CBSE Class 9 Science Practical Skills – Plant Kingdom
To study the characteristics of SpirogyraJAgaricus, Moss/Fem, Pinus (either with male or female cone) and an Angiospermic plant. Draw and give two identifying features of groups they belong to.
Permanent slide of Spirogyra, specimens of Agaricus, moss, fern, Pinus (male cone or female cone), an angiospermic plant and compound microscope.
All the plants are placed in kingdom Plantae, plants are multicellular, eukaryotes and autotrophic. They include algae, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. They have rigid cellulose cell wall.
- Observe the permanent slide of Spirogyra under low power of microscope and record your observation. Draw a well labelled diagram.
- Observe the given specimens carefully. Note the characteristics of each specimen. Draw well labelled diagram of each specimen.
1. Spirogyra (Pond silk)
- The plant body is filamentous.
- Its filaments are long, multicellular and unbranched.
- Each filament comprises of long, cylindrical cells which are arranged end to end. Cells are generally longer than being broader.
- Each cell has two layered cell wall. The inner layer is made up of cellulose and outer of pectin. Pectin absorbs water to form slimy, mucilagenous sheath.
- Cytoplasm is present in the form of strands which enclose a large nucleus.
- Chloroplasts are flat, spiral and ribbon-shaped. It contains starch containing pyrenoids, placed equidistant from each other.
- A large central vacuole is present in each cell.
2. Agaricus (Mushroom)
- It is the fruiting body of Agaricus.
- It is macroscopic, umbrella-shaped and fleshy.
- It can be divided into a fleshy, stalk known as the stipe and an umbrella-like cap borne on its top, known as the pileus.
- A ring-like structure called annulus remains attached at the base of stipe.
- On the lower side of pileus are present a number of vertical plate like structures called gills.
- The gills bear spores.
3. MOSS (Funaria)
- Moss is small plant, usually 2-3 cm in height.
- The main plant body is gametophyte which consists of short axis with spirally arranged minute green leaves.
- Plant bears a number of thread-like rhizoids which perform the function of root.
- Plant is monoecious (bears both male and female sex organs).
- The female sex organ called archegonia is present at the apex of main axis. A lateral branch called male shoot bears antheridia at its tip.
- The female branch of older plants bears sporophyte which comprises of foot, seta and capsule.
4. FERN (Dryopteris)
- Plant body is sporophyte which is differentiated into root, stem and leaf.
- Stem is short, stout and underground which is known as rhizome.
- Roots are adventitious (fibrous) growing profusely from the rhizome.
- From the adventitious buds on the rhizome arise large compound leaves. Leaflets are small which are arranged on either side of rachis.
- Young leaves are circulate (rolled from the apex downwards).
- The stem and the petiole are covered with numerous brownish scales known as ramenta.
- The mature leaves on ventral surface bear sori. Such leaves are called sporophylls. Sori bear sporangia that contain spores.
5. PINUS (Chir)
- Pinus is a tall erect evergreen tree, usually found on slopes of hills.
- Plant body is differentiated into root, stem and leaves. Plant shows well developed tap root system.
- Plant bear two types of shoots – long shoots and dwarf shoots. Long shoots are branches of unlimited growth and dwarf shoots are branches of limited growth.
- Leaves are of two kinds-
- long needle like foliage leaves borne on dwarf shoots. They are photosynthetic.
- small brown scaly leaves borne on both kinds of branches.
- Pinus is monoecious and distinct male and female cones present on different branches of the same tree.
- Seeds produced are not enclosed in fruits,
i. e., naked seeds present.
- Male cone are borne in clusters on long branches. It consists of many microsporophylls which are arranged spirally around the axis.
- Male cone is ovoid and dark brown in colour.
- On ventral surface each microsporophyll bears two microsporangia.
- Each microsporangia bears a number of winged microspores.
- Female cones arise in the axil of scale leaves on the long branches.
Each cone consists of a short axis around which a number of megasporophylls are spirally arranged.
- Each megasporophyll bears two ovules on its upper surface.
- Size of female cone varies with age.
- In first year, the cones are very small.
- In second year, the cones are large and woody and microsporophylls are compactly arranged.
- In third year, microsporophylls elongate and separate out from one another.
6. ANGIOSPERMIC PIJANT [Mustard (Brassica campestris)]
- Plant body is differentiated into root system and shoot system.
- Root system is usually under the ground. It comprises of main root associated with many lateral branches. The aerial part of the plant constitutes shoot system. It consists of stem, leaves, flower, fruits and seeds.
- Stem is soft green which is differentiated into nodes and intemodes.
- Leaves are present at the nodes.
- Flowers are reproductive organs. It has four parts – calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium.
- Seeds produced are enclosed within fruits.
The branch of science dealing with identification, classification and nomenclature of different organisms.
