CBSE previous Year Solved Papers Class 12 Physical Education Delhi 2014
Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks: 70
- The question paper consists of 26 questions.
- All question are compulsory.
- Answer to questions carrying 1 mark should be in approximately 10-20 words.
- Answer to questions carrying 3 marks should be in approximately 30-50 words ,
- Answer to questions carrying 5 marks should be in approximately 75-100 words.
Question.1.Define active flexibility
Answer . Active flexibility focuses on improving soft tissue extensibility and increasing neuromuscular control. It includes foam rolling (self- myofascial release) as well as active – isolated stretching.
Question.2.What is a bye?
Answer . A bye refers to a dummy team that does not play in the first round but participates in the II nd round. The number of byes in a fixture is the actual difference between the teams participating in the tournament and the next highest number which is the power of 2.
Question.3. What do ’ you understand by Social environment in sports?
Answer . Environment is the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates. It is the natural world, as a whole or in a particular geographical area, especially as affected by human activity
Question.4. What is a correct posture?
Answer . Posture is the position of the body or body parts, the relative placement of body parts to each other, or an individual’s general carriage or bearing. Posture is the way people hold their bodies upright against the downward pull of gravity. Proper alignment of the spine is necessary for good posture. The spine is not straight; it has three curves, bending inward at the neck, curving slightly out at the upper back and in again at the lower back.
Question.5.What is pratyahar in yoga? **
Answer. Pratyahara means literally “control of ahara,” or “gaining mastery over external influences.” It is compared to a turtle withdrawing its limbs into its shell — the turtle’s shell is the mind and the senses are the limbs. The term is usually translated as “withdrawal from the senses,” but it has many meanings.
Question.6.Define a balanced diet.
Answer . Eating a balanced diet means choosing a wide variety of foods and drinks from all the food groups. It also means eating certain things in moderation, namely saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, refined sugar, salt and alcohol. The goal is to take in nutrients you need for health at the recommended levels.
Question.7. Explain Fartlek.
Answer . Fartlek, which means “speed play” in Swedish, is a training method that blends continuous
training with interval training.The variable intensity and continuous nature of the exercise places stress on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems. It differs from traditional interval training in that it is unstructured; intensity and/or speed varies, as the athlete wishes.
Question.8. Define sports psychology.
Answer : Sports psychology is the study of how psychology influences sports, athletic performance, exercise, and physical activity. Some sports psychologists work with professional athletes and coaches to improve performance and increase motivation.
Question.9. Differentiate between fitness and wellness. **
Answer. Fitness refers to the physical part. A fit person is supposed to have a good stamina, strength and flexibility. He or she maintains the fitness by doing various kinds of exercises (indoor or outdoor, freehand or with weights, aerobic or anaerobic etc).
Wellness is a more general term encompassing the whole being which is the mind and soul in addition to the body. Your body can be in a great shape but you could be in a mental mess. You could even be fine mentally but may not be spiritually oriented.
These represent various levels of well being. Mostly, people start with taking care of their bodies, then start working on the mental peace and later graduate towards spiritual progress.
In a small number of people ( like Saints and Monks), the focus on mental and spiritual wellness is very high whereas the effort for physical fitness may or may not be there. Buddha emphasised the importance of a strong and fit body for the purpose of progressing on the spiritual path and that’s why he prohibited self-mortification, prescribing the middle path.
Question.10. Mention any two essential elements of positive sports environment.
Answer. Two essential elements of positive sports environment:
- Role of individual in improving sports environment: The individual can be a player, the captain of the team or sports captain of the school. They can motivate other students to play and participate in the games and sports by telling them the benefits of sports. An individual can” play a very effective role in the improvement of sports environment for prevention of sports related accidents. For this purpose a well planned and coordinated programme should be designed to minimise the accidents in the field of sports.
- Prevention of Sports related accidents : In this the Physical Education Teachers and Trainers/ Coaches play very important role. They shall see that there is no obstacle in the ground. The ground is neat, clean and levelled. The training should be done in organized manner. Extra attention should be given to injury oriented sports like Cricket, Hockey, Football, Archery, Javelin Throw, Discus Throw, Shot-put etc. The Physical Education Teacher should be there to provide help at the time of injury or accident that may happen during the game.
