues with the UPA led by Congress party forming a coalition
government. (Any four)
Question.21. Name any two founders of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). The first NAM summit was the culmination of which three factors ?
Answer. The roots of NAM go back to the friendship between three leaders;
(i) Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia (ii) Jawaharlal Nehru of India
(iii) Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt This summit was the culmination of
(i) cooperation among five founder countries
(ii) growing Cold War tensions and its widening arenas, and
(iii) the dramatic entry of many newly decolonised African countries in the international arena.
Thus, the Belgrade summit demonstrated the growing strength of non alignment and desire of the member countries to strengthen co-operation among themselves.
Question.22. ‘Despite the mixed record of democratic experience, the people of all the countries of South Asia share the aspirations of democracy.’ Explain.
Answer. A recent survey of the attitude of the people in the five countries, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Maldives, of the South Asian region showed that there is widespread support for democracy in all these countries.
- Even ordinary citizens, rich as well as poor and belonging to different religions, view the idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative democracy.
- People prefer democracy over any other form of government and think that democracy is suitable for their country.
Thus, despite the mixed record of the democratic experience, the people in all these countries share the aspiration for democracy and proved that democracy could flourish not only in prosperous countries of the world but also in developing and underdeveloped countries. So, we can safely say that South Asian experience of democracy has expanded the global concept of democracy.
Question.23. List any four steps suggested by the member-states of the UN in 2005 in order to make the United Nations more relevant.
Answer. With the completion of 60 years of its existence the members of the UN met in September 2005 to review the situation and suggested some significant steps to make it more relevant in the changing context.
- Creation of a Peacebuilding Commission.
- Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
- Establishment of a Human Rights Council [operational since 19 June 2006]
- Agreement to achieve the Millennium Development goals.
- Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
- Creation of a Democracy Fund.
- An agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council.
It is hard to see that these are equally contentious issues for the UN and raise the following questions. What should a peacebuilding Commission do ? There are number of conflicts all over the world. Which one should it intervene in ? Can there be agreement on a definition of terrorism ? How shall the UN use funds to promote democracy and so on ?
Question.24. Explain in brief any four components of India’s security strategy.
Answer. I. Strengthening military capabilities : India tried to strengthen its military capabilities because it has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours and has fulfledged wars with Pakistan in 1947-48,1965,1971 and 1999 and with China in 1962.
Since it is surrounded by nuclear armed countries in the south Asian region India’s decision to conduct Nuclear tests in 1998 was justified in terms of safeguarding national security.
II. Strengthening international Norms and institutions : The second area of India’s security strategy is to strengthen international norms and institutions to protect its Security interests.
(a) India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru supported the cause of Asian solidarity, declonisation, disarmament and the UN as a fora in which international conflicts could be settled.
(b) It argued for an equitable New International Economic Order (NIEO). Most
importantly, it used “non-alignment” to help carve out an area of peace outside the bloc politics of the two superpowers.
(c) India also joined Kyoto Protocol to check Global warming. Besides, followup to cooperative security India sends its troops abroad on UN peace keeping missions.
III. Strengthening internal security: Apart from outside-security strategy, Indian security strategy is also geared towards meeting security challenges within the country.
In order to accommodate several militants groups from Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab and Kashmir, among others, India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system which allows different communities and groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power.
IV. Developing India’s economy : In order to uplift its citizens out of poverty, misery, and huge economic inequality, India strategically planned to develop its economy. The attempt has not quite succeeded, we are still very poor and an unequal country. Yet democratic politics allows space for articulating the voice of the poor and the deprived citizens.
Thus, in our country (India) democracy is not just a political ideal, but it is also a way to provide greater security. However, the above discussion justifies that India has been giving priority to both “Traditional and Non-traditional security.”
Question.25. What is meant by ‘Global Commons’. Suggest any two steps for the protection of ‘Global Commons’.
Answer. The areas or regions of the world which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state and require common governance by the International Community are known as Global Commons.
All these conferences and Summits therefore, raised the issue to the political arena and developed some political questions like if the various governments take steps to check environmental degradation, these issues will have political consequences in that sense and therefore, they have to become a part of world politics.