What are thallophytes? Give examples.
The plants in which plant body is thallus like, i.e., not differentiated into stem, root and leaves
are called thallophytes. e.g., Ulothrix.
What is the study of algae called as?
Give any two important characteristics of algae.
Algae are autotrophic and contain chlorophyll. Plant body is thalloid and cells have cell wall made up of cellulose.
What is peculiar characteristic of chloroplast in Spirogyra?
Chloroplast in Spirogyra are ribbon-shaped with pyrenoid bodies present at equidistant.
What is the function of pyrenoid bodies?
To store starch of the cell.
Why is Spirogyra slimy to touch?
In Spirogyra, the outer cell wall is made up of pectin which absorbs water and gives slimy appearance.
What are fungi?
Fungi are non-green heterotrophic organisms with thalloid body.
Give an example of unicellular fungi.
What is the cell wall of yeast made up of?
Mention various ways of reproduction in fungi.
Budding, sporulation, conjugation, etc.
What is alternation of generations?
The life cycle of plants has two phases – gametophytic phase and sporophytic phase. These two phases alternate in life cycle. This is called alternation of generations.
Why are bryophytes called amphibians of plant kingdom?
Bryophytes require water for the fertilisation of male and female gametes.
How do leaves of mosses differ from those of angiosperms?
Leaves in mosses are small, sessile and spirally arranged around the axis. Leaves of angiosperms may have stalk, are broad and possess a number of veins.
WTiat is dominant phase in mosses?
Name the group in which vascular tissues in its proper form first appeared.
Why are pteridophytes considered to be more advanced than bryophytes?
Pteridophytes has plant body differentiated into leaves, stem and roots. They also possess vascular system.
What is the group containing naked seeds called?
Why are seeds of gymnosperms called naked seeds?
Because the seeds in gymnosperms are not enclosed in fruits.
What do you mean by monoecious plant?
In monoecious plant, both male and female sex organs are present on the same plant.
Name the two categories in which angiosperms are divided.
Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.
What are phanerogams?
Phanerogams include plants in which body is differentiated into stem, root and leaves and produce seeds.
Name the group of angiosperms which show reticulate veina^ion in leaves.
How do gymnosperms and angiosperms differ with respect to seeds?
Seeds in gymnosperms are naked whereas in angiosperms they are enclosed in fruits.
Name four whorls of an angiospermic flower.
Four whorls are calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium.
NCERT LAB MANUAL QUESTIONS
Why is a spirogyra plant green in colour?
Due to presence of green pigment, chlorophyll.
Name two functions that are common to roots and rhizoids.
- Attachment to substratum.
- Absorption of water and minerals.
What do the cones in pine represent?
Reproductive parts (male and female sporophylls).
PRACTICAL BASED QUESTIONS
Multiple Choice Questions/VSA
Chloroplast in Spirogyra is
(а) spirally arranged and ribbon-shaped with pyrenoids
(b) spirally arranged without pyrenoids
While locating the stem of fern, the students find that it is
(a) underground rhizome
(b) coiled like spring
(c) totally absent
(d) branched and filamentous
The structure by which the nucleus in Spirogyra cell is held?
(a) Cell wall
(b) Cytoplasmic strands
(c) Cell membrane
Needle-shaped structure in Pinus plant is
(d) reproductive part
Some students want to prepare a temporary mount of Spirogyra. Where should they search for a fresh specimen?
(a) In a pond of a salty water
(b) In a pond of stagnant dirty water
(c) In a stream of running fresh water
(d) In a stream of running salty water
Which of the character is identifying feature of gymnosperms?
(а) Naked seeds
(б) Rhizoids present
(c) Chlorophyll absent
(d) Does not possess vascular bundle.
Protein body associated with storage of starch grains in Spirogyra is called
To which group do the plants belong that have embryo, vascular tissue, seeds but lack fruits?
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of these
Which group is called amphibians of plant kingdom?
Megasporophyll in female cones of gymnosperms contain ovules on its upper surface.
(d) no ovule
In Angiosperms, the female reproductive part is represented by
Angiosperms differ from gymnosperms in having
Megasporophylls and microsporophylls are associated with which of the following plants?
Figures of two plants are given below. Observe them carefully and select the option which correctly gives their identification and names of the groups to which they belong
(а) (i) Moss: Bryophyta (ii) Fern: Pteridophyta
(b) (i) Pine: Gymnosperm (ii) Leafy plant: Angiosperm
(c) Both (i) and (ii) are mosses and belong to bryophyta
(d) Both (i) and (ii) are ferns and belong to pteridophyta
Funaria differs from Dryopteris in
(a) bearing seeds
(b) having vascular bundle
(c) having a dependent sporophyte
(d) having an independent sporophyte
Multiple Choice Questions/VSA