Question.11. Write a brief about two elements of yoga. **
The Earth Element (Prithvi) in the body refers to our connection with the earth, the place where the raw elements for our bodies came from. We may bring more “earth” awareness into our yoga practice when we focus on grounding, building a firm base of support, connecting with the earth beneath us. Many times in our lives we become too “lofty” in our thoughts and need to come down to Earth to feel grounded and secure. In balancing postures, for instance, our stability is facilitated through deepening our connection with the Earth. Sometimes the Earth also refers to the Planet that we call home…exploring our connection with our Planet and the beauty and wonders that it holds… which we are all responsible to preserve. The Earth element is represented in the 1st/Root Chakra of the body.
The Water Element (Apah, Jala) in the body refers to the water that flows through our veins, or the circulatory system in the body. Health is only possible as the water element remains flowing in the body. While in our yoga postures (asanas) we may need to consciously increase the flow of blood into a particular area of the body. Sometimes the practice also takes on a flowing action, with one movement fluidly moving into the next. Water has almost magical properties and is essential to life (our bodies are 70% water), with incredible healing and cleansing powers. It is a universal symbol for the soul and is the element representing the 2nd/Sacral Chakra, the area where new life is generated.
Question.12. What are the two methods of flexibility development?
- Warm-up before stretching: The very first thing you must do before stretching is a warm up jog, run, or bike to get loose. You don’t have to run or bike that hard Or far, but it is good to do at least 20 minutes of warm up before stretching.
- Do dynamic stretching : Dynamic stretching includes motion and is meant to mimic and exaggerate the movements of actual exercise and daily motions.
Question.13. Differentiate between State and Trait Anxiety.
Answer. State anxiety is characterized by a state of heightened emotions that develop in response to a fear or danger of a particular situation. State anxiety can contribute to a degree of physical and mental paralysis, preventing performance- of a task or where performance is severely affected, such as
forgetting movements during a dance or gymnastic routine; to breaking in sprint or swim starts or missing relatively easy shots at goal i.e. pressure situations.
Trait anxiety refers to,a general level of Stress that is characteristic of an individual, that is, a trait related to personality. Trait anxiety varies according to how individuals have conditioned themselves to respond to and manage the stress.
Question.14. Explain the role of games and sports as means of fitness development. **
Healthy mind can be found only in a healthy body. In a weak body there cannot be a healthy and active mind. And for a healthy body physical exercise is a must. Without physical exercise, our body will grow weak, lethargic and dull. The aim of education is the all round development of a personality. It cannot afford to neglect the physical aspect of a student. Development of mind and body are equally important in any good education.
Want of proper physical exercise in the form of games and sports develops many mental problems. Mere intellectual attainment is not enough. Good health and sound body are also a must to face the challenges of life. Therefore, games and sports are an integral part of school education. Education will remain incomplete without physical training and exercise. “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy” is a famous saying. After studies some kid of physical exercise, games and sports are necessary. The refresh body and mind and provide recreation. A game of football or wallyball in the open air is very refreshing. A game of hockey or a match of badminton will help a student regain his lost mental and physical energy. There will be greater intake of oxygen, better blood circulation and digestion because of these. In the open, where games are played there is fresh air, openness and presence of nature. They have a very healthy influence on the players. Running, Jumping, kicking, swimming etc. provide vigorous exercise to our limbs and organs of the body. They provide us physical fitness, courage endurance, cooperation and team spirit. The players are more disciplined and fit than others. Sports and games along with education prepare us to stand up and face the challenges of life.
Games and sports are a valuable form of education. They develop our skills and abilities to the maximum. They teach discipline, obedience and cooperation. Every game has it own rules and regulations. They are binding on the players. All players have to follow them. There is penalty on their violation. One can never win a match without following the laws of the game. He has to abide by the judgement of the refree. It teaches a player how important are laws. It makes clear how important it is to follow the rules and regulations games and sports help us in producing very disciplined citizens, leaders and professionals. They teach how to cooperate with one another and achieve success. It is a playground or gymnasium where team spirit, cooperation and endurance can be taught best, games teach players how to ignore individual interests for the sake of greater interests of the team and society. This teaching of sacrifice is of great social and national interest. Games also teach fair play and faith in equality and justice. They enable us to take defeat and victory in a cheerful spirit.
Games also allow an outlet to our suppressed energy. It helps us a lot in remaining peaceful and non-violent. When our energy is suppressed we become irritative, short-tempered, violent hooliganism and acts of lawlessness. Games also provide us the best use of leisure time.