Question.26. Define Globalisation. Explain any three causes of Globalisation.
Answer. “Globalisation” means integrating the economy of a country with the economies of other countries in the process of free flow of trade and capital. It also includes the movement of persons i.e., Brain Drain across borders.
- In another words, Globalisation means integrating a country’s economy with the “World Economy”.
- The idea of Globalisation is not something new. The process began around 200 BC and 1000 AD.
Factors responsible for the emergence of the process of Globalisation.
Globalisation in terms of the flow of ideas, capital, commodities and people has taken place through much of human history. The main causes or factors are as follows :
- Historical basis factor: Globalisation has a strong historical basis and it is important to view contemporary flows against this backdrop.
- Technological factor : There..is no doubt that the invention of the telegraph, the telephone and the microchip in more recent times has revolutionised communication in different parts of the world.The ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible largely by technological advances.
- Human factor : Globalisation, however, does not emerge merely because of the availability of improved communication. What is important is for people in different parts of the world’s to recognise these interconnections with the rest of the world.
In this way Globalisation is the result of .
(a) Rapid improvements in technology.
(b) Liberalisation of foreign trade and foreign investment policies.
(c) Pressure from international organisations such as WTO.
Question.27. Match the following :
Answer. (a) Ch- Charan Singh – Farmers (b) P.C. Mahalanobis – Industrialisation
(c) Bihar Famine-Zoning (d) Varghese Kurien-Milk cooperatives
Question.28. What was the Tibet issue ? How did it cause tension between India and China ? Explain.
Answer. ‘Tibet’ the plateau region of Central Asia is one of the major issues that for a long
historical period caused tension between India and China.
- Since 1950,China has claimed administrative control over Tibet.
- In 1950, China took over control of Tibet but larger sections of the Tibetan population opposed this takeover.
- India conceded China’s claim over Tibet. But in 1958 there was an armed uprising in Tibet against China’s occupation which was fully suppressed by the Chinese.
- Dalai Lama sought asylum in India which was granted.
- The Chinese government strongly protested against this and created the Tibet autonomous region which is an integral part of China.
- Tibetans oppose China’s claim that Tibet is a part of Chinese territory. The think that China wants to undermine the traditional religion and culture of Tibet. All these developments led to tension between India and China.
Study the cartoon given above carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) Identify and name the person holding in his hand, the placard ‘Save Democracy’.
(ii) In your opinion, the group of five persons belongs to which political party ?
(iii) According to the group of five, what are the intentions of the person sitting on Dhar ia’ ?
(iv) Which issues responsible for the downfall of democracy are highlighted in the cartoon ?
Answer. (i) The person holding in his hand the placard “Save Democracy” is Jayapraksh Narayan.
(ii) The group of fire persons belongs to Non-Congress group.
(iii) The intentions of the persons sitting on the Dharna are to launch a nationwide Satyagraha. They asked the army, the police and government employees not to obey illegal and immoral orders.
(iv) The declaration of Emergency of 1975 was the issue followed by mass protests. The downfall of democracy is highlighted in the cartoon.
Note: For Blind Candidates only, in lieu of Question No. 29.
(a) Who accepted the students’ request to lead the Bihar Movement ? Which condition did he lay before giving his consent to lead ?
(b) Mention any two main objectives of his movement.
Question.30. When and why did a long phase of coalition politics begin in India ?
Answer. As the decade of the eighties came to a close, the country witnessed five main issues that were to make a long-lasting impact on our politics.
(i) End of the Congress System (ii) Mandal Issue
(iii) New economic reforms (iv) Babri Masjid Issue
(v) Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi
Elections in 1989 led to the defeat of the Congress party but did not result in a majority for any other party. Thus, began an era of “Multi-party system”. What happened after 1989 was the emergence of several parties in such a way that one or two parties did not get most of the votes or seats. This also meant that no single party secured majority of seats in any Lok Sabha election held since 1989. This development led to an era of coalition governments at the centre in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming a ruling alliance.
The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the Dalit and backward castes. Many of these parties represented powerful regional assertions as well. .