Famous players and sports persons bring credit for themselves and the country. They are famous and popular and work as country’s cultural ambassadors. They strengthen international relations. They also develop and promote patriotism and national integration. But games are a means and not an end in themselves. They should not be practised at the cost of studies. Excess of everything is bad. They should be played and enjoyed only in spare time. They are real boon and blessing if done properly and wisely.
India needs good and great players and sports persons. They are in great demand to participate in national and international events. India’s record in this respect has been very poor. The boys and girls should be caught at the very young age and trained in different games and sports. There should be no school without a proper playground attached to it. Mere mental education is of no use without physical education. They should go hand-in-hand as integral parts of an education. They are complementary to each other.
Question.15. What is the role of a spectators in creating a positive sports environment? Explain.
Answer : Positive sports environment is the condition and circumstances which are favourable and beneficial for the sportspersons who perform sports activities. Behaviour and attitude of the spectators towards coaches, players and officials should be positive. They should not pass any negative comment towards players, referee, umpire and any other game officials. They should not indulge them in any type of violence. They should try to motivate the players so that they may put up better performance. In this way the spectators can play a vital role for creating positive sports environment.
Question.16. What is the role of yoga in sports? Explain.
Answer. Yoga focuses on harmony between mind and body. To achieve this, yoga uses movements, breath, posture, relaxation and mediation in order to establish a healthy, lively and balanced approach to life. Yoga plays an important role in games and sports also. Yoga improves near about all physical fitness and wellness components required by sportsman.
Paschimottanasans: Paschimottanasans literally translated as “intense stretch of the west”. A yoga position where one sits on the floor with legs flat on the floor, straight ahead. Lift spine long, hinge from the hips instead of the waist. Learn forward without bending your knees. Focus on bringing chest forward, not on bringing the head to the floor.
A similar frontbend is uttanasana which is a standing front bend. Some consider Paschimottanasans to be a safer stretch since gravity is less of a factor than active flexibility in achieving flexibility in the furthest reaches of the stretch. It is more passive in its initial stages, making it a good transition between the two forms. The arms can also more easily support the upper body in this vulnerable position, and can be used both to move further into or move out of the stretch.
Unlike Uttanasana it is also much easier to move the legs, rotating them inwards or outwards, abducting or adducting them at the hip, flexing or extending the knees, or enacting plantar or dorsi flexion of the ankle. These variations can be performed either as a combined stretch, to change emphasis on different tissues, or simply to takes one’s mind off the hamstrings and lower back being stretched. They can be rhythmically to aid in relaxation.
Dhanurasana : Dhanurasana or Bow pose is a yoga posein which the practitioner lies on their bolly, grabs their feet, and lifts the legs into the shape of a bow. Dhanurasana is also called Urdva Chakrasana. Improoerly executed, this pose could compromise the knees and the spine. Because the spine is placed out of alignment and pressure is applied, this pose can lead to ruptured disks. Any backward extension of the spine should be done exclusively using the back muscles and should never be forced. In addition the spine should always be extended fully from hip bones to the head before moving into any pose. It is always appropriate in any yoga class to skip a dangerous pose in favour of another. In this case, locust pose is appropriate.
Halasana : Halasana or the plow pose, is yoga pose or asana, in which the practitioner lies on the floor, lifts their legs, and then places them behind the head. Practitioners should be advised that this pose can put significant strain on the cervical spine. This pose can cause an injury if not performed properly. It is recommended practitioners conult with a qualified yoga instructor before attemting this or other advanced pose.
Question.17. Explain any two methods for speed development.
Answer: Speed means the velocity with which an individual can execute his movements in other words, it means the capacity of moving a body part or the whole body with the greatest possible velocity. For example, the movements of a smashers arm in volley ball, has the maximum speed or velocity at the time of smashing the volly ball. The following methods are usually adopted for the development of speed in sprinting events.
- Acceleration runs : These are usually adopted to develop speed, specially in attaining maximum speed from stationary position. It should be kept in mind that the technique of any event should be learnt in the beginning. Only then, We should switch over to acceleration runs.
- Pace Races : It means, running the whole distance of a race at a constant speed. In pace races, an athlete runs the uniform speed. Generally 800 meters and above races are inculded in pace races.
Question.18. Prepare a fixture for 21 teams on a knock out basis.
Fixture of 21 teams on knockout basis
Question.19. Suggest five exercises as corrective measures for Round Shoulders.
Answer : These stretches, yoga poses and exercises are very important to work into your regular training program for improved posture and to combat rounded shoulders.
- Back bound hand pose
- Shoulder squeeze
- Cow face pose
- Baby cobra pose
- Bridge pose
Question.20. Explain any five essential elements of diet.
Answer : Some sources state that sixteen chemical elements are required to support human biochemical processes by serving structural and functional roles. However, as many as 26 elements in total (including the common hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) are suggested to be used by mammals, as a result of studies of biochemical, special uptake, and metabolic handling studies. However, many of these additional elements have no well-defined biochemical function known at present. Most of the known and suggested dietary elements are of relatively low atomic weight, and are reasonably common on land, or at least, common in the ocean (iodine, sodium).
5 most essential elements are :
Question.21. Explain in detail the developmental characteristics of childhood. **
Answer. Child Development Ages & Stages. … Ages and Stages is a term used to broadly outline key periods in the human development time line. During each stage growth and development occur in the primary developmental domains including physical, intellectual, language and social – emotional.
Question.22. Explain any 5 essential elements of diet. **
Answer. The human body needs a long list of nutrients every day. The essentials, though, are called “macronutrients,” and your body needs them to stay healthy and perform optimally. They include the following five:
Main function: Provide energy
“Carbohydrates are the body’s main energy source and the brain’s only source of fuel,” says Kate Patton, MEd, RD, a registered dietitian at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio. Your body breaks carbohydrates down into glucose, which cells require to create energy.
Get more: The best sources of carbohydrates are whole grains and foods made from those grains, such as whole-wheat bread, bulgur, barley, oatmeal, brown rice, and cornmeal. Limit your intake of sugar and refined grains (including white pasta, white rice, and white breads), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends.
Main function: Build and repair tissue
“Protein is another important source of energy for the body,” Solomon says. Protein consists of amino acids that act as the body’s main building blocks for tissues, such as muscle, skin, bone, and hair. Proteins also assist in many reactions in the body, including the production of enzymes (the catalysts that keep all body processes running smoothly), hormones, and antibodies, Solomon explains.
Get more: The best protein sources are lean meats, poultry and seafood, beans and peas, nuts and seeds, eggs, and soy products, according to the USDA.
Main function: Provide backup energy
“Your body uses fats for energy when carbohydrates aren’t available,” Patton says. “You also need fats as insulation, to help your body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, and to protect your organs.”
Get more: Fats come in both liquid and solid forms. The USDA notes that the best sources of healthful fats are the liquid monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats found in olive oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, corn oil, nuts, seeds, and avocados, as well as fatty fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Limit foods high in unhealthy saturated fats (red meat, cheese, butter, and ice cream) and trans fats (processed products that contain partially hydrogenated oil), which increase your risk for disease.
4. Vitamins and Minerals
Main function: Maintain optimal health
“You need vitamins and minerals for numerous physiological functions that help you survive,” Patton says. They’re essential for normal growth and development, and each one plays a unique role in helping to maintain optimal health. For example, calcium and vitamin D are necessary for healthy bones, and the B vitamins help support the nervous system, explains Tricia L. Psota, PhD, RDN, president-elect of the DC Metro Area Dietetic Association.
Get more: Vitamins and minerals come from a variety of foods, including fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and lean protein sources. “Eat a selection of colorful fruits and vegetables every day, and vary the types of proteins you eat,” Solomon says.
Main function: Enables vital bodily functions
You’ve probably heard that you can live for weeks without food but only days without water. That’s because water is the most important essential nutrient. It is involved in many of your body’s vital functions, and it distributes other essential nutrients to your cells.
Get more: The Institute of Medicine recommends that men consume about 125 ounces of water a day and women 91 ounces per day. About 20 percent can come from foods, and the remaining 80 percent should come from drinking water — about 12 cups a day for men and 8.8 cups for women.
PART – B
Question.23. Write a brief about 4 fundamental skills from any game/ sport of your choice. **
Question.24. Write a short note on SGFI. **
Question.25. Draw a diagram of field/table/court from any game/sport of your choice.**
Question.26. Mention any 4 latest rules from any game/sport of your choice.**
Question.27. Briefly explain the historical development from any game/ sport of your choice.**