Thus, with the election of 1989, a long phase of coalition parties began in India. Since then there have been nine governments at the centre, all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties, which did not join the government. In this new phase any government could be formed only with the participation or support of many regional parties.
Question.31. How did the ‘New International Economic Order’ come into being ? Which reforms were proposed by UNCTAD in its report in 1972 ?
Explain any six factors which helped the Soviet Union in becoming a Super-Power after the Second World War
Answer. The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated for the sustainable economic development of the least developed countries of NAM. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report in 1972 entitled “Towards a new Trade Policy for Development”.
The report proposed a reform of the global trading system to
- give the Least Developed Countries [LDCs] control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western countries.
- obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
- reduce the cost of technology froriri the western countries.
- provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.
Six factors which helped the Soviet Union in becoming a super power after the second world war:
- The Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) came to being after the socialist revolution in Russia in 1917.
- The Soviet Union made the biggest attempt in human history to abolish the institution of private property and design a society based on “Principles of equality.” All these gave rise to the Soviet Society.
- In Soviet Society, the economy was planned and controlled by the state. It gave primacy to the state and the institution of the party.
- Soviet Union had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything from pins to cars, through their equality concept.
- It had a complex communications network, vast energy resources including oil, iron and
steel; machinery production and a transport sector that connected its remotest areas with efficiency.
- The Soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens and the government subsidised basic necessities including health, education for children and other welfare schemes.
- The Soviet Economy was more developed than that of the rest of the world. There was no unemployment. All these show that Soviet Union had prosperous and developed economy and to some extent it was at par with west economy.
- Hence, Soviet Union became powerful after the second world war.
Question.32. Explain any three constraints on the American power.
The conflict of 1962, in which India suffered military reverses, had long-term implications for India-China relations. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were downgraded until 1976. Thereafter, relations between the two countries began to improve slowly. After the change in Chinese political leadership from the mid to late 1970s, China’s policy became more pragmatic and less ideological. So it was prepared to put off the settlement of contentious issues while improving relations with India. A series of talks to resolve the border issue were also initiated in 1981.
Study the paragraph given above carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) Why did India suffer military reverses as a result of the conflict of 1962 ?
(ii) When did the relation between India and China slowly improve ?
(iii) What was the change in the policy of China in the seventies ?
(iv) Which efforts were made to resolve the border issue between India and China ?
Answer. As history reveals every empire declines because of its weaknesses inherent in itself, so the biggest constraints to American hegemony lie within the heart of hegemony itself. Moreover,we can identify “three constraints on American power”, which were actually not in operation in the years following 9/11. Recently all these constraints are slowly beginning to operate. Institutional Architecture: The very.first constraint lies in the institutional architecture of the American state. A system of division of powers between the three branches of government places significant brakes upon the unrestrained and immoderate exercise of America’s military power by the executive branch.
Open nature of American society possesses constraint: The second constraint on American hegemony is also domestic in nature and stems from the open nature of American society. In spite of mass media’s promotion or imposition of a particular perspective on domestic opinion in the US, there is nevertheless a deep scepticism regarding the purposes and methods of government in American political culture.
And this factor, in the long run is a huge constraint on US military action overseas, i.e. towards the “Invasion Policy of America.”
NATO as a constraint on American hegemony: The most important constraint on American hegemony is possessed by NATO. It is the only organisation in the international system that could possibly moderate the exercise of American Hegemony today.
Actually the US has_an enormous interest in keeping the alliance of democracies that follow the market economics alive and therefore it is possible that its allies in the NATO will be able to moderate the exercise of US hegemony through their liberal economic policy.
- India suffered military reverses as a result of 1962 conflict which had long term implications forlndia-China relations.
- Diplomatic relations between the two countries were downgraded until 1976.
- From 1976 relations between India and China slowly improved.
- In the seventies China’s policy became more pragmatic and less ideological.
- A series of talks were held to resolve the border issue between India and China.
Question.33. Evaluate any three factors that helped the Congress to continue to dominate the Indian political scenario for almost three decades after independence.
What was Green Revolution ? Mention its any two positive and any two negative consequences.
- The key role of the Congress in the freedom struggle gave it a head start over others.
- The ability of the Congress to accommodate all interests and all aspirants for political power strengthened the democracy.
- The dominance of Congress party in India appeared in a very democratic manner as many other parties contested elections in conditions of free and fair election and yet the Congress managed to win election after election.
- Besides, the Congress party tolerated and encouraged various factions as well. These factions were mostly based on ideological considerations. However since there was room within the party for various factions to fight with each other these remained within the Congress rather than go out and form a new party.
In this way, the dominance of one party i.e. Congress strengthened the ideals of democracy and realised the goals of Indian nation.
The Green Revolution is a package of a new strategy of agricultural practices which resulted in increased yields of crops, especially foodgrains. The increase in the production is a result of high-yielding varieties of seeds, fertilisers and scientific irrigation.
- As a follow up the government offered high-yielding variety of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation at highly subsidised prices.
- The government also gave a guarantee to buy the produce of the farmers at a given price. Two positive consequences
The Green Revolution had two positive effects such as :
- Opened the path for left wing organisations: One was that in many parts, the stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords produced conditions favourable for left wing organisations to organise the poor peasants.
- Gave rise to the middle peasant sections: Secondly, the Green Revolution also resulted in the rise of what is called the “Middle peasant sections”. These were farmers with medium size holdings, who benefitted from the changes and soon emerged politically influential in many parts of the’ country.
Two Negative Consequences
- The Green Revolution created a stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords.
- Secondly, the Green Revolution delivered only a moderate agricultural growth i.e. rise in wheat production and raised availability of food in the country, but increased polarisation between classes and regions. For example some regions like Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh became agriculturally prosperous while others remained backward.
Question.34. Explain any six factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early 1970s.
‘The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming to power at the centre.’ Examine any six reasons fpr this change.
Answer. In the early of 1970s the government of Indira Gandhi gained popularity due to various factors such as:
- During this period the government made conscious attempts to project its socialist credentials.
- Indira Gandhi vigorously campaigned for implementing the existing land reform laws and undertook further land ceiling legislation.
- Not only this in order to end her dependence on the other political parties, strengthen her party’s position in the Parliament and seek a popular mandate for her programmes, Indira Gandhi’s government recommended the dissolution of the Lok Sabha in December 1970.
- The crisis in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh added one more feather to the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
- In this way, Indira Gandhi and her government was seen not only as the protector of the poor and the underprivileged but also as a strong government.
- The Congress was now in power in almost all the states and restored its dominance. It was also popular across different social sections.
The result of the 1977 election took every one by surprise. For the first time since independence the Congress party was defeated and the opposition came into power at the centre.
- Basically, the most valid reason for the defeat of the Congress Party was the people’s verdict which was decisively against the emergency. The opposition fought the election on the slogan of “save democracy”.
- The Janata Party made this election a referendum on the emergency. Its campaign was focussed on the non-democratic character of the rule and on the various excesses that took place during this period.
- In the backdrop of arrests of thousands of persons and the censorship of the press, the public opinion was against the Congress.
- Besides, the formation of the Janata Party also ensured that Non-Congress votes would not be divided. It was evident that the going was though for the Congress.
- Most importantly, north India had experienced some long term changes in the nature of political competition. The middle classes from north India were beginning to move away from the Congress and the Janata Party became a platform for many of these sections to come together. Thus, the elections of 1977 were not merely about the emergency but other factors also.
Question.35. How have popular movements contributed to the expansion of democracy rather than causing disruption ?
In the given political outline map of India, six states have been labelled as (A), (B), (C),(D),(E) and (F). Keeping in mind, the Lok Sabha Election results of 2004 and with the help of the information provided below, identify these states. Write their correct names in your answer book in the following tabular form:
(i) Two states where the left parties won the majority of Lok Sabha seats.
(ii) Two states where the NDA won the majority of Lok Sabha seats.
(iii) Two states where the UPA won the majority of seats in Lok Sabha.
Answer. To some extent movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy. We have mixed reactions both for and against.
Arguments in favour: The history of movements and protests help us to understand “better the nature of democratic politics”.
- We have observed’that these non-party movements like Anti-Arrack Movement, Chipko Movement, NBA are neither sporadic in nature nor are these a problem.
- These movements came to rectify some problems in the functioning of party politics and should be seen as integral part of our democratic politics.
- Popular movements ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands. This reduced the possibility of deep social conflict and disaffection of these groups from democracy.
- Besides, popular movements suggested new forms of active participation and broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy, e.g., Anti-Arrack movement and “Dalit Panthers Movement”.
- Political parties are required to bring together different sectional interests, but they also seem to be unable to do so. Parties do not seem to be taking up issues of marginal social groups.
- Thus, the relationship between popular movements and political parties has grown weaker over the years, creating a vacuum in politics. And in recent years, this has become a major problem in Indian politics.
Keeping in view both negative and positive arguments, while concluding we can sum up that movements are not only about collective assertions or only about rallies or protests. They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands, and similar expectations. ‘
Movements are also about making people aware of their rights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions. Social movements in India have been involved in these educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions. The struggle for the right to information is a case in point.
- UPA – A&C – Kerala
- NDA – D & E – Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh
- Left Parties – B & F – Chhattisgarh and West Bengal
Note: the following questions are for Blind Candidates only in lieu of Q. No. 35:
(a) Write the full forms of the coalitions (i) UPA and (ii) NDA
(b) Which coalition came to power in 2004? Name its any two major supporting parties.
(c) What was the consensus amongst most parties on the issue of reservation of seats for the backward classes ?
SET – II
Question.1. How many member-states did the United Nations have till 2006 ?
Answer. Till 2006 the United Nations had 192 member-states.
Question.5. What was the main demand of the railwaymen during the railway strike led by George Fernandes in 1974 ?
Answer. (i) Railway Strike of 1974 was called by the National Coordination Committee for Railwaymen’s struggle led by George Fernandes for pressing their demands related to bonus and service conditions.
(ii) The government was opposed to these demands. The strike by the Railway employees added to the atmosphere of labour unrest. It also raised issues like rights of the workers.
(iii) The government declared the strike illegal and arrested many of their leaders and deployed the territorial army to protect railway tracks. Thus, strike was called off after twenty days without any settlement.
Question.12. Highlight any two cultural consequences of globalisation.
Answer. Globalisation leads to both cultural homogenisation and cultural heterogenisation.
- Globalisation leads to the rise of a uniform culture, i.e., culture homogenisation. For example, the influence of western culture.
- While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation, the same process also generates precisely the opposite effect. It leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive. This phenomenon is called cultural heterogenisation.
Question.15. When and why was the Communist Party of India (CPI) divided into two factions ?
Answer. The Communist Party of India was divided into two factions in 1964 over the ideological differences between Soviet Union and China.
The pro-Soviet faction remained as the CPI and the opponents formed the CPI (M).
Question.17. Which groups are mobilized by popular movements ? What are the methods used by these movements ?
Answer. Popular movements are very rrtuch organised by diverse social groups, women, students, dalits, farmers and many other backward communities.
These movements use the methods like hartal, protest, strike, satyagraha and peaceful demonstrations.
Question.24. Match the following :
Answer. S.A. Dange – Communist Party of India
Shyama Prasad Mukerjee – Bhartiya Jan Sangh
Minoo Masani – Swatantra Party
Ashok Mehta – Praja Socialist Party
Question.25. Mention the objectives of Nehru’s Foreign Policy. What was the strategy through which he wanted to achieve them ?
Answer. (i) The first Prime Minister of India Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was the “chief architect” of India’s
(ii) The three major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were to :
(a) preserve the hard earned sovereignty
(b) protect territorial integrity, and
(c) promote rapid economic development.
As a nation, India was born in the backdrop of the World War so it decided to conduct its foreign relations with an aim to respect the sovereignty of all other nations and to achieve security through the maintenance of peace.
“This aim finds an echo in the Directive’Principles of State Policy”.
Question.26. Explain any four consequences of emergency declared on 25 June, 1975.
- Effects on civil liberties for citizens
(a) During Emergency, the government made extensive use of preventive detention. Using this provision, the government made large scale arrests.
(b) Arrested political workers could not challenge their arrest through habeas corpus
(c) Many cases were filed in the High Courts and the Supreme Court by and on behalf of arrested persons, but the government claimed that it was not even necessary to inform the arrested persons of the reasons and grounds of their arrest.
(d) And finally in April 1976, the constitution bench of the Supreme Court overruled the High Courts and accepted the government’s plea. It meant that during emergency the government could take away a citizen’s right to life and liberty.
- Effect on relationship between the executive and judiciary.
(a) As the impact of emergency, the Parliament also brought in many new changes
in the constitution. In the background of the ruling of the Allahabad High Court in the Indira Gandhi case, an amendment was made declaring that elections of Prime Minister, President and vice-president could not be challenged in the court. ’
(b) The forty-second amendment was also passed during the emergency which brought a series of changes in many parts of the constitution like duration of the legislatures. Election to legislatures can be postponed by one year during an emergency.
- Effect on the functioning of Mass Media
(a) Deciding to use its special powers under the emergency provisions, the government suspended the freedom of the press. Newspapers were asked to get prior approval for all material to be published, i.e. “Press consorship”. For example, apprehending social and communal disharmony, the government banned Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Jamait-e-Islami. Protests and strikes and public agititations were also disallowed.
(b) Most importantly under the provisions of emergency, the various Fundamental Rights of citizens stood suspended. This included the right to move the court for restoring their Fundamental Rights.
(c) Newspapers lifce the Indian Express and the Statesman protested against censorship by leaving blank spaces where news items had been censored.
(d) Kannada writer Shivarama Karnath awarded with Padma Bhusan and Hindi writer Fanishwarnath Renu, awarded with Padma Shri returned their awards in protest against the suspension of democracy.
- Impact on the working of Police and Bureaucracy—These institutions could not function independently. They were turned into political instruments of the ruling party and according to the Shah Commission Report, the administration and the police became vulnerable to political pressures. And this problem did not vanish even after the emergency.
Question.28. Explain any four objectives of Non-alignment Movement.
Answer. The objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement were pronounced clearly at the first summit
itself. Some of these objectives were later elaborated and made more specific.
The major objectives are as follows :
- Opposition to and abolition of imperialism and colonialism, as NAM believes in the self-determination, natural equality and freedom of all nations.
- Promotion and maintenance of international peace and security.
- Opposition and an end to racism and all forms of racialism.
- Total disarmament through the elimination of nuclear weapons.
- Removal of disparity among developed and developing countries.
- Creation of a New International Economic Order [NIEO] and encouragement of co-operation among nations.
- Promotion and enforcement of human rights.
- Above all, global cooperation and concern to protect the environment.
SET – III
Question.2. Why did the magazines like ‘Seminar’ and ‘Mainstream’ choose to close down after the declaration of emergency in 1975 ?
Answer. The magazines like ‘Seminar’ and ‘Mainstream’ chose to close down in view of a ban on the means of publication and censorship imposed on them in the wake of proclamation of emergency.
Question. 8. How many founder-states signed the United Nations Charter in 1945 ?
Answer. In 1945, on 26th October, 51 states signed the United Nations Charter.
Question.12. Who signed the Tashkent Agreement and when ?
Answer. The Tashkent Agreement was signed by the Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Sastri and Pakistan’s General Ayub Khan in January 1996.
Question.14. What was the role of Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) in the enactment of Right to Information Act ?
Answer. (i) The Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangthan [MKSS] started a movement in 1990. It demanded records of famine relief work ahd accounts of labourers.
(ii) In 1994 and 1996, the MKSS organized Jan sunwais or public hearings where the administration was asked to explain its stand in public.
(iii) In 1996, MKSS, formed national council for people’s right to information in Delhi to raise RTI to the status of a national campaign.
Question.19. How has technological advancement affected globalisation ?
Answer. Rapid improvement in information and communication technology has been one of the major factors that has stimulated the globalisation process.
There is no doubt that the invention of the telegraph, the telephone, and the microchip in . the recent times has revolutionised communication between actors in different parts of the world.
The ability of ideas, capital commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible largely by technological advances.
In the present Global Era, technology has affected the way we think of our personal as well as our collective lives.
Question.21. Match the following :
Answer. (i) Operation flood – 1970
(ii) Bombay plan – 1944
(iii) First five year plan – 1951
(iv) Third five year Plan – 1961
Question.22. How far is it correct to say that after 1990 India’s foreign policy has shifted to Pro-U.S. strategy ? Explain.
Answer. In post-Cold War era India and US are sharing very ‘harmonious relations’ — based on mutual cooperation and understanding. During the Cold War years, India’s closest friendship was with the Soviet Union. But after the collapse of the Soviet Union, India suddenly found itself friendless in an increasingly hostile international environment.
During these years India introduced New Economic Policy to liberalise its economy and integrate it with the global economy. The liberal economic policy and India’s impressive economic growth rate in recent years have made the country an attractive economic partner for a number of countries including the US.
Technological dimension Role of Indo-American Diaspora
These two factors are so interrelated that it gives the interdependency to Indo-US relations like:
- The US absorbs about 65 per cent of India’s total exports in the software sector.
- On the other side 35 per cent of the technical staff of Boeing is estimated to be of Indian origin.
- More than 300,000 Indians work in Silicon Valley.
Question.26. Highlight any four issues of tension between India and Bangladesh.
Answer. The governments of India and Bangladesh have had “differences over several issues” like
- The sharing of the Ganga and Brahmaputra river waters.
- Problem of illegal immigration to India.
- Bangladesh’s support for anti-Indian Islamic fundamentalist groups.
- Bangladesh’s refusal to allow Indian troops to move through its territory to northeastern India.
- Above all Bangladesh’s decision not to export natural gas to India also became a bone of contention.
Areas of Cooperation
Despite their difference, India and Bangladesh do cooperate on many issues like :
- In economic areas both countries have improved their economic relations in the last ten years.
- Bangladesh is the main blank of “India’s Look East policy” that wants to link up with South East Asia via Myanmar.
Question.32. Explain any six factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the Soviet Union.
‘Although India has maintained good relations with all the post-Communist countries, yet the strongest relations are still between India and Russia.’ Explain the statement with any three suitable arguments.
Answer. Mikhail Gorbachev, who had become General Secretary of the state Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985, sought to reform this system. Hence, the following factors forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR.
- The very first factor was to keep the USSR abreast of the information and technological revolutions taking place in the west.
- Secondly to reform the Soviet economy, catch up with the west and to loosen the administrative system also forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms.
- Lastly to improve and normalise relations with the west along with democratise the Soviet Union were also the focussed factors to introduce the reform policies.
- Reform polices were based on the restructuring of administrative system and openness of economic affairs.
- Reform policy also aimed at keeping information and technological development in the USSR abreast of the information and technological revolutions taking place in the west.
- Gorbachev introduced the policy of democratisation of the Soviet Union with the aim to normalise relations with the west in order to leave free economic affairs in world area.
Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions.
- Common view on the multipolar world order: Russia and India share a vision of multipolar world order. For both these countries multipolar world order is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater regionalism, negotiated settlements of international conflicts, an independent foreign policy for all countries and decision making through bodies like the UN that should be strengthened, democratised and empowered.
- India’s stand towards Russia : India gets meaningful benefits for having healthy relations with Russia on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to central Asia, and balancing its relation with China.
- Russia’s stand towards India : Like India Russia stands to benefit from this relationship because India is the second largest arms market for Russia.
- Besides, Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. Since India is an oil importing nation, so Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its oil crisis.
- In order to meet the demands of energy India is trying to increase it energy imports from Russia and the republics of Kazakihstan and Turkimenistan. This also broadened the scope for partnership and investment in oilfields.
- India has also strengthened its relation with Russia for her nuclear energy plans and space industry. India gets the cryogenic rocket from Russia whenever it needed it.
- Thus, we may safely conclude that India has maintained good relations with all the post-communist countries. But the strongest relations are still those between Russia and India.